Science.gov

Sample records for envelope systems summary

  1. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  2. Stochastic averaging of energy envelope of Preisach hysteretic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Ying, Z. G.; Zhu, W. Q.

    2009-04-01

    A new stochastic averaging technique for analyzing the response of a single-degree-of-freedom Preisach hysteretic system with nonlocal memory under stationary Gaussian stochastic excitation is proposed. An equivalent nonhysteretic nonlinear system with amplitude-envelope-dependent damping and stiffness is firstly obtained from the given system by using the generalized harmonic balance technique. The relationship between the amplitude envelope and the energy envelope is then established, and the equivalent damping and stiffness coefficients are expressed as functions of the energy envelope. The available range of the yielding force of the system is extended and also the strong nonlinear stiffness of the system is incorporated so as to improve the response prediction. Finally, an averaged Itô stochastic differential equation for the energy envelope of the system as one-dimensional diffusion process is derived by using the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope, and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the averaged Itô equation is solved to obtain stationary probability densities of the energy envelope and amplitude envelope. The approximate solutions are validated by using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael; Bragg, Michael B.; Ansell, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to show that real-time aircraft control-surface hinge-moment information could be used to provide a robust and reliable prediction of vehicle performance and control authority degradation. For a given airfoil section with a control surface -- be it a wing with an aileron, rudder, or elevator -- the control-surface hinge moment is sensitive to the aerodynamic characteristics of the section. As a result, changes in the aerodynamics of the section due to angle-of-attack or environmental effects such as icing, heavy rain, surface contaminants, bird strikes, or battle damage will affect the control surface hinge moment. These changes include both the magnitude of the hinge moment and its sign in a time-averaged sense, and the variation of the hinge moment with time. The current program attempts to take the real-time hinge moment information from the aircraft control surfaces and develop a system to predict aircraft envelope boundaries across a range of conditions, alerting the flight crew to reductions in aircraft controllability and flight boundaries.

  4. Close Stellar Binary Systems by Grazing Envelope Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2015-02-01

    I suggest a spiral-in process in which a stellar companion grazes the envelope of a giant star while both the orbital separation and the giant radius shrink simultaneously, forming a close binary system. The binary system might be viewed as evolving in a constant state of "just entering a common envelope (CE) phase." In cases where this process takes place, it can be an alternative to CE evolution where the secondary star is immersed in the giant's envelope. Grazing envelope evolution (GEE) is made possible only if the companion manages to accrete mass at a high rate and launches jets that remove the outskirts of the giant envelope, hence preventing the formation of a CE. The high accretion rate is made possible by the accretion disk launching jets which efficiently carry the excess angular momentum and energy from the accreted mass. The orbital decay itself is caused by the gravitational interaction of the secondary star with the envelope inward of its orbit, i.e., dynamical friction (gravitational tide). Mass loss through the second Lagrangian point can carry additional angular momentum and envelope mass. The GEE lasts for tens to hundreds of years. The high accretion rate, with peaks lasting from months to years, might lead to a bright object referred to as the intermediate luminosity optical transient (Red Novae; Red Transients). A bipolar nebula and/or equatorial ring are formed around the binary remnant.

  5. Mirror Confinement Systems: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This report contains descriptions of the projects supported by the Mirror Confinement Systems (MCS) Division of the Office of Fusion Energy. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators, in collaboration with MCS staff office, and include objectives and milestones for each project. In addition to project summaries, statements of Division objectives and budget summaries are also provided.

  6. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  7. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  8. Design and performance of an integrated envelope/lighting system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1997-04-01

    Dynamic envelope/lighting systems offer the potential to achieve a near optimum energy-efficient environment meeting occupant needs throughout the year by adapting to dynamic meteorological conditions and changing occupant preferences in real time. With the dramatic increased functionality of the microprocessor, there is an untapped potential to make dynamic envelop/lighting systems easier to use, diagnose, and monitor, and to integrate them as part of a sophisticated building-wide control system. This study addresses the complex relationship between this energy-efficiency technology and many of the non-energy issues related to its potential acceptance by the building industry, architects, owners, and users. The authors demonstrate the concept of integrated dynamic systems with a prototype motorized venetian blind operated in synchronization with electric lighting and daylighting controls via an intelligent control system. Research work conducted with simulation software and reduced-scale and full-scale field tests is summarized. Much of this work is directly relevant to other active shading and daylighting systems on the market today and to state-of-the-art window systems yet to come (i.e., electrochromics).

  9. Carrier envelope phase noise in stabilized amplifier systems.

    PubMed

    Gohle, Christoph; Rauschenberger, Jens; Fuji, Takao; Udem, Thomas; Apolonski, Alexander; Krausz, Ferenc; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2005-09-15

    At present most laser systems for generating phase-stabilized high-energy pulses are chirped pulse amplifier systems that involve the selection and subsequent amplification of pulses from a phase-stabilized seed oscillator. We investigate the effect of the picking process on the carrier envelope phase stability and how the phase noise of the picked pulse sequence can be estimated from the phase noise properties of the seed oscillator. All noise components from the original pulse train above the picking frequency are aliased into the picked pulse train and therefore cannot be neglected. PMID:16196361

  10. Space station Platform Management System (PMS) replanning using resource envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Joy Lee; Critchfield, Anna; Loomis, Audrey

    1987-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of the Space Station Platform Management System (PMS) is to maintain constraint-free, short-term plans for platform and free-flyer activities. Both the replanning function and the associated constraint-checking function are viewed as potentially requiring expert system assistance. The PMS Resource Envelope Scheduling System (PRESS) expert system, which is currently under development, is described. The PRESS capabilities will include the following: plan, replan, and perform constraint checking using resource envelopes resembling those required for telescience; initialize itself using the results fo a previous run; infer the replanning needs associated with a change in resource availability; allow the user to determine the level of interaction (including an advisory capability) with the system during execution; and generate both a graphic timeline and a report as output. The PRESS is being developed on an IBM PC/AT using TeKnowledge, Inc.'s M.1 expert system shell. The PRESS activity definitions and constraints are based on those defined for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission scheduled for launch in early 1989.

  11. Microwave system performance summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Nalos, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the microwave system for the solar power satellite is described. Design modifications recommended include changes in phase control to the power module level, a reduction in allowable amplitude jitter, the use of metal matrix waveguides, and sequences for startup/shutdown procedures. Investigations into reshaping the beam pattern to improve overall rectenna collection efficiency and improve sidelobe control are surveyed.

  12. Residential commissioning to assess envelope and HVAC system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.

    2001-08-31

    Houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. For example, Walker et al. (1998a) found large variations in thermal distribution system efficiency, as much as a factor of two even between side-by-side houses with the same system design and installation crew. This and other studies (e.g., Jump et al. 1996) indicate that duct leakage testing and sealing can readily achieve a 25 to 30% reduction in installed cooling capacity and energy consumption. As another example, consider that the building industry has recognized for at least 20 years the substantial impact that envelope airtightness has on thermal loads, energy use, comfort, and indoor air quality. However, Walker et al. (1998a) found 50% variances in airtightness for houses with the same design and construction crews, within the same subdivision. A substantial reason for these problems is that few houses are now built or retrofitted using formal design procedures, most are field assembled from a large number of components, and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Solving the problems requires field performance evaluations of houses using appropriate and agreed upon procedures. Many procedural elements already exist in a fragmented environment; some are ready now to be integrated into a new process called residential commissioning (Wray et al. 2000). For example, California's Title 24 energy code already provides some commissioning elements for evaluating the energy performance of new houses. A house consists of components and systems that need to be commissioned, such as building envelopes, air distribution systems, cooling equipment, heat pumps, combustion appliances, controls, and other electrical appliances. For simplicity and practicality, these components and systems are usually evaluated individually, but we need to bear in mind that many of them interact. Therefore, commissioning must not only identify the energy and non-energy benefits

  13. DUST FORMATION IN THE EJECTA OF COMMON ENVELOPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lue Guoliang; Zhu Chunhua; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2013-05-10

    The material that is ejected in a common-envelope (CE) phase in a close binary system provides an ideal environment for dust formation. By constructing a simple toy model to describe the evolution of the density and the temperature of CE ejecta and using the AGBDUST code to model dust formation, we show that dust can form efficiently in this environment. The actual dust masses produced in the CE ejecta depend strongly on their temperature and density evolution. We estimate the total dust masses produced by CE evolution by means of a population synthesis code and show that, compared to dust production in asymptotic giant branch stars, the dust produced in CE ejecta may be quite significant and could even dominate under certain circumstances.

  14. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  15. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  16. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  17. The resource envelope as a basis for space station management system scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Joy; Critchfield, Anna

    1987-01-01

    The Platform Management System (PMS) Resource Envelope Scheduling System (PRESS) expert system prototype developed for space station scheduling is described. The purpose of developing the prototype was too investigate the resource envelope concept in a practical scheduling application, using a commercially available expert system shell. PRESS is being developed on an IBM PC/AT using Teknowledge, Inc.'s M.1 expert system shell.

  18. Reducing systems protecting the bacterial cell envelope from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Arts, Isabelle S; Gennaris, Alexandra; Collet, Jean-François

    2015-06-22

    Exposure of cells to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages DNA, membrane lipids and proteins, which can potentially lead to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing residues cysteine and methionine are particularly sensitive to oxidation, forming sulfenic acids and methionine sulfoxides, respectively. The presence of protection mechanisms to scavenge ROS and repair damaged cellular components is therefore essential for cell survival. The bacterial cell envelope, which constitutes the first protection barrier from the extracellular environment, is particularly exposed to the oxidizing molecules generated by the host cells to kill invading microorganisms. Therefore, the presence of oxidative stress defense mechanisms in that compartment is crucial for cell survival. Here, we review recent findings that led to the identification of several reducing pathways protecting the cell envelope from oxidative damage. We focus in particular on the mechanisms that repair envelope proteins with oxidized cysteine and methionine residues and we discuss the major questions that remain to be solved. PMID:25957772

  19. Wind energy systems: program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  20. Biomass energy systems program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  1. Kinematics of the Envelope and Two Bipolar Jets in the Class 0 Protostellar System L1157

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Woojin; Fernández-López, Manuel; Stephens, Ian W.; Looney, Leslie W.

    2015-11-01

    A massive envelope and a strong bipolar outflow are the two main structures characterizing the youngest protostellar systems. In order to understand the physical properties of a bipolar outflow and the relationship with those of the envelope, we obtained a mosaic map covering the whole bipolar outflow of the youngest protostellar system L1157 with about 5″ angular resolution in CO J = 2-1 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. By utilizing these observations of the whole bipolar outflow, we estimate its physical properties and show that they are consistent with multiple jets. We also constrain a preferred precession direction. In addition, we observed the central envelope structure with 2″ resolution in the λ =1.3 and 3 mm continua and various molecular lines: C17O, C18O, 13CO, CS, CN, N2H+, CH3OH, H2O, SO, and SO2. All of the CO isotopes and CS, CN, and N2H+ have been detected and imaged. We marginally detected the features that can be interpreted as a rotating inner envelope in C17O and C18O and as an infalling outer envelope in N2H+. We also estimated the envelope and central protostellar masses and found that the dust-opacity spectral index changes with radius.

  2. Definition and means of maintaining the supply ventilation system seismic shutdown portion of the PFP safety envelope. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-06-27

    This report describes the modifications to the ventilation system for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Topics discussed in this report include; system functional requirements, evaluations of equipment, a list of drawings showing the safety envelope boundaries; list of safety envelope equipment, functional requirements for individual safety envelope equipment, and a list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment.

  3. The 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanosdol, J. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Design of the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system was initiated in February 1972 and extended through the conceptual design phase into the preliminary design phase. Design effort was terminated in January, 1973. This report documents the system and component requirements, design approaches, and performance and design characteristics for the 5-kwe system. Included is summary information on the reactor, radiation shields, power conversion systems, thermoelectric pump, radiator/structure, liquid metal components, and the control system.

  4. Hydrodynamic Moving-mesh Simulations of the Common Envelope Phase in Binary Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Röpke, Friedrich K.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The common envelope (CE) phase is an important stage in binary stellar evolution. It is needed to explain many close binary stellar systems, such as cataclysmic variables, SN Ia progenitors, or X-ray binaries. To form the resulting close binary, the initial orbit has to shrink, thereby transferring energy to the primary giant's envelope that is hence ejected. The details of this interaction, however, are still not understood. Here, we present new hydrodynamic simulations of the dynamical spiral-in forming a CE system. We apply the moving-mesh code arepo to follow the interaction of a 1{M}⊙ compact star with a 2{M}⊙ red giant possessing a 0.4{M}⊙ core. The nearly Lagrangian scheme combines advantages of smoothed particle hydrodynamics and traditional grid-based hydrodynamic codes and allows us to capture also small flow features at high spatial resolution. Our simulations reproduce the initial transfer of energy and angular momentum from the binary core to the envelope by spiral shocks seen in previous studies, but after about 20 orbits a new phenomenon is observed. Large-scale flow instabilities are triggered by shear flows between adjacent shock layers. These indicate the onset of turbulent convection in the CE, thus altering the transport of energy on longer timescales. At the end of our simulation, only 8% of the envelope mass is ejected. The failure to unbind the envelope completely may be caused by processes on thermal timescales or unresolved microphysics.

  5. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  6. Fluid management systems technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  7. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE IN THE FLATTENED ENVELOPE AND JET IN THE YOUNG PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM HH 211

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Rao, Ramprasad; Hirano, Naomi; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hwang, Hsiang-Chih; Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping

    2014-12-10

    HH 211 is a young Class 0 protostellar system with a flattened envelope, a possible rotating disk, and a collimated jet. We have mapped it with the Submillimeter Array in the 341.6 GHz continuum and SiO J = 8-7 at ∼0.''6 resolution. The continuum traces the thermal dust emission in the flattened envelope and the possible disk. Linear polarization is detected in the continuum in the flattened envelope. The field lines implied from the polarization have different orientations, but they are not incompatible with current gravitational collapse models, which predict a different orientation depending on the region/distance. Also, we might have detected for the first time polarized SiO line emission in the jet due to the Goldreich-Kylafis effect. Observations at higher sensitivity are needed to determine the field morphology in the jet.

  8. Integrated envelope and lighting systems for commercial buildings: a retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1998-06-01

    Daylighting systems in use world-wide rarely capture the energy-savings predicted by simulation tools and that we believe are achievable in real buildings. One of the primary reasons for this is that window and lighting systems are not designed and operated as an integrated system. Our efforts over the last five years have been targeted toward (1) development and testing of new prototype systems that involve a higher degree of systems integration than has been typical in the past, and (2) addressing current design and technological barriers that are often missed with component-oriented research. We summarize the results from this body of cross-disciplinary research and discuss its effects on the existing and future practice of daylighting in commercial buildings.

  9. Automated Portable Test System (APTS) - A performance envelope assessment tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Jones, M. B.; Wilkes, R. L.; Bittner, A. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability and stability of microcomputer-based psychological tests are evaluated. The hardware, test programs, and system control of the Automated Portable Test System, which assesses human performance and subjective status, are described. Subjects were administered 11 pen-and-pencil and microcomputer-based tests for 10 sessions. The data reveal that nine of the 10 tests stabilized by the third administration; inertial correlations were high and consistent. It is noted that the microcomputer-based tests display good psychometric properties in terms of differential stability and reliability.

  10. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-07-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Programs is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months..

  11. Testing to expand the rotary mode core sampling system operating envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Witwer, K.S.

    1998-01-21

    Rotary sampling using the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System (RMCSS) is constrained by what is referred to as the ``Operating Envelope``. The Operating Envelop defines the maximum downward force, maximum rotational speed and minimum purge gas flow allowed during operation of the RMCSS. The original values of 1170 lb. down force, 55 RPM rotational speed, and 30 SCFM nitrogen purge gas were determined during original envelope testing. This envelope was determined by observing the temperature rise on the bitface while drilling into waste simulants. The maximum temperature in single-shell tanks (SSTS) is considered to be approximately 9O C and the critical drill bit temperature, which is the temperature at which an exothermic reaction could be initiated in the tank waste, was previously determined to be 150 C. Thus, the drill bit temperature increase was limited to 60 C. Thermal properties of these simulants approximated typical properties of waste tank saltcake. Later, more detailed envelope testing which used a pumice block simulant, showed a notably higher temperature rise while drilling. This pumice material, which simulated a ``worst case`` foreign object embedded in the waste, has lower thermal conductivity and lower thermal diffusivity than earlier simulants. These properties caused a slower heat transfer in the pumice than in the previous simulants and consequently a higher temperature rise. The maximum downward force was subsequently reduced to 750 lb (at a maximum 55 RPM and minimum 30 SCFM purge gas flow) which was the maximum value at which the drill bit could be operated and still remain below the 60 C temperature rise.

  12. EFFECTS OF DRAIN ENVELOPE AND SLOPE ON PERFORMANCE OF A DRAINAGE-SUBIRRIGATION SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, Marjorie S.; Skaggs, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effect of fabric wrap envelope and drain slope on the performance of a combination drainage and subirrigation system. Data were analyzed by examining relationships between flow rate and midpoint water table elevations. An entry resistance was defined and its value for each pair of 9,100 data points for drain flow rate versus water table elevation midway between the drains. Analyses were conducted to determine if the entry resistance changed with time after the drainage system was installed. Results of the study showed that the effect of slope and envelope on drainage and subirrigation varied somewhat depending on field location. However, an analysis of the data led to conclusions that the paper discusses.

  13. Numerical Tests of the Envelope Theory for Few-Boson Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semay, Claude

    2015-05-01

    The envelope theory, also known as the auxiliary field method, is a simple technique to compute approximate solutions of Hamiltonians for N identical particles in D-dimension. The accuracy of this method is tested by computing the ground state of N identical bosons for various systems. A method is proposed to improve the quality of the approximations by modifying the characteristic global quantum number of the method.

  14. Programmed packaging of multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2010-05-01

    A programmed packaging strategy to develop a multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system (MENS) is presented. To this end, we took specific advantage of using in-house tailored liposomes that have been recently shown to exhibit intrinsic endosomal rupture properties that allow plasmid DNA to escape from endosomes and to enter the nucleus with extremely high efficiency. Transfection efficiency experiments on NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicate that MENS is a promising transfection candidate.

  15. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions. PMID:26916423

  16. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions. PMID:26916423

  17. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions.

  18. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  19. Management summary report. Auditing and financial system

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmiller, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Increased leasing of Federal lands for energy exploration will add to the regulatory and administrative responsibilities of the USGS's Conservation Division. Similar responsibilities for Indian lands will arise. The objectives of the Conservation Division is to reduce the regulatory burden on industry while effectively and efficiently discharging its responsibility. This Management Summary Report represents the completion of the Preliminary Systems Design of the Auditing and Financial System, and is the first phase of the Improved Royalty Management Program (IRMP). Work reported includes: a Functional Specifications Report; Technical Specifications Report; Installation Plan; and a cost/benefit analysis. The potential benefits to be realized from the IRMP are significant and include: increased royalty receipts; more timely availability of funds; increased productivity of personnel; reduced regulatory burden on private industry; tighter security over information collected; reduced exposure to fraud and abuse; and better control over activities and funds.

  20. Twin-arginine Translocation System (tat) Mutants of Salmonella are Attenuated Due to Envelope Defects, not Respiratory Defects

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Maureen; Sadik, Adam Y.; Golubeva, Yekaterina A.; Tidhar, Avital; Slauch, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The twin-arginine translocation system (Tat) transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane and is critical to virulence in Salmonella and other pathogens. Experimental and bioinformatic data indicate that 30 proteins are exported via Tat in Salmonella Typhimurium. However, there are no data linking specific Tat substrates with virulence. We inactivated every Tat-exported protein and determined the virulence phenotype of mutant strains. Though a tat mutant is highly attenuated, no single Tat-exported substrate accounts for this virulence phenotype. Rather, the attenuation is due primarily to envelope defects caused by failure to translocate three Tat substrates, the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases, AmiA and AmiC, and the cell division protein, SufI. Strikingly, neither the amiA amiC nor the sufI mutations alone conferred any virulence defect. Although AmiC and SufI have previously been localized to the divisome, the synthetic phenotypes observed are the first to suggest functional overlap. Many Tat substrates are involved in anaerobic respiration, but we show that a mutant completely deficient in anaerobic respiration retains full virulence in both the oral and systemic phases of infection. Similarly, an obligately aerobic mutant is fully virulent. These results suggest that in the classic mouse model of infection, S. Typhimurium is replicating only in aerobic environments. PMID:23822642

  1. Development and Implementation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Martos, Borja; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  2. A CRISPR-Cas system enhances envelope integrity mediating antibiotic resistance and inflammasome evasion

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Timothy R.; Napier, Brooke A.; Schroeder, Max R.; Louwen, Rogier; Zhao, Jinshi; Chin, Chui-Yoke; Ratner, Hannah K.; Llewellyn, Anna C.; Jones, Crystal L.; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Zhou, Pei; Endtz, Hubert P.; Weiss, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats–CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems defend bacteria against foreign nucleic acids, such as during bacteriophage infection and transformation, processes which cause envelope stress. It is unclear if these machineries enhance membrane integrity to combat this stress. Here, we show that the Cas9-dependent CRISPR-Cas system of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida is involved in enhancing envelope integrity through the regulation of a bacterial lipoprotein. This action ultimately provides increased resistance to numerous membrane stressors, including antibiotics. We further find that this previously unappreciated function of Cas9 is critical during infection, as it promotes evasion of the host innate immune absent in melanoma 2/apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (AIM2/ASC) inflammasome. Interestingly, the attenuation of the cas9 mutant is complemented only in mice lacking both the AIM2/ASC inflammasome and the bacterial lipoprotein sensor Toll-like receptor 2, but not in single knockout mice, demonstrating that Cas9 is essential for evasion of both pathways. These data represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of the function of CRISPR-Cas systems as regulators of bacterial physiology and provide a framework with which to investigate the roles of these systems in myriad bacteria, including pathogens and commensals. PMID:25024199

  3. Improved modelling of HVAC system/envelope inteactions in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Modera, M.P.; Treidler, B.

    1995-03-01

    General building energy simulation programs do not typically simulate interactions between HVAC systems and building envelopes. For this reason, a simulation tool which includes interactions between duct systems, building envelopes, and heating and cooling appliances in residential buildings has been developed. The simulation tool uses DOE- 2 (to model space conditioning loads and zone temperatures), COMIS (an airflow network solver), and a model of duct leakage and conduction losses. Three augmentations to the simulation tool are presented herein, along with sample results. These include: (1) modeling of steady-state thermosiphon flows in ducts, (2) improved simplified modeling of duct thermal mass effects, and (3) modeling of multi-speed space conditioning equipment. Multi-speed air conditioners are shown to be more sensitive to duct efficiency than single-speed equipment, because their efficiency decreases with increasing cooling load. Thermosiphon flows through duct systems are estimated to be 5-16% of the total heating load, depending on the duct insulation level. The duct dynamics model indicates that duct thermal mass decreases the energy delivery efficiency of the distribution system by 1-6 percentage points.

  4. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  5. Measurement of reach envelopes with a four-camera Selective Spot Recognition (SELSPOT) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J. H., Jr.; Woolford, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    The basic Selective Spot Recognition (SELSPOT) system is essentially a system which uses infrared LEDs and a 'camera' with an infrared-sensitive photodetector, a focusing lens, and some A/D electronics to produce a digital output representing an X and Y coordinate for each LED for each camera. When the data are synthesized across all cameras with appropriate calibrations, an XYZ set of coordinates is obtained for each LED at a given point in time. Attention is given to the operating modes, a system checkout, and reach envelopes and software. The Video Recording Adapter (VRA) represents the main addition to the basic SELSPOT system. The VRA contains a microprocessor and other electronics which permit user selection of several options and some interaction with the system.

  6. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  7. Automatic Summary Assessment for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yulan; Hui, Siu Cheung; Quan, Tho Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Summary writing is an important part of many English Language Examinations. As grading students' summary writings is a very time-consuming task, computer-assisted assessment will help teachers carry out the grading more effectively. Several techniques such as latent semantic analysis (LSA), n-gram co-occurrence and BLEU have been proposed to…

  8. Energy integrated farm system technical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Price, D.R.; Sherwood, R.K.; Thompson, W.N.

    1987-03-01

    The Energy Integrated Farm System program was established by the Department of Energy in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. The program investigated the feasibility of integrating energy conservation practices with on-farm energy production to reduce farm energy consumption and make farms more energy self-sufficient. Seven farms located in various geographical regions in the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane digestion, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This report is a summary of the seven technical manuals prepared at the conclusion of the projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems, and lists recommendations.

  9. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Cortical Processing of Dynamic Sound Envelope Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Slow envelope fluctuations in the range of 2-20Hz provide important segmental cues for processing communication sounds. For a successful segmentation, a neural processor must capture envelope features associated with the rise and fall of signal energy, a process that is often challenged by the interference of background noise. This study investigated the neural representations of slowly varying envelopes in quiet and in background noise in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys. We characterized envelope features based on the local average and rate of change of sound level in envelope waveforms and identified envelope features to which neurons were selective by reverse correlation. Our results showed that envelope feature selectivity of A1 neurons was correlated with the degree of non-monotonicity in their static rate-level functions. Non-monotonic neurons exhibited greater feature selectivity than monotonic neurons in quiet and in background noise. The diverse envelope feature selectivity decreased spike-timing correlation among A1 neurons in response to the same envelope waveforms. As a result, the variability, but not the average, of the ensemble responses of A1 neurons represented more faithfully the dynamic transitions in low-frequency sound envelopes both in quiet and in background noise. PMID:21148013

  10. A Data Envelopment Analysis Model for Selecting Material Handling System Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fuh-Hwa Franklin; Kuo, Wan-Ting

    The material handling system under design is an unmanned job shop with an automated guided vehicle that transport loads within the processing machines. The engineering task is to select the design alternatives that are the combinations of the four design factors: the ratio of production time to transportation time, mean job arrival rate to the system, input/output buffer capacities at each processing machine, and the vehicle control strategies. Each of the design alternatives is simulated to collect the upper and lower bounds of the five performance indices. We develop a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to assess the 180 designs with imprecise data of the five indices. The three-ways factorial experiment analysis for the assessment results indicates the buffer capacity and the interaction of job arrival rate and buffer capacity affect the performance significantly.

  11. The cell envelope proteome of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kenneth P.; Fields, Julia G.; Voogt, Richard D.; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying-Wai; Mintz, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria serves a critical role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis, resistance to external stress, and host-pathogen interactions. Envelope protein composition is influenced by the physiological and environmental demands placed on the bacterium. In this study, we report a comprehensive compilation of cell envelope proteins from the periodontal and systemic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans VT1169, an afimbriated serotype b strain. The urea-extracted membrane proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics. The membrane proteome, isolated from actively growing bacteria under normal laboratory conditions, included 648 proteins representing 28% of the predicted ORFs in the genome. Bioinformatic analyses were used to annotate and predict the cellular location and function of the proteins. Surface adhesins, porins, lipoproteins, numerous influx and efflux pumps, multiple sugar, amino acid and iron transporters, and components of the type I, II and V secretion systems were identified. Periplasmic space and cytoplasmic proteins with chaperone function were also identified. 107 proteins with unknown function were associated with the cell envelope. Orthologs of a subset of these uncharacterized proteins are present in other bacterial genomes, while others are found exclusively in A. actinomycetemcomitans. This knowledge will contribute to elucidating the role of cell envelope proteins in bacterial growth and survival in the oral cavity. PMID:25055881

  12. Mechanistic understanding of gene delivery mediated by highly efficient multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle systems.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, D; Marchini, C; Cardarelli, F; Rossetta, A; Colapicchioni, V; Amici, A; Montani, M; Motta, S; Brocca, P; Cantù, L; Caracciolo, G

    2013-12-01

    We packaged condensed DNA/protamine particles in multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle systems (MENS) combining different molar fractions of the cationic lipids 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 3β-[N-(N,N-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and the zwitterionic lipids dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and microelectrophoresis allowed us to identify the cationic lipid/DNA charge ratio at which MENS are small sized and positively charged, while synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that MENS are well-shaped DNA/protamine particles covered by a lipid monobilayer. Transfection efficiency (TE) experiments indicate that a nanoparticle formulation, termed MENS-3, was not cytotoxic and highly efficient to transfect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To rationalize TE, we performed a quantitative investigation of cell uptake, intracellular trafficking, endosomal escape, and final fate by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). We found that fluid-phase macropinocytosis is the only endocytosis pathway used by MENS-3. Once taken up by the cell, complexes that are actively transported by microtubules frequently fuse with lysosomes, while purely diffusing systems do not. Indeed, spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) clarified that MENS-3 mostly exploit diffusion to move in the cytosol of CHO cells, thus explaining the high TE levels observed. Also, MENS-3 exhibited a marked endosomal rupture ability resulting in extraordinary DNA release. The lipid-dependent and structure-dependent TE boost suggests that efficient transfection requires both the membrane-fusogenic activity of the nanocarrier envelope and the employment of lipid species with intrinsic endosomal rupture ability. PMID:24188138

  13. [Basic types of respiratory system structure in insect egg envelopes, and genes controlling their formation].

    PubMed

    Omelina, E S; Baricheva, É M; Fedorova, E V

    2012-01-01

    Insects is a taxon surprisingly rich with species and varieties, and its representatives are considered as the most fitted and "evolutionary successful" living things. Insects are distinguished by diversity and abundance of adaptations to environmental conditions, representatives of this class inhabit different ecological niches, they can be found practically in every corner of the Earth and, in particular, in close adjacency to man. Among them are those who man benefits from and those who man struggles against. This determines man's interest in studying peculiarities of their development as well as adaptations formed by them in the course of evolution to become more viable. In the paper, data are presented on morphological structure of respiratory systems in insect egg envelopes that ensure respiration process of developing embryo. Variability of these systems and their dependence on environmental conditions are demonstrated for different insect species. The information about genes controlling development of respiratory systems in fruit fly eggs is brought together, and occurrence of evolutionary conservative genes participating in development of such systems in other insect species is ascertained. PMID:22834166

  14. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  15. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System Portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    2000-04-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the safety envelope (SE) for the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System (ENES). Together with the appendices, it provides: (1) The system requirements for determining system operability (Section 3.0); (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4.0); (3) List of system drawings that are annotated to show the SE boundaries (Appendix A); (4) Identification of the SE equipment by reference to systems and drawings (Appendix B); (5) Requirements for the individual SE equipment (Section 4.0); and (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the SE (Sections 5.0 and 6.0). The Private Automatic Exchange (PAX) phones and PAX switchers are outside the safety envelope defined in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Section 5.4.10, ''Safety Communication and Alarm Systems,'' Section 5.4.1 0.1, ''Major Components and Operating Characteristics,'' and Section 5.4.10.1.12, ''PAX System.'' The PAX override microphone system maintains the safety envelope, and functions as a backup to the evacuation sirens during an emergency.

  16. EXPRESSION SYSTEM-DEPENDENT MODULATION OF HIV-1 ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN ANTIGENICITY AND IMMUNOGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Leopold; Sheppard, Neil C.; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B.E.; Robson, Cynthia L.; Chen, Hongying; Xu, Xiaodong; Krashias, George; Bonomelli, Camille; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Kwong, Peter D.; Jeffs, Simon A.; Jones, Ian M.; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant expression systems differ in the type of glycosylation they impart on expressed antigens such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, potentially affecting their biological properties. We performed head-to-head antigenic, immunogenic and molecular profiling of two distantly-related Env surface (gp120) antigens produced in different systems: a) mammalian (293F) cells in the presence of kifunensine which impart only high mannose glycans; b) insect (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) cells, which confer mainly paucimannosidic glycans; c) Sf9 cells recombinant for mammalian glycosylation enzymes (Sf9 Mimic™), which impart high mannose, hybrid and complex glycans without sialic acid; d) 293F cells, which impart high mannose, hybrid and complex glycans with sialic acid. Molecular models revealed a significant difference in gp120 glycan coverage between the Sf9- and wild-type mammalian cell-derived material that is predicted to impact upon ligand binding sites proximal to glycans. Modelling of solvent-exposed surface electrostatic potentials showed that sialic acid imparts a significant negative surface charge that may influence gp120 antigenicity and immunogenicity. Gp120 expressed in systems that do not incorporate sialic acid displayed increased ligand binding to the CD4-binding and CD4–induced sites compared to those expressed in the system that does, and imparted other more subtle differences in antigenicity in a gp120 subtype-specific manner. Non-sialic acid-containing gp120 was significantly more immunogenic than the sialyated version when administered in two different adjuvants, and induced higher titres of antibodies competing for CD4 binding site ligand-gp120 interaction. These findings suggest that non-sialic acid imparting systems yield gp120 immunogens with modified antigenic and immunogenic properties, considerations which should be considered when selecting expression systems for glycosylated antigens to be used

  17. Recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes for safety-related I and C systems in nuclear power plants: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents recommendations for electromagnetic operating envelopes to augment test criteria and test methods addressing electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), and power surges that are applicable to safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to assist in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMI/RFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research has provided recommendations on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design and installation practices, endorsement of EMI/RFI immunity and SWC test criteria and test methods, and determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants. The present research involves development of recommended electromagnetic envelopes that are applicable to nuclear power plant locations where safety-related I and C systems either are or may be installed. These recommended envelopes establish both emissions criteria and the levels of radiated and conducted interference that I and C systems should be able to withstand without upset or malfunction. The EMI/RFI operating envelopes are derived from conditions in comparable military environments and are confirmed by comparison with the nuclear power plant electromagnetic environment based on measured plant emissions profiles. Detailed information on specific power surge conditions in nuclear power plants is not available, so industrial guidance on representative surge characteristics for susceptibility testing is adopted. An engineering assessment of the power surge environment in nuclear power plants leads to the recommendation of operating envelopes based on location categories and exposure levels defined in IEEE Std C62.41-1991, IEEE Recommended Practice on Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits.

  18. Confined Phase Envelope of Gas-Condensate Systems in Shale Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Stanislaw; Siemek, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas from shales (NGS) and from tight rocks are one of the most important fossil energy resource in this and next decade. Significant increase in gas consumption, in all world regions, will be marked in the energy sector. The exploration of unconventional natural gas & oil reservoirs has been discussed recently in many conferences. This paper describes the complex phenomena related to the impact of adsorption and capillary condensation of gas-condensate systems in nanopores. New two phase saturation model and new algorithm for search capillary condensation area is discussed. The algorithm is based on the Modified Tangent Plane Criterion for Capillary Condensation (MTPCCC) is presented. The examples of shift of phase envelopes are presented for selected composition of gas-condensate systems. Gaz ziemny z łupków (NGS) oraz z ze złóż niskoprzepuszczalnych (typu `tight') staje się jednym z najważniejszych zasobów paliw kopalnych, w tym i następnym dziesięcioleciu. Znaczący wzrost zużycia gazu we wszystkich regionach świata zaznacza się głównie w sektorze energetycznym. Rozpoznawanie niekonwencjonalnych złóż gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej w ostatnim czasie jest omawiane w wielu konferencjach. Niniejszy artykuł opisuje złożone zjawiska związane z wpływem adsorpcji i kapilarnej kondensacji w nanoporach w złożach gazowo-kondensatowych. Pokazano nowy dwufazowy model równowagowy dwufazowy i nowy algorytm wyznaczania krzywej nasycenia w obszarze kondensacji kapilarnej. Algorytm bazuje na kryterium zmodyfikowanym płaszczyzny stycznej dla kapilarnej kondensacji (MTPCCC). Przykłady zmiany krzywych nasycenia są przedstawiane w wybranym składzie systemów gazowo- kondensatowych

  19. Carrier-envelope-phase stable, high-contrast, double chirped-pulse-amplification laser system.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Aurélie; Ricci, Aurélien; Böhle, Frederik; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Grabielle, Stéphanie; Forget, Nicolas; Jacqmin, Hermance; Mercier, Brigitte; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo

    2014-07-01

    We present the first carrier-envelope-phase stable chirped-pulse amplifier (CPA) featuring high temporal contrast for relativistic intensity laser-plasma interactions at 1 kHz repetition rate. The laser is based on a double-CPA architecture including cross-polarized wave (XPW) filtering technique and a high-energy grism-based compressor. The 8 mJ, 22 fs pulses feature 10⁻¹¹ temporal contrast at -20  ps and a carrier-envelope-phase drift of 240 mrad root mean square. PMID:24978734

  20. Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of a multi-millijoule, regenerative-amplifier-based chirped-pulse smplifier system.

    PubMed

    Fordell, T; Miranda, M; Persson, A; L'Huillier, A

    2009-11-01

    This article reports on the successful stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of a 1-kHz laser system that includes a large grating stretcher, a regenerative amplifier, a multipass amplifier and a grating compressor. Phase stability for pulse energies up to 6 mJ is demonstrated using electronic feedback to the oscillator locking electronics as well as feedback via an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter. PMID:19997348

  1. TWO POSSIBLE CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS IN THE ECLIPSING POST-COMMON ENVELOPE SYSTEM NSVS 14256825

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, L. A.; Jablonski, F.; Rodrigues, C. V.

    2013-03-20

    We present an analysis of eclipse timings of the post-common envelope binary NSVS 14256825, which is composed of an sdOB star and a dM star in a close orbit (P{sub orb} = 0.110374 days). High-speed photometry of this system was performed between 2010 July and 2012 August. Ten new mid-eclipse times were analyzed together with all available eclipse times in the literature. We revisited the (O - C) diagram using a linear ephemeris and verified a clear orbital period variation. On the assumption that these orbital period variations are caused by light travel time effects, the (O - C) diagram can be explained by the presence of two circumbinary bodies, even though this explanation requires a longer baseline of observations to be fully tested. The orbital periods of the best solution would be P{sub c} {approx} 3.5 years and P{sub d} {approx} 6.9 years. The corresponding projected semi-major axes would be a{sub c} sin i{sub c} {approx} 1.9 AU and a{sub d} sin i{sub d} {approx} 2.9 AU. The masses of the external bodies would be M{sub c} {approx} 2.9 M{sub Jupiter} and M{sub d} {approx} 8.1 M{sub Jupiter}, if we assume their orbits are coplanar with the close binary. Therefore NSVS 14256825 might be composed of a close binary with two circumbinary planets, though the orbital period variations is still open to other interpretations.

  2. Transduction of envelope stress in Escherichia coli by the Cpx two-component system.

    PubMed Central

    Raivio, T L; Silhavy, T J

    1997-01-01

    Disruption of normal protein trafficking in the Escherichia coli cell envelope (inner membrane, periplasm, outer membrane) can activate two parallel, but distinct, signal transduction pathways. This activation stimulates the expression of a number of genes whose products function to fold or degrade the mislocalized proteins. One of these signal transduction pathways is a two-component regulatory system comprised of the histidine kinase CpxA and the response regulator, CpxR. In this study we characterized gain-of-function Cpx* mutants in order to learn more about Cpx signal transduction. Sequencing demonstrated that the cpx* mutations cluster in either the periplasmic, the transmembrane, or the H-box domain of CpxA. Intriguingly, most of the periplasmic cpx* gain-of-function mutations cluster in the central region of this domain, and one encodes a deletion of 32 amino acids. Strains harboring these mutations are rendered insensitive to a normally activating signal. In vivo and in vitro characterization of maltose-binding-protein fusions between the wild-type CpxA and a representative cpx* mutant, CpxA101, showed that the mutant CpxA is altered in phosphotransfer reactions with CpxR. Specifically, while both CpxA and CpxA101 function as autokinases and CpxR kinases, CpxA101 is devoid of a CpxR-P phosphatase activity normally present in the wild-type protein. Taken together, the data support a model for Cpx-mediated signal transduction in which the kinase/phosphatase ratio is elevated by stress. Further, the sequence and phenotypes of periplasmic cpx* mutations suggest that interactions with a periplasmic signaling molecule may normally dictate a decreased kinase/phosphatase ratio under nonstress conditions. PMID:9401031

  3. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  4. Mobile radio alternative systems study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described from background in evaluating the concepts generated in the study. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs.

  5. LACIE/ERIPS software system summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The Earth resources interactive processing system (ERIPS) supports LACIE by classifying LANDSAT sensed data on the basis of the statistical similarity to those portions which were identified by analysts. The development and capabilities of the ERIPS software system are described with emphasis on (1) system requirements; (2) LACIE/ERIPS hardware; (3) system functions; (4) pattern recognition concept; and (5) LACIE/ERIPS data bases. Algorithms used in LACIE/ERIPS for statistics, divergence, feature selection, classification, registration, adaptive clustering, iterative clustering, clustering report functions, Sun angle correction, mean level adjustment, and bias correction are appended.

  6. Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T Systems Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A systems and operational summary of the Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T program is presented which describes vehicle assembly facilities, launch facilities, and management responsibilities, and also provides detailed information on the following separate systems: (1) mechanical systems, including structural components, insulation, propulsion units, reaction control, thrust vector control, hydraulic systems, and pneumatic equipment; (2) astrionics systems, such as instrumentation and telemetry, navigation and guidance, C-Band tracking system, and range safety command system; (3) digital computer unit software; (4) flight control systems; (5) electrical/electronic systems; and (6) ground support equipment, including checkout equipment.

  7. A Summary Report of Six School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL. South Florida School Desegregation Consulting Center.

    The conclusions and recommendations of a study of 6 Negro-majority school systems located in Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina are presented in this report. Dual school systems are operating in the districts studied, but all have started the desegregation process. Important considerations include past achievement differences, salary…

  8. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  9. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-10-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  10. Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Effect of Carrier Envelope Offset Phase on the Dynamics of Two Level Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parvendra; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2011-10-01

    We study the effect of carrier envelope offset (CEO) phase of a few cycle pulse on the dynamics of two-level systems in the domain of extreme nonlinear optics. Strong dependence of polarization on the CEO phase is observed. Intensity of different high harmonics and their interference is clearly seen to be dependent on the CEO phase of the optical pulses. Our results show that the final state of the atomic system, just after the few cycle optical pulse has passed through the system, depends very strongly on the CEO phase of the pulse.

  11. Transportation systems analyses. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The principal objective is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform crew delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery and return, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include: the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationship between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. Conceptual studies of transportation elements contribute to the systems approach by identifying elements (such as ETO node and transfer/excursion vehicles) needed in current and planned transportation systems. These studies are also a mechanism to integrate the results of relevant parallel studies.

  12. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek concrete scabbling system consists of the MOOSE{reg_sign} scabbler, the SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers, and VAC-PAC. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 3/8 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  13. Satellite communications systems and technology. Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of US experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members travelled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information first-hand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 sites in Japan, and four in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated R&D facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of US industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to US activities.

  14. Design of Training Systems Phase I Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, William H.; And Others

    A summary is provided of the status of Phase I of the three-stage project, "Design of Training Systems" (DOTS). The purpose of the overall project is described as being to introduce the technologies of education, psychology, management and operations research into the management of Navy training. Phase I of the effort is designed to provide a…

  15. High voltage system: Plasma interaction summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1986-01-01

    The possible interactions that could exist between a high voltage system and the space plasma environment are reviewed. A solar array is used as an example of such a system. The emphasis in this review is on the discrepancies that exist in this technology in both flight and ground experiment data. It has been found that, in ground testing, there are facility effects, cell size effects and area scaling uncertainties. For space applications there are area scaling and discharge concerns for an array as well as the influence of the large space structures on the collection process. There are still considerable uncertainties in the high voltage-space plasma interaction technology even after several years of effort.

  16. Satellite freeze forecast system: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A satellite-based temperature monitoring and prediction system consisting of a computer controlled acquisition, processing, and display system and the ten automated weather stations called by that computer was developed and transferred to the national weather service. This satellite freeze forecasting system (SFFS) acquires satellite data from either one of two sources, surface data from 10 sites, displays the observed data in the form of color-coded thermal maps and in tables of automated weather station temperatures, computes predicted thermal maps when requested and displays such maps either automatically or manually, archives the data acquired, and makes comparisons with historical data. Except for the last function, SFFS handles these tasks in a highly automated fashion if the user so directs. The predicted thermal maps are the result of two models, one a physical energy budget of the soil and atmosphere interface and the other a statistical relationship between the sites at which the physical model predicts temperatures and each of the pixels of the satellite thermal map.

  17. STARPAHC systems report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A joint NASA and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare/Indian Health Services demonstration project entitled Space Technology Applied to Rural Papago Advanced Health Care (STARPAHC) was conducted to develop a solution for delivering quality health care to people in remote geographical areas. The STARPAHC concept verified the feasibility of telemedicine plus physician assistant - under the direction of a physician as a means of delivering quality health care. The two years of operational evaluation have provided considerable medical and engineering data which will be valuable to the designers and planners of future health care systems on earth and in space.

  18. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  19. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities that have been developed during recent years for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues. A set of 10 performance models have been selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first-order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Next, each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. Then each of the issues is discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. Finally, the models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  20. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities developed for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues is provided. A set of 10 performance models are selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. The issues are discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. The models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  1. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. The material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system. The MSET process is divided into four distinct and separate parts: (1) Completion of the questionnaire that assembles information about the operations of every aspect of the MPC&A system; (2) Conversion of questionnaire data into numeric values associated with risk; (3) Analysis of the numeric data utilizing the MPC&A fault tree and the SAPHIRE computer software; and (4) Self-assessment using the MSET reports to perform the effectiveness evaluation of the facility's MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. If the need for system improvements or upgrades is indicated when the system is analyzed, MSET provides the capability to evaluate potential or actual system improvements or upgrades. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time. The system can be reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential system improvement can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance and reveals where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. The risk

  2. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  3. Two-Component System Cross-Regulation Integrates Bacillus anthracis Response to Heme and Cell Envelope Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mike, Laura A.; Choby, Jacob E.; Brinkman, Paul R.; Olive, Lorenzo Q.; Dutter, Brendan F.; Ivan, Samuel J.; Gibbs, Christopher M.; Sulikowski, Gary A.; Stauff, Devin L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are one of the mechanisms that bacteria employ to sense and adapt to changes in the environment. A prototypical TCS functions as a phosphorelay from a membrane-bound sensor histidine kinase (HK) to a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR) that controls target gene expression. Despite significant homology in the signaling domains of HKs and RRs, TCSs are thought to typically function as linear systems with little to no cross-talk between non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Here we have identified several cell envelope acting compounds that stimulate a previously uncharacterized Bacillus anthracis TCS. Furthermore, this TCS cross-signals with the heme sensing TCS HssRS; therefore, we have named it HssRS interfacing TCS (HitRS). HssRS reciprocates cross-talk to HitRS, suggesting a link between heme toxicity and cell envelope stress. The signaling between HssRS and HitRS occurs in the parental B. anthracis strain; therefore, we classify HssRS-HitRS interactions as cross-regulation. Cross-talk between HssRS and HitRS occurs at both HK-RR and post-RR signaling junctions. Finally, HitRS also regulates a previously unstudied ABC transporter implicating this transporter in the response to cell envelope stress. This chemical biology approach to probing TCS signaling provides a new model for understanding how bacterial signaling networks are integrated to enable adaptation to complex environments such as those encountered during colonization of the vertebrate host. PMID:24675902

  4. Extension to distributed annotation system: Summary and summaryplot commands.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies provided an effective way to generate data from entire genomes and test variants from thousands of individuals. The information acquired from analysing the data generated from high-throughput sequencing technologies provided useful insights into applications like whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing to discover the genetic cause of complex diseases and drug responses. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is one of the proposed solution developed to share and unify biological data from multiple local and remote DAS annotation servers. The researchers can use DAS to request data from federated or centralised databases and integrate them into a unified view. Furthermore, with the use of Reference DAS servers, structural and sequence data can be used to accompany annotation data, for the pursue of new knowledge for a particular feature or region. In this paper, two additional commands, summary and summary-plot commands, to the existing DAS protocol are proposed and implemented. The proposed commands were created in order to give the users the capabilities to request a summary of features for a particular region of interest. The summary command was created in order to extend the capabilities of the current DAS protocol, while the summaryplot command was created to provide a more user-friendly alternative to standard XML DAS responses. Finally, three examples are presented based on the GENCODE annotation data. PMID:26738065

  5. Envelope-following response and modulation transfer function in the dolphin's auditory system.

    PubMed

    Supin, A Y; Popov, V V

    1995-12-01

    Potentials following the envelopes of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones (envelope response, EFR) were recorded from the head surface in bottle-nosed dolphins. EFR appeared at modulation rates from 300 to 3400 Hz. EFR amplitude was higher at rates from 500 to 1400 Hz with peaks at 600 and 1000 Hz and troughs at 700-850, 1200, and 2000 Hz; at rates above 1700 Hz it fell steeply. EFR dependence on modulation depth was linear except at the highest response amplitudes, which made it possible to obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF). EFR appears to be generated by several sources. One source had a latency of about 4 ms and followed modulation rates up to 1700 Hz, while another had a latency of 2 ms and followed modulation rates up to 3.4 kHz. The latencies of both sources coincided with those of waves of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Comparison of MTF with the ABR spectrum had shown that several MTF peaks and troughs reflected the ABR spectrum. The latencies of the two sources were consistent with origins in the midbrain and auditory nerve, respectively. PMID:8647744

  6. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  7. Targeted supplementation design for improved production and quality of enveloped viral particles in insect cell-baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Francisca; Bernal, Vicente; Chaillet, Maxime; Berger, Imre; Alves, Paula M

    2016-09-10

    The recent approval of vaccines and gene therapy products for human use produced in the Insect Cell-Baculovirus Expression Vector System (IC-BEVS) underlines the high potential and versatility of this platform. The interest in developing robust production processes emerges to cope with manufacturing pressure, as well as stringent product quality guidelines. Previously, we addressed the impact of the baculovirus infection on the physiology of insect host cell lines, identifying key cellular pathways enrolled in heterologous gene/protein expression. In the present work, this knowledge was applied to design tailored media supplementation schemes to boost IC-BEVS production yields and quality of enveloped viral particles: influenza VLPs (Inf-VLP) and baculovirus vectors (BV). The addition of reduced glutathione, antioxidants and polyamines increased the cell specific yields of baculovirus particles up to 3 fold. Cholesterol was identified as the most critical system booster, capable of improving 2.5 and 6-fold cell specific yields of BV and Inf-VLPs, respectively. Surprisingly, the combination of polyamines and cholesterol supplementation improved baculovirus stock quality, by preventing the accumulation of non-infectious particles during viral replication while selectively increasing infectious particles production. In addition, the specific yields of both enveloped viral particles, BVs and Inf-VLPs, were also increased. The correlation between supplement addition and systems productivity was extensively analyzed, providing a critical assessment on final product quantity and quality as drivers of bioprocess optimization efforts. PMID:27378622

  8. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  9. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Effect of Carried-Envelope Phase on Transient Process in a Cascade-Type System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Li; Yu, Ling-Yan

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of carried-envelope phase on transient process in a cascade-type atomic system, which is driven by two ultrashort laser pulses (probe and signal laser). It is found that the one- and two-photon processes corresponding to pathway |0> → |1> and |0> → |1> → |2> can be enhanced or suppressed by modulating the carried-envelope phases of probe laser pulse. Our numerical results also show that the transient populations of two excited states can be periodically affected by the carried-envelope phase of probe laser pulse. With certain time, the partial population transfer between two exited states can be realized just by adjusting the carried-envelope phase of probe laser pulse.

  10. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  11. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. PMID:24727398

  12. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  13. Enhanced Central Nervous System Transduction with Lentiviral Vectors Pseudotyped with RVG/HIV-1gp41 Chimeric Envelope Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Trabalza, Antonio; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Sgourou, Argyro; Liao, Ting-Yi; Patsali, Petros; Lee, Heyne

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate the potential benefits which may arise from pseudotyping the HIV-1 lentiviral vector with its homologous gp41 envelope glycoprotein (GP) cytoplasmic tail (CT), we created chimeric RVG/HIV-1gp41 GPs composed of the extracellular and transmembrane sequences of RVG and either the full-length gp41 CT or C terminus gp41 truncations sequentially removing existing conserved motifs. Lentiviruses (LVs) pseudotyped with the chimeric GPs were evaluated in terms of particle release (physical titer), biological titers, infectivity, and in vivo central nervous system (CNS) transduction. We report here that LVs carrying shorter CTs expressed higher levels of envelope GP and showed a higher average infectivity than those bearing full-length GPs. Interestingly, complete removal of GP CT led to vectors with the highest transduction efficiency. Removal of all C-terminal gp41 CT conserved motifs, leaving just 17 amino acids (aa), appeared to preserve infectivity and resulted in a significantly increased physical titer. Furthermore, incorporation of these 17 aa in the RVG CT notably enhanced the physical titer. In vivo stereotaxic delivery of LV vectors exhibiting the best in vitro titers into rodent striatum facilitated efficient transduction of the CNS at the site of injection. A particular observation was the improved retrograde transduction of neurons in connected distal sites that resulted from the chimeric envelope R5 which included the “Kennedy” sequence (Ken) and lentivirus lytic peptide 2 (LLP2) conserved motifs in the CT, and although it did not exhibit a comparable high titer upon pseudotyping, it led to a significant increase in distal retrograde transduction of neurons. IMPORTANCE In this study, we have produced novel chimeric envelopes bearing the extracellular domain of rabies fused to the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of gp41 and pseudotyped lentiviral vectors with them. Here we report novel effects on the transduction efficiency and physical titer

  14. Geometric and Kinematic Structure of the Outflow/Envelope System of L1527 Revealed by Subarcsecond-resolution Observation of CS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Yoko; Sakai, Nami; Lefloch, Bertrand; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Subarcsecond-resolution images of the rotational line emissions of CS and c-C3H2 obtained toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 04368+2557 in L1527 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are investigated to constrain the orientation of the outflow/envelope system. The distribution of CS consists of an envelope component extending from north to south and a faint butterfly shaped outflow component. The kinematic structure of the envelope is well reproduced by a simple ballistic model of an infalling rotating envelope. Although the envelope has a nearly edge-on configuration, we find that the western side of the envelope faces the observer. This configuration is opposite to the direction of the large-scale (˜104 AU) outflow suggested previously from the 12CO (J = 3-2) observation, and to the morphology of infrared reflection near the protostar (˜200 AU). The latter discrepancy could originate from high extinction by the outflow cavity of the western side, or may indicate that the outflow axis is not parallel to the rotation axis of the envelope. Position-velocity diagrams show the accelerated outflow cavity wall, and its kinematic structure in the 2000 AU scale is explained by a standard parabolic model with the inclination angle derived from the analysis of the envelope. The different orientation of the outflow between the small and large scale implies a possibility of precession of the outflow axis. The shape and the velocity of the outflow in the vicinity of the protostar are compared with those of other protostars.

  15. Microelectronic Information Processing Systems: Computing Systems. Summary of Awards Fiscal Year 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering.

    The purpose of this summary of awards is to provide the scientific and engineering communities with a summary of the grants awarded in 1994 by the National Science Foundation's Division of Microelectronic Information Processing Systems. Similar areas of research are grouped together. Grantee institutions and principal investigators are identified…

  16. Microwave Power Transmission System Studies. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Meltz, G.; Haley, J. T.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A study of microwave power generation, transmission, reception and control was conducted as a part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. A summary is presented of results concerning design approaches, estimated costs (ROM), critical technology, associated ground and orbital test programs with emphasis on dc to rf conversion, transmitting antenna, phase control, mechanical systems, flight operations, ground power receiving-rectifying antenna with systems analysis, and evaluation. Recommendations for early further in-depth studies complementing the technology program are included.

  17. Piloted Simulation to Evaluate the Utility of a Real Time Envelope Protection System for Mitigating In-Flight Icing Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, Richard J.; Martos, Borja; Norton, Bill W.; Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The utility of the Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEPro provides real time envelope protection cues and alerting messages on pilot displays. The pilots participating in this test were divided into two groups; a control group using baseline displays without ICEPro, and an experimental group using ICEPro driven display cueing. Each group flew identical precision approach and missed approach procedures with a simulated failure case icing condition. Pilot performance, workload, and survey questionnaires were collected for both groups of pilots. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their situation awareness of a hazardous aircraft state.

  18. Nitrogen dynamics in controlled systems: meeting summary and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Smernoff, D T; Heyenga, G

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a meeting held during September 1995, in Berkeley, CA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide NASA with a summary of the current data, theories, and hypotheses concerning the energetics, dynamics, and stability of nitrogen cycling in controlled systems. NASA's interest stems from the development of advanced life support systems that must recycle and/or regenerate all life support materials. Nitrogen is an important element in biological systems; it undergoes a variety of transformations during both biotic and abiotic processes and, hence, an understanding of its dynamic changes in a closed system is critical to the design of efficient and reliable life support systems. This article reviews the meeting goals and objectives, summarizes the findings of the participants, and outlines future research needs. PMID:11539164

  19. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program a joint effort to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept is discussed. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. This Program Summary not only covers FY 1979 but includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  20. Summary of Tactile User Interfaces Techniques and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2004-01-01

    Mental workload can be defined as the ratio of demand to allocated resources. Multiple- resource theory stresses the importance of distribution of tasks and information across various sensory channels of the human to reduce mental workload. One sensory channel that has been of interest since the late 1800s is touch. Unlike the more typical displays that target vision or hearing, tactile displays present information to the user s sense of touch. We present a summary of different methods for tactile display; historic and more recent systems that incorporate tactile display for information presentation; advantages and disadvantages of targeting the tactile channel; and future directions in tactile display research.

  1. Summary of Tactile User Interfaces Techniques and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2005-01-01

    Mental workload can be de.ned as the ratio of demand to allocated resources. Multiple-resource theory stresses the importance of distribution of tasks and information across various human sensory channels to reduce mental workload. One sensory channel that has been of interest since the late 1800s is touch. Unlike the more typical displays that target vision or hearing, tactile displays present information to the user s sense of touch. We present a summary of different methods for tactile display, historic and more recent systems that incorporate tactile display for information presentation, advantages and disadvantages of targeting the tactile channel, and future directions in tactile display research.

  2. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  3. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  4. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) system. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrocq, C. A.; Hurley, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Ipad System, including its goals and objectives, organization, capabilities and future usefulness. The systems implementation is also presented with operational cost summaries.

  5. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program is a joint effort of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is managed by the SPS Project Office within DOE's Office of Energy Research. SPS project organization is shown in Figure 1. The SPS Project Office was established in 1978 and is responsible for the planning, management and integration of SPS research in four areas: systems definition, environmental assessment, societal assessment, and comparative assessment. In fulfilling its responsibilities, the SPS Project Office directs research and assessment efforts to determine the feasibility of the SPS concept, funds organizations supporting the program, and disseminates information developed from project research and assessments. The objective of the SPS program is to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. The SPS Project Office annually issues a Program Summary which describes the research undertaken during the preceding fiscal year. This Program Summary covers FY 1979. It includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  6. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  7. FY07 Summary of System Interface and Support Systems R&D and Technical Issues Map

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-09-01

    This document provides a summary of research and development activities in the System Interface and Support Systems area of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in FY 2007. Project cost and performance data obtained from the PICS system, at least up through July 2007, are presented and analyzed. Brief summaries of accomplishments and references are provided. A mapping of System Interface and Support Systems technical issues versus the work performed is updated and presented. Lastly, near-term research plans are described, and recommendatioins are provided for additional research.

  8. Systems definition space based power conversion systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on earth were investigated. These systems were of three basic types: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  9. Fatality Analysis Reporting System, General Estimates System: 2001 Data Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which became operational in 1975, contains data on a census of fatal traffic crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The General Estimates System (GES), which began in 1988, provides data from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all…

  10. Twin-arginine translocation system (tat) mutants of Salmonella are attenuated due to envelope defects, not respiratory defects.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maureen; Sadik, Adam Y; Golubeva, Yekaterina A; Tidhar, Avital; Slauch, James M

    2013-09-01

    The twin-arginine translocation system (Tat) transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane and is critical to virulence in Salmonella and other pathogens. Experimental and bioinformatic data indicate that 30 proteins are exported via Tat in Salmonella Typhimurium. However, there are no data linking specific Tat substrates with virulence. We inactivated every Tat-exported protein and determined the virulence phenotype of mutant strains. Although a tat mutant is highly attenuated, no single Tat-exported substrate accounts for this virulence phenotype. Rather, the attenuation is due primarily to envelope defects caused by failure to translocate three Tat substrates, the N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases, AmiA and AmiC, and the cell division protein, SufI. Strikingly, neither the amiA amiC nor the sufI mutations alone conferred any virulence defect. Although AmiC and SufI have previously been localized to the divisome, the synthetic phenotypes observed are the first to suggest functional overlap. Many Tat substrates are involved in anaerobic respiration, but we show that a mutant completely deficient in anaerobic respiration retains full virulence in both the oral and systemic phases of infection. Similarly, an obligately aerobic mutant is fully virulent. These results suggest that in the classic mouse model of infection, S. Typhimurium is replicating only in aerobic environments. PMID:23822642

  11. Challenges of developing an electro-optical system for measuring man's operational envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, B.

    1985-01-01

    In designing work stations and restraint systems, and in planning tasks to be performed in space, a knowledge of the capabilities of the operator is essential. Answers to such questions as whether a specific control or work surface can be reached from a given restraint and how much force can be applied are of particular interest. A computer-aided design system has been developed for designing and evaluating work stations, etc., and the Anthropometric Measurement Laboratory (AML) has been charged with obtaining the data to be used in design and modeling. Traditional methods of measuring reach and force are very labor intensive and require bulky equipment. The AML has developed a series of electro-optical devices for collecting reach data easily, in computer readable form, with portable systems. The systems developed, their use, and data collected with them are described.

  12. Systems definition summary. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard spacecraft bus for performing a variety of earth orbit missions in the late 1970's and 1980's is defined. Emphasis is placed on a low-cost, multimission capability, benefitting from the space shuttle system. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) performance requirements, (2) internal interfaces, (3) redundancy and reliability, (4) communications and data handling module design, (5) payload data handling, (6) application of the modular design to various missions, and (7) the verification concept.

  13. Definition and means of maintaining the ventilation system confinement portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.D.; Grover, G.A.; O`Brien, P.M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-05

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant Heating Ventilation and Cooling system provides for the confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and provides for the confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. This document identifies the components and procedures necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. Appendices E through J provide a snapshot of non-safety class HVAC equipment and need not be updated when the remainder of the document and Appendices A through D are updated.

  14. Establishing a Dynamics Performance Envelope of a Flexible Tethered Satellite System for Planar and Non-Coplanar Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teik Hong, Aaron Aw; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    A Tethered Satellite System (TSS) can be considered as a flexible in-orbit system. However, TSS is typically modelled as a rigid tethered system due to the complexity of its mathematical treatments. In this paper, mathematical models for a flexible tethered satellite system in both planar and co-planar states are developed. The flexible tethered satellite system consists of three rigid bodies with two flexible tethers each connecting two rigid bodies with one located in the centre serving as the mothership. The TSS motion includes tether deformations, rotational dynamics, and orbital mechanics. Three materials (e.g., tungsten wire, Spectra-2000, and diamond) that are commonly used for the tether are proposed as the reference materials; and it should be noted that the tether will undergo a spinning motion as well in the motorized option. In addition, the air drag perturbation is also considered since the entire TSS is flown around Low Earth Orbit (LEO), whereby the air-drag perturbation is dominant. A comprehensive analysis was performed for planar and non-coplanar models in order to establish a dynamics performance envelope with respect to the tether’s tension at different altitudes and air-drag. Bubnov-Galerkin method was employed in order to linearize the non-linear governing equations of elastic vibrations; and once the modal coordinates were obtained, they were substituted according to the equations corresponding to the energy conservation principle. Further, Lagrangian dynamics was utilized to establish the equations of motion of the entire TSS based on the chosen generalized coordinates. The proposed models were treated numerically and analysed accordingly. Then, a comparison study between the coplanar and non-coplanar models was done and the differences in their performances were observed and discussed. Although all materials have their own safe operation boundaries, the flexible TSS using Diamond shows a better dynamics performance than the other TSS

  15. Pipe Explorer{trademark} surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals.

  16. Developing a dynamic envelope/lighting control system with field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Lee, E.S.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The feasibility of an intelligent venetian blind/lighting control system was tested in a 1:3 scale model outdoors under variable sun and sky conditions. The control algorithm, block direct sun and meet the design workplane illuminance level, was implemented using commercially available and custom designed blind and lighting systems hardware. While blocking direct sunlight, the blinds were properly controlled to maintain the design workplane illuminance within a tolerance of -10%, +25% when there was sufficient daylight. When daylight levels alone were inadequate, the electric lighting control system maintained the design workplane illuminance. The electric lighting could be turned off if a user-specified time period at minimum power was exceeded. Lighting energy savings of 51-71% (southwest) and 37-75% (south) was attained for the period from 8:00 to 17:00 on clear sunny days, compared to a fixed, partially closed blind with the same lighting system. Practical details for implementation and commissioning are discussed. The impact of control variations, such as profile angle, time step interval, and control area, on energy demand is investigated.

  17. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs. PMID:24929929

  18. Technical- and Environmental-Efficiency Analysis of Irrigated Cotton-Cropping Systems in Punjab, Pakistan Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R.

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  19. Exploring the envelope. Systematic alteration in the sex-determination system of the nematode caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The natural sexes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are the self-fertilizing hermaphrodite (XX) and the male (XO). The underlying genetic pathway controlling sexual phenotype has been extensively investigated. Mutations in key regulatory genes have been used to create a series of stable populations in which sex is determined not by X chromosome dosage, but in a variety of other ways, many of which mimic the diverse sex-determination systems found in different animal species. Most of these artificial strains have male and female sexes. Each of seven autosomal genes can be made to adopt a role as the primary determinant of sex, and each of the five autosomes can carry the primary determinant, thereby becoming a sex chromosome. Strains with sex determination by fragment chromosomes, episomes, compound chromosomes, or environmental factors have also been constructed. The creation of these strains demonstrates the ease with which one sex-determination system can be transformed into another. PMID:12399387

  20. Nuclear envelope: positioning nuclei and organizing synapses

    PubMed Central

    Razafsky, David; Hodzic, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear envelope plays an essential role in nuclear positioning within cells and tissues. This review highlights advances in understanding the mechanisms of nuclear positioning during skeletal muscle and central nervous system development. New findings, particularly about Atype lamins and Nesprin1, may link nuclear envelope integrity to synaptic integrity. Thus synaptic defects, rather than nuclear mispositioning, may underlie human pathologies associated with mutations of nuclear envelope proteins. PMID:26079712

  1. Production of dengue virus envelope protein domain III-based antigens in tobacco chloroplasts using inducible and constitutive expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gottschamel, Johanna; Lössl, Andreas; Ruf, Stephanie; Wang, Yanliang; Skaugen, Morten; Bock, Ralph; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is a disease in many parts of the tropics and subtropics and about half the world's population is at risk of infection according to the World Health Organization. Dengue is caused by any of the four related dengue virus serotypes DEN-1, -2, -3 and -4, which are transmitted to people by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Currently there is only one vaccine (Dengvaxia(®)) available (limited to a few countries) on the market since 2015 after half a century's intensive efforts. Affordable and accessible vaccines against dengue are hence still urgently needed. The dengue envelop protein domain III (EDIII), which is capable of eliciting serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, has become the focus for subunit vaccine development. To contribute to the development of an accessible and affordable dengue vaccine, in the current study we have used plant-based vaccine production systems to generate a dengue subunit vaccine candidate in tobacco. Chloroplast genome engineering was applied to express serotype-specific recombinant EDIII proteins in tobacco chloroplasts using both constitutive and ethanol-inducible expression systems. Expression of a tetravalent antigen fusion construct combining EDIII polypeptides from all four serotypes was also attempted. Transplastomic EDIII-expressing tobacco lines were obtained and homoplasmy was verified by Southern blot analysis. Northern blot analyses showed expression of EDIII antigen-encoding genes. EDIII protein accumulation levels varied for the different recombinant EDIII proteins and the different expression systems, and reached between 0.8 and 1.6 % of total cellular protein. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the chloroplast compartment as a production site for an EDIII-based vaccine candidate against dengue fever and presents a Gateway(®) plastid transformation vector for inducible transgene expression. PMID:27116001

  2. Thermographic NDT of building envelopes utilizing in-door heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Tatsuhito; Nakano, Yonezou; Tanigawa, Yasuo

    2002-03-01

    The deterioration of concrete structures due to drastic changes in environment or due to poor workmanship has become very serious in Japan recently. In particular, since buildings are finished with render or tile on their facades in order to improve durability and appearance in many cases, the number of accidents resulting in injury or death caused by the fall of these finishing materials in increasing continuously. As a method of detecting delaminations of finishing materials, the thermographic survey using thermal imager is widely used because of the advantages of easiness, rate of data sampling and safeness. However, since this method is based on the difference of surface temperature between delaminated areas and sound areas generated by solar radiation, the method cannot be used under cloudy weather. It is a big difference between the construction field and other fields like metals, ceramics and plastics, which can do artificial heating or cooling easily. In order to improve the applicability and limitations of the method, a study was carried out. In ths study, instead of exposing an external wall to the sun, a method of heating the rear side of the wall by using the indoor heating system of the building was discussed and tested. As a result, it was proved that below-surface defects of building facades could be located without solar radiation by controlling the room temperature appropriately. This paper outlines the procedure and results of the study.

  3. Redox-Triggered Gatekeeper-Enveloped Starlike Hollow Silica Nanoparticles for Intelligent Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nana; Lin, Xinyi; Zhang, Qing; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2015-12-22

    The design and development of multifunctional carriers for drug delivery based on hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) have attracted intense interests. Ordinary spherical HNPs are demonstrated to be promising candidates. However, the application of HNPs with special morphologies has rarely been reported. HNPs with sharp horns are expected to own higher endocytosis efficiencies than spherical counterparts. In this work, novel starlike hollow silica nanoparticles (SHNPs) with different sizes are proposed as platforms for the fabrication of redox-triggered multifunctional systems for synergy of gene therapy and chemotherapy. The CD-PGEA gene vectors (consisting of β-CD cores and ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (denoted BUCT-PGEA) arms) are introduced ingeniously onto the surfaces of SHNPs with plentiful disulfide bond-linked adamantine guests. The resulting supramolecular assemblies (SHNP-PGEAs) possess redox-responsive gatekeepers for loaded drugs in the cavities of SHNPs. Meanwhile, they also demonstrate excellent performances to deliver genes. The gene transfection efficiencies, controlled drug release behaviors, and synergistic antitumor effect of hollow silica-based carriers with different morphologies are investigated in detail. Compared with ordinary spherical HNP-based counterparts, SHNP-PGEA carriers with six sharp horns are proven to be superior gene vectors and possess better efficacy for cellular uptake and antitumor effects. The present multifunctional carriers based on SHNPs will have promising applications in drug/gene codelivery and cancer treatment. PMID:26528765

  4. Advanced Initiation Systems Manufacturing Level 2 Milestone Completion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Schmidt, M

    2009-10-01

    Milestone Description - Advanced Initiation Systems Detonator Design and Prototype. Milestone Grading Criteria - Design new generation chip slapper detonator and manufacture a prototype using advanced manufacturing processes, such as all-dry chip metallization and solvent-less flyer coatings. The advanced processes have been developed for manufacturing detonators with high material compatibility and reliability to support future LEPs, e.g. the B61, and new weapons systems. Perform velocimetry measurements to determine slapper velocity as a function of flight distance. A prototype detonator assembly and stripline was designed for low-energy chip slappers. Pictures of the prototype detonator and stripline are shown. All-dry manufacturing processes were used to address compatibility issues. KCP metallized the chips in a physical vapor deposition system through precision-aligned shadow masks. LLNL deposited a solvent-less polyimide flyer with a processes called SLIP, which stands for solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. LANL manufactured the high-surface-area (HSA) high explosive (HE) pellets. Test fires of two chip slapper designs, radius and bowtie, were performed at LLNL in the High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF). Test fires with HE were conducted to establish the threshold firing voltages. pictures of the chip slappers before and after test fires are shown. Velocimetry tests were then performed to obtain slapper velocities at or above the threshold firing voltages. Figure 5 shows the slapper velocity as a function of distance and time at the threshold voltage, for both radius and bowtie bridge designs. Both designs were successful at initiating the HE at low energy levels. Summary of Accomplishments are: (1) All-dry process for chip manufacture developed; (2) Solventless process for slapper materials developed; (3) High-surface area explosive pellets developed; (4) High performance chip slappers developed; (5) Low-energy chip

  5. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  6. Centrifuge facility conceptual system study. Volume 2: Facility systems and study summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnestvedt, Robert (Editor); Blair, Patricia; Cartledge, Alan; Garces-Porcile, Jorge; Garin, Vladimir; Guerrero, Mike; Haddeland, Peter; Horkachuck, Mike; Kuebler, Ulrich; Nguyen, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility is a major element of the biological research facility for the implementation of NASA's Life Science Research Program on Space Station Freedom using nonhuman species (small primates, rodents, plants, insects, cell tissues, etc.). The Centrifuge Facility consists of a variable gravity Centrifuge to provide artificial gravity up to 2 earth G's' a Holding System to maintain specimens at microgravity levels, a Glovebox, and a Service Unit for servicing specimen chambers. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Holding System; (2) Centrifuge System; (3) Glovebox System; (4) Service System; and (5) system study summary.

  7. Biomass energy systems program summary. Information current as of September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This program summary describes each of the DOE's Biomass Energy System's projects funded or in existence during fiscal year 1979 and reflects their status as of September 30, 1979. The summary provides an overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the preceding fiscal year as well. (DMC)

  8. "AfterZone:" Outcomes for Youth Participating in Providence's Citywide After-School System. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauh, Tina J.

    2011-01-01

    This executive summary highlights the main findings from our participation and outcomes analysis of the "AfterZone" initiative--a citywide system-building effort in Providence, Rhode Island, that aims to provide high-quality, accessible out-of-school-time services to middle school youth. The summary briefly defines the AfterZone's unique multisite…

  9. Perception and coding of envelopes in weakly electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Sarah A; Fortune, Eric S; Chacron, Maurice J

    2013-07-01

    Natural sensory stimuli have a rich spatiotemporal structure and can often be characterized as a high frequency signal that is independently modulated at lower frequencies. This lower frequency modulation is known as the envelope. Envelopes are commonly found in a variety of sensory signals, such as contrast modulations of visual stimuli and amplitude modulations of auditory stimuli. While psychophysical studies have shown that envelopes can carry information that is essential for perception, how envelope information is processed in the brain is poorly understood. Here we review the behavioral salience and neural mechanisms for the processing of envelopes in the electrosensory system of wave-type gymnotiform weakly electric fishes. These fish can generate envelope signals through movement, interactions of their electric fields in social groups or communication signals. The envelopes that result from the first two behavioral contexts differ in their frequency content, with movement envelopes typically being of lower frequency. Recent behavioral evidence has shown that weakly electric fish respond in robust and stereotypical ways to social envelopes to increase the envelope frequency. Finally, neurophysiological results show how envelopes are processed by peripheral and central electrosensory neurons. Peripheral electrosensory neurons respond to both stimulus and envelope signals. Neurons in the primary hindbrain recipient of these afferents, the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), exhibit heterogeneities in their responses to stimulus and envelope signals. Complete segregation of stimulus and envelope information is achieved in neurons in the target of ELL efferents, the midbrain torus semicircularis (Ts). PMID:23761464

  10. Satellite services system analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Service requirements are considered. Topics include development of on-orbit operations scenarios, service equipment summary, crew interaction, and satellite features facilitating servicing. Service equipment concepts are considered. Topics include payload deployment, close proximity retrieval, on-orbit servicing, backup/contingency, delivery/retrieval of high energy payloads, Earth return, optional service, and advanced capabilities. Program requirements are assessed.

  11. Molecular and proteome analyses highlight the importance of the Cpx envelope stress system for acid stress and cell wall stability in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Surmann, Kristin; Ćudić, Emina; Hammer, Elke; Hunke, Sabine

    2016-08-01

    Two-component systems (TCS) play a pivotal role for bacteria in stress regulation and adaptation. However, it is not well understood how these systems are modulated to meet bacterial demands. Especially, for those TCS using an accessory protein to integrate additional signals, no data concerning the role of the accessory proteins within the coordination of the response is available. The Cpx envelope stress two-component system, composed of the sensor kinase CpxA and the response regulator CpxR, is orchestrated by the periplasmic protein CpxP which detects misfolded envelope proteins and inhibits the Cpx system in unstressed cells. Using selected reaction monitoring, we observed that the amount of CpxA and CpxR, as well as their stoichiometry, are only marginally affected, but that a 10-fold excess of CpxP over CpxA is needed to switch off the Cpx system. Moreover, the relative quantification of the proteome identified not only acid stress response as a new indirect target of the Cpx system, but also suggests a general function of the Cpx system for cell wall stability. PMID:27039284

  12. Stereopsis from contrast envelopes.

    PubMed

    Langley, K; Fleet, D J; Hibbard, P B

    1999-07-01

    We report two experiments concerning the site of the principal nonlinearity in second-order stereopsis. The first exploits the asymmetry in perceiving transparency with second-order stimuli found by Langley et al. (1998) (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 265, 1837-1845) i.e. the product of a positive-valued contrast envelope and a mean-zero carrier grating can be seen transparently only when the disparities are consistent with the envelope appearing in front of the carrier. We measured the energy at the envelope frequencies that must be added in order to negate this asymmetry. We report that this amplitude can be predicted from the envelope sidebands and not from the magnitude of compressive pre-cortical nonlinearities measured by other researchers. In the second experiment, contrast threshold elevations were measured for the discrimination of envelope disparities following adaptation to sinusoidal gratings. It is reported that perception of the envelope's depth was affected most when the adapting grating was similar (in orientation and frequency) to the carrier, rather than to the contrast envelope. These results suggest that the principal nonlinearity in second-order stereopsis is cortical, occurring after orientation- and frequency-selective linear filtering. PMID:10367053

  13. The solar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    1971-01-01

    Processes which occur within the region between approximately 2 solar radii and 25 solar radii, which is called the solar envelope and the effect on the solar wind as seen at 1 AU are discussed. In the envelope the wind speed becomes supersonic and super-Alfvenic, the magnetic energy density is larger than the flow energy density, and the magnetic energy density is much larger than the thermal energy density. Large azimuthal gradients in the bulk speed are expected in the envelope, but the stream interactions near the outer edge of the envelope are probably relatively small. Cosmic ray observations suggest the presence of hydromagnetic waves in the envelope. The collisionless damping of such waves could heat protons out to approximately 25 solar radii and thereby cause an increase in V and T sub p consistent with the observed T sub p -V relation. A mechanism which couples protons and electrons would also heat and accelerate the wind. Alfven waves can accelerate the wind in the envelope without necessarily causing heating of protons; the Lorentz force might have a similar effect.

  14. Integrated command, control, communication and computation system design study. Summary of tasks performed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A summary of tasks performed on an integrated command, control, communication, and computation system design study is given. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System command and control system study, an automated real-time operations study, and image processing work are discussed.

  15. Mod-2 wind turbine system development. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of the MOD-2 wind turbine through acceptance testing and initial operational evaluation is documented. Pitch control hydraulic system, yaw control system, drive train, electrical power station, control system, operations and maintenance experience, and availability are discussed.

  16. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  17. System Summary of University Annual Work Plans, 2014-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future; (1) The Board of Governors' new Strategic Plan 2012-2025 is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's Annual Accountability Report provides yearly tracking for how the System is…

  18. Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Henderson, R. D.; Macey, F. C.; Tuttle, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The current air cargo system is analyzed along with advanced air cargo systems studies. A forecast of advanced air cargo system demand is presented with cost estimates. It is concluded that there is a need for a dedicated advance air cargo system, and with application of advanced technology, reductions of 45% in air freight rates may be achieved.

  19. Optical System Critical Design Review (CDR) Flight Software Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mori

    2006-01-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI FSW presentation covers: (1) Optical System FSW only and Cooling System FSW is covered at its CDR (2) Requirements & Interfaces (3) Relationship with the ISIM FSW (4) FSW Design Drivers & Solutions.

  20. Disaster warning system study summary. [cost estimates using NOAA satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. F.; Maloy, J. E.; Braley, R. C.; Provencher, C. E.; Schumaker, H. A.; Valgora, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual satellite system to replace or complement NOAA's data collection, internal communications, and public information dissemination systems for the mid-1980's was defined. Program cost and cost sensitivity to variations in communications functions are analyzed.

  1. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Schweickert, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of an auxiliary propulsion system for space shuttle applications are presented. The system design data necessary for selection of preferred system concepts and the requirements for complementing component design and test programs are analyzed. The use of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen as a propellant combination is explained on the basis of high vehicle impulse requirements, safety factors, reuse, and logistics considerations. The final configurations for the alternate propellant system, with primary emphasis on earth storable propellants is described.

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  3. Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary describes highlights from the report, "Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities." City-led efforts to build coordinated systems of afterschool programming are an important strategy for improving the health, safety and academic preparedness of children and…

  4. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  5. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    General mission considerations and science prospectus, which are of a general nature that applies to several or all planetary applications, are presented. Five probe systems are defined: nominal Jupiter probe system, and Jupiter probe-dedicated alternative probe system, Jupiter spacecraft radiation-compatible alternative probe system, Saturn probe system, and Saturn probe applicability for Uranus. Parametric analysis is summarized for mission analysis of a general nature, and then for specific missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The program is also discussed from the hardware availability viewpoint and the aspect of commonality.

  6. Innovative technology summary report: advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), which was supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center through a cost sharing research and development contract. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment.

  7. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the operations of hydropower systems, with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can effectively increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined in detail to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results were used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept was outlined.

  8. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    In response to the increasing need for small-scale solid waste processing facilities, the US DOE contracted with Systems Technology Corporation (SYSTECH) to identify the technologies that should be developed to make such facilities attractive to and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day (TPD). In addition to identifying candidate technologies, SYSTECH applied a set of criteria to them to determine those that could best satisfy the existing market conditions. The criteria included costs of the alternative landfill disposal, material and energy prices, developmental status of the technology, and environmental impact of the systems. The system types studied included those with mechanical separation, thermal and thermochemical energy recovery, and bioconversion processes. For these studies, the performance of each system was simulated by a mathematical model. After the systems were evaluated, the most promising were analyzed to determine which components and operating parameters had the greatest impact on system viability. Accordingly, the research and development (R and D) needs to advance the state-of-the-art for small-scale solid waste processing facilities were identified. The study results are documented in four volumes: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Description of Solid Waste Modular Simulator; (3) Research and Development Needs; and (4) System Performance Data.

  9. Summary of the recent short-haul systems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, R. C.; Galloway, T. L.; Wilcox, D. E.; Kenyon, G. C.; Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of several NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies are reported as well as analyzed. Included are the total STOL systems analysis approach, a companion STOL composites study conducted in conjunction with STOL systems studies, a STOL economic assessment study, an evaluation of STOL aircraft with and without externally blown flaps, an alternative STOL systems for the San Francisco Bay Area, and the quiet, clean experimental engine studies. Assumptions and results of these studies are summarized, their differences, analyzed, and the results compared with those in-house analyses performed by the Systems Studies Division of the NASA-Ames Research Center. Pertinent conclusions are developed and the more significant technology needs for the evaluation of a viable short haul transportation system are identified.

  10. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  11. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  12. An Information System for Educational Management: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, John

    Six reports concerning design of an information system to aid the Los Angeles city schools in implementing accountability and program budgeting are summarized. Extensive interviewing and system analysis led to focusing decisionmaking and accountability on the individual school principal, unlike the present centralized decisionmaking and resource…

  13. Manned Orbital Systems Concepts Study. Book 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Requirements for and definitions of a cost effective orbital facility concept, capable of supporting extended manned operations in earth orbit beyond those visualized for the 7 to 30 day shuttle/spacelab system, were studied. Data are given on requirements derivation, concepts identification, systems analysis and definition, and programmatics.

  14. Control Systems Security Test Center - FY 2004 Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Polk; Alen M. Snyder

    2005-04-01

    In May 2004, the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) was established at Idaho National Laboratory to execute assessment activities to reduce the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructure control systems to terrorist attack. The CSSC implements a program to accomplish the five goals presented in the US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security. This report summarizes the first year funding of startup activities and program achievements that took place in FY 2004 and early FY 2005. This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs federal departments to identify and prioritize the critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the National Cyber Security Division to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems.

  15. Comet/Asteroid Protection System: Concept Study Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the major issues have been identified for a futuristic capability to protect against impacting comets and asteroids, and a preliminary space-based concept has been envisioned. Some of the basic concept elements, approaches, methodologies, and features have been identified. When contemplating the ability to monitor comets and asteroids continuously, there are many trade-offs between orbiting observatories and detection systems on planetary bodies without an atmosphere. Future orbit modification techniques have the potential for rapid and controlled alteration of NEO orbits, provided that high-power, compatible thermal management systems are developed. Much additional work and analysis are required to identify a final system concept, and many trade studies need to be performed to select the best mix of system capability, reliability, maintainability, and cost. Finally, it is fully appreciated that at the present time space systems are much more costly than terrestrial-based systems. Hopefully, this will change in the future. Regardless, understanding what it would take to defend against a much wider range of the impact threat will foster ideas, innovations, and technologies that could one day enable the development of such a system. This understanding is vital to provide ways of reducing the costs and quantifying the benefits that are achievable with a system like CAPS.

  16. The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

  17. Our Solar System at a Glance. Information Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The United States has explored the solar system with automated spacecraft and human-crewed expeditions that have produced a quantum leap in our knowledge and understanding of the solar system. Through the electronic sight and other "senses" of our automated spacecraft, color and complexion have been given to worlds that for centuries appeared to…

  18. Spaceborne power systems preference analyses. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Feinberg, A.; Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen alternative spaceborne nuclear power system concepts were ranked using multiattribute decision analysis to identify promising concepts for further technology development. Four groups interviewed were: safety, systems definition and design, technology assessment, and mission analysis. The ranking results were consistent from group and for different utility function models for individuals.

  19. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  20. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  1. The immunostimulating complex (ISCOM) is an efficient mucosal delivery system for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) envelope antigens inducing high local and systemic antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, K-F; Elvander, M; Merza, M; Åkerblom, L; Brandenburg, A; Morein, B

    1998-01-01

    ISCOM is an efficient mucosal delivery system for RSV envelope proteins as measured by antibody responses in respiratory tract secretions and in sera of mice following two intranasal (i.n.) administrations. Intranasally administered RSV ISCOMs induced high levels of IgA antibodies both in the upper respiratory tract and in the lungs. In the lungs, a prominent and long-lasting IgA response was recorded, which still persisted 22 weeks after the second i.n. immunization when the experiment ended. Subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization only induced low IgA titres in the upper respiratory tract and no measurable response to RSV was found in the lungs. Differences were also noticed in serum between the i.n. and s.c. modes of immunization. ISCOMs given intranasally induced earlier, higher and longer lasting IgM and IgG1 serum anti-RSV antibody responses than those induced by the s.c. mode of administration. A low serum IgE response was only detectable at 2 weeks after i.n. immunization with ISCOMs and after s.c. immunization with an inactivated virus, but no IgE response was detectable after s.c. injection of ISCOMs. The serum IgA response was more pronounced following s.c. injection of inactivated virus than after i.n. application of ISCOMs, and a clear-cut booster effect was obtained with a second immunization. Virtually no serum IgA response was detected after the s.c. administration of ISCOMs. In conclusion, the high immune responses induced by RSV ISCOMs in the respiratory tract and serum after i.n. administration indicate prominent mucosal delivery and adjuvant properties of the ISCOMs, warranting further studies. PMID:9717973

  2. Mobile integrated temporary utility system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Mobile Integrated Temporary Utility System (MITUS) integrates portable electrical power along with communications and emergency alarm and lighting capabilities to provide safe, centralized power to work areas that need to be de-energized for decommissioning work. MITUS consists of a portable unit substation; up to twenty portable kiosks that house the power receptacles, communications, and emergency alarm and lighting systems; and a central communications unit. This system makes sequential decommissioning efforts efficient and cost-effective by allowing the integrated system to remain intact while being moved to subsequent work sites. Use of the MITUS also eliminates the need to conduct zero-energy tests and implement associated lock-out/tag-out procedures at partially de-energized facilities. Since the MITUS is a designed system, it can be customized to accommodate unique facility conditions simply by varying kiosks and transformer configurations. The MITUS is an attractive alternate to the use of portable generators with stand-alone communications and emergency system. It is more cost-effective than upgrading or reconfiguring existing power distribution systems.

  3. Summary of Propulsion System Needs in Support of Project Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil; Lorier, Terry; Baine, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In January 2004, the President of the United States established the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) to return man to the moon and ultimately to extend manned space travel to Mars. This paper will summarize the manned space flight liquid propulsion system needs in support of Project Constellation over the next 10 years. It will include all engine needs to return man to the moon. An overview of engines currently under contract, those baselined but not yet under contract, and those engine needs that hav.e yet to be initiated. Project Constellation includes the components as shown Figure 1. Liquid propulsion systems supporting the manned portion of these elements include the following: the Crew Exploration Vehicle named Orion (crew module reaction control system (CMRCS), service module Orion Main Engine (OME), service module auxiliary RCS, and service module reaction control system (SMRCS)), the Crew Launch Vehicle named Ares 1 (J2X upper stage, first stage roll control system, second stage reaction control system, and the Ares I-X roll control system), the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle named Ares V (RS68B first stage booster, J-2X upper stage, roll control systems, and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) (powered by the same Ares V Upper Stage J-2X), and the Lunar Lander named Altair with both descent and ascent stages (lunar orbit insertion and descent main engine, ascent main engine, and attitude control systems for both stages). In addition, there may be additional engine needs for early demonstrators, but those will not be speculated on as part of this paper. Also, other portions of the VSE architecture, including the planned Orion abort demonstrations and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, are not addressed here as they either use solid motors or are focused on unmanned precursor missions.

  4. Space station WP-04 power system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Major study activities and results of the phase B study contract for the preliminary design of the space station Electrical Power System (EPS) are summarized. The areas addressed include the general system design, man-tended option, automation and robotics, evolutionary growth, software development environment, advanced development, customer accommodations, operations planning, product assurance, and design and development phase planning. The EPS consists of a combination photovoltaic and solar dynamic power generation subsystem and a power management and distribution (PMAD) subsystem. System trade studies and costing activities are also summarized.

  5. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  6. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. Summarized here are the salient results of the first year. A synopsis of each volume listed above is presented.

  7. Space Construction System Analysis. Part 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A detailed, end-to-end analysis of the activities, techniques, equipment and Shuttle provisions required to construct a reference project system is described. Included are: platform definition; construction analysis; cost and programmatics; and space construction experiments concepts.

  8. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS INFORMATION SYSTEM: SUMMARY REPORT (SUMMER 1976)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the initial loading of data into the Fine Particle Emissions Information System (FPEIS), a computerized database on primary fine particle emissions to the atmosphere from stationary sources, designed to assist engineers and scientists engaged in fine particl...

  9. Intermittent/transient faults in computer systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of an approach for diagnosing intermittent/transient (I/T) faults is presented. The development of an interrelated theory and experimental methodology to be used in a laboratory situation to measure the capability of a fault tolerant computing system to diagnose I/T faults, is discussed. To the extent that such diagnosing capability is important to reliability in fault tolerant computing systems, this theory and supporting methodology serves as a foundation for validation efforts.

  10. Solar power satellite microwave power transmission system description executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-12-01

    The history of the concept of microwave power beaming to Earth is reviewed with emphasis on transmission frequency selection. Constraints on the system power level results from (1) required rejection of waste heat resulting from inefficiencies in the cover conversion of dc electric power to microwave power; (2) the rf power intensity in the ionosphere; and (3) the effect of sidelobe level on aperture illumination factors. Transmitter arrangement, the power distribution system, attitude control, subarrays, waveguides, and alignment are discussed.

  11. Targeting Nuclear Envelope Repair.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Migrating cancer cells undergo repeated rupture of the protective nuclear envelope as they squeeze through small spaces in the surrounding tissue, compromising genomic integrity. Inhibiting both general DNA repair and the mechanism that seals these tears may enhance cell death and curb metastasis. PMID:27130435

  12. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  13. COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, N.; Chaichenets, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

  14. Satellite voice broadcase system study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of providing Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts by satellite relay was investigated. Satellite voice broadcast systems are described for three different frequency bands: HF, FHV, and L-band. Geostationary satellite configurations are considered for both frequency bands. A system of subsynchronous, circular satellites with an orbit period of 8 hours was developed for the HF band. The VHF broadcasts are provided by a system of Molniya satellites. The satellite designs are limited in size and weight to the capability of the STS/Centaur launch vehicle combination. At L-band, only four geostationary satellites are needed to meet the requirements of the complete broadcast schedule. These satellites are comparable in size and weight to current satellites designed for the direct broadcast of video program material.

  15. The California corridor transportation system: A design summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A design group was assembled to find and research criteria relevent to the design of a California Corridor Transportation System. The efforts of this group included defining the problem, conducting a market analysis, formulation of a demand model, identification and evaluation of design drivers, and the systematic development of a solution. The problems of the current system were analyzed and used to determine design drivers, which were divided into the broad categories of cost, convenience, feasibility, environment, safety, and social impact. The relative importance of individual problems was addressed, resulting in a hierarchy of design drivers. Where possible, methods of evaluating the relative merit of proposed systems with respect to each driver were developed. Short takeoff vertical landing aircraft concepts are also discussed for supersonic fighters.

  16. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-11

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  17. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  18. The Educational Information System for Ontario. Summary of Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auster, Ethel; Lawton, Stephen B.

    This report summarizes the findings of the EISO project, which was funded in 1975 to develop, evaluate, and analyze an information dissemination system based upon computerized retrieval of bibliographies. With much of the research component completed, the service component is operational, providing Ontario educators with online bibliographic…

  19. Massachusetts Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. Summary Report 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulac, Betty; Vasily, Jon

    Data compiled from aggregate forms completed by individual Massachusetts colleges and universities as part of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), formerly known as the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), are presented. Only data pertaining to those institutions authorized to grant degrees in Massachusetts…

  20. 1980-81 University of Nevada System Student Enrollment Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. System, Reno.

    Data on 1980-1981 student enrollments in the University of Nevada system are presented with tables and charts divided into two sections: full-time equated enrollment or credit loads at campuses, and headcount enrollment. The tables report only those course loads or enrollments that are entitled to state funding (private or federally-supported…

  1. A summary of spectral synthesis procedures for multivariable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberty, S. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Maynard, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A new approach to the eigensystem assignment problem is presented. The approach utilizes a null-space formulation of the eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment problem to simultaneously realize arbitrary eigenvalue specifications, approximate desired modal behavior, and achieve low eigensystem sensitivity with respect to plant parameter variations. The methods are applied to the design of regulator and integral plus proportional servo control systems.

  2. Mechanical Systems Technology Branch research summary, 1985 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A collection of significant accomplishments from the research of the Mechanical Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center completed during the years 1985-1992 is included. The publication highlights and accomplishments made in bearing and gearing technology through in-house research, university grants, and industry contracted projects. The publication also includes a complete listing of branch publications for these years.

  3. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  4. Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development: Executive Summary and Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Robert K.

    The document is the last of a five-part series focusing in minute detail on the processes involved in the formulation of an instructional systems development (ISD) program for military interservice training that will adequately train individuals to do a particular job and which can also be applied to any interservice curriculum development…

  5. EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS: SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of multimedia emissions from 39 source categories of conventional stationary combustion systems. In the assessment, existing emissions data were first examined to determine the adequacy of the data base. This was followed by a measur...

  6. Mission Information and Test Systems Summary of Accomplishments, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMorrow, Sean E.; Sherrard, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report covers the activities of the NASA DRFC Mission Information and Test Systems, which includes the Western Aeronautical Test Range, the Simulation Engineering Branch, the Information Services and the Dryden Technical Laboratory (Flight Loads Lab). This report contains highlights, current projects and various awards achieved during in 2011

  7. Virginia Community College System. Summary Assessment Reports, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Community Colleges, Richmond.

    This report reviews the evaluation process of the 1995 community college assessment reports for the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). It provides evaluation results, which found that the 18 colleges, even within limited resources and major restructuring, were able to demonstrate satisfactory progress as shown by assessment results and the…

  8. Concrete Dust Suppression System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The improved technology is a water-based dust suppression system for controlling concrete dust generated by demolition equipment, in this case a demolition ram. This demonstration was performed to assess the effectiveness of this system to (1) minimize the amount of water used to suppress potentially contaminated dust, (2) focus the water spray on the dust-generating source and (3) minimize the dust cloud generated by the demolition activity. The technology successfully reduced the water required by a factor of eight compared to the traditional (baseline) method, controlled the dust generated, and permitted a reduction in the work force. The water spray can be focused at the ram point, but it is affected by wind. Prior to the use of this dust control system, dust generated by the demolition ram was controlled manually by spraying with fire hoses (the baseline technology). The improved technology is 18% less expensive than the baseline technology for the conditions and parameters of this demonstration, however, the automated system can save up to 80% versus the baseline whenever waste water treatment costs are considered. For demolishing one high-walled room and a long slab with a total of 413 m{sup 3} (14,580 ft{sup 3}) of concrete, the savings are $105,000 (waste water treatment included). The improved technology reduced the need for water consumption and treatment by about 88% which results in most of the savings.

  9. Heat stress monitoring system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program involves the need to decontaminate and decommission buildings expeditiously and cost-effectively. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. Often, D and D workers must perform duties in inclement weather, and because they also frequently work in contaminated areas, they must wear personal protective clothing and/or respirators. Monitoring the health status of workers under these conditions is an important component of ensuring their safety. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System`s heat stress monitoring system (HSMS) is designed to monitor the vital signs of individual workers as they perform work in conditions that might be conducive to heat exhaustion or heat stress. The HSMS provides real-time data on the physiological condition of workers which can be monitored to prevent heat stress or other adverse health situations. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their condition more difficult. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System can monitor up to four channels (e.g., heart rate, body activity, ear canal, and skin temperature) and ten workers from a single supervisory station. The monitors are interfaced with a portable computer that updates and records information on individual workers. This innovative technology, even though it costs more, is an attractive alternative to the traditional (baseline) technology, which measures environmental statistics and predicts the average worker`s reaction to those environmental conditions without taking the physical condition of the individual worker into consideration. Although use of the improved technology might be justified purely on the basis of improved safety, it has the potential to pay for itself by reducing worker time lost caused by heat

  10. Summary and status of the Horizons ephemeris system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, J.

    2011-10-01

    Since 1996, the Horizons system has provided searchable access to JPL ephemerides for all known solar system bodies, several dozen spacecraft, planetary system barycenters, and some libration points. Responding to 18 400 000 requests from 300 000 unique addresses, the system has recently averaged 420 000 ephemeris requests per month. Horizons is accessed and automated using three interfaces: interactive telnet, web-browser form, and e-mail command-file. Asteroid and comet ephemerides are numerically integrated from JPL's database of initial conditions. This small-body database is updated hourly by a separate process as new measurements and discoveries are reported by the Minor Planet Center and automatically incorporated into new JPL orbit solutions. Ephemerides for other objects are derived by interpolating previously developed solutions whose trajectories have been represented in a file. For asteroids and comets, such files may be dynamically created and transferred to users, effectively recording integrator output. These small-body SPK files may then be interpolated by user software to reproduce the trajectory without duplicating the numerically integrated n-body dynamical model or PPN equations of motion. Other Horizons output is numerical and in the form of plain-text observer, vector, osculating element, or close-approach tables, typically expected be read by other software as input. About one hundred quantities can be requested in various time-scales and coordinate systems. For JPL small-body solutions, this includes statistical uncertainties derived from measurement covariance and state transition matrices. With the exception of some natural satellites, Horizons is consistent with DE405/DE406, the IAU 1976 constants, ITRF93, and IAU2009 rotational models.

  11. Integrated Utility Systems Feasibility Study and Conceptual Design at the University of Florida. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmse, Dale W.; Manyimo, Steve B.

    This executive summary presents a brief analysis of findings and recommendations. The concept of the Integrated Utility System (IUS) is to consider the interaction and mutual support of five utility subsystems needed by a campus complex of buildings. The subsystems are: (1) Electric power service; (2) Heating - ventilating - air conditioning and…

  12. Organizational Evaluation Systems and Student Disengagement in Secondary Schools. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary

    A summary is presented of a study to determine the impact of school authority systems on student disengagement from high school. Student disengagement is defined as the extent to which students refrain from participating in activities offered as part of the school program, tasks of scholarship and citizenship, and extracurricular activities. The…

  13. ACID PRECIPITATION IN NORTH AMERICA: 1984 ANNUAL DATA SUMMARY FROM ACID DEPOSITION SYSTEM DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a summary of 1984 wet deposition precipitation chemistry data collected in North America and available in the Acid Deposition System (ADS) data base. North American wet deposition monitoring networks with data in ADS are NADP/NTN, CANSAP, APN, UAPSP, MAP3S/PCN, W...

  14. ACID PRECIPITATION IN NORTH AMERICA: 1983 ANNUAL DATA SUMMARY FROM ACID DEPOSITION SYSTEM DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a summary of 1983 wet deposition precipitation chemistry data collected in North America and available in the Acid Deposition System (ADS) data base. North American wet deposition monitoring networks with data in ADS are NADP/NTN, CANSAP, APN, UAPSP, MAP3S/PCN, W...

  15. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System: Working Paper 2: 1991 Summary Data Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Humane Association, Englewood, CO. Children's Div.

    This document was prepared from information provided by state child protective services agencies on the 1991 Summary Data Component Form of the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS). The report is a working document that provides a basis for developing and refining the approach to collecting national information on child…

  16. Development of the Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS): Research Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor); Cassell, Rick

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted on an aircraft based Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS) developed under a cooperative agreement between Rannoch Corporation and the NASA Langley Research Center. A summary of RIAAS is presented along with results from simulation and flight testing, safety benefits, and key technical issues.

  17. Advanced Waste Retrieval System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    At West Valley, following the baseline removal operations, bulk waste retrieval methods may be augmented if required, with the deployment of the Advanced Waste Retrieval System (AWRS). The AWRS is a hydraulic boom mounted on a trolley on the Mast-Mounted Tool Delivery System. The boom is about 15 ft long with a pan and tilt mechanism at the end. On the end is a steam jet with a suction tool that can reach down around the tank internal structure and vacuum up zeolite or sludge off the bottom of the tank from a thirty-foot diameter reach. A grinder is included topside in the discharge path to pulverize the zeolite so it can be readily retrieved from the destination tank.

  18. Intelligent Propulsion System Foundation Technology: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to develop a foundation of intelligent propulsion technologies for NASA and industry that will have an impact on safety, noise, emissions, and cost. These intelligent engine technologies included sensors, electronics, communications, control logic, actuators, smart materials and structures, and system studies. Furthermore, this cooperative agreement helped prepare future graduates to develop the revolutionary intelligent propulsion technologies that will be needed to ensure pre-eminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. This Propulsion 21 - Phase 11 program consisted of four primary research areas and associated work elements at Ohio universities: 1.0 Turbine Engine Prognostics, 2.0 Active Controls for Emissions and Noise Reduction, 3.0 Active Structural Controls and Performance, and 4.0 System Studies and Integration. Phase l, which was conducted during the period August 1, 2003, through September 30, 2004, has been reported separately.

  19. Space shuttle food system summary, 1981-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Connie R.; Rapp, Rita M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Fohey, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    All food in the Space Shuttle food system was precooked and processed so it required no refrigeration and was either ready-to-eat or could be prepared for consumption by simply adding water and/or heating. A gun-type water dispenser and a portable, suitcase-type heater were used to support this food system during the first four missions. On STS-5, new rehydratable packages were introduced along with a needle-injection water dispenser that measured the water as it was dispensed into the packages. A modular galley was developed to facilitate the meal preparation process aboard the Space Shuttle. The galley initially flew on STS-9. A personal hygiene station, a hot or cold water dispenser, a convection oven, and meal assembly areas were included in the galley.

  20. Data Base Management Systems Panel. Third workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urena, J. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The discussions and results of a review by a panel of data base management system (DRMS) experts of various aspects of the use of DBMSs within NASA/Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA) and related organizations are summarized. The topics discussed included the present status of the use of DBMS technology and of the various ongoing DBMS-related efforts within NASA. The report drafts of a study that seeks to determine the functional requirements for a generalized DBMS for the NASA/OSTA and related data bases are examined. Future problems and possibilities with the use of DBMS technology are also considered. A list of recommendations for NASA/OSTA data systems is included.

  1. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Configuration concepts, option sizes, and systems definitions study design evolutions are reviewed. The main features of the present reference design silicon solar cell solar power satellite are described, as well as the provisions for space construction and support systems. The principal study accomplishments and conclusions are summarized according to the following tasks: (1) baseline critique; (2) construction and maintenance; (3) industrial complex needs, cost estimates, and production capacity; (4) launch complex requirements at KSC or at an offshore facility; (5) integration of the SPS/ground power network; (6) technology advancement and development; (7) costs and schedules; and (8) exploratory technology: laser annealing of solar cells degraded by proton irradiation, and a fiber-optic phase distribution link at 980 MHz.

  2. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  3. Gamma-ray imaging system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The RadScan 600 gamma-ray imaging system is designed to survey large surface areas for radiological contamination with accuracy and efficiency. The resulting survey data are clear, concise, and precise in describing how much contamination is present at exact locations. Data can be permanently stored electronically and on video tape, making storage and retrieval economical and efficient. This technology can perform accurate measurements in high radiation contamination areas while minimizing worker exposure. The RadScan 600 system is a safe and effective alternative to hand-held radiation detection devices. Performance data of the demonstrated survey area of the RadScan 600 system versus the baseline, which is the hand-held radiation detection devices (RO-2 and RO-7) for a given survey, production rate is 72% of the baseline. It should be noted that the innovative technology provides 100% coverage at a unit cost of $8.64/m{sup 2} versus a static measurement of a unit cost of $1.61/m{sup 2} for the baseline.

  4. STS-8 postal Stamp envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    STS-8 postal Stamp envelope with Challenger insignia, USA eagle stamp, 25th NASA anniversary stamp. The envelope is stamped with various postmarks, one saying Kennedy Space Center, Fl., another saying 'Returned to earth, Edwards AFB, CA'.

  5. PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    AR, TEDESCHI

    2008-08-11

    This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

  6. Wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-12-01

    The Science Application International Corporation (SAIC) RadStar{trademark} wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS) is designed to provide real-time monitoring of the radiation dose to workers as they perform work in radiologically contaminated areas. WRRMS can also monitor dose rates in a room or area. The system uses radio-frequency communications to transmit dose readings from the wireless dosimeters worn by workers to a remote monitoring station that can be located out of the contaminated area. Each base station can monitor up to 16 workers simultaneously. The WRRMS can be preset to trigger both audible and visual alarms at certain dose rates. The alarms are provided to the worker as well as the base station operator. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their self-reading dosimeters (SRDs), which are typically used to monitor workers, more difficult. The base station is an IBM-compatible personal computer that updates and records information on individual workers every ten seconds. Although the equipment costs for this improved technology are higher than the SRDs (amortized at $2.54/hr versus $1.02/hr), total operational costs are actually less ($639/day versus $851/day). This is because the WRRMS requires fewer workers to be in the contaminated zone than the traditional (baseline) technology. There are also intangible benefits associated with improved worker safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles, making the WRRMS an attractive alternative to the baseline technology. The baseline technology measures only integrated dose and requires workers to check their own dosimeters manually during the task.

  7. Innovative technology summary report: mobile automated characterization system

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Mobile Automated Characterization System (MACS) has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Robotics Technology Development Program as an automated floor surface contamination characterization system. MACS was designed for use by Health Physics (HP) personnel in the performance of floor surveys of known or suspected contaminated areas, to be used during any floor characterization task which has significant open areas requiring radiological surveys. MACS was designed to automate the collection, storage and analysis of large, open floor areas, relieving the HP personnel of this portion of the floor characterization task. MACS does not require a dedicated full time operator and can be setup by the normal HP staff to survey the open areas while other techniques are used on the more constrained areas. The HP personnel performing the other characterization activities can monitor the MACS progress and address any problems encountered by MACS during survey operations. MACS is designed for unattended operation and has safety and operational monitoring functions which will safely shut the system down if any difficulties are encountered. During survey operations, MACS generates a map of surveyed areas with color-coding indicating radiation levels. This map is displayed on the control console monitor during operation and can be printed for survey result documentation. MACS produces data files containing data for all sensors used during a survey, providing a complete record of samples taken and contamination levels found for all areas traversed during a survey. This data can be processed to produce tabular output of the survey results.

  8. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 5: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Findings and conclusions derived during the study of freighter aircraft requirements to the year 2008 are summarized. These results represent the stepping off point for the much needed coordinated planning efforts by government agencies, the airlines, the users, and the aircraft manufacturers. The methodology utilized in the investigations is shown. The analysis of the current system encompassed evaluations of the past and current cargo markets and on sight surveys of airport and cargo terminals. The findings that resulted provided the basis for formulating the case study procedures, developing the future scenario, and developing the future cargo market demand.

  9. The AMSC mobile satellite system: Design summary and comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Mobile satellite communications will be provided in the United States by the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). Telesat Mobile, Inc. (TMI) and AMSC are jointly developing MSAT, the first regional Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system. MSAT will provide diverse mobile communications services - including voice, data and position location - to mobiles on land, water, and in the air throughout North America. Described here are the institutional relationships between AMSC, TMI and other organizations participating in MSAT, including the Canadian Department of Communications and NASA. The regulatory status of MSAT in the United States and international allocations to MSS are reviewed. The baseline design is described.

  10. Space shuttle system program definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study for the selection of a low cost shuttle system for design and development was conducted. The objective of the final study was to examine and penetrate the major technical and cost issues affecting the choice of the following: (1) liquid propulsion recoverable or solid propulsion recoverable booster, (2) parallel burn/parallel mount or series burn/tandem mount configurations, and (3) payload weight and payload bay size of the orbiter. The matrix of program options which were considered in the study is developed.

  11. Predictive monitoring research: Summary of the PREMON system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Sellers, Suzanne M.; Atkinson, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Traditional approaches to monitoring are proving inadequate in the face of two important issues: the dynamic adjustment of expectations about sensor values when the behavior of the device is too complex to enumerate beforehand, and the selective but effective interpretation of sensor readings when the number of sensors becomes overwhelming. This system addresses these issues by building an explicit model of a device and applying common-sense theories of physics to model causality in the device. The resulting causal simulation of the device supports planning decisions about how to efficiently yet reliably utilize a limited number of sensors to verify correct operation of the device.

  12. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM SUMMARY AND DIRECTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz

    2004-07-01

    The South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), administratively housed at Clemson University, has participated in the advancement of combustion turbine technology for over a decade. The University Turbine Systems Research Program, previously referred to as the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program, has been administered by SCIES for the U.S. DOE during the 1992-2003 timeframe. The structure of the program is based on a concept presented to the DOE by Clemson University. Under the supervision of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UTSR consortium brings together the engineering departments at leading U.S. universities and U.S. combustion turbine developers to provide a solid base of knowledge for the future generations of land-based gas turbines. In the UTSR program, an Industrial Review Board (IRB) (Appendix C) of gas turbine companies and related organizations defines needed gas turbine research. SCIES prepares yearly requests for university proposals to address the research needs identified by the IRB organizations. IRB technical representatives evaluate the university proposals and review progress reports from the awarded university projects. To accelerate technology transfer technical workshops are held to provide opportunities for university, industry and government officials to share comments and improve quality and relevancy of the research. To provide educational growth at the Universities, in addition to sponsored research, the UTSR provides faculty and student fellowships. The basis for all activities--research, technology transfer, and education--is the DOE Turbine Program Plan and identification, through UTSR consortium group processes, technology needed to meet Program Goals that can be appropriately researched at Performing Member Universities.

  13. Systems autonomy technology: Executive summary and program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, John S (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Strategy approved by the President and Congress in 1984 sets for NASA a major goal of conducting effective and productive space applications and technology programs which contribute materially toward United States leadership and security. To contribute to this goal, OAST supports the Nation's civil and defense space programs and overall economic growth. OAST objectives are to ensure timely provision of new concepts and advanced technologies, to support both the development of NASA missions in space and the space activities of industry and other organizations, to utilize the strengths of universities in conducting the NASA space research and technology program, and to maintain the NASA centers in positions of strength in critical space technology areas. In line with these objectives, NASA has established a new program in space automation and robotics that will result in the development and transfer and automation technology to increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of NASA space programs including the Space Station, automated space platforms, lunar bases, Mars missions, and other deep space ventures. The NASA/OAST Automation and Robotics program is divided into two parts. Ames Research Center has the lead role in developing and demonstrating System Autonomy capabilities for space systems that need to make their own decisions and do their own planning. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has the lead role for Telerobotics (that portion of the program that has a strong human operator component in the control loop and some remote handling requirement in space). This program is intended to be a working document for NASA Headquarters, Program Offices, and implementing Project Management.

  14. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W D

    1999-04-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available "Scallop" vehicle 1 , but has been modified by the Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a "head-to-head" fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations.

  15. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of a geostationary platform concept analysis are summarized. Mission and payloads definition, concept selection, the requirements of an experimental platform, supporting research and technology, and the Space Transportation System interface requirements are addressed. It is concluded that platforms represent a logical extension of current trends toward larger, more complex, multifrequency satellites. Geostationary platforms offer significant cost savings compared to individual satellites, with the majority of these economies being realized with single Shuttle launched platforms. Further cost savings can be realized, however, by having larger platforms. Platforms accommodating communications equipment that operates at multiple frequencies and which provide larger scale frequency reuse through the use of large aperture multibeam antennas and onboard switching maximize the useful capacity of the orbital arc and frequency spectrum. Projections of market demand indicate that such conservation measures are clearly essential if orderly growth is to be provided for. In addition, it is pointed out that a NASA experimental platform is required to demonstrate the technologies necessary for operational geostationary platforms of the 1990's.

  16. Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  17. MATERIALS AND COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROJECT SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M A

    2010-06-18

    Future hydrogen-fired or oxy-fuel turbines will likely experience an enormous level of thermal and mechanical loading, as turbine inlet temperatures (TIT) approach 1425-1760C (2600-3200F) with pressures of 300-625 psig, respectively. Maintaining the structural integrity of future turbine components under these extreme conditions will require (1) durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), (2) high temperature creep resistant metal substrates, and (3) effective cooling techniques. While advances in substrate materials have been limited for the past decades, thermal protection of turbine airfoils in future hydrogen-fired and oxy-fuel turbines will rely primarily on collective advances in the TBCs and aerothermal cooling. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has continued its collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University, while working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers. This paper presents the technical accomplishments that were made during FY09 in the initial areas of advanced materials, aerothermal heat transfer and non-destructive evaluation techniques for use in advanced land-based turbine applications in the Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems project, and introduces three new technology areas high temperature overlayer coating development, diffusion barrier coating development, and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy development that are being conducted in this effort.

  18. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  19. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Walter David

    1999-04-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The underwater characterization equipment is often required to operate at depths exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m) and in relatively confined or congested spaces. The typical baseline approach has been the use of radiation detectors and underwater cameras mounted on long poles, or stationary cameras with pan and tilt features mounted on the sides of the underwater facility. There is a perceived need for an inexpensive, more mobile method of performing close-up inspection and radiation measurements in confined spaces underwater. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available “Scallop” vehicle1, but has been modified by Department of Energy’s Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at Idaho National Engineering and environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a “head-tohead” fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations.

  20. Compact Subsurface Soil Investigation System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The compact subsurface soil investigation system is a mobile soil sampler used to obtain soil samples, including from below concrete floors, such as under fuel soil basins. If soils under buildings can be sampled and analyzed to document that the soil is not contaminated and thus can remain in place, the concrete structure over it may also be left in place or only partially removed. Taking soil samples through a concrete floor, often in inaccessible or congested locations, required rugged, portable equipment, such as the improved technology tested, the Geoprobe Model 540M soil sampler that is mounted on a hand cart. The traditional (baseline) technology used a comparable probe mounted on a full-size, 1-ton capacity, diesel-powered truck. The truck was not easily able to access all areas, because of its greater size and weight. In two sample holes from below the fuel storage basin at C-Reactor, the Geoprobe Model 540M was able to penetrate to the full sampling target depth of 3.3 m (10 ft). In the other three locations the sampler was stopped at lesser depths because of large stones. The Geoprobe 540M reduced schedule time and reduced costs by approximately 50% versus the baseline technology. For sampling at a congested fuel storage basin at five locations, the improved technology cost $7,300, whereas the baseline technology would have cost $13,000. As an extension of this demonstration, cost savings and schedule acceleration can be expected to increase commensurate with structure complexity/congestion and the number of samples required.

  1. 2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology

  2. Development, Implementation, and Pilot Evaluation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System to Mitigate the Hazard of In-Flight Ice Contamination on a Twin-Engine Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martos, Borja; Ranaudo, Richard; Norton, Billy; Gingras, David; Barnhart, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this report directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combination of prior information and real-time aerodynamic parameter estimations are shown to provide sufficient information for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during inflight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system was designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. The utility of the ICEPro system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their awareness of a hazardous aircraft state. The performance of ICEPro system was further evaluated by various levels of sensor noise and atmospheric turbulence.

  3. HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Garcia, Julio . E-mail: julio.martin-garcia@drexelmed.edu; Cao, Wei; Varela-Rohena, Angel; Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    We previously described envelope glycoproteins of an HIV-1 isolate adapted in vitro for growth in microglia that acquired a highly fusogenic phenotype and lower CD4 dependence, as well as resistance to inhibition by anti-CD4 antibodies. Here, we investigated whether similar phenotypic changes are present in vivo. Envelope clones from the brain and spleen of an HIV-1-infected individual with neurological disease were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of sequences according to the tissue of origin, as expected. Functional clones were then used in cell-to-cell fusion assays to test for CD4 and co-receptor utilization and for sensitivity to various antibodies and inhibitors. Both brain- and spleen-derived envelope clones mediated fusion in cells expressing both CD4 and CCR5 and brain envelopes also used CCR3 as co-receptor. We found that the brain envelopes had a lower CD4 dependence, since they efficiently mediated fusion in the presence of low levels of CD4 on the target cell membrane, and they were significantly more resistant to blocking by anti-CD4 antibodies than the spleen-derived envelopes. In contrast, we observed no difference in sensitivity to the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. However, brain-derived envelopes were significantly more resistant than those from spleen to the fusion inhibitor T-1249 and concurrently showed slightly greater fusogenicity. Our results suggest an increased affinity for CD4 of brain-derived envelopes that may have originated from in vivo adaptation to replication in microglial cells. Interestingly, we note the presence of envelopes more resistant to a fusion inhibitor in the brain of an untreated, HIV-1-infected individual.

  4. Isolating The Building Thermal Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrje, D. T.; Dutt, G. S.; Gadsby, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of the thermal integrity of building envelopes by infrared scanning tech-niques is often hampered in mild weather because temperature differentials across the envelope are small. Combining the infrared scanning with positive or negative building pressures, induced by a "blower door" or the building ventilation system, considerably extends the periods during which meaningful diagnostics can be conducted. Although missing or poorly installed insulation may lead to a substantial energy penalty, it is the search for air leakage sites that often has the largest potential for energy savings. Infrared inspection of the attic floor with air forced from the occupied space through ceiling by-passes, and inspecting the interior of the building when outside air is being sucked through the envelope reveals unexpected leakage sites. Portability of the diagnostic equipment is essential in these surveys which may include access into some tight spaces. A catalog of bypass heat losses that have been detected in residential housing using the combined infrared pressure differential technique is included to point out the wide variety of leakage sites which may compromise the benefits of thermal insulation and allow excessive air infiltration. Detection and suppression of such leaks should be key items in any building energy audit program. Where a calibrated blower door is used to pressurize or evacuate the house, the leakage rate can be quantified and an excessively tight house recognized. Houses that are too tight may be improved with a minimal energy penalty by forced ventilation,preferably with a heat recuperator and/or by providing combustion air directly to the furnace.

  5. Basewide energy systems plan, Fort Gordon, Georgia. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    This is a summary of the results for Increments A, B, C, D, and E of the Basewide Energy Systems Plan for Fort Gordon, Georgia. (The results for Increments F and G are summarized on pages 5 through 7.) The plan includes analyses and recommendations of energy conservation projects for reduction of the installation`s present energy consumption. The installation should be aware that savings figures presented in this summary can only be realized after all projects have been implemented. Black and Veatch has developed projects that would meet the funding requirements for the energy conservation program. Furthermore, the recommended projects provide partial compliance with the energy conservation requirements for the installation as outlined in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. This summary presents data on the following: Existing energy consumption, source energy reductions due to energy conservation techniques for buildings and their systems, application of solar energy to reduce fossil fuel consumption, savings utilizing central energy monitoring and control systems (EMCS), use of solid waste as an alternate energy source, analysis of Total Energy/Selective Energy (TE/SE) systems.

  6. Model scattering envelopes of young stellar objects. II - Infalling envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Barbara A.; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We present scattered light images for models of young stellar objects surrounded by dusty envelopes. The envelopes are assumed to have finite angular momentum and are falling in steady flow onto a disk. The model envelopes include holes, such as might be created by energetic bipolar flows. We calculate images using the Monte Carlo method to follow the light scattered in the dusty envelope and circumstellar disk, assuming that the photons originate from the central source. Adopting typical interstellar medium dust opacities and expected mass infall rates for protostars of about 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr, we find that detectable amounts of optical radiation can escape from envelopes falling into a disk as small as about 10-100 AU, depending upon the viewing angle and the size of the bipolar flow cavity. We suggest that the extended optical and near-IR light observed around several young stars is scattered by dusty infalling envelopes rather than disks.

  7. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  8. Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Arndt, G. D.; Seyl, J. W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  9. The Campylobacter jejuni CprRS two-component regulatory system regulates aspects of the cell envelope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis, Campylobacter jejuni is a significant human pathogen. C. jejuni lives commensally in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, but tolerates variable environments during transit to a susceptible host. A two-component regulatory system, CprRS, w...

  10. The use of aqueous two-phase systems to concentrate and purify bovine leukemia virus outer envelope protein gp51.

    PubMed

    Hammar, L; Merza, M; Malm, K; Eriksson, S; Morein, B

    1989-06-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is a chronic lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. The causative agent, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), is related to the human retroviruses HTLV-I and -II. The external env-protein of BLV, a glycoprotein of 51 kDa, carries neutralizing epitopes and should be an essential component in a vaccine against the virus. Problems have been encountered with the concentration and purification of intact virions of BLV and other retroviruses. During centrifugation procedures the external env-proteins are to a great extent detached and consequently poorly recovered with the virion particles. Therefore, other methods are sought to obtain a high yield of the external glycoproteins. The use of two-phase systems based on water soluble polymers is described for the extraction of BLV-gp51 from culture medium. Several polymer systems were tested and the results showed that some were attractive for large scale application. The classical combination dextran-polyethylene glycol gave promising results; a partition coefficient of about 0.02 was obtained for the distribution of the gp51 between the top and combined inter- and bottom phases. In a single extraction step it was possible to obtain 45% of the glycoprotein in a small volume bottom phase and at the same time about 15-fold purified. That should be compared with a recovery of less than 20% with the conventional centrifugation procedures. It is concluded that extraction in phase systems based on water soluble polymers is a methodology well suited for the concentration and purification of BLV-gp51. PMID:2474306

  11. Space Operations Center system analysis study extension. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The analysis fo Space Operations Center (SOC) systems is summarized. Design considerations, configurations of the manned orbital space station, planned operational and research missions, and subsystem tradeoffs are considered. Integration into the space transportation system is discussed. A modular design concept permitting growth of the SOC as its functions are expanded is described. Additional considerations are special requirements for habitat modules, design modifications needed to operate in geosynchronous orbits, and use of the external tank for cryogenic propellant storage or as a pressurized hangar. A cost summary is presented.

  12. The 30/20 GHz flight experiment system, phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ribarich, J. J.; Scope, J. R.; Forman, B. J.; Bergman, S. G.; Reisenfeld, S.

    1981-01-01

    Summary information on the final communication system design, communication payload, space vehicle, and development plan for the 30/20 GHz flight experiment will be installed on the LEASAT spacecraft which will be placed into orbit from the space shuttle cargo bay. The communication concept has two parts: a truck service and a customer premise service (CPS). The trucking system serves four spot beams which are interconnected in a satellite switched time division multiple access mode by an IF switch matrix. The CPS covers two large areas of the eastern United States with a pair of scanning beams.

  13. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  14. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  15. Improving the quality of hospital discharge summaries utilising an electronic prompting system

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Andrew P; Chan, Samuel; Pollard, Clifford W; Kidd, Richard A; Ayre, Stephen J; Ward, Helen E; Walters, Darren L

    2014-01-01

    The discharge summary (DS) is a summary of an inpatient admission, patient's health state, and future treatment plans which is delivered to the patient's primary care provider. The DS is often incomplete, inaccurate, or unclear. The aim of this project was to improve the quality of the DS through the use of an electronic prompting system. The electronic prompting system was implemented in the acute medical and surgical wards of the hospital as an adjunct to a pre-existing, widely used hospital program that documents all the patients in a ward or belonging to a particular treating team. When using the program, a doctor enters information (with the assistance of the treating consultant) from a drop-down menu and is prompted to include common, departmental specific diagnoses, co-morbidities, complications, and procedures that were commonly missed or documented incorrectly in the DS. Fifteen DSs were randomly selected from a two month period immediately prior to the intervention period and were rated by an external, experienced general practitioner (GP) using a scoring system consistent with the Australian Medical Association Guidelines for quality DSs. Fifteen random DSs from a two month period, four months post-implementation were also rated by the same GP. The quality of the DS improved in all categories evaluated. The overall quality improved from mean (± SD) 2.86 ± 1.64 to 4.13 ± 0.92 out of 5 (p = 0.031). Additionally the implementation of the system was associated with improvements in documentation of the diagnosis, co-morbidities and other relevant clinical information. In summary, electronic prompting systems can improve the quality of DSs to ensure the information contained within the DS is more accurate and complete.

  16. [Characterization of Serial Passage of 1b/2a Chimera Hepatitis C Virus Cell Culture System Carrying Envelope E1E2 Coding Gene from Hebei Strain of China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Zhang, Ling; Tao, Gesi; Cai, Min; Bao Lili; LI, Lian; Deng, Yao; Shen, Xiaoling; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-11-01

    To character a novel chimera(1b/2a) hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) system carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China, chimera HCVcc (cHCVcc) was developed from Huh7.5-CD81 cells after transfection with in vitro transcribed full-length 1b/2a chimera RNA, which carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China. Then the replication, expression and infectious titer of serial passage HCVcc were assessed by Real Time RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting (WB). In addition, chimeric envelope gene from HCVcc was sequenced after serial passage. We found that the number of HCV positive focus increased gradually in cell post-transfection with chimera HCVcc (1b/2a) RNA and reach a peak platform (80% to 90%) at 41 days post-transfection; the expression of HCV protein was also confirmed by WAB during serial passage. At meantime, HCV RNA copy number in the supernatant peaked at 10(4)-10(7) copies/mL and the highest infectious titer of this 1b/2a cHCVcc reinfection were tested as 10(4) ffu/mL. Sequence analysis indicated 6 of adaptive amino acid substitutes occur among chimeric envelope E1E2 during serial passages. We con:luded that a novel 1b/2a chimera HCVcc carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China was developed and its infectious titer increased after serial passage of HCVcc. This novel cHCVcc will be an effective tool for further evaluation of anti-virus drugs and immune effects against the major genotype from Chinese. PMID:26951010

  17. Potentiation of Aminoglycoside Activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Targeting the AmgRS Envelope Stress-Responsive Two-Component System.

    PubMed

    Poole, Keith; Gilmour, Christie; Farha, Maya A; Mullen, Erin; Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; Brown, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    A screen for agents that potentiated the activity of paromomycin (PAR), a 4,5-linked aminoglycoside (AG), against wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa identified the RNA polymerase inhibitor rifampin (RIF). RIF potentiated additional 4,5-linked AGs, such as neomycin and ribostamycin, but not the clinically important 4,6-linked AGs amikacin and gentamicin. Potentiation was absent in a mutant lacking the AmgRS envelope stress response two-component system (TCS), which protects the organism from AG-generated membrane-damaging aberrant polypeptides and, thus, promotes AG resistance, an indication that RIF was acting via this TCS in potentiating 4,5-linked AG activity. Potentiation was also absent in a RIF-resistant RNA polymerase mutant, consistent with its potentiation of AG activity being dependent on RNA polymerase perturbation. PAR-inducible expression of the AmgRS-dependent genes htpX and yccA was reduced by RIF, suggesting that AG activation of this TCS was compromised by this agent. Still, RIF did not compromise the membrane-protective activity of AmgRS, an indication that it impacted some other function of this TCS. RIF potentiated the activities of 4,5-linked AGs against several AG-resistant clinical isolates, in two cases also potentiating the activity of the 4,6-linked AGs. These cases were, in one instance, explained by an observed AmgRS-dependent expression of the MexXY multidrug efflux system, which accommodates a range of AGs, with RIF targeting of AmgRS undermining mexXY expression and its promotion of resistance to 4,5- and 4,6-linked AGs. Given this link between AmgRS, MexXY expression, and pan-AG resistance in P. aeruginosa, RIF might be a useful adjuvant in the AG treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:27021319

  18. Compendium of executive summaries from the maglev system concept definition. Final reports. Report for November 1991-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The report contains the Executive Summaries from the four System Concept Definition (SCD) studies awarded under the National Maglev Initiative. These summaries present the technical feasibility, performance, capital, operating and maintenance costs for a maglev system that would be available by the year 2000. Performance on a hypothetical route, provided to test these concepts in order for the NMI to make performance and cost comparisons, is briefly discussed. This compendium constitutes the principle publication of those SCD reports on technical matters.

  19. Advanced-technology space station study: Summary of systems and pacing technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, A. J.; Garn, P. A.; King, C. B.; Queijo, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principal system features defined for the Advanced Technology Space Station are summarized and the 21 pacing technologies identified during the course of the study are described. The descriptions of system configurations were extracted from four previous study reports. The technological areas focus on those systems particular to all large spacecraft which generate artificial gravity by rotation. The summary includes a listing of the functions, crew requirements and electrical power demand that led to the studied configuration. The pacing technologies include the benefits of advanced materials, in-orbit assembly requirements, stationkeeping, evaluations of electrical power generation alternates, and life support systems. The descriptions of systems show the potential for synergies and identifies the beneficial interactions that can result from technological advances.

  20. Anisotropic charged core envelope star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafa Takisa, P.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We study a charged compact object with anisotropic pressures in a core envelope setting. The equation of state is quadratic in the core and linear in the envelope. There is smooth matching between the three regions: the core, envelope and the Reissner-Nordström exterior. We show that the presence of the electric field affects the masses, radii and compactification factors of stellar objects with values which are in agreement with previous studies. We investigate in particular the effect of electric field on the physical features of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 in the core envelope model. The gravitational potentials and the matter variables are well behaved within the stellar object. We demonstrate that the radius of the core and the envelope can vary by changing the parameters in the speed of sound.

  1. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  2. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  3. WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA603. SUMMARY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA-603. SUMMARY OF COOLANT FLOW FROM WORKING RESERVOIR TO INTERIOR OF REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. NAMES TANK SECTIONS. PIPE AND DRAIN-LINE SIZES. SHOWS DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW THROUGH PEBBLE AND GRAPHITE BLOCK ZONE. NEUTRON CURTAIN AND THERMAL COLUMN DOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-92-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-51-098-100036, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Nuclear Envelopes Properties and Physical Interactions with Nucleoplasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis; Dahl, Kris; Wilson, Kathy

    2004-03-01

    Given the stresses imposed on a cell and its organelles and the nuclear envelope's important role as a barrier between cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, we sought to measure and model mechanical properties of isolated nuclear envelopes. Xenopus laevis oocyte (XO) nuclei are primarily used since they have been widely studied in many fields as model systems for nuclear structure and function. We manipulate the nuclear envelope by both osmotic swelling and micromanipulation to determine an effective elastic modulus. We show the envelope properties are independent of the effects of the nucleoplasm. Micropipette aspiration of XO nuclei gives an effective elastic modulus of the nuclear envelope of 250 mN/m with similar results obtained from isotropic swelling of XO nuclear envelopes. The results suggest that these nuclear envelopes have relatively homogeneous properties and are highly elastic, sustaining strains of 50-100Square-net simulations and comparisons to polymer network models suggests that XO nuclear envelope physical properties are dominated by the lamin network. If applicable to nuclei in other cells, a "pre-compressed" state envisioned here would allow for significant shear flexibility, especially important for motile cells whose nuclei need to rapidly deform.

  5. Diffusive heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    We construct new models of outer heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) in and out of diffusive equilibrium. To this aim, we generalize our previous work on diffusion of ions in isothermal gaseous or Coulomb liquid plasmas to handle non-isothermal systems. We calculate the relations between the effective surface temperature Ts and the temperature Tb at the bottom of heat blanketing envelopes (at a density ρb ˜ 108 - 1010 g cm-3) for diffusively equilibrated and non-equilibrated distributions of ion species at different masses ΔM of lighter ions in the envelope. Our principal result is that the Ts-Tb relations are fairly insensitive to detailed distribution of ion fractions over the envelope (diffusively equilibrated or not) and depend almost solely on ΔM. The obtained relations are approximated by analytic expressions which are convenient for modelling the evolution of neutron stars.

  6. Trumpet synthesis using context-dependent envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2002-05-01

    Synthesizing trumpet music in a natural-sounding way requires careful control. Even when synthesis is achieved by splicing together actual recorded trumpet tones, the result can sound artificial and unnatural. This is because natural notes are not played in isolation and are therefore influenced by neighboring notes and the musical context. In fact, a succession of notes played on the trumpet is likely to be a continuous sound with no separating silences. Improved synthesis can be obtained by calculating amplitude and frequency control envelopes that take context into consideration. In the combined spectral interpolation synthesis (CSIS) method, the spectrum is controlled by instantaneous frequency and rms amplitude. These, in turn, are controlled by envelopes computed by a rule-based system. To reduce the high dimensionality of envelopes (typically a vector of 200 samples per second), envelopes are specified by about ten parameters. This reduced set of parameters is computed from note attributes, most importantly, the duration and pitches of the current and preceding notes, and whether or not the notes are tongued or slurred. This procedure is described in detail, and synthesis results will be demonstrated.

  7. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, Omari; Griffiths, Dianne

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  8. Masses and Envelope Binding Energies of Primary Stars at the Onset of a Common Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sluys, Marc; Politano, Michael; Taam, Ronald E.

    2010-12-01

    We present basic properties of primary stars that initiate a common envelope (CE) in a binary, while on the giant branch. We use the population-synthesis code described in Politano et al. [1] and follow the evolution of a population of binary stars up to the point where the primary fills its Roche lobe and initiates a CE. We then collect the properties of each system, in particular the donor mass and the binding energy of the donor's envelope, which are important for the treatment of a CE. We find that for most CEs, the donor mass is sufficiently low to define the core-envelope boundary reasonably well. We compute the envelope-structure parameter λenv from the binding energy and compare its distribution to typical assumptions that are made in population-synthesis codes. We conclude that λenv varies appreciably and that the assumption of a constant value for this parameter results in typical errors of 20-50%. In addition, such an assumption may well result in the implicit assumption of unintended and/or unphysical values for the CE parameter αCE. Finally, we discuss accurate existing analytic fits for the envelope binding energy, which make these oversimplified assumptions for λenv, and the use of λenv in general, unnecessary.

  9. Shuttle active thermal control system development testing. Volume 1: Overall summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is given of a series of thermal vacuum tests designed to support the development of the orbiter active thermal control system (ATCS) and included testing of a wide heat load range modular radiator system (MRS) configured to the March 1973 orbiter baseline system, a candidate weight reducing radiator/water cooling system, and a smaller radiator system with a high performance radiator coating. The tests verified the performance of the baseline system and obtained detailed design information for application of a wide heat load range modular radiator system to the orbiter. The two candidate ATCS weight reducing designs have undergone extensive concept verification testing and their system operating characteristics have been determined in sufficient detail for application to the orbiter. Design information has been obtained for an integrated radiator/water cooling system that provides for vehicle heat rejection as well as water management of the excess fuel cell water. Processing techniques have been developed and verified for the application of a high performance thermal control coating to large radiator areas subjected to a temperature range of -280 F to +160 F.

  10. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities of nuclear transport receptors, nucleoporins, and elements of the Ran GTPase cycle. In addition to directional and possibly selective protein and RNA nuclear import and export, the nuclear pore gains increasing prominence as a spatial organizer of cellular processes, such as sumoylation and desumoylation. Individual nucleoporins and whole nuclear pore subcomplexes traffic to specific mitotic locations and have mitotic functions, for example at the kinetochores, in spindle assembly, and in conjunction with the checkpoints. Mutants of nucleoporin genes and genes of nuclear transport components lead to a wide array of defects from human diseases to compromised plant defense responses. The nuclear envelope acts as a repository of calcium, and its inner membrane is populated by functionally unique proteins connected to both chromatin and—through the nuclear envelope lumen—the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton. Plant nuclear pore and nuclear envelope research—predominantly focusing on Arabidopsis as a model—is discovering both similarities and surprisingly unique aspects compared to the more mature model systems. This chapter gives an overview of our current knowledge in the field and of exciting areas awaiting further exploration. PMID:22303264