Science.gov

Sample records for environment canada environmental

  1. Environmental Quality: Outline for a National Index for Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inhaber, H.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an approach to constructing an Environmental Quality Index for Canada. The index is divided into air, water, land and miscellaneous sections. By looking at individual subindices, it is possible to see how environmental conditions vary across the country. By combining subindices, a crude gauge of the broad state of the environment may be…

  2. The right to a healthy environment: A prescription for Canada.

    PubMed

    Boyd, David R

    2015-01-01

    This invited commentary summarizes the need for stronger Canadian environmental laws and policies. The environmental burden of disease in Canada is substantial. In part this is due to environmental laws and policies that are significantly weaker and less effective than corresponding rules in other wealthy industrialized nations. One promising approach is recognition of the right to live in a healthy environment. In particular, constitutional recognition of this right in 100 nations has led to stronger environmental laws, better enforcement of those laws, enhanced public participation in environmental decision-making, and superior environmental outcomes (e.g., faster progress in reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions). In light of Canada's weak environmental record, this potentially transformative approach is particularly promising. PMID:26680424

  3. Environment Canada cuts threaten the future of science and international agreements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Hoff, Raymond M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Einaudi, Franco

    2012-02-01

    In August 2011, 300 Environment Canada scientists and staff working on environmental monitoring and protection learned that their jobs would be terminated, and an additional 400-plus Environment Canada employees received notice that their positions were targeted for elimination. These notices received widespread coverage in the Canadian media and international attention in Nature News. Environment Canada is a government agency responsible for meteorological services as well as environmental research. We are concerned that research and observations related to ozone depletion, tropospheric pollution, and atmospheric transport of toxic chemicals in the northern latitudes may be seriously imperiled by the budget cuts that led to these job terminations. Further, we raise the questions being asked by the international community, scientists, and policy makers alike: First, will Canada be able to meet its obligations to the monitoring and assessment studies that support the various international agreements inTable 1? Second, will Canada continue to be a leader in Arctic research.

  4. Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints

  5. Critical Environmental Adult Education in Canada: Student Environmental Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Elizabeth; Chubb, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Today recent polls have indicated that the Canadian public considers the environment and climate change as their top concern (De Souza, 2007), perhaps eclipsed only by recent economic fears. In keeping with the historical responsiveness of adult educators, environmental adult education (EAE) is widespread across North America. However, this area…

  6. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  7. Canada's Fashion Industry--Can It Be Environmentally Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrobel, Kim; Capjack, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Consumers must realize how vital the fur industry is to Canada, and those within the industry must educate consumers about both sides of the environmental story. The Canadian textile and apparel industries also must take a proactive role in promoting environmentally responsible actions. (JOW)

  8. Canada: A Regionally Diverse and Northern Environment. Understanding the Canadian Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rex B.; And Others

    One of a series of student booklets on the Canadian environment, this unit presents Canada from a geomorphological perspective of the six major regions: the Western Cordillera, the Interior Plains, the Canadian Shield, the Far North, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, and Appalachian Canada. Intended to help secondary students understand the…

  9. Environmental Scan: Literacy Work in Canada. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    During the fall of 2007, Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL) conducted an environmental scan of the Anglophone literacy field in Canada. Data was gathered through the use of key informant interviews (19) and a literature review. A cross-national working group guided the development of the scan. Interviews with key informants for the scan revealed…

  10. Groundwater occurrence in cold environments: examples from Nunavik, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Fortier, Richard; Talbot-Poulin, Marie-Catherine; Molson, John; Therrien, René; Ouellet, Michel; Banville, David; Cochand, Marion; Murray, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    Water availability and management issues related to the supply of drinking water in northern communities are problematic in Canada. While rivers and lakes are abundant, they are vulnerable to contamination and may become dry in winter due to freezing. Groundwater can often provide a more secure and sustainable water source, however its availability is limited in northern Canada due to the presence of permafrost. Moreover, the exploitation of northern aquifers poses a dual challenge of identifying not only permafrost-free areas, but also permeable areas which will allow groundwater recharge and exploitation. Suitable aquifers are not as common in northern Canada since the shallow subsurface is mostly composed of low-permeability crystalline rocks or unconsolidated sediments of glacial origin that are highly heterogeneous. In order to investigate groundwater occurrence and associated geological contexts in Nunavik (northern Quebec, Canada), along with exploring how these resources will evolve in response to climate change, field and compilation work were conducted in the surroundings of the four villages of Salluit, Kuujjuaq, Umiujaq and Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik. These villages are located in different permafrost zones, ranging from continuous to discontinuous, as well as in different geological environments. It was found that despite the ubiquitous presence of permafrost, unfrozen aquifers could be identified, which suggests that groundwater may be available as a source of drinking water for small communities. Expected climate change, with predicted permafrost thawing and increases in temperature and precipitation, should enhance groundwater availability and may contribute to a more secure source of drinking water for northern communities.

  11. Project Canada West. Canadian Environmental Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The overall objective of the curriculum development project is to develop a general high school level interdisciplinary course on environment studies. This potential five to ten month course is outlined as follows: ecology, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, population, socioeconomic implications, and resource management. The general…

  12. Evaluation of a multimedia model for predicting the environmental fate of organic chemicals in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.M.; Mackay, D.

    1995-12-31

    Health Canada is required to assess human health risks associated with the introduction of new chemicals for commercial use in Canada. An important initial step in this assessment process is the estimation of expected concentrations of a particular new chemical in various environmental media such as air, water, sail, and sediment. These concentrations can then form the basis for subsequent calculations of human exposure. A fugacity-based multimedia exposure model (CHEMCAN3) was developed for these assessments which describes the chemical`s fate in the environment based on its physical chemical properties, reactivity, transport characteristics and emissions. This paper presents the results of a validation exercise comparing the predictions of the model against measured data. CHEMCAN3 was applied to the prediction of the environmental fate of a set of 10 organic chemicals. The predictions were then compared to available environmental monitoring data for these chemicals, The test set included 5 industrial chemicals and 5 commonly used pesticides; benzene, chlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, toluene, dichloromethane, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, atrazine, dinoseb, lindane, parathion, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The Southern Ontario region of Canada was used as the environment for the model predictions. The results show that the model successfully predicts the environmental behavior of the chemicals, with 82% agreement within one order of magnitude between predicted and measured values. This result lends confidence to the use of this model, and similar models, for prediction of environmental fate and as a basis for exposure assessment.

  13. Canada's proposed legislation on crimes against the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, M.A.

    1986-06-01

    The Canadian Law Reform Commission has explored the possible use of Canada's Criminal Code to ensure the right to health and safety of the individual and to protect the environment. The Commission has recommended that a new and distinct offense called crimes against the environment should be added to the Criminal Code. The Commission acknowledges that other existing and evolving legal and administrative approaches, controls, and incentives, especially those focusing on prevention and compliance, will do much more to limit pollution than will recourse to the Criminal Code. However, in its view, certain types of conduct so seriously harm or endanger human life, health and the environment that they must be characterized as crimes and punished as such. The recommendations have raised fundamental questions of law and policy that must be addressed by the Department of Justice.

  14. Environmental influences on African migration to Canada: focus group findings from Ottawa-Gatineau.

    PubMed

    Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There is limited empirical evidence of how environmental conditions in the Global South may influence long-distance international migration to the Global North. This research note reports findings from seven focus groups held in Ottawa-Gatineau, Canada, with recent migrants from the Horn of Africa and francophone sub-Saharan Africa, where the role of environment in migration decision-making was discussed. Participants stated that those most affected by environmental challenges in their home countries lack the financial wherewithal to migrate to Canada. Participants also suggested that internal rural-urban migration patterns generated by environmental challenges in their home countries underlay socioeconomic factors that contributed to their own migration. In other words, environment is a second- or third-order contributor in a complex chain of interactions in the migrant source country that may lead to long-distance international migration by skilled and educated urbanites. These findings have informed the scope and detail of a larger, ongoing empirical study of environmental influences on immigration to Canada. PMID:25400310

  15. Polluting Canada's Public Square: The Harper Government's War on Science and the Environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnitt, C.; Hoggan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Conversations about key environmental issues like climate change are increasingly viewed as matters of politics rather than matters of science. As a result, competing -and often polarized - interests have made public debate on these issues vulnerable to aggressive politicization. This politicization, particularly when it comes to important policy decisions regarding industrial (and especially fossil fuel) development, obscures the facts on these issues, leaving democratic public debate prey to aggressive public relations tactics, misinformation campaigns, pseudo-science, modern-day propaganda and/or the deliberate ';pollution' of the public square. In Canada a coordinated effort is underway to mischaracterize environmental groups as radical ideologues, associating environmental views and pursuits with extremism. A Tea Party-style echo chamber has also emerged in Canada, coordinating anti-science messaging in an attempt to bolster industrial development while misaligning environmental non-profits with domestic terror threats. This attempt to undermine ecological agendas and to push environmental concerns to the margins is paired with government-sponsored censorship of federally-funded scientists and the elimination of vital public science programs in Canada. The result is a dearth of scientific information surrounding significant environmental concerns - such as the Alberta oil sands and industry contamination of waterways - and a dangerous and false association of these issues with an extremist agenda. Ultimately scientists and science communicators face a unique set of challenges in Canada when it comes to addressing environmental issues. Although the 'science' of science communication has evolved to address relevant cultural and socio-political barriers associated with change resistance (for example, adapting one's behavior to minimize greenhouse gas emissions), much work remains in both acknowledging and ameliorating the politicization of science and the

  16. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  17. Implications of climate change for northern Canada: the physical environment.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Melling, Humfrey; Smith, Sharon L

    2009-07-01

    The physical environment of the Canadian North is particularly sensitive to changes in climate because of a large concentration of cryospheric elements including both seasonal and multiyear forms of freshwater and sea ice, permafrost, snow, glaciers, and small ice caps. Because the cryosphere responds directly to changes in air temperature and precipitation, it is a primary indicator of the effects of climate variability and change. This article reviews the major changes that have occurred in the recent historical record of these cryospheric components at high latitudes in Canada. Some changes have been less pronounced in the Canadian North than elsewhere, such as changes in sea-ice coverage, whereas others have been potentially more significant, such as ablation of the extensive alpine and high-Arctic small glaciers and ice caps. Projections of future changes are also reviewed for each cryospheric component. Discussion about two other physical components of the North intrinsically linked to the cryosphere is also included, specifically: i) freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean via major river networks that are fed primarily by various forms of snow and ice, and ii) the related rise in sea level, which is strongly influenced by ablation of the cryosphere, and coastal stability, which also depends on the thermal integrity of coastal permafrost. PMID:19714959

  18. Canada.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In 1986, Canada's population stood at 25.5 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.2%. The infant mortality rate is 15/1000, and life expectancy is 69 years for males and 76 years for females. Of the labor force of 12.9 million, 3.5% are engaged in agriculture, 52% work in industry and commerce, 28.4% are in the services sector, and 5.9% are employed by the government. The gross national product was US$367.2 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of about $13,000. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a bilingual federal system, a parliamentary form of government, and strong democratic traditions. The spectacular growth of Canadian manufacturing in recent decades has transformed the country from a rural agricultural society into a primarily urban and industrial society. The mineral industry has been a major factor in Canada's economic development. PMID:12178065

  19. Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Robert F.; Ghosh, Ratna

    1986-01-01

    Discusses Canada's problems in searching for a national identity and the controversy of the Federal policy of multiculturalism. Presents its objectives within a bilingual framework and the contradictions involved. Suggests a workable model involving assimilation conditioned by regional or local circumstances, useful also as a development strategy.…

  20. Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

  1. Environmental effects monitoring at the Terra Nova offshore oil development (Newfoundland, Canada): Program design and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Tracy, Ellen; Janes, G. Gregory; Crowley, Roger D.; Wells, Trudy A.; Williams, Urban P.; Paine, Michael D.; Mathieu, Anne; Kilgour, Bruce W.

    2014-12-01

    An environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program was developed by Suncor (formerly Petro-Canada) in 1997/98 to assess effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil and gas development on the receiving environment. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland (Canada), at approximately 100 m water depth. The EEM program was developed with guidance from experts in government, academia and elsewhere, and with input from the public. The EEM program proposed by Suncor was accepted by Canadian regulatory agencies and the program was implemented in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010, with pre-development sampling in 1997. The program continues to be implemented every two years. EEM includes an assessment of alterations in sediment quality through examination of changes in sediment chemistry, particle size, toxicity and benthic invertebrate community structure. A second component of the program examines potential effects on two species of commercial fishing interest: Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides). Chemical body burden for these two species is examined and taste tests are performed to assess the presence of taint in edible tissues. Effects on American plaice bioindicators are also examined. A final component of the program assesses potential effects of the Terra Nova development on water quality and examines water column chemistry, chlorophyll concentration and physical properties. The papers presented in this collection focus on effects of drill cuttings and drilling muds on the seafloor environment and, as such, report results on sediment quality and bioaccumulation of drilling mud components in Iceland scallop and American plaice. This paper provides information on drilling discharges, an overview of the physical oceanography at the Terra Nova Field, and an overview of the field program designed to assess environmental effects of drilling at Terra Nova.

  2. The CONCEPTS Global Ice-Ocean Prediction System: Establishing an Environmental Prediction Capability in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Pierre; Smith, Gregory; Testut, Charles-Emmanuel; Surcel Colan, Dorina; Roy, Francois; Reszka, Mateusz; Dupont, Frederic; Lemieux, Jean-Francois; Beaudoin, Christiane; He, Zhongjie; Belanger, Jean-Marc; Deacu, Daniel; Lu, Yimin; Buehner, Mark; Davidson, Fraser; Ritchie, Harold; Lu, Youyu; Drevillon, Marie; Tranchant, Benoit; Garric, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Here we describe a new system implemented recently at the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) entitled the Global Ice Ocean Prediction System (GIOPS). GIOPS provides ice and ocean analyses and 10 day forecasts daily at 00GMT on a global 1/4° resolution grid. GIOPS includes a full multivariate ocean data assimilation system that combines satellite observations of sea level anomaly and sea surface temperature (SST) together with in situ observations of temperature and salinity. In situ observations are obtained from a variety of sources including: the Argo network of autonomous profiling floats, moorings, ships of opportunity, marine mammals and research cruises. Ocean analyses are blended with sea ice analyses produced by the Global Ice Analysis System.. GIOPS has been developed as part of the Canadian Operational Network of Coupled Environmental PredicTion Systems (CONCEPTS) tri-departmental initiative between Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and National Defense. The development of GIOPS was made through a partnership with Mercator-Océan, a French operational oceanography group. Mercator-Océan provided the ocean data assimilation code and assistance with the system implementation. GIOPS has undergone a rigorous evaluation of the analysis, trial and forecast fields demonstrating its capacity to provide high-quality products in a robust and reliable framework. In particular, SST and ice concentration forecasts demonstrate a clear benefit with respect to persistence. These results support the use of GIOPS products within other CMC operational systems, and more generally, as part of a Government of Canada marine core service. Impact of a two-way coupling between the GEM atmospheric model and NEMO-CICE ocean-ice model will also be presented.

  3. Deep Sea Shell Taphonomy: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, Ocean Networks Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Mairi; Purser, Autun

    2015-04-01

    In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of biogenic carbonate in gas hydrate environments, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, ongoing observations of experimentally deployed specimens are being made using a remotely controlled crawler with camera and sensors. The crawler is connected to NEPTUNE Canada, an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of Ocean Networks Canada. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ˜865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including cameras, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance

  4. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    PubMed Central

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  5. Listeriosis outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, caused by soft ripened cheese contaminated from environmental sources.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  6. Community-driven research on environmental sources of H. pylori infection in arctic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Emily V; Yasui, Yutaka; Hanington, Patrick; Goodman, Karen J; Working Group, The CANHelp

    2014-01-01

    The role of environmental reservoirs in H. pylori transmission remains uncertain due to technical difficulties in detecting living organisms in sources outside the stomach. Residents of some Canadian Arctic communities worry that contamination of the natural environment is responsible for the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in the region. This analysis aims to estimate associations between exposure to potential environmental sources of biological contamination and prevalence of H. pylori infection in Arctic Canada. Using data from 3 community-driven H. pylori projects in the Northwest and Yukon Territories, we estimated effects of environmental exposures on H. pylori prevalence, using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from multilevel logistic regression models to adjust for household and community effects. Investigated exposures include: untreated drinking water; livestock; dogs; cats; mice or mouse droppings in the home; cleaning fish or game. Our analysis did not identify environmental exposures associated clearly with increased H. pylori prevalence, except any exposure to mice or mouse droppings (OR = 4.6, CI = 1.2–18), reported by 11% of participants. Our multilevel models showed H. pylori clustering within households, but environmental exposures accounted for little of this clustering; instead, much of it was accounted for by household composition (especially: having infected household members; number of children). Like the scientific literature on this topic, our results do not clearly implicate or rule out environmental reservoirs of H. pylori; thus, the topic remains a priority for future research. Meanwhile, H. pylori prevention research should seek strategies for reducing direct transmission from person to person. PMID:25483330

  7. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents. PMID:27281518

  8. Challenges and Early Results: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, NEPTUNE Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Thomsen, L.; de Beer, D.

    2012-04-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, operating and online since 2009, is an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ~865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including a camera, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler developed at the Max Planck Institute with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance from the mound. In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of the natural materials, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, observations of the experimental specimens are being made on a regular basis using

  9. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  10. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)

  11. MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

  12. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddart-Kennedy, Emily; Beckley, Thomas M.; McFarlane, Bonita L.; Nadeau, Solange

    2009-01-01

    Distinctions between rural and urban populations are well documented in environmental sociology literature. Rural and urban places may exert different influences on participation in environmentally supportive behavior (ESB) as well as on other forms of environmental concern (EC). The influence of these distinct geographies may be due to present…

  13. Evolution of environmental impact assessment as applied to watershed modification projects in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirschl, Herman J.; Novakowski, Nicholas S.; Sadar, M. Husain

    1993-07-01

    This article reviews the application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedures and practices to three watershed modification projects situaled in western Canada. These ventures were justified for accelerating regional economic development, and cover the period during which public concerns for protecting the environment rapidly made their way into the national political agenda. An historical account and analysis of the situation, therefore, seems desirable in order to understand the development of EIA processes, practices, and methodologies since the start of construction of the first project in 1961. This study concludes that there has been good progress in predicting and evaluating environmental and related social impacts of watershed modification proposals. However, a number of obstacles need to be overcome before EIA can firmly establish itself as an effective planning tool. These difficulties include jurisdictional confusions and conflicts, division of authority and responsibility in designing and implementing appropriate mitigative and monitoring measures, lack of tested EIA methodologies, and limited availability of qualified human resources. A number of conclusions and suggestions are offered so that future watershed modification proposals may be planned and implemented in a more environmentally sustainable fashion. These include: (1) EIA processes must be completed before irrevocable decisions are made. (2) Any major intrusion into a watershed is likely to impact on some major components of the ecosystem(s). (3) Mitigation costs must form part of the benefit-cost analysis of any project proposal. (4) Interjurisdictional cooperation is imperative where watersheds cross political boundaries. (5) The EIA process is a public process, hence public concerns must be dealt with fairly. (6) The role of science in the EIA process must be at arms length from project proponents and regulators, and allowed to function in the interest of the protection of the

  14. Exploring Individual and School-Related Factors and Environmental Literacy: Comparing U.S. and Canada Using PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Emily; Shi, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    Questions remain about how to best prepare students to be environmentally literate. Although Canada and U.S. share similarities in education systems, diversity in student population, and historical roots in formalizing environmental education, Canada is one of the top performing countries in international science assessments while U.S. matches…

  15. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-01-01

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature. PMID:27281525

  16. Prioritizing health leadership capabilities in Canada: Testing LEADS in a Caring Environment.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P; Fletcher, Amber J

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first major empirical test of LEADS in a Caring Environment, the principal leadership capability framework in Canada. The results rank the perceived salience of leadership attributes, given time and budget constraints, while implementing a major organization reform in the Saskatchewan health system. The results also indicate important differences between self-assessed leadership behaviours versus observed behaviours in other leaders that may reflect participants' expectations of managers with designated authority. PMID:26656384

  17. Three Essays on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Policies in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamtessa, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the "shale gas revolution" on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the "shale gas revolution." We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  18. Three essays on energy efficiency and environmental policies in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamtessa, Samuel Faye

    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the “shale gas revolution” on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the “shale gas revolution.” We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  19. Environmental assessment for the manufacture and shipment of nuclear reactor fuel from the United States to Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, R.C.

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has declared 41.9 tons (38 metric tons) of weapons-usable plutonium surplus to the United States` defense needs. A DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement analyzed strategies for plutonium storage and dispositioning. In one alternative, plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel would be irradiated (burned) in a reengineered heavy-water-moderated reactor, such as the Canadian CANDU design. In an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE proposes to fabricate and transport to Canada a limited amount of MOX fuel as part of the Parallex (parallel experiment) Project. MOX fuel from the US and Russia would be used by Canada to conduct performance tests at Chalk River Laboratories. MOX fuel would be fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory and transported in approved container(s) to a Canadian port(s) of entry on one to three approved routes. The EA analyzes the environmental and human health effects from MOX fuel fabrication and transportation. Under the Proposed Action, MOX fuel fabrication would not result in adverse effects to the involved workers or public. Analysis showed that the shipment(s) of MOX fuel would not adversely affect the public, truck crew, and environment along the transportation routes.

  20. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Couperthwaite, Amy B.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED) with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV) or with severe injuries (hospitalized). Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27]), intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14]), retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98]), and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]). Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96]) and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82]) were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety. PMID:23251192

  1. Regulation for environmental protection: The Nanticoke industrial complex, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. G.; Day, J. C.; Jessen, Sabine

    1981-09-01

    This assessment of the environmental protection regulatory system for the 2.2 billion iron and steel plant, oil refinery, and thermal generating station composing the core of the greenfield Nanticoke industrial complex is based upon: the use of governmental and industrial research in project management; technology and institutional arrangements for environmental protection; evidence of environmental changes to date; analysis of government and industrial approval files; and interviews with government, industry, and interest group representatives. Planning, regulation, and management have been reasonably efficient and effective to the beginning of the operational stage for all three major industries as of spring 1980. Of major future concern, however, is management of the cumulative and synergistic impacts of the industries and associated development on air quality as well as the lands, waters, and sensitive ecosystems of the nearby Lake Erie coast. Continuous monitoring, more comprehensive research, and better overall coordination of government, industrial, and public interests are required if Nanticoke benefits are to be achieved without undue cost to pre-project resource users within and outside the Haldimand-Norfolk region.

  2. Analysing contractual environments: lessons from Indigenous health in Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Josée; Boulton, Amohia; Dwyer, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Contracting in health care is a mechanism used by the governments of Canada, Australia and New Zealand to improve the participation of marginalized populations in primary health care and improve responsiveness to local needs. As a result, complex contractual environments have emerged. The literature on contracting in health has tended to focus on the pros and cons of classical versus relational contracts from the funder's perspective. This article proposes an analytical framework to explore the strengths and weaknesses of contractual environments that depend on a number of classical contracts, a single relational contract or a mix of the two. Examples from indigenous contracting environments are used to inform the elaboration of the framework. Results show that contractual environments that rely on a multiplicity of specific contracts are administratively onerous, while constraining opportunities for local responsiveness. Contractual environments dominated by a single relational contract produce a more flexible and administratively streamlined system. PMID:20919430

  3. A Sustaining Environment for Environmental Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Environmental art (aka land art, green art, earthworks) aims to interpret nature and to inspire audiences to re-envision people's relationship with nature. Some artists see their work as a springboard for reclaiming and remediating damaged environments. Art began keenly grounded in nature--think of cave paintings of animals, in charcoal and…

  4. Status of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste management program: On the threshold of the environmental review of the disposal concept

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, C.J.; Stephens, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    Over the last 15 years under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, AECL Research has developed and assessed a concept to dispose of nuclear fuel waste from Canada`s CANDU reactors in a vault excavated in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. A robust concept has been developed, with options for the choice of materials and designs for the different components. AECL will submit an Environmental Impact Statement describing the concept in early 1994 for review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process. If the review is completed by 1996, as currently expected, and if the concept is approved, disposal would not likely begin before about 2025.

  5. Exploring the school nutrition policy environment in Canada using the ANGELO framework.

    PubMed

    Vine, Michelle M; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Excess body weight has become a major public health issue. Given the link between poor nutrition, obesity, and chronic disease in youth, increasing attention is being paid to the school as an ideal setting for promoting nutritious eating practices. Informed by the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity) framework, we employ a documentary analysis to investigate the context of school nutrition in Canada, particularly the relationship between regional- and upper-level policies. In doing so, we examine policy documents and technical reports across three levels. We used mixed methods to analyze relevant English language policy documents and technical reports across Canada (n = 58), published between 1989 and 2011. Results reveal distinct differences across federal, provincial, and regional levels. The availability of nutritious food in schools and having nutrition education as part of the curriculum were key components of the physical environment across federal and provincial levels. Federal and provincial priorities are guided by a health promotion framework and adopting a partnership approach to policy implementation. Gaps in regional-level policy include incorporating nutrition education in the curriculum and making the link between nutrition and obesity. Policy implications are provided, in addition to future research opportunities to explore the connections between these environments at the local level. PMID:23986502

  6. PREFACE: Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments: proceedings from the 2010 IODP-Canada/ECORD summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Solignac, Sandrine

    2011-05-01

    . The subsequent set of papers review the use of planktonic foraminifers (Eynaud), diatoms (Crosta) and dinocysts (de Vernal and Rochon) in polar or sub-polar environments. These articles are followed by a paper on transfer functions (Guiot) summarizing the different approaches used to reconstruct past environmental conditions from micropaleontological proxy data. Two papers on geochemical and isotopic proxies are then presented and related to either foraminifera isotopic records (Hillaire-Marcel) in high northern latitudes or changes in ocean circulation and weathering inputs derived from radiogenic isotopes (Frank). The volume concludes with a paper on the application of visible/near infrared derivative spectroscopy to Arctic sediments (Ortiz). All the papers published in this volume benefited from the reviews of at least two reviewers, whom we thank for their valuable time and comments. We also thank the crew of the Coriolis II, and the many scientists, participants and volunteers who contributed to the summer school and made it a great success. In addition to GEOTOP and UQAM, the following institutions contributed to the organization of the summer school: ISMER, INRS-ETE, the Geological Survey of Canada, and REFORMAR. Finally, we thank Hélène Gaonac'h (UQAM) for coordinating the summer school and Anne de Vernal (UQAM) for her leadership throughout the summer school. Editors Guillaume St-Onge Canada Research Chair in Marine Geology, Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER) & GEOTOP Research Center, 310 allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, Québec, Canada, G5L 3A1 Cristina Veiga-Pires FCMA - CIMA, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000-117 Faro, Portugal Sandrine Solignac GEOTOP, Université du Québec à Montréal, PO Box 8888, succursale 'centre ville' Montréal, QC, H3C 3P8 Canada Scientists who contributed to the summer school: Hans Asnong (UQAM/GEOTOP, Canada) Gilles Bellefleur (Geological Survey of Canada-Ottawa, Canada) Anne de Vernal (UQAM

  7. A Colloquium on Environment, Ethics, and Education (Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, July 14-16, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob, Ed.

    The papers in this proceedings explore two themes: "what environmental ethics can do for teachers," and "what teachers can do for environmental ethics." The papers are: "A Colloquium on Environment, Ethics, and Education: Considering the Context" (Bob Jickling); "Planning for the Future: Workshop Observations and Recommendations" (Colloquium…

  8. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  9. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D G; Monk, W A; Carter, L; Cote, D; Baird, D J

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System approach with regional-scale applicability. To achieve this, we used biological monitoring data collected from wadeable streams across Atlantic Canada together with freely available, nationally consistent geographic information system (GIS) environmental data layers. For the first time, we demonstrated that it is possible to use data generated from different studies, even when collected using different sampling methods, to generate a robust predictive model. This model was successfully generated and tested using GIS-based rather than local habitat variables and showed improved performance when compared to a null model. In addition, ecological quality ratio data derived from the model responded to observed stressors in a test dataset. Implications for future large-scale implementation of river biomonitoring using a standardised approach with global application are presented. PMID:23250724

  10. 76 FR 47573 - TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Alaska Pipeline Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of the Federal...

  11. Promise and dismay: The state of strategic environmental assessment systems and practices in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Bram F.

    2009-01-15

    Has strategic environmental assessment (SEA) finally reached a point of maturity in Canada? Or, is it still stumbling to find its place in the impact assessment family? Strategic environmental assessment has been ongoing in Canada for a number of years, both formally and informally, and under a variety of labels and institutional models. The result is a system of SEA that is diverse, founded on a range of principles and frameworks, and not well understood. This paper provides a critical review of Canadian SEA systems and practices. To accomplish this objective, a manageable and diverse set of past and recent SEA and SEA-like frameworks and applications are described and critically analyzed based on a set of input, process, and output evaluation criteria. Results suggest considerable variability in SEA experience and value added. This is due in large part to the institutional and methodological pluralism of SEA, the boundaries of which are not well defined. Under the federal system, since the formalization of SEA, many applications have been disappointing in light of broader SEA good-practice principles and criteria. Indeed, some of the better examples of SEA have neither carried the SEA name tag nor occurred under formal SEA requirements. Further, many of the same challenges to project-based impact assessment also plague the development and value added of SEA. Of particular concern is the systematic separation of SEA from downstream decision inputs and assessment activities. As Canada commences review of its federal SEA Directive in preparation for the next generation of SEA, this paper reflects on what it has achieved in the prior.

  12. Public participation in strategic environmental assessment (SEA): Critical review and the Quebec (Canada) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, Mario; Simard, Louis; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-15

    It is widely accepted that public participation must be a part of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) procedures, and yet few studies have been conducted on the implementation of SEA public participation procedures. Accordingly, the theoretical and practical aspects of public participation in SEA remain research priorities for environmental policy-making. This paper presents a review of the Quebec (Canada) model of public participation in SEA through an evaluation of six public hearings on proposed directions and policies concerning, respectively, hazardous waste, forest protection, residual materials, energy, water management and pig farming. First, the authors examine the theoretical dimensions of SEA and public participation in the process. Second, they give a summary of the lessons that can be learned from the few Canadian and international experiences. Third, they outline the Quebec experience. Finally, they conclude by evaluating the opportunities and limitations of the Quebec experience and make some recommendations to improve its application.

  13. The case for establishing a board of review for resolving environmental issues: The science court in Canada.

    PubMed

    Giesy, John P; Solomon, Keith R; Kacew, Sam; Mackay, Donald; Stobo, Gerald; Kennedy, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Technology and scientific advancements are accelerating changes in society at a pace that is challenging the abilities of government regulatory agencies and legal courts to understand the benefits and costs of these changes to humans, wildlife, and their environments. The social, economic, and political facets of concern, such as the potential effects of chemicals, complicate the preparation of regulatory standards and practices intended to safeguard the public. Court judges and attorneys and, in some cases, lay juries are tasked with interpreting the data and implications underlying these new advancements, often without the technical background necessary to understand complex subjects and subsequently make informed decisions. Here, we describe the scientific-quasi-judicial process adopted in Canada under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which could serve as a model for resolving conflicts between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. An example and process and lessons learned from the first Board of Review, which was for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS# 541-02-06), are provided. Notable among these lessons are: 1) the need to apply state-of-the-science insights into the regulatory process, 2) to encourage agencies to continuously review and update their assessment processes, criteria, and models, and 3) provide these processes in guidance documents that are transparent and available to all stakeholders and generally foster closer cooperation between regulators, the academic community, industry, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:572-579. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26460810

  14. Some environmental and social impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Berkes, F.

    1981-03-01

    The construction of the James Bay hydroelectric power project in subarctic Canada started in 1972, but environmental information that would permit mitigation measures did not become available until about 1975. It is suggested that this pattern may be characteristic of large-scale development projects in remote areas where the time lags involved in obtaining environmental data, beyond the simply descriptive information, are such that engineering plans would proceed, for economic reasons, without such environmental data as a planning input. Some environmental and social impact case studies are presented in this paper with regard to the LaGrande Complex phase of the James Bay development. The environmental impact case study involves the subsystem of estuarine fisheries and the effect on it of changes in the flow regime of the LaGrande River, the relocation of the first dam (LG-1) on the LaGrande, saltwater encroachment up the river during the filling of the second dam (LG-2), and the changes in the thermal regime of the river. The social impact case study examines the effect of the road network associated with the hydro development, on the land tenure system of the native Cree Indians of the area. The behavior of developers, as they optimize their engineering plans over the years to develop as much power as is feasible, is contrasted with the behavior of the organizations representing the native peopleof the area, first opposing the project but later giving up the aboriginal title to the land in exchange for some legally recognized rights, and subsequently making additional concessions from their established rights in exchange for various community benefits. It is argued that this process has been resulting in an incremental erosion of the land and resource base of the Cree Indian people.

  15. Living in the Environment: A Sourcebook for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sytnik, K. M.; And Others

    This document presents a survey of ideas concerning environmental issues and educational efforts to improve the quality of life. Chapter one, "Environmental Education for Understanding and Solving Environmental Problems," includes sections on the relationship between cultural heritage and the environment, and methodologies in environmental…

  16. Careers in the Environment in Australia: Surveying Environmental Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ian; Lane, Ruth; Ribon-Tobon, Leonardo; May, Charley

    2007-01-01

    Internationally, commentators have identified a growing demand for environmental expertise. Matching this has been an expansion in the range of environmental careers available to workers: from environment protection and bio-physical areas, to local government operations, environmental auditing, assessment, and management. However, in Australia…

  17. Effects of farm management practices and environmental factors on bulk tank milk antibodies against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy farms across Canada.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Conboy, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been used as a diagnostic tool to quantify levels of gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cattle by measuring Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk. Higher levels of O. ostertagi antibodies measured by ELISA methods, referred to as optical density ratios (ODRs), are associated with decreased milk production in dairy cattle. On-farm management practices (e.g. pasturing techniques and anthelmintic usage) can influence the exposure of cattle to nematode infections and the magnitude of acquired worm burdens. Additionally, environmental and climatic factors, such as land elevation and precipitation, may also influence the levels of gastrointestinal parasitism. This repeated cross-sectional study investigated the effect of farm management practices and surrounding environmental factors on bulk tank (BT) ODRs in herds from provinces across Canada, and further examined the potential effects of various anthelmintic treatment protocols on BT ODRs. A total of 195 herds contributed an average of 3.5 BT samples between December 2003 and April 2005. The farm management practices were recorded from a questionnaire asking producers about their pasturing methods (confined, pastured, etc.), pasture sharing practices (e.g. mixing heifers with milking cows) and anthelmintic treatments. Environmental data were downloaded online from various governmental databases (e.g. Natural Resources Canada, Statistics Canada, Environment Canada, etc.). Statistical models, accounting for repeated measures (multiple BT ODRs for each farm) and for clustering of farms within a region (province or ecoregion), were used to analyze environmental and farm management data. Overall, the greater the exposure that heifers and milking cows had to pasture, the higher the levels of anti-parasite antibodies detected in BT samples. Treating the entire herd or treating milking cows at calving reduced BT ODR values. Farms in areas with higher number of rainy days

  18. Remote symptom support training programs for oncology nurses in Canada: an environmental scan.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Dawn; Carley, Meg; Kohli, Jagbir; Skrutkowski, Myriam; Avery, Jonathan; Bazile, Astride M; Court, Arlene; Nagel, Daniel A; Budz, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to explore current remote symptom support training programs provided to nurses in ambulatory oncology programs across Canada, using a survey-methods environmental scan. Of 36 delivered invitations, 28 programs responded (77.8%) representing 10 provinces. Of 25 programs that offer telephone symptom support, 17 provide symptom support training, seven do not, and one did not say. Seven programs shared training materials with the investigators and elements of training included: symptom management guidelines (n = 6), telephone triage process/principles (n = 5), competent telephone practices (n = 4), documentation (n = 4), professional standards (n = 3), role-play (n = 3), communication skills/etiquette (n = 3), and monitoring quality (n = 1). Formats included: presentations (n = 3), paper-based resources (n = 3), or e-learning modules (n = 1). No training programs were rigorously evaluated. Training in telephone nursing symptom support across oncology programs is variable. Opportunities exist to identify core competencies and evaluate if training programs enhance delivery of remote cancer symptom support. PMID:24902425

  19. Environmental management in resource-rich Alberta, Canada: first world jurisdiction, Third World analogue?

    PubMed

    Timoney, K; Lee, P

    2001-12-01

    Economic growth is frequently touted as a cure for environmental ills, particularly for those in Third World countries. Here we examine that paradigm in a case study of Alberta, Canada, a wealthy, resource-rich province within a wealthy nation. Through provincial-scale datasets, we examine the increasing pressures of the forest, petroleum, and agricultural industries upon the ecosystems of Alberta within management, economic, and political contexts. We advance the thesis that economic activity leads to environmental degradation unless ecosystem-based management is integrated into economic decision making. Agricultural lands cover 31.7%, and forest management areas leased to industry cover 33.4% of Alberta; both continue to increase in extent. The rate of logging (focused on old-growth by government policy) continues a decades-long exponential rise. Current Alberta annual petroleum production is 52.5 million m3 crude oil and 117 billion m3 of gas. As of early 1999, there were approximately 199,025 oil and gas wells and a conservative total of approximately 1.5-1.8 million km of seismic lines in Alberta. Fire occurrence data indicate no downward trends in annual area burned by wildfire, which may be characterized as driven by climate and inherently variable. When logging and wildfire are combined, the annual allowable cut in Alberta is unsustainable, even when only timber supply is considered and the effects of expanding agriculture and oil and gas activities are ignored. Ecosystem degradation in Alberta is pervasive and contrasts prominently with a high standard of living. A wealth of ecological data exists that indicates current resource-based economic activities are non-sustainable and destructive of ecosystem health yet these data are not considered within the economic decision making process. Given the complex, compounded, and increasing ecosystem perturbations, a future of unpleasant ecological surprises is likely. We conclude with tentative predictions as to

  20. Enjoying the Environment. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Since an increasing number of people today are spending leisure time in the out-of-doors, there is a need to develop society's awareness and understanding of the environment, develop outdoor skills, and stress factors in outdoor activity participation. This unit is designed to provide enough information and skill development to enable educable…

  1. Strategies for Widening Access in a Quasi-Market Higher Education Environment: Recent Developments in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Under the Canadian constitution, authority over all levels of education, including higher education, rests with each of the individual provinces and territories. Although Canada has one of the highest levels of per capita educational attainment in the world, student access continues to be one of the most dominant policy areas in Canadian higher…

  2. SER 2, ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATIONS. SER, SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARSON, DANIEL H.; AND OTHERS

    AN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ALREADY EXISTS AND IS EVALUATED HERE IN THE SECOND OF A SERIES OF REPORTS INTENDED TO BE VALUABLE TO ANYONE INTERESTED IN HOW ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR. MAN IS A NONSTATIONARY OPEN SYSTEM UNDERGOING CONTINUOUS INTERCHANGE WITH HIS ENVIRONMENT. THIS INTERACTION, AND THE SEVERAL ASPECTS OF HIS…

  3. Educational Performance, Environmental Management, and Cleaning Effectiveness in School Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Michael A.

    This paper briefly discusses research on the negative impact of indoor air environments within educational facilities and the positive impact of a scientifically based cleaning process. Included is a form for calculating the environmental performance for a school environment and definitions of relevant terms. Final sections discuss building…

  4. Teaching Materials for Environmental Education. Investigating Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The environment lesson plans in this packet are designed to take an in-depth look at different components of the environment. The plans were developed with the assistance of specialists in educational processes and educators, students, and resource-agency people for whom they are designed. They have been field-tested in environmental education…

  5. Learning Environments in Children's Museums: Aesthetics, Environmental Preference and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackney, Jeffery A.

    This paper discusses environmental preference, particularly related to the design of children's museums. It explains that preference for an environment leads to motivation to interact with the environment, which leads to learning. It lays out several design principles: (1) involve children in the process of children's museum design in a way that…

  6. SER 1, ENVIRONMENTAL ABSTRACTS. SER, SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIMES, HAROLD W.

    THIS, A COLLECTION OF SOME 600 LENGTHY ABSTRACTS FROM THE LITERATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS, IS THE FIRST IN WHAT IS TO BE A LONG SERIES OF SER PROJECT REPORTS. IT IS ORGANIZED UNDER HEADINGS THAT INDICATE THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE HUMAN SENSES, AND THE EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC, LUMINOUS, SONIC, AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS ON BEHAVIOR.…

  7. Environment, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Field Organization Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This directory was developed by the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) from an outgrowth of the Departments efforts to identify and establish the regulatory response lead persons in the Field Organizations. The directory was developed for intemal EH-231 use to identify both the DOE and DOE contractor Field Organizations in the Environment, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The Field Organization directory is divided into three substantive sections: (1) Environment; (2) Environmental Restoration; and (3) Waste Management which are organized to correspond to the management hierarchy at each Field Organization. The information provided includes the facility name and address, individual managers name, and telephone/fax numbers.

  8. A Web-Based Survey of Residents' Views on Advocating with Patients for a Healthy Built Environment in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine family medicine residents' perceived knowledge and attitudes towards the built environment and their responsibility for health advocacy and to identify their perceived educational needs and barriers to patient education and advocacy. Methods. A web-based survey was conducted in Canada with University of Toronto family medicine residents. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results. 93% agreed or strongly agreed that built environment significantly impacts health. 64% thought educating patients on built environment is effective disease prevention; 52% considered this a role of family physicians. 78% reported that advocacy for built environment is effective disease prevention; 56% perceived this to be the family physician's role. 59% reported being knowledgeable to discuss how a patient's environment may affect his/her health; 35% reported being knowledgeable to participate in community discussions on built environment. 78% thought education would help with integration into practice. Inadequate time (92%), knowledge (73%), and remuneration (54%) were barriers. Conclusions. While residents perceived value in education and advocacy as disease prevention strategies and acknowledged the importance of a healthy built environment, they did not consider advocacy towards this the family physician's role. Barrier reduction and medical education may contribute to improved advocacy, ultimately improving physical activity levels and patient health outcomes. PMID:25436150

  9. The environmental assessment instrument: harnessing the environment for programmatic success.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, S René; Price, Ann W; Parsons, Beverly

    2009-04-01

    This article describes the Environmental Assessment Instrument (EAI), a tool designed to help public health professionals analyze and then engage the environment in which programs operate. The prevailing environment is an important force that must be considered in an integrated systems approach when implementing programs and policies. The Division of Oral Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the EAI to facilitate the ability of a state oral health program to understand their environment and the impact it has on the achievement of performance objectives. EAI results are plotted on a four-quadrant grid that depicts four types of change-stagnant, disruptive, continuous, and sporadic. General strategies are suggested based on these categories of change. By assessing environmental influences, program and policy planners can determine salient leverage points within their environment, identify strategies to address barriers to success, and build on supportive features in the environment. PMID:19372279

  10. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised. PMID:23516895

  11. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes. PMID:27376846

  12. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment at treeline, Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoie, C.; Payette, S. )

    1992-02-01

    The environmental conditions prevailing at treeline in subarctic Quebec have been reconstructed over the past 400 yr through a comparative analysis of tree rings and growth forms of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.). Because black spruce growth forms are closely associated with the winter environment, they are a direct response to conditions of low temperature and windblown snow abrasion affecting living tissues at the snow-air interface. The age structure of supranival shoot populations was closely associated with periods of higher stem survival in winter most likely under snowier and windless conditions. Spruce growth on slopes and in the valley revealed periods of low tree-ring growth between 1601 and 1663 and between 1700 and 1904, respectively. A long-lasting period of low radial growth 1697 and 1939 prevailed in the hilltop site. During the 20th century, spruce height increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m on slopes and in the valley, while the basal level of abrasion from windblown snow increased from 0.1 to 0.5 m, suggesting an increasing trend towards warmer and snowier conditions. Abraded spruces growing during the Little Ice Age (1570-1880) were replaced by symmetrical trees during the 20th century. Supranival skirted and whorled spruces which dominated on the hilltop site during the 16th century reverted to infranival cushion and mat growth forms during the Little Ice Age. These stunted spruces were unable to recover during the recent warming because of their inability to catch enough drifting snow to allow vertical growth.

  13. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation method derived from environmental economy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xilin; Xi, Fengru

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation system can encourage and guide entrepreneurs, and impel them to perform well in environment management. An evaluation method based on advantage structure is established. It is used to analyze entrepreneur environment management behavior in China. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation index system is constructed based on empirical research. Evaluation method of entrepreneurs is put forward, from the point of objective programming-theory to alert entrepreneurs concerned to think much of it, which means to take minimized objective function as comprehensive evaluation result and identify disadvantage structure pattern. Application research shows that overall behavior of Chinese entrepreneurs environmental management are good, specially, environment strategic behavior are best, environmental management behavior are second, cultural behavior ranks last. Application results show the efficiency and feasibility of this method. PMID:25078816

  14. Applying Dixon and Dixon's Integrative Model for Environmental Health Research toward a critical analysis of childhood lead poisoning in Canada.

    PubMed

    Perron, Amélie; O'Grady, Kelly A

    2010-01-01

    Occurrences of childhood lead poisoning resulting from exposure to residential sources of lead is an underresearched area in Canada. Dixon and Dixon's Integrative Model for Environmental Health Research substantiates this claim by grouping Canadian research on this health topic into the model's 4 domains: physiological, vulnerability, epistemological, and health protection. This process is useful not only for identifying research gaps within the Canadian context but also in setting the groundwork for a future critical analysis to illuminate the sociopolitical and economic influences that shape healthcare knowledge, and ultimately, influence how healthcare providers and policy makers produce and use this information. PMID:20154520

  15. Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC)--Manitoba Region's Environmental Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaluk, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC) is excited and proud to offer its first ever in-class education programs on the Tall Grass Prairie Ecosystem. These curriculum-based programs are offered to students from Kindergarten through to Grade 12. This experience gives many students who may never have the opportunity to visit a real live prairie to…

  16. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  17. Understanding the Environment. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is a student resource unit to be used in teaching high school vocational agriculture students about the environment. The relationship between ecology and changes in the ecosystems induced by man are discussed. The kinds of environmental problems treated are pollution, land use, and natural resources. Some causes of environmental…

  18. The environmental impact of petroleum on the environment.

    PubMed

    Edoigiawerie, Charles; Spickett, Jeffery

    1995-05-01

    Nigeria, a Western African country is particularly prone to the effects of oil pollution because it produces large quantities of crude oil (1.9 million barrels per day) for export. Results compiled by the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation over a period of 15 years i.e. between 1976 to 1991 showed that there was a total of 2,976 spills, resulting in the release of 2 million barrels of crude oil into the Nigerian environment, with damaging health and ecological effects, particularly on the southern coastal communities of the country. The environmental and health impact of these spills is made worse by the inappropriate and inadequate environment and health impact assessment processes and policies in Nigeria. However proper environmental and health impact assessment processes of petroleum drilling and transport projects is a major factor helping in the prediction and reduction of the health and environmental impacts of petroleum on the local environment in western Australia. A comparison of the crude oil spills, and its associated environmental and health effects in Western Australia and Nigeria revealed that the rather devastating impact oil pollution in Nigeria is due, in part, to the poor environmental and health impact assessment policies and control procedures employed in Nigeria, particularly in the area of public participation and governmental control of petroleum projects. PMID:12160434

  19. Environmental protection and stewardship of subglacial aquatic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Peter T.; Vincent, Warwick F.

    Environmental stewardship is a guiding principle of the Antarctic Treaty System. Efforts began in the 1990s to generate specific guidelines for stewardship of many terrestrial environments, including surface lakes and rivers. The relatively recent documentation of widespread subglacial aquatic environments, and planning for acquiring samples from them, has generated a need for stewardship guidelines for these environments. In response to a request from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) created the Committee on the Principles of Environmental and Scientific Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Environments. The committee made 13 recommendations and a decision tree as a framework and flow chart for environmental management decisions. The committee report was also largely the basis of a Code of Conduct (CoC) for the exploration of subglacial environments formulated by a Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Action Group. Both the NAS report and CoC have been used as guidance, to varying degrees, by subglacial research currently in progress.

  20. Social Environments and Physical Aggression among 21,107 Students in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, William; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of students' social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada…

  1. Gas geochemistry studies at the gas hydrate occurrence in the permafrost environment of Mallik (NWT, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.; Zimmer, M.; Schicks, J.; Dahms, E.; Mallik Working Group

    2003-04-01

    We present real-time mud gas monitoring data as well as results of noble gas and isotope investigations from the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program, an international research project on Gas Hydrates in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The program participants include 8 partners; The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), The Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Energy (USDOE), India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)/Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and the Chevron-BP-Burlington joint venture group. Mud gas monitoring (extraction of gas dissolved in the drill mud followed by real-time analysis) revealed more or less complete gas depth profiles of Mallik 4L-38 and Mallik 5L-38 wells for N_2, O_2, Ar, He, CO_2, H_2, CH_4, C_2H_6, C_3H_8, C_4H10, and 222Rn; both wells are approx. 1150 m deep. Based on the molecular and and isotopic composition, hydrocarbons occurring at shallow depth (down to ˜400 m) are mostly of microbial origin. Below 400 m, the gas wetness parameter (CH_4/(C_2H_6 + C_3H_8)) and isotopes indicate mixing with thermogenic gas. Gas accumulation at the base of permafrost (˜650 m) as well as δ13C and helium isotopic data implies that the permafrost inhibits gas flux from below. Gas hydrate occurrence at Mallik is known in a depth between ˜890 m and 1100 m. The upper section of the hydrate bearing zone (890 m--920 m) consists predominantly of methane bearing gas hydrates. Between 920 m and 1050 m, concentration of C_2H_6, C_3H_8, and C_4H10 increases due to the occurrence of organic rich sediment layers. Below that interval, the gas composition is similar to the upper section of the hydrate zone. At the base of the hydrate bearing zone (˜1100 m), elevated helium and methane concentrations and their isotopic composition leads to the assumption that gas hydrates act as a barrier for gas migration from below. In mud gas

  2. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability. PMID:26645076

  3. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  4. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W.; Hobbie, J. E.; Baker, A.; Clarke, G.; Doran, P. T.; Karl, D.; Methe, B.; Miller, H.; Mukasa, S. B.; Race, M.; Vincent, W.; Walton, D.; Uhle, M.

    2007-12-01

    Antarctica is renowned for its extreme cold; yet surprisingly, there is liquid water at the base of the Antarctic ice sheet several kilometers beneath the surface. The exploration of these subglacial aquatic environments is in its initial stages, and many fundamental questions about these environments can only be answered by entering and sampling the water. Accordingly, the management of subglacial aquatic environments requires responsible environmental stewardship while allowing field research. As of early 2007, no one has yet drilled into a lake but entry within the next one or two years is likely. Thus, the challenge is to determine the best way of drilling into, extensively sampling, and monitoring these environments. While general guidelines for research in Antarctica are provided in the Antarctic Treaty, currently no clear protocols or standards for minimizing contamination have been established. At the request of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Research Council convened a committee to develop a set of environmental and scientific protection standards needed to responsibly explore the subglacial lake environments in Antarctica. Specifically, the committee was asked to define levels of cleanliness for equipment or devices entering subglacial aquatic environments, develop a sound scientific basis for contamination standards, and recommend the next steps needed to define an overall exploration strategy. This talk will present the findings of that committee. The committee included U.S. and international scientists, and gathered information from the global scientific community. Although a U.S. scientific advisory body produced this study, the committee hopes that its multinational makeup will be recognized and that the recommendations in this report will serve as a basis for broad international discussion about environmental stewardship for the exploration of subglacial aquatic environments.

  5. The role of Indigenous knowledge in environmental health risk management in Yukon, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Friendship, Katelyn A.; Furgal, Chris M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This project aimed to gain better understandings of northern Indigenous risk perception related to food safety and to identify the role that Indigenous knowledge (IK) plays in risk management processes to support more effective and culturally relevant benefit-risk (B-R) management strategies. Study design The project used an exploratory qualitative case study design to investigate the role and place of IK in the management of environmental contaminants exposure via consumption of traditional foods in Yukon First Nations (YFNs). Methods Forty-one semi-directive interviews with Traditional Food Knowledge Holders and Health and Environment Decision-makers were conducted. A review and analysis of organizational documents related to past risk management events for the issue was conducted. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze transcripts and documents for key themes related to the research question. Results There was a recognized need by all participants for better collaboration between scientists and YFN communities. YFNs have been involved in identifying and defining community concerns about past risk issues, setting a local context, and participating in communications strategies. Interviewees stressed the need to commit adequate time for building relationships, physically being in the community, and facilitating open communication. Conducting community-based projects was identified as critical for collaboration and for cooperative learning and management of these issues. Conclusions The perception of “effective” benefit-risk management is significantly influenced by the efforts made to include local communities in the process. A set of common guiding principles within a process that brings together people and knowledge systems may provide a more effective way forward in cross-cultural, multiple knowledge system contexts for complex benefit-risk issues than a prescriptive rigid framework. PMID:22868192

  6. A multimedia approach to environmental monitoring in a northern environment: The Slave River environmental quality monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Peddle, J.; Stephens, G.; Robertson, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Quality Monitoring Program is a multimedia sampling program that was established in 1990 to characterize baseline conditions of the aquatic ecosystem in the Slave River at Fort Smith, NWT, Canada. The comprehensive nature of the sampling program made it the first of its kind in the Northwest Territories. The Slave River watershed drains an area of approximately 600,000 km{sup 2}, including the Peace and Athabasca Rivers, with the territorial portion being the furthest downstream. Increase in developments in the upstream portion of the basin prompted concerns by northern residents. In order to answer the questions of ``Can one drink the water?`` and ``Can one eat the fish?``, the program had to take an ecosystem approach and analyze a variety of media including water, suspended sediment and fish. In addition, benthic surveys, stable isotope work and delta coring were carried out in conjunction with this study. Samples were collected under both winter ({minus}40 C, under ice) and summer conditions. Samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic parameters including mixed function oxygenases (MFOs), dioxins, furans and other organochlorines. There was an emphasis on those contaminants likely to result from anthropogenic developments upstream, namely pulp and paper mills, agricultural activities and hydrocarbon developments. A comprehensive and extensive database was created which can be used to address concerns, aid in transboundary negotiations and monitor future changes in the quality of the aquatic environment.

  7. Biogeochemical sulphur cycle in an extreme environment - Life beneath a high arctic glacier, Nunavut, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grasby, S.E.; Allen, C.C.; Longazo, T.G.; Lisle, J.T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Beauchamp, B.

    2003-01-01

    Unique springs discharge from the surface of a high arctic glacier, releasing H2S, and depositing native sulphur, gypsum, and calcite. A rare CaCO3 polymorph, vaterite, is also observed. Physical and chemical conditions of the spring water and surrounding environment, as well as mineralogical and isotopic signatures, argue for biologically mediated redox reactions controlling sulfur. Cell counts and DNA analyses, confirm bacteria are present in the spring system. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Rowena F.; Horak, Ales; Andrew, Rose L.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Andersen, Robert A.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Jameson, Ian; Hoppenrath, Mona; Véron, Benoît; Kasai, Fumai; Brand, Jerry; James, Erick R.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known “species”, as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean), including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species. Conclusions/Significance COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of

  9. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  10. Environmental assessments in the built environment: crucial yet underdeveloped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Horvath, Arpad; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-03-01

    Environmental assessments have been developed with increasing emphasis since the wide-scale emergence of environmental concerns in the 1970s. However, after decades there is still plenty of room left for development. These assessments are also rapidly becoming more and more crucial as we seem to be reaching the boundaries of the carrying capacity of our planet. Assessments of the emissions from the built environment and especially of the interactions between human communities and emissions are in a very central role in the quest to solve the great problem of sustainable living. Policy- makers and professionals in various fields urgently need reliable data on the current conditions and realistic future projections, as well as robust and scientifically defensible models for decision making. This recognition was the main motivation to call for this Focus Issue, and the published contributions truly highlight the same point. This editorial provides brief summaries and discussions on the 16 articles of the Focus Issue, depicting the several interesting perspectives they offer to advance the state of the art. Now we encourage academics, practitioners, government, industry, individual consumers, and other decision makers to utilize the available findings and develop the domain of environmental assessment of the built environment further. Indeed, we hope that this Focus Issue is merely a kernel of a significantly large future body of literature.

  11. A Mixed Methods Approach to Exploring the Relationship between Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Abundance and Features of the Urban Environment in an Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Parsons, Kirbee L.; Feng, Alice Y. T.; Kerr, Thomas; Jardine, Claire M.; Patrick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most ubiquitous pest species in the world. Previous research has shown that rat abundance is largely determined by features of the environment; however, the specific urban environmental factors that influence rat population density within cities have yet to be clearly identified. Additionally, there are no well described tools or methodologies for conducting an in-depth evaluation of the relationship between urban rat abundance and the environment. In this study, we developed a systematic environmental observation tool using methods borrowed from the field of systematic social observation. This tool, which employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, was then used to identify environmental factors associated with the relative abundance of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Using a multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found that a variety of factors, including specific land use, building condition, and amount of refuse, were related to rat presence and abundance. Qualitative data largely supported and further clarified observed statistical relationships, but also identified conflicting and unique situations not easily captured through quantitative methods. Overall, the tool helped us to better understand the relationship between features of the urban environment and relative rat abundance within our study area and may useful for studying environmental determinants of zoonotic disease prevalence/distribution among urban rat populations in the future. PMID:24830847

  12. Mid-Wisconsinan vertebrates and their environment from January Cave, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James A.

    1991-01-01

    January Cave, in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, has yielded vertebrate remains from a coprocenosis of mid-Wisconsinan-age. Taphonomic analysis indicates accumulation by raptors, mostly owls, and mammalian carnivores. The vertebrate record, together with pollen analysis, indicates that cool, dry conditions prevailed in an extensive tundra-like environment, with prairie elements in the valleys below. Thirty-four mammalian taxa have been recovered from January Cave. Today, some of these species (e.g., Lemmus sibiricus and Dicrostonyx torquatus) do not coexist with others (e.g., Cynomys sp., Mustela nigripes, Vulpes velox, and Lagurus curtatus). Therefore, the January Cave local fauna represents a "nonanalog" mammalian community characteristic of the late Pleistocene. It suggests that the region enjoyed an equable climate, with reduced climatic extremes but still cool, further supporting a mid-Wisconsinan age estimate for the fauna. It is the first major, small vertebrate fauna of its age to be reported from Alberta.

  13. NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET): NASA's key to environmental technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beth

    1993-01-01

    NASA has stepped forward to face the environmental challenge to eliminate the use of Ozone-Layer Depleting Substances (OLDS) and to reduce our Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) by 50 percent in 1995. These requirements have been issued by the Clean Air Act, the Montreal Protocol, and various other legislative acts. A proactive group, the NASA Operational Environment Team or NOET, received its charter in April 1992 and was tasked with providing a network through which replacement activities and development experiences can be shared. This is a NASA-wide team which supports the research and development community by sharing information both in person and via a computerized network, assisting in specification and standard revisions, developing cleaner propulsion systems, and exploring environmentally-compliant alternatives to current processes.

  14. Inferring groundwater contributions and pathways to streamflow during snowmelt over multiple years in a discontinuous permafrost subarctic environment (Yukon, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Sean K.; Boucher, Jessica L.; Duarte, Celina M.

    2013-02-01

    Research on large northern rivers suggests that as permafrost thaws, deeper groundwater flowpaths become active, resulting in greater baseflow, increased concentrations of weathering ions and reduced concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the streamflow. In contrast, at the headwater-catchment scale, where understanding of groundwater/surface-water interactions is developed, inter-annual variability in climate and hydrology result in complex hydrological and chemical responses to change. This paper reports on a 4-year runoff investigation in an alpine discontinuous permafrost environment in Yukon, Canada, using stable isotopes, major dissolved ions and hydrometric data, to provide enhanced insight into the inter-annual-variability runoff-generation processes. Stable isotope results suggest that pre-event (old) water stored within the catchment dominates the snowmelt hydrograph, and dissolved ion results reveal that groundwater pathways occur predominantly in the near-surface during freshet. Dissolved organic carbon varies inter-annually, reflecting changing melt patterns, whereas weathering ions generated from deeper flowpaths become diluted. The total snow-water equivalent does not have a major influence on the fraction of snowmelt water reaching the stream or the runoff ratio. Results from multiple years highlight the considerable variability over short time scales, limiting our ability to detect climate-change influences on groundwater at the headwater scale.

  15. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    For more than a decade, scientists and space mission planners have recognized the importance of collaborative information exchange with the Antarctic research community to address their many shared exploration challenges, from drilling methods, remote sample collection, and data interpretation, to concerns about cross contamination that could adversely impact both the environment and interpretation of scientific data. Another shared concern exists in the regulatory realm; both the Antarctic and outer space environments are subject to separate international treaties that impose regulatory controls and oversight with serious implications for exploration planning. In recent years, both communities have faced the need to adjust their regulatory controls in light of fast-paced advances in scientific understanding of extreme environments, particularly related to potential microbial life. Both communities have sought and received advice from the National Research Council (NRC) through studies that suggested ways to update their respective oversight and regulatory systems while allowing for continued scientific exploration. A recently completed NRC study "Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship" provided a suite of recommendations to address1) 'cleanliness' levels necessary for equipment and devices used in exploration of subglacial aquatic environments, as well as 2) the scientific basis for contamination standards, and 3) the steps for defining an overall exploration strategy conducive to sound environmental management and scientific stewardship. This talk will present the findings of the recent multinational NRC study, which is likely to translate into useful information for analogue studies that proceed to test techniques and capabilities for exploring an Europan ocean, other icy celestial locations, and related science targets on Earth. As the science and exploration of subglacial environments grows beyond its

  16. The intersection of sound principles of environmental epidemiologic research and ethical guidelines and review: an example from Canada of an environmental case-control study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    The present article challenges the ways in which ethical guidelines are implemented in reviewing the design and conduct of research involving human participants in observational studies in Canada. Fieldwork procedures should be designed in such a way as to be valid scientifically but also acceptable in terms of local ethical considerations, such as confidentiality of participant's identity and information, and other social norms. To set the stage, I present briefly essential information regarding the valid design and conduct of observational epidemiologic studies. As an example of the difficulties encountered in implementing these procedures, I present my experience in gaining ethical approval for a population-based, case-control study of environmental causes of postmenopausal breast cancer. PMID:20839559

  17. Self-organization theories and environmental management: The case of South Moresby, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, Alex G. S.; Slocombe, D. Scott

    1988-07-01

    This article presents a new approach to the analysis and management of large-scale societal problems with complex ecological, economic, and social dimensions. The approach is based on the theory of self-organizing systems—complex, open, far-from-equilibrium systems with nonlinear dynamics. A brief overview and comparison of different self-organization theories (synergetics, self-organization theory, hypercycles, and autopoiesis) is presented in order to isolate the key characteristics of such systems. The approach is used to develop an analysis of the landuse controversy in the South Moresby area of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Critical variables are identified for each subsystem and classified by spatial and temporal scale, and discussed in terms of information content and internal/external origin. Eradication of sea otters, introduction of black-tailed deer, impacts of large-scale clearcut logging, sustainability of the coastal forest industry, and changing relations between native peoples and governments are discussed in detail to illustrate the system dynamics of the South Moresby “sociobiophysical” system. Finally, implications of the self-organizing sociobiophysical system view for regional analysis and management are identified.

  18. Abrupt environmental change in Canada's northernmost lake inferred from fossil diatom and pigment stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniades, Dermot; Crawley, Catherine; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Pienitz, Reinhard; Andersen, Dale; Doran, Peter T.; Hawes, Ian; Pollard, Wayne; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of diatoms and fossil pigments in a sediment core from perennially ice-covered Ward Hunt Lake at latitude 83°N in Nunavut, Canada revealed striking changes in diatom communities and sedimentary pigment concentrations during the last two centuries. Diatoms were found only in the upper 2.5 cm of the sedimentary record, and where present, diatom assemblages were composed almost entirely of Staurosirella pinnata. Photosynthetic pigments were present in low concentrations throughout the sedimentary profile, consistent with the ultra-oligotrophic nutrient status of the lake. Pigment concentrations varied slightly in the lower sections of the core, and began to increase gradually at the 4 cm horizon followed by an increase of two orders of magnitude in the uppermost 2.5 cm. The changes observed in the sedimentary record of Ward Hunt Lake had similar trajectories to those observed post-1850 elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic, and imply that aquatic communities even in the most extreme northern lakes have been strongly impacted by recent climate warming.

  19. Electromagnetic Instrumentation for Exploration and the Environment: A Retrospective Look by Canada's Leading Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, M.

    2009-05-01

    Geonics Limited has a very rich and varied history. This talk will provide a historical perspective about how a few key individuals shaped the development of some of the world's most useful electromagnetic (EM) geophysical instrumentation. A brief review of these systems, including the science behind them, will showcase the evolution of each to the market place and emphasize how a combination of business savvy and a constant investment to research is what lead to a successful line of instrumentation. In 1950 a company called Aeromagnetic Surveys Ltd. was established that was considered "the largest and most diversified air- survey firm in the world" (FLIGHT, 1954), for its time. It employed Vaino Ronka and Alex Herz, young engineers, who patented several new EM technologies including an in-phase and quadrature towed bird helicopter EM system (the first commercial transistorized instrument). The two also set new standards for ground based horizontal loop EM systems and won several mining Blue Ribbon Awards. By the end of 1958, Mr. Ronka began offering independent design services for geophysical instruments and it became inevitable that one day he would form his own company. Geonics Limited was incorporated in 1962 by Vaino Ronka and Alex Herz and the EM-16 VLF receiver, first sold in 1965, became the first successful instrument. It's considered the best selling electrical geophysical tool of all-time and is still sold today by the same model name 44 years later. In 1974, the company was purchased by James Duncan McNeill, the former chief engineering physicist of Barringer Research Ltd. During his time as president of Geonics he was responsible for an explosion of new instruments from the 70's, 80's and into the 90's that permanently placed Geonics instruments in virtually every government environmental lab and consulting firm active in near-surface geophysics. His ability to foresee new problem areas and to define new roles that geophysical methods could play in a

  20. Advancing strategic environmental assessment in the offshore oil and gas sector: Lessons from Norway, Canada, and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Fidler, Courtney; Noble, Bram

    2012-04-15

    Abstract: Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for offshore oil and gas planning and development is utilized in select international jurisdictions, but the sector has received limited attention in the SEA literature. While the potential benefits of and rationale for SEA are well argued, there have been few empirical studies of SEA processes for the offshore sector. Hence, little is known about the efficacy of SEA offshore, in particular its influence on planning and development decisions. This paper examines SEA practice and influence in three international offshore systems: Norway, Atlantic Canada and the United Kingdom, with the intent to identify the challenges, lessons and opportunities for advancing SEA in offshore planning and impact assessment. Results demonstrate that SEA can help inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project-based assessment in the offshore sector, however weak coordination between higher and lower tiers limit SEA's ability to influence planning and development decisions in a broad regional environmental and socioeconomic context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA can inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project EA offshore Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scope and deliverables of SEA offshore often differ from stakeholder expectations Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable variability in influence of SEA output beyond licensing decisions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sector-based SEA offshore is often too restrictive to generate expected benefits.

  1. Carbon Isotope Environmental Forensics: Fingerprinting Gas From Domestic Water Wells From petroleum Fields of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlenbachs, K.; Tilley, B.

    2008-12-01

    Sixty years of petroleum development has resulted in over 500,000 petroleum wells drilled in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, many in agricultural areas that rely on groundwater (GW). The impact on GW quality by petroleum development is increasingly becoming a societal and regulatory concern triggered by intensive, recent CBM development. To protect GW the production tubing of a resource well is encased by a larger diameter surface casing (SCV) that is set deeper than the depth of potable water. Because of poor cementing the SCVs and soils near the wells often contain gas heightening concern for integrity of GW. Carbon isotope analyses of thousands of SCV gases shows them only rarely to be sourced from the target zone of the resource well, but rather from an intermediate depth. It has long been known that many water wells produce methane and traces of ethane and it needs to be determined if the water wells have been impacted. Alberta now requires all water wells to be tested prior to drilling of nearby resource wells. Carbon isotope analyses are mandated on a proportion of all gases produced by water wells and many hundreds of gas analyses will be placed in a public data base. Carbon isotope values of gases vary within the basin and can be used to quantify natural gas contamination of GW. Two case studies will be presented where landowners have filed complaints about gas contamination of their water wells. Attributing specific contaminant sources to a given resource well has proven to be difficult in areas where there is ongoing CBM development. However, in one area, the problem gas can be attributed to previous conventional petroleum development rather than the current CBM drilling and production. Carbon isotope analyses of water wells in another area suggest a few per cent of CBM contamination in water wells. Unfortunately, lack of pre-drilling background water data prevents reliable quantification of the contamination.

  2. Aboriginal Environmental Wisdom, Stewardship, and Sustainability: Lessons from the Walpole Island First Nations, Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckford, Clinton L.; Jacobs, Clint; Williams, Naomi; Nahdee, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Generally speaking, environmental education teaching, research, and practice have been informed by the traditions of western, Euro-centric culture. In this context indigenous perspectives are often marginalized, maligned, and perceived to be unscientific and therefore inferior. This essay adds to the growing body of literature exploring aboriginal…

  3. 77 FR 49824 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for TransCanada Keystone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ..., Southwest Region, Albuquerque, New Mexico. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P ...) to prepare an environmental impact statement in the Federal Register on January 28, 2009 (74 FR 5019... April 20, 2010 (75 FR 51458). On August 26, 2011, the DOS published a notice of availability (76...

  4. The Integrative Role of the Campus Environmental Audit: Experiences at Bishop's University, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardati, Darren R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to suggest that the campus environmental audit can become an important tool that synergizes active learning and operations planning and management approaches to promote sustainability on university campuses. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the author's experiences at Bishop's University with the evolution…

  5. Mexican environments

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, L.; Nieder, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the broad Mexican demographic/economic environment as it influences/interacts with the Mexican physical environment. Mexico is relatively resource-rich, but a high population yields a low per capita income, one sixth that of the United States an Canada, still above levels of most other American countries. The Mexican population has become highly urbanized, and population will continue to increase well into the next century. Mexico City will continue to dominate the Mexican urban hierarchy into the future, and the heavy concentration of people has resulted in a heavy concentration of environmental problems in the Mexico City region. A multi-billion-dollar program has been implemented with a goal of limiting air emissions in 2010 to the levels experienced in 1990. Numerous Mexican environmental problems exist beyond Mexico City, in border areas, and throughout Mexico, but qualified professionals and other resources needed for assessments and management are lacking. The authors conclude that continued economic/environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico will help Mexico to acquire resources needed to improve its infrastructure, environmental education, and environmental education, and environmental management, but the authors question whether Mexico, even with reduced population growth, will be able to attain levels of affluence currently enjoyed in the United State and Canada. They raise, but leave unanswered, the larger question of the level of environmentally sound development which is achievable, appropriate, and sustainable for Mexico and for the North American continent as a whole.

  6. Canada thistle phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the establishment year for the experimental population. Other...

  7. Modern Gas Vents in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Eastern Canada); Linking Palaeozoic Rocks, Quaternary Sediments and the Marine Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, M. J.; Pinet, N.; Bolduc, A.; Lavoie, D.; Campbell, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 2003, the seafloor and the subsurface of the St. Lawrence Estuary (eastern Canada) were surveyed with various geophysical tools such as high and very-high resolution seismic reflection systems, sidescan sonar and multibeam echo sounder; moreover several cores were collected. The most striking features on the multibeam bathymetric imagery are numerous pockmarks (n>750) ranging in diameter from tens to hundreds of meters. The use of multi-resolution geophysical systems allowed the documenting of their fractal nature as micro and macro seeps are observed. Pockmarks are isolated, associated with submarine landslides, linearly distributed or included in cluster features. Sidescan sonar coverage confirms that some vents are active whereas backscatter images show several highly- reflective pockmarks. Carbonate crusts were sampled in some of these highly-reflective features whereas in other pockmarks similar crusts, located at various depths in the sedimentary column, indicate possible intermittent chemosynthetic microbial activity through recent times. Seismic sections permitted to image gas chimneys beneath the pockmarks that are rooted into the bedrock and gas-related amplitude anomalies within the Quaternary succession. In addition several seismic anomalies are found over either bedrock highs or slightly- dipping features imaged near the top of the bedrock. The pockmarks distribution correlates with both the bedrock geology and the thickness of the Quaternary deposits. Pockmarks are preferentially found above the Paleozoic autochtonous domain (St. Lawrence platform) and located where the Quaternary sediment cover is the thinnest (<200 m) although seismic anomalies attributed to the presence of gas, are observed over the entire basin including where the Quaternary succession is the thickest (>420 m). The results of the study suggest that gas release in the marine environment is likely of thermogenic origin and controlled by one or several of the following

  8. Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to develop community-driven health programmes in an Indigenous community in Canada.

    PubMed

    Willows, Noreen; Dyck Fehderau, David; Raine, Kim D

    2016-09-01

    Indigenous First Nations people in Canada have high chronic disease morbidity resulting in part from enduring social inequities and colonialism. Obesity prevention strategies developed by and for First Nations people are crucial to improving the health status of this group. The research objective was to develop community-relevant strategies to address childhood obesity in a First Nations community. Strategies were derived from an action-based workshop based on the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Thirteen community members with wide-ranging community representation took part in the workshop. They combined personal knowledge and experience with community-specific and national research to dissect the broad array of environmental factors that influenced childhood obesity in their community. They then developed community-specific action plans focusing on healthy eating and physical activity for children and their families. Actions included increasing awareness of children's health issues among the local population and community leadership, promoting nutrition and physical activity at school, and improving recreation opportunities. Strengthening children's connection to their culture was considered paramount to improving their well-being; thus, workshop participants developed programmes that included elders as teachers and reinforced families' acquaintance with First Nations foods and activities. The research demonstrated that the ANGELO framework is a participatory way to develop community-driven health programmes. It also demonstrated that First Nations people involved in the creation of solutions to health issues in their communities may focus on decolonising approaches such as strengthening their connection to indigenous culture and traditions. External funds were not available to implement programmes and there was no formal follow-up to determine if community members implemented programmes. Future research needs to examine the

  9. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton dynamics in Nunatsiavut fjords (Labrador, Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simo-Matchim, Armelle-Galine; Gosselin, Michel; Blais, Marjolaine; Gratton, Yves; Tremblay, Jean-Éric

    2016-04-01

    We assessed phytoplankton dynamics and its environmental control in four Labrador fjords (Nachvak, Saglek, Okak, and Anaktalak) during summer, early fall and late fall. Primary production and chlorophyll a (chl a) biomass were measured at seven optical depths, including the depth of subsurface chl a maximum (SCM). Phytoplankton abundance, size structure and taxonomy were determined at the SCM. Principal component analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling were used to analyze relationships between production, biomass and community composition in relation to environmental variables. We observed a marked seasonal variability, with significant differences in phytoplankton structure and function between summer and fall. Surprisingly, primary production and chl a biomass were not significantly different from one fjord to another. The highest values of primary production (1730 mg C m- 2 day- 1) and chl a biomass (96 mg chl a m- 2) were measured during the summer bloom, and those high values indicate that Labrador fjords are highly productive ecosystems. The summer community showed relatively high abundance of nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm) while the fall community was characterized by low primary production and chl a biomass as well as relatively high abundance of picophytoplankton (< 2 μm). The low value of carbon potentially exported out of the euphotic zone throughout the study (≤ 31% of total primary production) suggests that phytoplankton production was mainly grazed by microzooplankton rather than being exported to greater depths. We observed a mixed assemblage of diatoms and flagellates in summer, whereas the fall community was largely dominated by flagellates. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics were mainly controlled by the strength of the vertical stratification and by the large differences in day length due to the northerly location of Labrador fjords. This study documents for the very first time phytoplankton structure and function in

  10. Canada issues booklet describing acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A booklet recently released by Environment Canada describes acid rain in terms easily understood by the general public. Although Acid Rain — The Facts tends somewhat to give the Canadian side of this intercountry controversial subject, it nevertheless presents some very interesting, simple statistics of interest to people in either the U.S. or Canada. Copies of the booklet can be obtained from Inquiry Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, tel. 613-997-2800.The booklet points out that acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Once released into the atmosphere, these substances can be carried long distances by prevailing winds and return to Earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust. The main sources of SO2 emissions in North America are coal-fired power generating stations and nonferrous ore smelters. The main sources of NOx emissions are vehicles and fuel combustion. From economical and environmental viewpoints, Canada believes acid rain is one of the most serious problems presently facing the country: increasing the acidity of more than 20% of Canada's 300,000 lakes to the point that aquatic life is depleted and acidity of soil water and shallow groundwater is increasing, causing decline in forest growth and water fowl populations, and eating away at buildings and monuments. Acid rain is endangering fisheries, tourism, agriculture, and forest resources in an area of 2.6 million km2 (one million square miles) of eastern Canada, about 8% of Canada's gross national product.

  11. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  12. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  13. Environmental contaminant concentrations in Canada goose (Branta canadensis) muscle: probabilistic risk assessment for human consumers.

    PubMed

    Horak, Katherine; Chipman, Richard; Murphy, Lisa; Johnston, John

    2014-09-01

    The issue of food insecurity affects millions of people in the United States every year. Often these people rely on soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters for proper meals, and these organizations often depend on donations to meet needs. One of the most limited food resources is meat. To help alleviate this problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services donates more than 60 tons of wild game (deer, moose, feral hogs, goats, geese, and ducks) to a variety of charitable organizations each year. Although commercially produced meat routinely undergoes screening for contaminants, potential exposure to environmental contaminants from eating wild game is not well characterized. In this study, the concentration of 17 contaminants of concern in the breast meat of wild geese was examined. These concentrations were then used in a probabilistic model to estimate potential risk associated with consumption of this meat. Based on model predictions, more than 99 % of all adults were below exposure limits for all of the compounds tested. For all consumer age classes modeled, consumption of wild goose meat may expose a small fraction of these populations to levels of lead higher than the recommended exposure limits. Similarly, mercury exposure was predicted to be higher than the recommended limits when the meat was served as steaks. This information about concentrations of contaminants of concern in goose meat and potential exposures associated with meat consumption based on probabilistic models will enable others to make informed decisions about the risks associated with the consumption of wild meat. PMID:25198860

  14. Groundwater Resources Evolution in Degrading Permafrost Environments: A Small Catchment-Scale Study in Northern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molson, John; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Fortier, Richard; Therrien, Rene; Ouellet, Michel; Barth, Johannes; van Geldern, Robert; Cochand, Marion; Sottas, Jonathan; Murray, Renaud; Banville, David

    2015-04-01

    A two square kilometre catchment in a discontinuous permafrost zone near the Inuit community of Umiujaq on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay in Northern Quebec, Canada, is being investigated to determine the impact of permafrost degradation on groundwater resources. The catchment, which became deglaciated about 7500 years ago, lies in a valley which includes about 30-40 m of glacial-fluvial and marine Quaternary sediments. Permafrost mounds at the site extend from a few meters below ground surface to depths of about 10-30 m. Instrumentation has been installed to measure groundwater levels and temperature, as well as groundwater and surface water geochemistry, isotope signatures (including δ18O and 3H) and stream flow. Preliminary groundwater isotope data reflect depleted δ18O signals that differ from expected values for local groundwater, possibly representing permafrost thaw. In addition, stable water isotopes indicate evaporation from shallow thermokarst lakes. Meteorological conditions including air temperatures, precipitation and snowpack are also being monitored. Near-surface geophysical surveys using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization tomography (IPT), georadar and seismic refraction tomography have been carried out to characterize the catchment and to build a 3D geological site model. A numerical model of coupled groundwater flow and heat transport, including thermal advection, conduction, freeze-thaw and latent heat, is being developed for the site to help develop the conceptual model and to assess future impacts of permafrost degradation due to climate warming. The model (Heatflow/3D) includes nonlinear functions for the temperature-dependent unfrozen moisture content and relative permeability, and has been tested against analytical solutions and using benchmarks developed by the INTERFROST modelling consortium. A conceptual 2D vertical-plane model including several permafrost mounds along a 1 km section shows dynamic seasonal

  15. Specialized multi-disciplinary heart failure clinics in Ontario, Canada: an environmental scan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi-disciplinary heart failure (HF) clinics have been shown to improve outcomes for HF patients in randomized clinical trials. However, it is unclear how widely available specialized HF clinics are in Ontario. Also, the service models of current clinics have not been described. It is therefore uncertain whether the efficacy of HF clinics in trials is generalizable to the HF clinics currently operating in the province. Methods As part of a comprehensive evaluation of HF clinics in Ontario, we performed an environmental scan to identify all HF clinics operating in 2010. A semi-structured interview was conducted to understand the scope of practice. The intensity and complexity of care offered were quantified through the use of a validated instrument, and clinics were categorized as high, medium or low intensity clinics. Results We identified 34 clinics with 143 HF physicians. We found substantial regional disparity in access to care across the province. The majority of HF physicians were cardiologists (81%), with 81% of the clinics physically based in hospitals, of which 26% were academic centers. There was a substantial range in the complexity of services offered, most notably in the intensity of education and medication management services offered. All the clinics focused on ambulatory care, with only one having an in-patient focus. None of the HF clinics had a home-based component to care. Conclusions Multiple HF clinics are currently operating in Ontario with a wide spectrum of care models. Further work is necessary to understand which components lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:22863276

  16. Valued ecosystem components for watershed cumulative effects: an analysis of environmental impact assessments in the South Saskatchewan River watershed, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Murray A; Noble, Bram F; Dubé, Monique G

    2013-07-01

    The accumulating effects of human development are threatening water quality and availability. In recognition of the constraints to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) under traditional environmental impact assessment (EIA), there is an emerging body of research dedicated to watershed-based cumulative effects assessment (WCEA). To advance the science of WCEA, however, a standard set of ecosystem components and indicators is required that can be used at the watershed scale, to inform effects-based understanding of cumulative change, and at the project scale, to inform regulatory-based project based impact assessment and mitigation. A major challenge, however, is that it is not clear how such ecosystem components and indicators for WCEA can or should be developed. This study examined the use of aquatic ecosystem components and indicators in EIA practice in the South Saskatchewan River watershed, Canada, to determine whether current practice at the project scale could be "scaled up" to support ecosystem component and indicator development for WCEA. The hierarchy of assessment components and indicators used in a sample of 35 environmental impact assessments was examined and the factors affecting aquatic ecosystem component selection and indicator use were identified. Results showed that public environmental impact statements are not necessarily publically accessible, thus limiting opportunities for data and information sharing from the project to the watershed scale. We also found no consistent terminology across the sample of impact statements, thus making comparison of assessment processes and results difficult. Regulatory compliance was found to be the dominant factor influencing the selection of ecosystem components and indicators for use in project assessment, rather than scientific reasoning, followed by the mandate of the responsible government agency for the assessment, public input to the assessment process, and preexisting water licensing arrangements external

  17. Fuel, environmental, and transmission pricing considerations in a deregulated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obessis, Emmanouil Vlassios

    The 1992 National Energy Policy Act drastically changed the traditional structure of the vertically integrated utility. To facilitate increased competition in the power utility sector, all markets related to power generation have been opened to free competition and trading. To survive in the new competitive environment, power producers need to reduce costs and increase efficiency. Fuel marketing strategies are thus, getting more aggressive and fuel markets are becoming more competitive, offering more options regarding fuel supplies and contracts. At the same time, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are taking effect. Although tightening the emission standards, this legislation offers utilities a wider flexibility in choosing compliance strategies. It also set maximum annual allowable levels replacing the traditional uniform maximum emission rates. The bill also introduced the concept of marketable emission allowances and provided for the establishment of nationwide markets where allowances may be traded, sold, or purchased. Several fuel- and emission-constrained algorithms have been historically presented, but those two classes of constraints, in general, were handled independently. The multiobjective optimization model developed in this research work, concurrently satisfies sets of detailed fuel and emission limits, modeling in a more accurate way the fuel supply and environmental limitations and their complexities in the new deregulated operational environment. Development of the implementation software is an integral part of this research project. This software may be useful for both daily scheduling activities and short-term operational planning. A Lagrangian multipliers-based variant is used to solve the problem. Single line searches are used to update the multipliers, thus offering attractive execution times. This work also investigates the applicability of cooperative games to the problem of transmission cost allocation. Interest in game theory as a powerful

  18. Applying an Ecohealth Perspective in a State of the Environment Report: Experiences of a Local Public Health Unit in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Steven; Leffley, Alanna; Cole, Donald C.

    2014-01-01

    We applied an Ecohealth perspective into a State of the Environment report for Grey Bruce Health Unit and summarized environmental and health data relevant for public health practice. We aimed for comprehensiveness in our data compilation, including: standard media categories (e.g., air, water, land); and ecological indicators (e.g., vectors, forests, wetlands). Data sources included both primary (collected by an organization) and secondary (assembled by others). We organized indicators with the Driving forces-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework created by the World Health Organization. Indicators of air, water and land quality generally appeared to point towards a healthy state. Vector-borne diseases remained low. Forests and wetlands appeared to be in good condition, however more monitoring data was needed to determine trends in their ecological indicators. Data were not available on biodiversity and fish conditions. The results of our application of the DPSEEA framework suggest that routinely collected environmental and health data can be structured into the framework, though challenges arose due to gaps in data availability, particularly for social and gender analyses. Ecohealth approaches had legitimacy with broader healthy community partners but applying such approaches was a complex undertaking. PMID:25546271

  19. Applying an Ecohealth perspective in a state of the environment report: experiences of a local public health unit in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lam, Steven; Leffley, Alanna; Cole, Donald C

    2015-01-01

    We applied an Ecohealth perspective into a State of the Environment report for Grey Bruce Health Unit and summarized environmental and health data relevant for public health practice. We aimed for comprehensiveness in our data compilation, including: standard media categories (e.g., air, water, land); and ecological indicators (e.g., vectors, forests, wetlands). Data sources included both primary (collected by an organization) and secondary (assembled by others). We organized indicators with the Driving forces-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework created by the World Health Organization. Indicators of air, water and land quality generally appeared to point towards a healthy state. Vector-borne diseases remained low. Forests and wetlands appeared to be in good condition, however more monitoring data was needed to determine trends in their ecological indicators. Data were not available on biodiversity and fish conditions. The results of our application of the DPSEEA framework suggest that routinely collected environmental and health data can be structured into the framework, though challenges arose due to gaps in data availability, particularly for social and gender analyses. Ecohealth approaches had legitimacy with broader healthy community partners but applying such approaches was a complex undertaking. PMID:25546271

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

  1. Training Environmental Education Stakeholders for an Environment-Friendly Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeanya, Emmanuel Nwabueze

    2003-01-01

    A needs assessment of professionals in Nigerian social conservation clubs (n=37) and state environmental protection agencies (n=37) indicated that they are not adequately prepared to implement environmental education and public awareness programs. Specifically, they lack knowledge of major environmental problems, appropriate training methods, and…

  2. Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known?

    PubMed

    Burke, C M; Montevecchi, W A; Wiese, F K

    2012-08-15

    Petroleum exploration and production on the Grand Bank of eastern Canada overlaps with productive marine habitat that supports over 40 million marine birds annually. Environmental assessments for oil and gas projects in the region predict insignificant adverse effects on marine birds from oil spills, incineration in platform flares and collisions. Limited baseline data on seasonal occupancies and a failure to quantify the nature and extent of marine bird attraction to platforms and related mortality undermines these assessments. We conducted 22 surveys to offshore platforms on the Grand Bank during 1999-2003 to measure avian associations with platforms and to determine the level of monitoring needed to assess the risks to marine birds. We document seasonal shifts in marine bird occurrences and higher densities of auks (fall) and shearwaters (summer) around platforms relative to surrounding areas. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of our surveys is more robust than existing industry monitoring efforts, yet it is still inadequate to quantify the scale of marine bird associations with platforms or their associated mortality risks. Systematic observations by independent biologists on vessels and platforms are needed to generate reliable assessments of risks to marine birds. Instead, the regulatory body for offshore oil and gas in eastern Canada (Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board; C-NLOPB) supports industry self-reporting as the accepted form of environmental monitoring. Conflicting responsibilities of oil and gas regulatory agencies for both energy development and environmental monitoring are major barriers to transparency, unbiased scientific inquiry and adequate environmental protection. Similar conflicts with the oil and gas regulatory body in the United States, the former Minerals and Management Service (MMS) were identified by the U.S. President as a major contributor to the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. The

  3. Multi-Scale Brightness Temperatures Over Snow Covered Northern Boreal and Tundra Environments: A Comparison of Results From Canada and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derksen, C.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Pulliainen, J.; Strapp, W.; Walker, A.; Hallikainen, M.

    2006-12-01

    The winter season land cover in Finland and large portions of northern Canada are very similar: a latitudinal evolution from closed canopy forest to open canopy forest to open tundra, all with a persistent snow cover. It is similarly important to both nations to retrieve timely and spatially continuous information on snow water equivalent (SWE) for issues such as flood forecasting and reservoir management for hydropower generation. In both countries, satellite passive microwave data are utilized to provide operational information on snow depth and SWE throughout the snow cover season. Airborne passive microwave surveys conducted independently across Finland and western Canada have provided the opportunity to assess the level of similarity in snowpack physical properties and brightness temperature response in these two countries. In Canada, flights occurred across the Northwest Territories (April 2005) and northern Manitoba (March 2006). Environment Canada radiometers (6.9, 19, 37, and 89 GHz) were mounted on the National Research Council Twin Otter aircraft. Long transect flight lines were flown from southern to northern Finland in March 2005 and 2006, with the Helsinki University of Technology Radiometer system (HUTRAD; 6.8, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, 94 GHz) mounted on a SC-7 Skyvan aircraft. Detailed surface snow cover measurements (SWE, depth, density, stratigraphy, grain size) were acquired coincidentally to all flights in both countries. A primary objective of these campaigns was to determine the influence of sub-satellite scale heterogeneity on brightness temperatures. Because comparable forest inventory datasets were not available in both countries, forest transmissivity estimates were produced from MODIS imagery in order to examine vegetation effects. A reduction in 37V-19V brightness temperature difference with decreased forest transmissivity was consistent in both datasets, and clearly illustrated the impact of forest vegetation density on brightness

  4. Drama and Environment: Joining Forces to Engage Children and Young People in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David J.; Howden, Mark; Curtis, Fran; McColm, Ian; Scrine, Juliet; Blomfield, Thor; Reeve, Ian; Ryan, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Engaging and exciting students about the environment remains a challenge in contemporary society, even while objective measures show the rapid state of the world's environment declining. To illuminate the integration of drama and environmental education as a means of engaging students in environmental issues, the work of performance companies…

  5. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  6. NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) - NASA's key to environmental technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beth

    1993-01-01

    NOET is a NASA-wide team which supports the research and development community by sharing information both in person and via a computerized network, assisting in specification and standard revisions, developing cleaner propulsion systems, and exploring environmentally compliant alternatives to current processes. NOET's structure, dissemination of materials, electronic information, EPA compliance, specifications and standards, and environmental research and development are discussed.

  7. The World Around Them; Environmental Education in the Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ernest L.

    This manual is a teacher's guide to environmental study activities for intermediate grade students in urban areas. It is divided into four color coded sections: A City Block-An Environmental Design; The Streets of the City; Noise Pollution; and Student Worksheets and Study Guides. Each of these sections presents objectives, generalizations, and…

  8. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  9. 77 FR 47622 - TransCanada Hydro Northeast Inc.; FirstLight Power Resources; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... No. 1889-000 Massachusetts] TransCanada Hydro Northeast Inc.; FirstLight Power Resources; Notice of... operated by FirstLight Power Resources in Massachusetts (Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric... Hunt Road, Vernon VT 05354. FirstLight's Projects FirstLight will bus attendees from the...

  10. Children's Environmental Health: 2007 Highlights. Environment, Health, and a Focus on Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 to protect human health and the environment. The year 2007 marks 10 years of concerted Federal effort to address children's environmental health risks as mandated by Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. Much of the agency's…

  11. Computer Cache. Environmental Protection: Websites on the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    "Give a hoot, don't pollute!" "Save the environment!" "Save the Whales!" Ranger Rick. Recycle. These are all well-known phrases and emblems of the fight to "protect the environment." Young children seem to understand almost intuitively the need to do those simple things that will make the Earth a better place to live and play. However, especially…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ABSTRACTS. SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS RESEARCH PUBLICATION NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LARSON, C. THEODORE

    A COLLECTION OF ANNOTATED ABSTRACTS PRESENTING THE REFERENCE DOCUMENTS WHICH WERE SELECTED BY THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH PROJECT. THEY REVIEW THE EXISTING LITERATURE OFFERING SIGNIFICANT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE VARIOUS RELATIONSHIPS THAT LINK ENVIRONMENT WITH HUMAN BEHAVIOR. THE INDIVIDUAL ABSTRACTS WILL PROVIDE OTHERS INTERESTED IN THIS AREA OF…

  13. Risky health environments: women sex workers' struggles to find safe, secure and non-exploitative housing in Canada's poorest postal code.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

    2011-12-01

    This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women's agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated 'enabling environments' where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public

  14. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G.; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Background Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design Review. Results Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements. PMID:23986896

  15. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  16. Breast cancer risk, fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A gene-environment interactions in a province-wide case control study in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; VanLeeuwen, John; Cribb, Alastair; Andreou, Pantelis; Guernsey, Judith Read

    2012-05-01

    Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI) Canada. Specific objectives were: (1) to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2) to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46-1.17). Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research. PMID:22754477

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS: STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Purpose: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving in the direction of measuring and assessing human health and ecological outcomes. The new "outcome" measures complement the more traditional approaches by more closely reflecting the actual public health...

  18. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environment Studies, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books, articles, films, and organizations dealing with the earth and environmental studies. In addition to the above topics of a general nature, specific categories include food, natural resources, origin of life, recycling, and wastes. Items are indexed only by title but information…

  19. Investigating Your Environment: Teaching Materials for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Included in this set of environmental education materials for secondary school students are six lesson plans. Each lesson plan has six components: (1) suggestions for setting the stage; (2) individual or group activities; (3) task cards; (4) charts and tables to be used for data interpretation; (5) suggested questions, discussions, and summaries;…

  20. The Reliability of Environmental Measures of the College Alcohol Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Whitney, Mike; Shillington, Audrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the inter-rater reliability of two environmental scanning tools designed to identify alcohol-related advertisements targeting college students. Inter-rater reliability for these forms varied across different rating categories and ranged from poor to excellent. Suggestions for future research are addressed. (Contains 26 references and 6…

  1. Knowing and Using Your Environment. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit is intended to help students become aware of overall relationships and interactions that exist between the various segments of the environment. The unit consists of four topics: (1) Geology--The geological history of the earth as illustrated by fossils; (2) Plants and Animals--the role and interactions of plants and animals in the…

  2. EXPLORING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN A HIGHLY IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geography inherently fills a 3D space and yet we struggle with displaying geography using, primaarily, 2D display devices. Virtual environments offer a more realistically-dimensioned display space and this is being realized in the expanding area of research on 3D Geographic Infor...

  3. Genotype x environment interaction, environmental heterogeneity, and the lek paradox

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial additive genetic variance (VA) often exists for male signaling traits in spite of the directional selection that female choice imposes. One solution to this problem, generally termed the ‘lek paradox’, is that genotype x environment interaction (GEI) occurs and generates a ‘crossover’ of...

  4. Initial environmental impacts of the Obed Mountain coal mine process water spill into the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Schwindt, Colin; Davies, Martin; Donahue, William F; Azim, Ekram

    2016-07-01

    On October 31, 2013, a catastrophic release of approximately 670,000m(3) of coal process water occurred as the result of the failure of the wall of a post-processing settling pond at the Obed Mountain Mine near Hinton, Alberta. A highly turbid plume entered the Athabasca River approximately 20km from the mine, markedly altering the chemical composition of the Athabasca River as it flowed downstream. The released plume traveled approximately 1100km downstream to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in approximately four weeks, and was tracked both visually and using real-time measures of river water turbidity within the Athabasca River. The plume initially contained high concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); some Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmental (CCME) Guidelines were exceeded in the initial days after the spill. Subsequent characterization of the source material revealed elevated concentrations of both metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) and PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). While toxicity testing using the released material indicated a relatively low or short-lived acute risk to the aquatic environment, some of the water quality and sediment quality variables are known carcinogens and have the potential to exert negative long-term impacts. PMID:27017080

  5. Environment, health, socioeconomics and environmental control technology. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.

    1980-10-01

    This report summarizes the important findings of a two-volume report that deals with the potential impacts and environmental controls associated with the operation of geothermal power plants in California's Imperial Valley. The valley contains nearly a third of the nation's total energy potential for identified hot-water resources. Possible impacts of developing those resources include violation of air quality standards if emissions of hydrogen sulfide are not abated, negative ecological effects resulting from increased in the salinity of the Salton Sea, and damage to irrigation systems caused by land subsidence induced by the extraction of geothermal fluids. Other minor impacts concern occupational health and safety, socioeconomics, and hazardous wastes. Analyses of environmental impacts and the control measures for minimizing negative impacts are based primarily on a projected production of 3000 MW of electrical power by the year 2010.

  6. Spacecraft-environment interaction: The environmental plasma aspect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samir, U.

    1985-01-01

    The effects involved in the interaction between an obstacle and a space plasma can be divided into: (1) effects on the obstacle itselt (i.e., its charging); and (2) effects on the environmental plasma due to the motion of the obstacle (i.e., the creation of shocks ahead of the obstacle and complicated wakes behind the obstacle). In the wake (or antisolar direction), plasma oscillations are excited and instabilities, wave-particle interactions, turbulence, etc., are believed to take place. The effects on the obstacle and on the environmental space plasma are coupled. Hence, simultaneous solutions to the Vlasov (or Boltzmann) and Poisson equations are sought. To obtain realistic solutions of practical use, three-dimensional and time-dependent models of the interaction are needed. Achieving the latter is indeed not simple.

  7. Calorie Offsets: Environmental Policy for the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity continues to challenge the public’s health, effective policy solutions are wanting. Borrowing from environmental protection efforts, we explored the potential for a “calorie offset” regulatory mechanism, which is similar to the carbon emission offsets used to curb greenhouse gas emissions, to mitigate the harmful health externalities of unhealthy food production. This approach might have a number of advantages over traditional policy tools, and warrants attention from health policymakers and industry alike. PMID:26066923

  8. Earthcycles: Environmental Education with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Webber, Mavis

    Early childhood educators and parents face the task of educating young children in Canada about environmental issues. The sooner young children participate in activities with an environmental theme, the more likely they are to appreciate the environment. This booklet is designed to introduce early childhood educators to environmental education…

  9. Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research

    PubMed Central

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J.; Mason, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27322303

  10. Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research.

    PubMed

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J; Mason, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27322303

  11. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  12. Impact of healthy work environments on new graduate nurses' environmental reality shock.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Brewer, Brewer B; Maguire, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    Do healthy work environments (HWEs) facilitate new graduate transition into professional practice in hospitals? Are such environments related to a decrease in Environmental Reality Shock? Experienced nurses in 17 Magnet hospitals completed the Essentials of Magnetism II(©) (EOMII(©)) instrument that measures health of unit work environments. New graduates (N = 468) were then tracked with modified versions of the EOMII(©) from immediate post hire to 4, 8, and 12 months post hire to ascertain degree of Environmental Reality Shock. New graduate nurses have extremely high anticipations of unit work environments that would enable delivery of quality patient care. HWE is the most-significant variable in Environmental Reality Shock, number of related Issues and Concerns, and perceptions of quality of patient care. Suggestions of how to improve quality of unit work environments are offered. PMID:21498813

  13. Developing Preservice Science Teachers' Self-Determined Motivation toward Environment through Environmental Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop pre-service science teachers' self-determined motivation toward environment before, after and five months following the environmental course activities guided by self-determination theory. The sample of the study was 33 pre-service science teachers who participated in an environmental science course. This…

  14. The Environmentalism of University Students: Their Ethical Attitudes toward the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    The study tries to determine the environmentalism of university students based on their attitudes towards the environment. The present study was carried out among 220 senior students studying in various departments in 2007-2008 academic year. The data were collected through an "Environmental Ethics" scale developed by the researcher and were…

  15. Environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design for benzene-contaminated groundwater under parameter uncertainty: a case study in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; He, L; Lu, H W; Li, J

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design approach for benzene-contaminated groundwater. It involves exposure frequency and intake rates that are important but difficult to be exactly quantified as breakthrough point. Flexible health-risk control is considered in the simulation and optimization work. The proposed approach is then applied to a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Different situations about remediation durations, public concerns, and satisfactory degrees are addressed by the approach. The relationship between environmental standards and health-risk limits is analyzed, in association with their effect on remediation costs. Insights of three uncertain factors (i.e. exposure frequency, intake rate and health-risk threshold) for the remediation system are also explored, on a basis of understanding their impacts on health risk as well as their importance order. The case study results show that (1) nature attenuation plays a more important role in long-term remediation scheme than the pump-and-treat system; (2) carcinogenic risks have greater impact on total pumping rates than environmental standards for long-term remediation; (3) intake rates are the second important factor affecting the remediation system's performance, followed by exposure frequency; (4) the 10-year remediation scheme is the most robust choice when environmental and health-risk concerns are not well quantified. PMID:24997972

  16. The Balance of Lifekind: An Introduction to the Notion of Human Environment. Environmental Education Series 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Environmental Education.

    Based upon the notion that the study of the environment should include attempts to articulate concepts related to the natural, social and cultural dimensions of the human environment, this learning module was developed for Unesco's International Environmental Education Programme. It is intended for use at the secondary school level and contains…

  17. A Model Supported Interactive Virtual Environment for Natural Resource Sharing in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbalios, N.; Ioannidou, I.; Tzionas, P.; Paraskeuopoulos, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a realistic 3D model supported virtual environment for environmental education, that highlights the importance of water resource sharing by focusing on the tragedy of the commons dilemma. The proposed virtual environment entails simulations that are controlled by a multi-agent simulation model of a real ecosystem consisting…

  18. RESEARCH ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT BY THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on Endocrine Disrupters in the Aquatic Environment by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Abstract). Presented at the Endocrine Disrupters Workshop sponsored by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 8-9 September 2001, Weymouth, UK. 1 p...

  19. Environmental justice: building a unified vision of health and the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The assorted and multidimensional concerns that give rise to the issue of environmental justice have proved to be intellectually daunting and highly resistant to positive change. Low-income, people of color, and tribal communities confronting environmental stressors are beset by stressors in both the physical and social environments. For this reason, while the bifurcation of the public health and environmental fields taking place over the past several decades has yielded generally negative impacts in areas of public health, environment, and planning, the consequences for low-income and disadvantaged communities have been especially grievous. This commentary builds on the recent Institute of Medicine workshop titled "Rebuilding the Unity of Health and the Environment: A New Vision of Environmental Health for the 21st Century." The workshop organizers posited that only by thinking about environmental health on multiple levels will it be possible to merge various strategies to protect both the environment and health. In this commentary we examine how such a new vision of uniting public health and the environment can contribute to attaining environmental justice for all populations. PMID:11929721

  20. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  1. Correlated Paleoseismic Interpretation of Turbidites from 3 Distinct Sedimentary Environments in the Cascadia Subduction Zone Off Vancouver Island Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkin, R. J.; Hamilton, T. S.; Rogers, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sedimentary sequences containing turbidites can provide important paleoseismic records. We present sedimentary records from 3 distinct sedimentary systems which provide a reliable well-dated paleseismic record. All 3 sites are subject to strong ground shaking in the event of a megathrust earthquake along the Cascadia Subduction Zone near Vancouver Island, Canada. Effingham Inlet is an anoxic fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island with an age model based on radiocarbon dates from terrestrial plant material (no marine correction), the Mazama Ash, and sedimentation rates constrained by annual laminations [Dallimore et al. 2008, Enkin et al., 2013]. Barkley Canyon [Goldfinger et al., 2012], 150 km SW, has been sampled at the abyssal plain fan in front of a submarine canyon. Slipstream Slump [ms submitted], 40 km north of Barkley Canyon, is a well-preserved 3 km wide sedimentary failure from the frontal ridge of the Cascadia accretionary wedge. At Slipstream, given the 2300 m water depth and the thin weak crust at the outer edge of the accretionary wedge, megathrust earthquake shaking is the most likely trigger for the turbidity currents, with sediments sourced exclusively from the exposed slide scar. Correlations based on sedimentology and physical property logging are made between turbidites observed at Barkley Canyon and Slipstream Slump, and a mutually consistent age model is defined using only planktonic foraminiferal dates and Bayesian analysis with a Poisson-process sedimentation model. A young marine reservoir age of ΔR=0 yr brings the top to the present and produces age correlations consistent with the thickest (>10 cm) Effingham Inlet turbidites. Correlations of physical property logs tie the Effingham Inlet record to the offshore, despite the extreme differences in the sedimentology. Having good marine geophysical data and well positioned core transects allows the facies analysis needed to interpret the turbidite record. This study provides a much

  2. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort. PMID:26344491

  3. Environmental Change in the Prelude to a Neoproterozoic Ice Age: Sulfur Isotope Evidence from the Shaler Supergroup, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Williams, B. P.; Johnston, D. T.; Farquhar, J.; Knoll, A. H.; Butterfield, N. J.; Rainbird, R.

    2006-05-01

    The >723 Ma Shaler Supergroup on Victoria Island in the Northwest Territories of Canada is unusual for marginal marine Neoproterozoic successions insofar as thickly bedded sulfate evaporites are preserved. This unique sedimentary window for the Neoproterozoic allows us to investigate isotopic changes in the oxidized sulfur reservoir in the run up to a potential ice age, which is evidenced by a strong negative δ13C excursion in Kilian Formation carbonates at the top of the interval. Similar carbon isotope anomalies are recorded in carbonates beneath glacial diamictites of broadly the same age from the Mackenzie Mountains in Canada and in the Otavi Group of northern Namibia. Stratigraphically coincident with the 8‰ drop in 13C abundances in the Kilian Formation is a 15‰ rise in 34S of bedded sulfates, to a maximum of near +30‰. Anti-correlated isotope trends of smaller magnitude are recorded in mixed carbonates and evaporites at the top of the underlying Minto Inlet Formation. Comparison of 33S and 34S abundances of Shaler sulfates with values modeled from the results of culture experiments suggests that both anaerobic sulfate reducers and aerobic sulfur disproportionators populated the shallow open ocean. Notably, the profound 34S enrichment in the Kilian Formation is not coupled with similar enrichments in 33S. This observation is consistent with a system primarily driven by an increase in pyrite burial. Given the presence of shallow marine evaporites it is unlikely that sulfate concentrations were limited at this time. We hypothesize that this flux was enhanced during sea level fall at the onset of an ensuing ice age by the spread of anoxic conditions in deep oceans populated by sulfate reducing bacteria.

  4. Influence of Environmental Factors on Feammox Activity in Soil Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) under iron reducing conditions, referred to as Feammox, has been described in recent years by several investigators. The environmental characteristics in which the Feammox process occurs need to be understood in order to determine its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, a total of 66 locations were selected covering 4 different types of soils/sediments: wetland soils (W), river sediments (R), forest soils (F), and paddy soils (P) from several locations in central New Jersey, at Tims Branch at Savannah River in South Carolina, both in the Unities States, and at several locations in the Guangdong province in China. Though soil chemical analyses, serial culturing experiments, analysis of microbial communities, and using a canonical correspondence analysis, the occurrence of the Feammox reaction and the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, which plays a key role in the Feammox process(1), were found in 17 samples. Analyses showed that the soil pH, as well as its Fe(III) and NH4+ content were the most important factors controlling the distribution of these Feammox microorganisms. Based on the results, soils in the subtropical forests and soils that are near agricultural areas could be Feammox hotspot. Under the conditions that favor the presence and activity of Feammox microorganisms and their oxidation of NH4+, denitrification bacteria were also active. However, the presence of nitrous oxide (N2O) reducers was limited under these conditions, implying that at locations where the Feammox process is active, conditions are favoring a higher ratio of N2O: N2 as the nitrogen (N) end products. Incubations of soils where the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected, were conducted for 120 days under two different DO levels (DO < 0.02 mg/L and DO = 0.8~1.0 mg/L) showing comparable amounts of NH4+ oxidation. In the incubations with DO < 0.02 mg/L, the proportion of Acidimicrobiaceae bacteria increased and

  5. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity and environmental tolerance of a labile quantitative character in a fluctuating environment.

    PubMed

    Lande, R

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative genetic models of evolution of phenotypic plasticity are used to derive environmental tolerance curves for a population in a changing environment, providing a theoretical foundation for integrating physiological and community ecology with evolutionary genetics of plasticity and norms of reaction. Plasticity is modelled for a labile quantitative character undergoing continuous reversible development and selection in a fluctuating environment. If there is no cost of plasticity, a labile character evolves expected plasticity equalling the slope of the optimal phenotype as a function of the environment. This contrasts with previous theory for plasticity influenced by the environment at a critical stage of early development determining a constant adult phenotype on which selection acts, for which the expected plasticity is reduced by the environmental predictability over the discrete time lag between development and selection. With a cost of plasticity in a labile character, the expected plasticity depends on the cost and on the environmental variance and predictability averaged over the continuous developmental time lag. Environmental tolerance curves derived from this model confirm traditional assumptions in physiological ecology and provide new insights. Tolerance curve width increases with larger environmental variance, but can only evolve within a limited range. The strength of the trade-off between tolerance curve height and width depends on the cost of plasticity. Asymmetric tolerance curves caused by male sterility at high temperature are illustrated. A simple condition is given for a large transient increase in plasticity and tolerance curve width following a sudden change in average environment. PMID:24724972

  6. Magnetic susceptibility evolution and sedimentary environments on carbonate platform sediments and atolls, comparison of the Frasnian from Belgium and Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Anne-Christine; Potma, Ken; Weissenberger, John A. W.; Whalen, Michael T.; Humblet, Marc; Mabille, Cédric; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2009-02-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on carbonate rocks are considered as a proxy for impurities delivered to the carbonate environments. In the absence of strong climatic or tectonic variations, bulk MS values have been linked to sea level variations, because sea-level fall increases clastic supply and therefore increases in magnetic mineral deposition. In this paper we explore the relationship between the average magnitude of bulk MS, with shallowing-up sequences and facies evolution in different Devonian carbonate complexes. Similarities and differences between these parameters have been scrutinized in carbonate attached platform and detached platforms (mounds and/or atolls) from Belgium and Canada. In the carbonate attached platforms from Belgium and Canada, the MS patterns are directly related to depositional environment. Mean MS values increase from the most distal towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of the majority of fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. These trends are in agreement with theoretical background (MS increases with regression). In the Belgian detached platform, the average MS pattern generally shows an opposite behaviour to that observed in the attached carbonate platforms. Average MS decreases towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of a majority of the fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. This behaviour can be explained by the influence of sedimentary rate and water agitation during deposition. A high sedimentary rate will dilute the magnetic minerals in the atoll facies and the high water agitation during deposition may be expected to have prevented the deposition of the magnetic grains. So, the combination of these two effects will result in the observed low values in the atoll crown and lagoonal facies. In the Canadian detached platform, MS is mainly negative. This means that the limestones are very pure. The technique does not appear to be appropriate in these rocks. The variations of average MS

  7. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. Methods As part of the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Program, 773 British Columbia fifth-and sixth-grade school children (Mean age 11.3 years; range 10.3-12.5) and their parents were surveyed to determine FV consumption and overall dietary intake. Students completed a web-based 24-hour dietary food recall, and a student measure of socio-economic status (The Family Affluence Scale). Parents completed a self-administered survey about their education, income, home environment and perceptions of their neighbourhood and children’s eating habits. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between SES, parental and home environment factors and FV consumption. Results Approximately 85.8% of children in this study failed to meet minimum Canadian guidelines for FV intake (6 servings). Parent income and education were not significantly associated with child FV consumption but were associated with each other, child-reported family affluence, neighbourhood environment, access to FV, and eating at the table or in front of the television. Significant positive associations were found between FV consumption and child-reported family affluence, meal-time habits, neighbourhood environment and parent perceptions of the healthiness of their child’s diet; however, these correlations were weak (ranging from .089-.115). Multiple regression analysis showed that only child-reported family affluence significantly predicted FV consumption (std-β = 0.096 95% CI = 0.01 to 0

  8. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  9. Strong species-environment feedback shapes plant community assembly along environmental gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    An aim of community ecology is to understand the patterns of competing species assembly along environmental gradients. All species interact with their environments. However, theories of community assembly have seldom taken into account the effects of species that are able to engineer the environment. In this modeling study, we integrate the species' engineering trait together with processes of immigration and local dispersal into a theory of community assembly. We quantify the species' engineering trait as the degree to which it can move the local environment away from its baseline state towards the optimum state of the species (species-environment feedback). We find that, in the presence of immigration from a regional pool, strong feedback can increase local species richness; however, in the absence of continual immigration, species richness is a declining function of the strength of species-environment feedback. This shift from a negative effect of engineering strength on species richness to a positive effect, as immigration rate increases, is clearer when there is spatial heterogeneity in the form of a gradient in environmental conditions than when the environment is homogeneous or it is randomly heterogeneous. Increasing the scale over which local dispersal occurs can facilitate species richness when there is no species-environment feedback or when the feedback is weak. However, increases in the spatial scale of dispersal can reduce species richness when the species-environment feedback is strong. These results expand the theoretical basis for understanding the effects of the strength of species-environment feedback on community assembly.

  10. The use of the National Research Council of Canada's Falcon 20 research aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research: Challenges and suggested solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Keaney, M. A.; Bentz, K.; Groleau, M.; Tyssen, M.; Keyte, J.; Ball, C. G.; Campbell, M. R.; Grenon, S. M.; McBeth, P.; Broderick, T. J.

    2010-03-01

    Emergency surgery will be needed to prevent death if humans are used to explore beyond low earth's orbit. Laparoscopic surgery (LS) is envisioned as a less invasive option for space, but will induce further stresses and complicate logistical requirements. Thus, further study into the technology and physiology of LS in weightlessness is required. We recently utilized the National Research Council of Canada's Flight Research Laboratory's Falcon 20 aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research. The Falcon 20 had never been used for this purpose nor had the involved teams collaborated previously. There were many process challenges including the lack of antecedent surgical studies on this aircraft, a requirement for multiple disciplines who were unfamiliar and geographically distant from each other, flight performance limitations with the Falcon 20, complex animal care requirements, requirements for prototypical in-flight life-support surgical suites, financial limitations, and a need to use non-flight hardened technologies. Stepwise suggested solutions to these challenges are outlined as guidelines for future investigators intending similar research. Overall, the Falcon 20 TASE, backed by the flight resources, especially the design and fabrication capabilities of the NRC-FRL, provide investigators with a versatile and responsive opportunity to pursue research into advanced medical techniques that will be needed to save lives during space exploration.

  11. Establishing an EnvironMentors Project to Guide Minority Students into Science, Technology, and Environmental Careers

    SciTech Connect

    Montague, W. E.

    2003-01-24

    This report of the EnvironMentors Project (TEP) for the period February 1994 through December 1998, provides a summary of activities at our program sites and of our overall organizational accomplishments. Notably, the EnvironMentors Project matched 506 teens from under-resourced neighborhoods in Washington (DC), Trenton (NJ), and Baltimore (MD) with mentors, engaged more than 1,600 members of the public in informative discussions of environmental research, and presented interactive environmental education lessons to approximately 5,700 elementary and middle school children.

  12. Environmental exposure modeling and monitoring of human pharmaceutical concentrations in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Versteeg, D.J.; Alder, A. C.; Cunningham, V. L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Murray-Smith, R.; Ternes, T.

    2005-01-01

    Human pharmaceuticals are receiving increased attention as environmental contaminants. This is due to their biological activity and the number of monitoring programs focusing on analysis of these compounds in various environmental media and compartments. Risk assessments are needed to understand the implications of reported concentrations; a fundamental part of the risk assessment is an assessment of environmental exposures. The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance on the use of predictive tools (e.g., models) and monitoring data in exposure assessments for pharmaceuticals in the environment. Methods to predict environmental concentrations from equations based on first principles are presented. These equations form the basis of existing GIS (geographic information systems)-based systems for understanding the spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals in the environment. The pharmaceutical assessment and transport (PhATE), georeferenced regional exposure assessment tool for European rivers (GREAT-ER), and geographical information system (GIS)-ROUT models are reviewed and recommendations are provided concerning the design and execution of monitoring studies. Model predictions and monitoring data are compared to evaluate the relative utility of each approach in environmental exposure assessments. In summary, both models and monitoring data can be used to define representative exposure concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment in support of environmental risk assessments.

  13. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  14. The Environmental Data Book: A Guide to Statistics on the Environment and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheram, Katherine

    This book presents statistics on countries with populations of more than 1 million related to the quality of the environment, economic development, and how each is affected by the other. Sometimes called indicators, the statistics are measures of environmental, economic, and social conditions in developing and industrial countries. The book is…

  15. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  16. "Holding Environments": Creating Spaces to Support Children's Environmental Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen

    2004-01-01

    For many children across the globe, whether in low or high income nations, growing up in the 21st century will mean living in overcrowded, unsafe and polluted environments which provide limited opportunity for natural play and environmental learning. Yet Agenda 21, the Habitat Agenda and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child…

  17. The Effects of Interactive Learning Environments on Cooperative Learning Achievement and Student Anxiety in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Soner

    2007-01-01

    All events in the world are caused by chemical events and reactions. One of the most important aims of life chemistry is bringing up individuals who have sensitivity towards the environment and environmental awareness; could apply their learnt knowledge to daily issues and problems; have the ability to comment and adopt their knowledge into…

  18. Environmental planning, ecosystem science, and ecosystem approaches for integrating environment and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slocombe, D. Scott

    1993-05-01

    Currently popular concepts such as sustainable development and sustainability seek the integration of environment and development planning. However, there is little evidence that this integration is occurring in either mainstream development planning or environmental planning. This is a function of the history, philosophies, and evolved roles of both. A brief review of the experience and results of mainstream planning, environmental planning, and ecosystem science suggests there is much in past scientific and professional practice that is relevant to the goal of integrated planning for environment and development, but still such commonly recommended reforms as systems and multidisciplinary approaches, institutional integration, and participatory, goal-oriented processes are rarely achieved. “Ecosystem approaches,” as developed and applied in ecology, human ecology, environmental planning, anthropology, psychology, and other disciplines, may provide a more transdisciplinary route to successful integration of environment and development. Experience with ecosystem approaches is reviewed, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and they are compared to traditional urban and regional planning, environmental planning, and ecosystem science approaches. Ultimately a synthesis of desirable characteristics for a framework to integrate environment and development planning is presented as a guide for future work and a criterion for evaluating existing programs.

  19. The Highland Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.

    The Highland Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)

  20. Man's Effect on the Environment, Teacher's Guide. Environmental Education Unit, Sixth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Rock School District, AR.

    Part of a sequential series of curriculum units in environmental education for grades 4 through 12, this sixth grade curriculum guide focuses on man's effect upon the environment. Extensive classroom activities and field trips introduce the student to population, technology, pollution, natural resources, responsibility, career opportunities, and…

  1. Investigating Your Environment: Teaching Materials for Environmental Education. October 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Included are seven lesson plans for secondary school students: (1) soil investigations; (2) water investigations; (3) forest investigations; (4) investigating some animals and their environment; (5) a land use simulation; (6) investigating the human community; and (7) developing environmental investigations. Each lesson plan has seven components:…

  2. Production, management, and environment symposium: Environmental footprint of livestock production - Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is the introduction to the 2015 Production, Management, and Environment symposium titled “Environmental Footprint of Livestock Production – Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change” that was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the ASAS and ADSA at the Rosen Shingle Creek Resort in...

  3. Orienting in Virtual Environments: How Are Surface Features and Environmental Geometry Weighted in an Orientation Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Debbie M.; Bischof, Walter F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding…

  4. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  5. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  6. Detection vs. selection: integration of genetic, epigenetic and environmental cues in fluctuating environments.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Dall, Sasha R X; Hammerstein, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2016-10-01

    There are many inputs during development that influence an organism's fit to current or upcoming environments. These include genetic effects, transgenerational epigenetic influences, environmental cues and developmental noise, which are rarely investigated in the same formal framework. We study an analytically tractable evolutionary model, in which cues are integrated to determine mature phenotypes in fluctuating environments. Environmental cues received during development and by the mother as an adult act as detection-based (individually observed) cues. The mother's phenotype and a quantitative genetic effect act as selection-based cues (they correlate with environmental states after selection). We specify when such cues are complementary and tend to be used together, and when using the most informative cue will predominate. Thus, we extend recent analyses of the evolutionary implications of subsets of these effects by providing a general diagnosis of the conditions under which detection and selection-based influences on development are likely to evolve and coexist. PMID:27600658

  7. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 1, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2004 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2004. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from these activities. This year, the Site Environmental Report was distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request.

  8. Plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the Cree of northern Quebec, Canada: results from the multi-community environment-and-health study.

    PubMed

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Cote, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nieboer, Evert

    2014-02-01

    Historically, resource development has had negative impacts on the traditional lifestyle of First Nation Cree Communities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In response to the perceived need for fisheries restoration and for managing health concerns associated with environmental pollutants, the Mercury Program in the James Bay Region of Quebec was reconstituted in 2001 and broadened to include a wider range of chemicals of concern. Based on comprehensive surveys of the nine Cree Territory (Eeyou Istchee) communities in this region during the period 2002-2009, blood plasma concentrations are presented of Aroclor 1260, PCB congeners 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 163, 170, 180, 183, and 187, Aldrin, ß-HCH, α-Chlordane, γ-Chlordane, oxy-Chlordane, trans-Nonachlor, cis-Nonachlor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Hexachloro benzene (HCB), Mirex, PBB 153, PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 100, PBDE 153, Toxaphene 26, and Toxaphene 50. The organohalogenated compounds were extracted using solid-phase extraction and cleaned on florisil columns before high resolution HRGC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the large number of contaminant variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables. ANOVA identified significant differences between age groups, with the older participants having higher body burdens of legacy lipophilic contaminants, but not for the PBDEs. In certain female age groups, plasma concentrations of PBDEs were observed to be lower than for males; conversely, DDT was higher. Among communities, concentrations were different (p<0.001) for all contaminants. This work provides a baseline for the James Bay Eeyou Istchee communities who, to varying degrees, rely on food and other resources from the land and therefore are at higher risk of increased body burdens of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PMID:24189104

  9. What role for environmental public health practitioners in promoting healthy built environments?

    PubMed

    Rideout, Karen; Kosatsky, Tom; Lee, Karen K

    2016-01-01

    Spaces that encourage better health are increasingly seen as key to reducing the burden of chronic disease: many larger Canadian public health departments now include built environment (BE) teams, which work with municipalities and land use planners to promote and/or require the development of health-encouraging spaces. In many public health agencies, it is environmental health practitioners who have assumed the new healthy BE role, but at what cost to existing mandates? We argue that reinventing roles to increase BE capacities within environmental health practice would reinforce health protection mandates while building capacity in chronic disease prevention. Significant expansion into the design of healthier built environments may require some reallocation of resources. However, we anticipate that healthier built environments will reduce threats to health and so lessen the need for conventional health protection, while encouraging activities and behaviours that lead to greater population wellness. PMID:27348099

  10. Anti-environmental warfare: protecting the environment during wartime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.O.

    1992-06-19

    This paper analyzes the operational impact resulting from the growing legal and political concerns over the environment during wartime. Current international law and national policies are examined to determine their potential effect on Rules of Engagement, and the resulting operational impact on means and methods of warfare. As illustrated during the recent Persian Gulf War, coalition leaders will be operationally constrained by political demands to protect the environment, and to mitigate ecological destruction caused by an opposing force. These constraints will effect how offensive action is conducted against environmentally sensitive industries including nuclear, chemical and petroleum. Commanders must adhere to the current environmental policies and place more emphasis on the principles of discrimination and military necessity in selecting and striking targets. Concurrently, commanders must balance protecting the environment and the requisite minimum casualties to obtain the objectives and preserve public support.

  11. Energy and Environment Division, Environmental Research Program, annual report FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The primary concern of the Environmental Research Program is the understanding of pollutant formation, transport, and transformation and the impacts of pollutants on the environment. These impacts include global, regional, and local effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and on certain aspects of human health. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1982, research was concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion research, environmental effects of oil shale processing, fresh-water ecology and acid precipitation, trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts, and a continuing survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each research task for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. Strong species-environment feedback shapes plant community assembly along environmental gradients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    An aim of community ecology is to understand the patterns of competing species assembly along environmental gradients. All species interact with their environments. However, theories of community assembly have seldom taken into account the effects of species that are able to engineer the environment. In this modeling study, we integrate the species' engineering trait together with processes of immigration and local dispersal into a theory of community assembly. We quantify the species' engineering trait as the degree to which it can move the local environment away from its baseline state towards the optimum state of the species (species-environment feedback). We find that, in the presence of immigration from a regional pool, strong feedback can increase local species richness; however, in the absence of continual immigration, species richness is a declining function of the strength of species-environment feedback. This shift from a negative effect of engineering strength on species richness to a positive effect, as immigration rate increases, is clearer when there is spatial heterogeneity in the form of a gradient in environmental conditions than when the environment is homogeneous or it is randomly heterogeneous. Increasing the scale over which local dispersal occurs can facilitate species richness when there is no species-environment feedback or when the feedback is weak. However, increases in the spatial scale of dispersal can reduce species richness when the species-environment feedback is strong. These results expand the theoretical basis for understanding the effects of the strength of species-environment feedback on community assembly. PMID:24324863

  13. Loss of Competition in the Outside Host Environment Generates Outbreaks of Environmental Opportunist Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Jani; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism) in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka–Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens. PMID:24244752

  14. Loss of competition in the outside host environment generates outbreaks of environmental opportunist pathogens.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Jani; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism) in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka-Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens. PMID:24244752

  15. Environmental assessment of the compounds from creosote-treated pilings in marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.M.; Butala, J.H.; Webb, D.A.; Wade, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental impact of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment at Moss Landing Harbor, Moss Landing, California. The chemical composition of creosote is critical to its fate and effects in the environment. Therefore, a multiple-stage methodology utilizing column gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector was used for the identification and quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in neat creosote and environmental samples. The risk assessment of 46 PAHs (water soluble fraction) in the marine environment was based on bioaccumulation studies with caged mussels Mytilus californianus and a testing program with the surface sheen, water column, sediment elutriate, pore waters and bulk sediment. Water samples were evaluated using 7-day chronic exposures with Mysidopsis bahia, while bulk sediments were evaluated with 10-day tests with Ampelisca abdita. Testing program included exposure to normal and UV fluorescent lights. The results of this environmental assessment program allow to characterize the extent and magnitude of toxicity of PAHs released from creosote treated pilings and the risk associated with using creosote in marine environment.

  16. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  17. Environment as 'Brain Training': A review of geographical and physical environmental influences on cognitive ageing.

    PubMed

    Cassarino, Marica; Setti, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    Global ageing demographics coupled with increased urbanisation pose major challenges to the provision of optimal living environments for older persons, particularly in relation to cognitive health. Although animal studies emphasize the benefits of enriched environments for cognition, and brain training interventions have shown that maintaining or improving cognitive vitality in older age is possible, our knowledge of the characteristics of our physical environment which are protective for cognitive ageing is lacking. The present review analyses different environmental characteristics (e.g. urban vs. rural settings, presence of green) in relation to cognitive performance in ageing. Studies of direct and indirect associations between physical environment and cognitive performance are reviewed in order to describe the evidence that our living contexts constitute a measurable factor in determining cognitive ageing. PMID:26144974

  18. Biotechnological Tools for Environmental Sustainability: Prospects and Challenges for Environments in Nigeria—A Standard Review

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, Chukwuma S.; Tagbo, Richard; Anike, Ephraim N.; Oje, Obinna A.; Onwurah, Ikechukwu N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The environment is a very important component necessary for the existence of both man and other biotic organisms. The degree of sustainability of the physical environment is an index of the survival and well-being of the entire components in it. Additionally, it is not sufficient to try disposing toxic/deleterious substances with any known method. The best method of sustaining the environment is such that returns back all the components (wastes) in a recyclable way so that the waste becomes useful and helps the biotic and abiotic relationship to maintain an aesthetic and healthy equilibrium that characterizes an ideal environment. In this study, the method investigated includes biological method of environmental sustainability which seeks to investigate the various biotechnological tools (biotools) in current use and those undergoing investigations for future use. PMID:22611499

  19. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  20. Environmental impacts of the emerging digital economy: the e-for-environment e-commerce?

    PubMed

    Sui, Daniel Z; Rejeski, David W

    2002-02-01

    The Internet-led digital economy is changing both the production and consumption patterns at the global scale. Although great potential exists to harness information technology in general and the Internet in particular and improve the environment, possible negative impacts of e-commerce on the environment should also be considered and dealt with. In this forum, we discuss both the potential positive and negative impacts of e-commerce. Drawing from insights gained from the complexity theory, we also delineate some broad contours for environmental policies in the information age. Given the paradoxical nature of technological innovations, we want to caution the scientific community and policymakers not to treat the Internet as the Holy Grail for environmental salvation. PMID:11815820

  1. A review of personal care products in the aquatic environment: environmental concentrations and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brausch, John M; Rand, Gary M

    2011-03-01

    Considerable research has been conducted examining occurrence and effects of human use pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment; however, relatively little research has been conducted examining personal care products although they are found more often and in higher concentrations than pharmaceuticals. Personal care products are continually released into the aquatic environment and are biologically active and persistent. This article examines the acute and chronic toxicity data available for personal care products and highlights areas of concern. Toxicity and environmental data were synergized to develop a preliminary hazard assessment in which only triclosan and triclocarban presented any hazard. However, numerous PCPs including triclosan, paraben preservatives, and UV filters have evidence suggesting endocrine effects in aquatic organisms and thus need to be investigated and incorporated in definitive risk assessments. Additional data pertaining to environmental concentrations of UV filters and parabens, in vivo toxicity data for parabens, and potential for bioaccumulation of PCPs needs to obtained to develop definitive aquatic risk assessments. PMID:21185057

  2. Tracking health and the environment: a pilot test of environmental public health indicators.

    PubMed

    Dreyling, Erin; Dederick, Elizabeth J; Chari, Ramya; Resnick, Beth; Malecki, Kristen Chossek; Burke, Thomas; Neff, Roni

    2007-12-01

    Examining the relationship between health outcomes and environmental exposures requires summary measures, or indicators. To advance the use of indicators, the Johns Hopkins Center for Excellence in Environmental Public Health Tracking piloted three pairs of indicators: 1) air toxics and leukemia in New Jersey, 2) mercury emissions and fish advisories in the United States, and 3) urban sprawl and obesity in New Jersey. These analyses illustrate the feasibility of creating environmental hazard, exposure, and health outcome indicators, examining their temporal and geographic trends, and identifying their temporal and geographic relationships. They also show the importance of including appropriate caveats with the findings. The authors' investigations demonstrate how existing environmental health data can be used to create meaningful indicator measures to further the understanding of environment-related diseases and to help prioritize and guide interventions. Indicators are the foundation of environmental public health tracking, and increased use and development of them are necessary for the establishment of a nationwide tracking network capable of linking environmental exposures and health outcomes. PMID:18189034

  3. Molecular Biology for the Environment: an EC-US hands-on Course in Environmental Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Victor de Lorenzo; Juan Luis Ramos; Jerome Kukor; Gerben J. Zylstra

    2004-02-15

    One of the central goals of this activity is to bring together young scientists (at the late Ph.D. or early postdoctoral stages of their careers) in a forum that should result in future collaborations. The course is designed to give scientists hands-on experience in modern, up-to-date biotechnological methods at the interface between molecular biology and environmental biotechnology for the analysis of microorganisms and their activities with regard to the remediation of pollutants in the environment.

  4. Externalizing Disorders and Environmental Risk: Mechanisms of Gene-Environment Interplay and Strategies for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Though heritable, externalizing disorders have a number of robust associations with several environmental risk factors, including family, school, and peer contexts. To account for these associations, we integrate a behavioral genetic perspective with principles of a developmental cascade theory of antisocial behavior. The major environmental contexts associated with child externalizing problems are reviewed, as are the processes of gene-environment interplay underlying these associations. Throughout, we discuss implications for prevention and intervention. Three major approaches designed to reduce child externalizing behavior are reviewed. Prevention and intervention programs appear to be most successful when they target individuals or communities most at risk for developing externalizing disorders, rather than applied universally. We end by commenting on areas in need of additional research concerning environmental influences on persistent externalizing behaviors. PMID:25485087

  5. Mapping coral and sponge habitats on a shelf-depth environment using multibeam sonar and ROV video observations: Learmonth Bank, northern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Bárbara M.; Du Preez, Cherisse; Edinger, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to locate and map deep-water coral and sponge habitats are essential for the effective management and conservation of these vulnerable marine ecosystems. Here we test the applicability of a simple multibeam sonar classification method developed for fjord environments to map the distribution of shelf-depth substrates and gorgonian coral- and sponge-dominated biotopes. The studied area is a shelf-depth feature Learmonth Bank, northern British Columbia, Canada and the method was applied aiming to map primarily non-reef forming coral and sponge biotopes. Aside from producing high-resolution maps (5 m2 raster grid), biotope-substrate associations were also investigated. A multibeam sonar survey yielded bathymetry, acoustic backscatter strength and slope. From benthic video transects recorded by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) six primary substrate types and twelve biotope categories were identified, defined by the primary sediment and dominant biological structure, respectively. Substrate and biotope maps were produced using a supervised classification mostly based on the inter-quartile range of the acoustic variables for each substrate type and biotope. Twenty-five percent of the video observations were randomly reserved for testing the classification accuracy. The dominant biotope-defining corals were red tree coral Primnoa pacifica and small styasterids, of which Stylaster parageus was common. Demosponges and hexactinellid sponges were frequently observed but no sponge reefs were observed. The substrate classification readily distinguished fine sediment, Sand and Bedrock from the other substrate types, but had greater difficulty distinguishing Bedrock from Boulders and Cobble. The biotope classification accurately identified Gardens (dense aggregations of sponges and corals) and Primnoa-dominated biotopes (67% accuracy), but most other biotopes had lower accuracies. There was a significant correspondence between Learmonth's biotopes and substrate types

  6. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  7. Environmental Shortcourse Final report [Joint US-EC Short Course on Environmental Biotechnology: Microbial Catalysts for the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, Gerben; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2013-03-05

    The Joint US-EC Short Course on Environmental Biotechnology is designed for several purposes. One of the central tenets is to bring together young scientists (at the late Ph.D. or early postdoctoral stages of their careers) in a forum that will set the groundwork for future overseas collaborative interactions. The course is also designed to give the scientists hands-on experience in modern, up-to-date biotechnological methods for the analysis of microbes and their activities pertinent to the remediation of pollutants in the environment. The 2011 course covered multiple theoretical and practical topics in environmental biotechnology. The practical part was centered around a full concise experiment to demonstrate the possibility for targeted remediation of contaminated soil. Experiments included chemical, microbiological, and molecular analyses of sediments and/or waters, contaminant bioavailability assessment, seeded bioremediation, gene probing, PCR amplification, microbial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene diversity, and microarray analyses. Each of these topics is explained in detail. The practical part of the course was complemented with two lectures per day, given by distinguished scientists from the US and from Europe, covering a research area related to what the students are doing in the course.

  8. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: GOVERNMENT OF CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Government of Canada Climate Change Site was developed to inform Canadians about climate change and how it affects our environment. The site explains what the Government of Canada is doing about climate change and how individuals, communities, businesses, industries, and ever...

  9. PELS (Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator): a new type of simulation facility to study extraterrestrial aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Derek; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of other planetary bodies, including Mars and icy moons such as Enceladus and Europa, show that they may have hosted aqueous environments in the past and may do so even today. Therefore, a major challenge in astrobiology is to build facilities that will allow us to study the geochemistry and habitability of these extraterrestrial environments. Here, we describe a simulation facility (PELS: Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator) with the capability for liquid input and output that allows for the study of such environments. The facility, containing six separate sample vessels, allows for statistical replication of samples. Control of pressure, gas composition, UV irradiation conditions, and temperature allows for the precise replication of aqueous conditions, including subzero brines under martian atmospheric conditions. A sample acquisition system allows for the collection of both liquid and solid samples from within the chamber without breaking the atmospheric conditions, enabling detailed studies of the geochemical evolution and habitability of past and present extraterrestrial environments. The facility we describe represents a new frontier in planetary simulation-continuous flow-through simulation of extraterrestrial aqueous environments. PMID:25651097

  10. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  11. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ralph; Hoorn, Steven Vander; Jiang, Yannan; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Exeter, Daniel; Dorey, Enid; Bullen, Chris; Utter, Jennifer; Schaaf, David; Turley, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Participants (n = 110) aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55) were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities). Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control) explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph). Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19331652

  12. Environmental and gene-environment interactions and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Deane, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors including hormones, dietary factors, infections and exposure to tobacco smoke as well as gene-environment interactions have been associated with increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Importantly, the growing understanding of the prolonged period prior to the first onset of symptoms of RA suggests that these environmental and genetic factors are likely acting to drive the development of RA-related autoimmunity long before the appearance of the first joint symptoms and clinical findings that are characteristic of RA. Herein we will review these factors and interactions, especially those that have been investigated in a prospective fashion prior to the symptomatic onset of RA. We will also discuss how these factors may be explored in future study to further the understanding of the pathogenesis of RA, and ultimately perhaps develop preventive measures for this disease. PMID:22819092

  13. Gas mixing system for imaging of nanomaterials under dynamic environments by environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Akatay, M. Cem; Zvinevich, Yury; Ribeiro, Fabio H. E-mail: estach@bnl.gov; Baumann, Philipp; Stach, Eric A. E-mail: estach@bnl.gov

    2014-03-15

    A gas mixing manifold system that is capable of delivering a stable pressure stream of a desired composition of gases into an environmental transmission electron microscope has been developed. The system is designed to provide a stable imaging environment upon changes of either the composition of the gas mixture or upon switching from one gas to another. The design of the system is described and the response of the pressure inside the microscope, the sample temperature, and sample drift in response to flow and composition changes of the system are reported.

  14. The hazardous priority substances in Italy: National rules and environmental quality standard in marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Maggi, Chiara Onorati, Fulvio Lamberti, Claudia Virno Cicero, Anna Maria

    2008-01-15

    Article number 16 of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) lays down the community strategy for establishment of harmonised quality standards for the priority substances and other substances posing a significant risk to the aquatic environment. In order to achieve the protection objectives of the Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of the Environment proposed the quality standards for surface water, sediments and biota related to the priority substances listed in the decision No. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 20 (2001) [Decision N. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2001. The list of priority substances in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/EC. Official Journal of the European Communities, 15.12.2001, p. 5]. Particularly, for the protection of the marine environment, the proposed Italian rules state that, from 1 January 2021, the concentrations of the hazardous priority substances in Italian marine and lagoon waters must be near the natural background for natural substances, like metals, and near zero for the anthropogenic one. According to Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of Environment issued in 2003 Decree 367 in which has derived 160 Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water and 27 Environmental Quality Objective (EQO) for sediment of marine coastal area, lagoons and coastal ponds. Biota quality standards have still to be fixed. The paper illustrates the criteria applied for the definition of the quality standards and some comments are presented.

  15. The Association between Regional Environmental Factors and Road Trauma Rates: A Geospatial Analysis of 10 Years of Road Traffic Crashes in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R.; Chan, Herbert; Erdelyi, Shannon; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Background British Columbia, Canada is a geographically large jurisdiction with varied environmental and socio-cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study examined variation in motor vehicle crash rates across 100 police patrols to investigate the association of crashes with key explanatory factors. Methods Eleven crash outcomes (total crashes, injury crashes, fatal crashes, speed related fatal crashes, total fatalities, single-vehicle night-time crashes, rear-end collisions, and collisions involving heavy vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, or motorcyclists) were identified from police collision reports and insurance claims and mapped to police patrols. Six potential explanatory factors (intensity of traffic law enforcement, speed limits, climate, remoteness, socio-economic factors, and alcohol consumption) were also mapped to police patrols. We then studied the association between crashes and explanatory factors using negative binomial models with crash count per patrol as the response variable and explanatory factors as covariates. Results Between 2003 and 2012 there were 1,434,239 insurance claim collisions, 386,326 police reported crashes, and 3,404 fatal crashes. Across police patrols, there was marked variation in per capita crash rate and in potential explanatory factors. Several factors were associated with crash rates. Percent roads with speed limits ≤ 60 km/hr was positively associated with total crashes, injury crashes, rear end collisions, and collisions involving pedestrians, cyclists, and heavy vehicles; and negatively associated with single vehicle night-time crashes, fatal crashes, fatal speeding crashes, and total fatalities. Higher winter temperature was associated with lower rates of overall collisions, single vehicle night-time collisions, collisions involving heavy vehicles, and total fatalities. Lower socio-economic status was associated with higher rates of injury collisions, pedestrian collisions, fatal speeding collisions, and fatal

  16. The School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy): An Observational Measure of the School Environment.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-12-01

    School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools. PMID:26296310

  17. Proposed amendment to presidential permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada. Addendum to the final environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company`s (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP`s original amendment request remain valid.

  18. Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500-kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada, Northern States Power Company. Addendum to the final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company`s (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP`s original amendment request remain valid.

  19. RESULTS OF AN ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT MODELING WORKSHOP CONCERNING POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF DRILLING MUDS AND CUTTINGS ON THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication summarizes findings of a workshop held September 14-18, 1981, under a Federal Interagency Energy/Environment Agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Br...

  20. Dust accretion under stone pavements: A complementary environmental archive in arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Fuchs, Markus; Kleber, Arno

    2014-05-01

    Stone pavements are widespread surface covers in arid environments. They form predominantly by the trapping of aeolian dust, which trickles below the surficial clast layer, where it forms a continuous layer of fine-grained material with a prominent foamy structure: the vesicular horizon (Av). Successive accretion of dust leads to a thickening of the aeolian mantle and detaches clasts from bedrock. Since this process is dependent on environmental conditions, stone pavement-covered accretionary sections can be used as palaeoenvironmental archive. In the eastern Mojave Desert, correlation of six sediment sections on a 560 ka old basalt flow yield a standard section, comprising at least three distinct units of pulsed aeolian sediment input, interrupted by phases of stone pavement formation, their burial and subsequent pedogenetic alteration. Formation and subsequent burial of stone pavements requires lateral re-formation processes. Two such processes - clast drag by unconcentrated overland flow and clast creep by air release from the soil - are presented, along with their environmental boundary conditions. The different sedimentary units under stone pavements in the eastern Mojave Desert must be interpreted in the light of both, the prominent climatic changes during the Pleistocene/Holocene and the young drainage system in this region. Accretionary dust sections under stone pavements receive their sediment predominantly from modern playas. However, they typically start trapping sediment and thus environmental information when the lake level drops and the lacustrine archive deceases. Hence, they appear to be complementary archives with a the potential to fill the stratigraphic gaps in lacustrine records.

  1. Environmental assessment of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, J.H.; Webb, D.A.; Jop, K.M.; Putt, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental impact of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment at Moss Landing Harbor, Moss Landing, California. Four areas of investigation comprising the risk assessment were (1) evaluation of environmental conditions around existing creosote-treated pilings (2) investigating effects related to restoration of pilings (3) assessing creosote migration into surrounding environment, one year after pile-driving and (4) confirmation of creosote toxicity in laboratory studies. Biological and chemical evaluation of the impact of creosote-treated pilings was conducted on surface sheen, water column and sediment samples collected at Moss Landing Harbor. Water samples (surface sheen, water column and sediment pore water) were evaluated using short-term chronic exposures with Mysidopsis bahia, while bulk sediment samples were evaluated with 10-day sediment toxicity tests with Ampelisca abdita. Samples of surface, column water and sediment were analyzed for the constituents of creosote by GC mass spectrometry. In addition, a sample of neat material used to preserve treated pilings represented a reference for the polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Verification of organism response and analyses of field collected samples was performed by conducting 10-day A. abdita sediment and 7-day M. bahia elutriate exposures with creosote applied to clean sediment collected at Moss Landing, Evaluations were also performed to determine the effects of photoinduced toxicity on test organisms exposed to PAHs. The biological and analytical results of the field and laboratory exposures are being used to evaluate and determine risk of creosote-treated pilings on the marine environment.

  2. Gender and the environment. Women's time use as a measure of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Awumbila, M; Momsen, J H

    1995-09-01

    These case studies pertain to marginal dry land rural areas in developing countries. The evidence suggests that women have shorter rest periods, greater intensity and fragmentation of work, and greater use of multiple simultaneous occupations than men. Macroeconomic policies have increased the work burden for women and for the poorest populations and have contributed to environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on women's use of time as a factor in explaining women's changing gender role under conditions of environmental stress. The women and the environment debate encompasses two philosophical positions. The ecofeminist theory is that women are one with nature and are unlike men, who manipulate and exploit the environment. The other theory posits that women are managers of the environment and should be approached as separate groups. The developmentalist improves on theory by offering the view that there are differences in resource allocation, entitlements, and responsibilities. The case studies deny that women's roles are fixed and generalized. The case study in Sri Lanka reveals that the Mahaweli irrigation and settlement project brought widespread deforestation and forced women to spend more time and energy in seeking fuel wood. Women adjusted to the changes by reducing the number of trips for wood, increasing the amount of the load, and involving men in the process. The number of families who switched to alternative cooking methods increased. During the dry season more of women's time is spent in washing clothes and cleaning the house. Kitchen gardening is only a wet season activity. A Burkina Faso study found that the average daily hours of work for women was 10.6 in the wet season and 12.4 in the dry season in 1991. In the Caribbean, life revolves around crop and no-crop time. Multiple job holding is a common strategy for small farmers. Gender division of labor and time use are determined by household, local context, family structure, and stage in the

  3. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Mental Models of the Environment: Are They Related to Environmental Affect and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2015-01-01

    A draw-and-explain task and questionnaire were used to explore Taiwanese undergraduate students' mental models of the environment and whether and how they relate to their environmental affect and behavioral commitment. We found that students generally held incomplete mental models of the environment, focusing on objects rather than on…

  4. 76 FR 68741 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    .../Environment Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for a Permit Application for the Proposed San Elijo Lagoon Restoration... under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The development of the EIS/EIR and associated... potential impacts on the human environment from such activities. To be authorized by the Corps, the...

  5. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Trettin, L.D.; Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  6. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Stephanie A.; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A.; Russell, Katherine; Billette, Jean-Michel; Sawada, Michael; Ali, Amira; Tremblay, Mark S.; Prud’homme, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Canadian research examining the combined effects of social and built environments on physical activity (PA) and obesity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among built and social environments and PA and overweight/obesity in 85 Ottawa neighbourhoods. Self-reported PA, height and weight were collected from 3,883 adults using the International PA Questionnaire from the 2003–2007 samples of the Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained from the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study; a large study of neighbourhoods and health in Ottawa. Two-level binomial logistic regression models stratified by sex were used to examine the relationships of environmental and individual variables with PA and overweight/obesity while using survey weights. Results identified that approximately half of the adults were insufficiently active or overweight/obese. Multilevel models identified that for every additional convenience store, men were two times more likely to be physically active (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.43) and with every additional specialty food store women were almost two times more likely to be overweight or obese (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20). Higher green space was associated with a reduced likelihood of PA (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and increased odds of overweight and obesity in men (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19), and decreased odds of overweight/obesity in women (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89). In men, neighbourhood socioeconomic scores, voting rates and sense of community belonging were all significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Intraclass coefficients were low, but identified that the majority of neighbourhood variation in outcomes was explained by the models. Findings identified that green space, food landscapes and social cohesiveness may play different roles on PA and overweight/obesity in men and women and future prospective studies are needed. PMID:22073022

  7. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  8. Formaldehyde concentration in discharge from land based aquaculture facilities in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Garron, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Formaldehyde is used in freshwater aquaculture facilities in the Maritimes region of Canada to prevent external parasites and is discharged without treatment to freshwater receiving environments. In this study, formaldehyde was measured at effluent outfalls and 100 m downstream of four land based aquaculture facilities at various post-treatment time intervals. Concentrations of formaldehyde ranged from 0.2 to 7.1 mg/L. Based on Environment Canada's environmental no effect value, all of the samples show a potential risk to aquatic life. Furthermore, based on a chronic aquatic life water quality criterion of 1.61 mg/L all but two of the samples had concentrations considered to be toxic to aquatic life. An acute water quality criteria was only exceeded once in all of the environmental measurements of formaldehyde. These results lead us to hypothesize that the discharge of formaldehyde from land-based facilities may cause adverse chronic impacts. PMID:25687360

  9. Durability of thermal control and environmental protective materials for the SSRMS in simulated LEO environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. K.

    1993-06-01

    Nine thermal control and environmental protection materials, selected on the basis of their space pedigree, thermal vacuum stability, and thermo-optical properties, were tested to determine their suitability for the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The ground based testing was carried out to simulate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal cycling in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. These factors are deemed most likely to cause degradation to the selected materials. With the exception of the urethane based coatings, the materials tested demonstrate sufficient resistance to atomic oxygen. The detrimental effect of thermal cycling on the adhesion of the silicate based coatings to aluminum substrate was found to depend on the pigment. A separate experiment on Beta-Cloth showed that its thermo-optical properties remained substantially unchanged as the Teflon coating was progressively removed in a plasma asher.

  10. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

  11. Environmental factors determining ammonia-oxidizing organism distribution and diversity in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Bouskill, Nicholas J; Eveillard, Damien; Chien, Diana; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2012-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in bridging the input of fixed nitrogen, through N-fixation and remineralization, to its loss by denitrification and anammox. Yet the major environmental factors determining AOB and AOA population dynamics are little understood, despite both groups having a wide environmental distribution. This study examined the relative abundance of both groups of ammonia-oxidizing organisms (AOO) and the diversity of AOA across large-scale gradients in temperature, salinity and substrate concentration and dissolved oxygen. The relative abundance of AOB and AOA varied across environments, with AOB dominating in the freshwater region of the Chesapeake Bay and AOA more abundant in the water column of the coastal and open ocean. The highest abundance of the AOA amoA gene was recorded in the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) and the Arabian Sea (AS). The ratio of AOA : AOB varied from 0.7 in the Chesapeake Bay to 1600 in the Sargasso Sea. Relative abundance of both groups strongly correlated with ammonium concentrations. AOA diversity, as determined by phylogenetic analysis of clone library sequences and archetype analysis from a functional gene DNA microarray, detected broad phylogenetic differences across the study sites. However, phylogenetic diversity within physicochemically congruent stations was more similar than would be expected by chance. This suggests that the prevailing geochemistry, rather than localized dispersal, is the major driving factor determining OTU distribution. PMID:22050634

  12. Remote Environmental Monitoring of Hydrologic/ Biotic Interaction in a Mountain Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Tuli, A.; Kamai, T.; Kizito, F.; Bales, R.; Broad, A.; Hopmans, J.

    2008-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks offer several advantages in monitoring of dynamic environmental variables in remote landscapes and offer a promising approach to realize the full potential of environmental monitoring. Wireless sensors also offer the advantage of real time data collection and sensor/network management and reduced long-term costs. Better understanding of surface water budgets in remote landscapes warrants close monitoring of moisture and temperature variability in near surfaces soils. This work describes field data demonstrating the functionality of four different wireless networks, at two field sites, both part of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). Equipment used varied from traditional point to point radio communication to a wireless mote based, distributed network. Sensors measuring water potential, volumetric water content, and soil temperature were deployed at a variety of sites including, a remote alpine meadow, along a topographic gradient with a dense tree canopy and within the root structure of an individual tree. The sensors were reactive to moisture and temperature variations and the wireless systems met the goal of providing informative data on dynamic responses of soil moisture to precipitation, snow melt and changes in vegetative demand. The systems were dependable, with low power consumption and were robust enough to withstand harsh winter conditions at a high elevation site. The study highlights measurement accuracy, power consumption, and data transmission limitations of the three systems. We demonstrate that deployment, implementation and long-term field monitoring in remote and challenging environments is possible with a variety of wireless systems.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment in the marine environment: A comparison of legal frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, Flávia; Grilo, Catarina; Pedroso, Nuno M.; Cabral, Henrique

    2015-11-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established practice in most developed countries, even though its application to projects in the marine environment is at a much earlier stage of development. We use the Portuguese example to address marine EIA legislation since its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is currently the third largest in the European Union and its EIA legislation does not require various offshore activities with potentially negative environmental impacts to undergo EIA before being licensed. This paper aims to determine whether three types of projects implemented within Portuguese maritime zones – artificial reefs using sunken ships, hydrocarbon prospecting and wave-energy generation – would benefit from application of an appropriately designed EIA. We have conducted a structured review of EIA legal provisions from seven other countries, and considered whether a full EIA was required for each project type. Consequently, 12 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) have been compared to identify patterns of (dis)similarity across countries and project types. Additionally, we identified key descriptors and predicted impacts for each project type referred to in their EIS. The main conclusion is that ultimately all three projects would benefit from mandatory EIA in Portugal. This paper is relevant for countries with large maritime areas and underdeveloped marine EIA legislation, helping improve international policy-making relating to these three types of marine projects. - Highlights: • EIA is not mandatory for some project types developed in Portuguese maritime zones. • Artificial reefs, oil&gas prospecting and wave-energy licensing differ in 8 countries. • EIA should be mandatory in Portugal for artificial reefs and oil&gas prospecting. • However, an AEInc approach is enough for wave-energy projects in Portugal. • Findings could be extended to other EU countries with extensive maritime zones.

  14. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  15. Variable g- Mars environmental chamber: a small window of the martian environment for life science investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgambati, Antonella; Slenzka, Klaus; Schmeyers, Bernd; Di Capua, Massimiliano; Harting, Benjamin

    Human exploration and permanent settlement on the Martian surface is the one of the most attractive and ambitious endeavors mankind has ever faced. As technology and research progress, solutions and information that were before unavailable are slowly making the dream become everyday more feasible. In the past years a huge amount of knowledge was gathered by the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity and now, even more insight is being gathered through the latest rover of the family, Curiosity. In this work, data from the various missions will be used to define and reproduce on Earth the characteristic Martian atmospheric conditions. A small Mars environmental chamber has been designed and built with the objective of studying the effects of the Martian environment on biological systems. The Variable gravity Mars Environmental Chamber (VgMEC) will allow researchers to replicate atmospheric pressure, gas composition, temperature and UVA/B exposure typical of the equatorial regions of Mars. By exposing biological systems to a controllable set of stressor it will be possible to identify both multi and single stressor effects on the system of interest. While several Mars environment simulation facilities exist, due to their size and mass, all are confined to floor-fixed laboratory settings. The VgMEC is an OHB funded project that wishes to bring together the scientific community and the industry. Collaborations will be enabled by granting low cost access to cutting-edge instrumentation and services. Developed at OHB System AG, VgMEC has been designed from the ground up to be a 28L, compact and lightweight test volume capable of being integrated in existing centrifuges (such as the ESA-ESTEC LCD), gimbal systems and parabolic flight aircraft. The VgMEC support systems were designed to accommodate continuous operations of virtually unlimited duration through the adoption of solutions such as: hot swappable gas/liquid consumables bottles, low power requirements, an

  16. Pesticide levels and environmental risk in aquatic environments in China--A review.

    PubMed

    Grung, Merete; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Hua; Steen, Anne Orderdalen; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2015-08-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of pesticides in the world today. Along with the widespread use of pesticides and industrialization, there is a growing concern for water quality. The present review aims to provide an overview of studies on pesticides in aquatic environments in China. The levels in the water, sediment and biota were scored according to a detailed environmental classification system based on ecotoxicological effect, which is therefore a useful tool for assessing the risk these compounds pose to the aquatic ecosystem. Our review reveals that the most studied areas in China are the most populated and the most developed economically and that the most frequently studied pesticides are DDT and HCH. We show maps of where studies have been conducted and show the ecotoxicological risk the pesticides pose in each of the matrices. Our review pinpoints the need for biota samples to assess the risk. A large fraction of the results from the studies are given an environmental classification of "very bad" based on levels in biota. In general, the risk is higher for DDT than HCH. A few food web studies have also been conducted, and we encourage further study of this important information from this region. The review reveals that many of the most important agricultural provinces (e.g., Henan, Hubei and Hunan) with the largest pesticide use have been the subject of few studies on the environmental levels of pesticides. We consider this to be a major knowledge gap for understanding the status of pesticide contamination and related risk in China. Furthermore, there is also a lack of studies in remote Chinese environments, which is also an important knowledge gap. The compounds analyzed and reported in the studies represent a serious bias because a great deal of attention is given to DDT and HCH, whereas the organophosphate insecticides dominating current use are less frequently investigated. For the future, we point to the need for an organized

  17. Late-summer zooplankton community structure, abundance, and distribution in the Hudson Bay system (Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions, 2003-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Rafael; Harvey, Michel; Gosselin, Michel; Starr, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Straneo, Fiammetta

    2012-08-01

    weakly stratified Arctic-North Atlantic waters coming from southwestern Davis Strait (inflow). In general, the RDA models tested among the HBS regions were very consistent with its general surface circulation pattern for summer conditions in terms of environmental variables and distinct zooplankton assemblages. Overall, zooplankton biomass and diversity indices (H‧, J‧, and S) were lower in the most stratified environment (i.e., HB) than in the deeper (FB) and more dynamic (HS) regions. The results of this work clearly show that the spatial differentiation and structure of the zooplankton communities are strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions in the HBS that, trough their actions on temperature, salinity, stratification, mixing conditions and depth strata, lead to the spatial differentiation of these communities.

  18. ASA24-Canada-2014

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24-Canada-2014) Recall has been developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  19. The environmental problems in urban communities and the protection of the environment in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, I K

    1994-07-01

    Korea's urban environmental problems, specifically air and water pollution, government environmental policies, and the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in protecting the environment are described and discussed. Korea's rapid industrialization and urbanization between 1961 and 1985 led to an increased volume of waste and air pollution. Automobiles increased in number from 29,234 in 1961 to 1,113,430 in 1985. In the same period, the number of factories with at least five employees rose from 15,204 to 44,037. The volume of chemical materials and agricultural chemicals dramatically increased. Household wastes in urban areas increased from 26,831 tons per day in 1978 to 61,072 tons per day in 1985. Industrial waste rose from 13,130 to 33,349 tons per day in 1985. Respiratory diseases are precipitated by exposure to sulphur dioxide, which is produced during cooking and heating with coal briquets; to nitrogen dioxide from automobile exhaust; and to carbon monoxide from coal briquets. Indoor air pollution from particles such as radon, asbestos, cigarette smoke, fungus, and bacteria also impacts on health. Tolerance limits have been reached or surpassed in many cities, particularly in Seoul. Air pollution is worse during the winter. The poor are particularly affected because of the continued use of coal briquets for heating. Industry contributes to water pollution. The volume of industrial waste water quadrupled between 1980 and 1990. In Seoul, however, population size directly contributes to 64.3% of water pollution, and the remaining 35.2% is from factories. Although livestock contributes to only 0.5% of water pollution, livestock drainage contributes to 36.3% of chemical materials in polluted water. Biological oxygen demand has also exceeded tolerance limits. Water reservoirs contain toxic chemicals such as lead, copper, mercury, arsenic, phenol, phosphorus, and nitrogen, which take a longer time to affect health. The Anti-Pollution Law of 1963 and the

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, CLEAN ENVIRONMENT EQUIPMENT, SAMPLEASE BLADDER PUMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  1. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave

  2. Lead and the Environment: An Approach to Educating Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Leonard J. S.; Nieboer, Evert; Karagatzides, Jim D.

    1999-01-01

    A lead shot environmental education program using hands-on activities and public information displays was directed toward adult Cree of Mushkegowuk Territory, Ontario (Canada). Of 47 participants at the beginning of the study, 7 thought lead shot was detrimental to animals, the environment, and people. After program implementation, all…

  3. Current and emerging environmentally-friendly systems for fouling control in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Gittens, Jeanette E; Smith, Thomas J; Suleiman, Rami; Akid, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Following the ban in 2003 on the use of tributyl-tin compounds in antifouling coatings, the search for an environmentally-friendly alternative has accelerated. Biocidal TBT alternatives, such as diuron and Irgarol 1051®, have proved to be environmentally damaging to marine organisms. The issue regarding the use of biocides is that concerning the half-life of the compounds which allow a perpetuation of the toxic effects into the marine food chain, and initiate changes in the early stages of the organisms' life-cycle. In addition, the break-down of biocides can result in metabolites with greater toxicity and longevity than the parent compound. Functionalized coatings have been designed to repel the settlement and permanent attachment of fouling organisms via modification of either or both surface topography and surface chemistry, or by interfering with the natural mechanisms via which fouling organisms settle upon and adhere to surfaces. A large number of technologies are being developed towards producing new coatings that will be able to resist biofouling over a period of years and thus truly replace biocides as antifouling systems. In addition urgent research is directed towards the exploitation of mechanisms used by living organisms designed to repel the settlement of fouling organisms. These biomimetic strategies include the production of antifouling enzymes and novel surface topography that are incompatible with permanent attachment, for example, by mimicking the microstructure of shark skin. Other research seeks to exploit chemical signals and antimicrobial agents produced by diverse living organisms in the environment to prevent settlement and growth of fouling organisms on vulnerable surfaces. Novel polymer-based technologies may prevent fouling by means of unfavourable surface chemical and physical properties or by concentrating antifouling compounds around surfaces. PMID:24051087

  4. Environmental protection in Hong Kong amidst transition: Is Hong Kong ready to manage its environment by law?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing-Hung Lo, Carlos

    1995-05-01

    Within the context of political democratization, this article explores environmental protection in Hong Kong since the government lauched a ten-year program to “save the environment” in 1989. Examining environmental management by law from a social-choice perspective, it argues that the government has yet to reach an integrative policy orocess. Hence the preconditions for an integrative set of environmental legislation are absent. Institutionally, without a comprehensive green policy, the current arrangements lack a vision as an integrative force to promote effective coordination among various sectoral environmental coordination among various sectoral environmental programs. The dominant approach of policy and law enforcement through consultation has rendered impossible strict enforcement of environmental rules and regulations as local economic growth enjoys a priority over environmental protection. At a time of environmental awakening, the people of Hong Kong are not yet prepared awakening, the people of Hong Kong are not yet prepared to participate in environmental management in a strict legal manner. The overall observation is that Hong Kong has yet to see more mature political, legal, administrative, and social conditions for managing its environment within a legal framework.

  5. Environmental significance of microbialites in reef environments during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camoin, G.; Cabioch, G.; Eisenhauer, A.; Braga, J.-C.; Hamelin, B.; Lericolais, G.

    2006-03-01

    In situ microbialites occurring in reef rocks dredged between 80 and 130 m water depth on the modern fore-reef slopes of Tahiti and the Marquesas islands yield ages ranging from 17,100 ± 2900 to 4410 ± 2250 years BP, suggesting that they played a prominent role during the last deglacial sea level rise. Microbialites developed in both shallow and deep water depositional environments where they characterize various zones of the reef tracts (reef crests, upper reef slopes, deep fore-reef slopes), reflecting contrasting scenarios of microbialite development involving «reefal microbialites» in shallow-water settings and «slope microbialites» that formed in environments deeper than 10-20 m and extending down to more than 100 m. Reefal microbialites correspond to a late stage of encrustation of the dead parts of coral colonies, or more commonly, of related encrusting organisms (red algae and foraminifers), thus forming surface crusts. Slope microbialites generally form the ultimate stage of a biological succession indicating a deepening sequence, whereby shallow water corals and associated encrusting organisms are replaced by deeper water assemblages of red algae and foraminifers before microbialite growth. The precipitation of phosphatic-iron-manganese crusts and the deposition of planktonic micritic limestones on the microbialites characterize a deepening-upward sequence. The widespread development of microbialites in reef sequences from the Last Deglaciation characterizes a period of environmental degradation consequential on the rapid sea-level rise and abrupt climatic changes of that time. The reported biological succession reflects changes in water quality, and especially an increase in nutrients. In shallow-water settings, increased alkalinity and nutrient availability in interstitial waters were related to surface fluxes and terrestrial groundwater seepage while slope environments were exposed to continuous upwelling of nutrient-rich deeper waters during the

  6. Chemodynamics: transport and behavior of chemicals in the environment--a problem in environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, V H; Chiou, C T; Haque, R

    1977-01-01

    In the manufacture and use of the several thousand chemicals employed by technological societies, portions of these chemicals escape or are intentionally introduced into the environment. The behavior, fate, and to some extent the effects produced by these chemicals are a result of a complex interaction of the properties of the chemical with the various processes governing transport, degradation, sequestration, and uptake by organisms. In addition, such processes as adsorption, evaporation, partitioning, and degradation are influenced by ambient conditions of temperature, air movement, moisture, presence of other chemicals, and the concentration and properties of the subject chemicals. These influence the level and extent of exposure to these chemicals that man might receive. Study of the physiochemical properties and extent of exposure to these chem;cals that man might receive. Study of the physiochemical properties of compounds in relation to these various processes has provided a basis for better understanding of the quantitative behavior. Such information is useful in development of predictive models on behavior and fate of the chemicals in relation to human exposure. Beyond this, it provides information that could be used to devise procedures of manufacture, use, and disposal that would minimize environmental contamination. Some of the physical principles involved in chemodynamics are presented in this review. PMID:598352

  7. A Modified SDS-Based DNA Extraction Method for High Quality Environmental DNA from Seafloor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vengadesh Perumal; Zhang, Xinxu; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Recovering high quality genomic DNA from environmental samples is a crucial primary step to understand the genetic, metabolic, and evolutionary characteristics of microbial communities through molecular ecological approaches. However, it is often challenging because of the difficulty of effective cell lysis without fragmenting the genomic DNA. This work aims to improve the previous SDS-based DNA extraction methods for high-biomass seafloor samples, such as pelagic sediments and metal sulfide chimney, to obtain high quality and high molecular weight of the genomic DNA applicable for the subsequent molecular ecological analyses. In this regard, we standardized a modified SDS-based DNA extraction method (M-SDS), and its performance was then compared to those extracted by a recently developed hot-alkaline DNA extraction method (HA) and a commercial DNA extraction kit. Consequently, the M-SDS method resulted in higher DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency, lower DNA shearing, and higher diversity scores than other two methods, providing a comprehensive DNA assemblage of the microbial community on the seafloor depositional environment. PMID:27446026

  8. A Modified SDS-Based DNA Extraction Method for High Quality Environmental DNA from Seafloor Environments.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Vengadesh Perumal; Zhang, Xinxu; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Recovering high quality genomic DNA from environmental samples is a crucial primary step to understand the genetic, metabolic, and evolutionary characteristics of microbial communities through molecular ecological approaches. However, it is often challenging because of the difficulty of effective cell lysis without fragmenting the genomic DNA. This work aims to improve the previous SDS-based DNA extraction methods for high-biomass seafloor samples, such as pelagic sediments and metal sulfide chimney, to obtain high quality and high molecular weight of the genomic DNA applicable for the subsequent molecular ecological analyses. In this regard, we standardized a modified SDS-based DNA extraction method (M-SDS), and its performance was then compared to those extracted by a recently developed hot-alkaline DNA extraction method (HA) and a commercial DNA extraction kit. Consequently, the M-SDS method resulted in higher DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency, lower DNA shearing, and higher diversity scores than other two methods, providing a comprehensive DNA assemblage of the microbial community on the seafloor depositional environment. PMID:27446026

  9. Dust protection for environmental control and life support systems in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhs, Susan; Harris, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Lunar dust is pervasive, and requirements for dust protection will affect both hardware design and operations planning for lunar surface systems. On Earth, mechanical problems caused by particulates include erosive and abrasive effects, clogging of mechanical equipment, and impairment of seals and bonds. In addition, dust tends to degrade the heat rejection properties of contaminated surfaces. All these effects have been observed on the lunar surface as well. This paper discusses the potential applicability of current dust protection methods to the problem of dust protection for the environmental control and life support (ECLS) systems of a lunar base, and highlights areas where development may be necessary. A review of dust problems experienced during the Apollo missions and of additional, ground-based experience with lunar dust provides a baseline for identifying operations and areas where dust may be expected to affect the ECLS systems. Current Earth-based methods of dust protection are identified and the impact of differences between the Earth and lunar environments on these methods is evaluated. Finally, integration of dust protection equipment with ECLS systems equipment is discussed.

  10. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 1. Thermal environment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, K. J.; Eddy, T. P.; Lee, D. E.; Swann, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Collins, K. J., Eddy, T. P., Lee, D. E., and Swann, P. G. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 237-245. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. I. Thermal environment. Investigations were made on board a modern, air-conditioned oil tanker (S.S. Esso Newcastle) en route to the Persian Gulf in July to August 1967 in order to study thermal conditions in the working environment, and the nutritional status of the crew, and to examine the interrelationship between climate and nutritional balance. In this introductory paper an account is given of the aims and design of the experiments together with details of the environmental survey. The voyage round Africa lasted one month, with high ambient temperatures of 37·7°C dry bulb, 30·8°C wet bulb (100/87°F) occurring only on the last few days into and out of the Persian Gulf. Mean accommodation temperature was maintained in the zone of comfort throughout, and at 23·9°C (75°F) Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) in the Gulf. On a previous voyage in a tanker without air-conditioning CETs up to 31·6°C (89°F) had been recorded in the accommodation in the same ambient conditions. With exposure to high solar radiation in the Gulf, the deck officer's cabins and bridge house in the upper superstructure became uncomfortably warm (CET exceeding 26·6°C (80°F)) and in these temperatures skilled performance is likely to deteriorate. The main thermal problems in the working environment were associated with the engine and boiler rooms which were consistently 11 to 17°C (20 to 30°F) higher than ambient temperature. For personnel on watch, the levels of heat stress were high but not intolerable if advantage was taken of the air blowers. Conditions under which emergency or repair tasks were carried out in very hot engine-room spaces were examined and often found to allow only a small margin of safety. Predicted average tolerance times were deduced from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) scale of

  11. A multilevel examination of gender differences in the association between features of the school environment and physical activity among a sample of grades 9 to 12 students in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Creating school environments that support student physical activity (PA) is a key recommendation of policy-makers to increase youth PA. Given males are more active than females at all ages, it has been suggested that investigating gender differences in the features of the environment that associate with PA may help to inform gender-focused PA interventions and reduce the gender disparity in PA. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore gender differences in the association between factors of the school environment and students' time spent in PA. Methods Among a sample of 10781 female and 10973 male students in grades 9 to 12 from 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, student- and school-level survey PA data were collected and supplemented with GIS-derived measures of the built environment within 1-km buffers of the 76 schools. Results Findings from the present study revealed significant differences in the time male and female students spent in PA as well as in some of the school- and student-level factors associated with PA. Results of the gender-specific multilevel analyses indicate schools should consider providing an alternate room for PA, especially for providing flexibility activities directed at female students. Schools should also consider offering daily physical education programming to male students in senior grades and providing PA promotion initiatives targeting obese male students. Conclusions Although most variation in male and female students' time spent in PA lies between students within schools, there is sufficient between-school variation to be of interest to practitioners and policy-makers. More research investigating gender differentials in environment factors associated with youth PA are warranted. PMID:22272717

  12. Feeling Good and Doing Good for the Environment: The Use of Emotional Appeals in Pro-Environmental Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searles, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Research in political psychology suggests that politicians successfully manipulate emotions through campaign advertisements. While work in environmental psychology emphasizes emotional connection to the environment, scholars have yet to examine the potential of emotional appeals in non-campaign messages. I am interested in the use of emotional…

  13. An Investigation of Relationships Between Fifth Grade Students' Perception of the Physical Classroom Environment and Observed Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Russell Weidner

    An exploratory field study was conducted in 42 self-contained, elementary grade classrooms in 18 school buildings. Subjects were 1,030 fifth-grade students. The purpose of the study was to determine the range of physical environmental conditions in the classrooms; and how students' perceptions of the physical environment (1) describe the…

  14. Science, Technology and the Environment: The Views of Urban Children and Implications for Science and Environmental Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung

    2011-01-01

    With science and technology playing profound roles in mediating human relationships with the environment, a key question concerns which expectations and views of science and technology have emerged and prevail in visions of the social and environmental development of contemporary societies. This study engages this question through examining…

  15. Environment and Development in a Developing Nation: India. Environmental Education Curriculum Infusion Units, Social Studies for Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This instructional unit about environment and socioeconomic development in India is a supplement to the publication "Environmental Education Curriculum Infusion Units for Grades 7-12," ED 137 056. This specific unit is designed to increase students' understanding of Indian society and traditions as they relate to global problems and to help…

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROJECT - INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS PILOT (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to verify environmental claims of products used in the indoor environment. Testing protocols will be developed and approved by a stakeholder group. To ensure wide acceptability and comparability of data, the protocols will (1) include strong qua...

  17. Person-Environment Congruence, Self-Efficacy, and Environmental Identity in Relation to Job Satisfaction: A Career Decision Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Stacie Vernick; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between person-environment congruence, self-efficacy, and environmental identity and job satisfaction. Participants were 198 employees of a multinational telecommunications corporation. The predictor domain included the lachan Index (R. lachan, 1984), the Mahalanobis Distance Index (L. J. Cronbach & G. C.…

  18. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): The Dimensionality of Student Perceptions of the Instructional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Peter M.; Demers, Joseph A.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale…

  19. Contradictions in Educational Policy: Implementing Integrated Problem-Based Environmental Health Curriculum in a High Stakes Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martina, Camille Anne; Hursh, David; Markowitz, Dina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the efforts of educators at nine different research sites within the United States, funded by a grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), to develop and implement innovative, interdisciplinary curriculum on the relationship of the environment and human health. The NIEHS correctly…

  20. Looking after the Land: The Navajo Dryland Environments Laboratory Researches the Environmental Needs of the Navajo Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semken, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the formation and operations of the Navajo Dryland Environments Laboratory (NDEL). NDEL, established by the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium of New Mexico on the campus of Navajo Community College, focuses on environmental geology, hydrology, and resource management of the Colorado Plateau drylands. (DMM)

  1. The Evaluation of Child Care Centers and the "Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale": An Environmental Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    This paper questions the physical environmental adequacy of the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (ITERS) developed by Thelma Harms, Debby Cryer, and Richard Clifford at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. ITERS is a 35-item scale designed to assess the quality of center-based infant and toddler care, and one of a family of child…

  2. Assessing the contribution of combustion-derived contaminants to a remote subarctic environment from traffic on the Tibbitt to Contwoyto winter road (Northwest Territories, Canada).

    PubMed

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Eickmeyer, David C; Thienpont, Joshua R; Palmer, Michael J; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2016-05-15

    Remote mining operations in Canada's Northwest Territories and Nunavut are supported by a 600 km winter road, which spans the transition from subarctic boreal forest in Yellowknife to low Arctic tundra. Each year, thousands of truckloads of fuel, large equipment, and other heavy loads are hauled up the winter road. We investigated whether diesel emissions from commercial truck traffic is a major source of metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to aquatic ecosystems along the winter road. In March 2014, at the end of the hauling season, we collected integrated snow samples, water, and sediment from nine lakes located along the winter road, as well as from six lakes located within the city of Yellowknife. Examination of PAC composition and diagnostic ratios in snow samples showed that wildfires are an important source of PACs to lakes along the winter road, while anthropogenic sources are more prevalent in snow from Yellowknife lakes. Concentrations of PACs, including those associated with diesel emissions, were variable in snow, water, and sediment across all sites. The highest concentrations of PACs in snow were reported in winter road lakes located in the subarctic boreal forest, where forest fires are common. No compositional differences were observed for PACs in sediment and water samples between Yellowknife and winter road lakes. We did not observe any evidence of metal contamination in snow collected along the winter road, and metal concentrations in snow from winter road sites were consistently lower than Yellowknife sites. Our results show that a high contribution of PACs from natural sources can obscure potential contributions from diesel traffic emissions along the winter road. PMID:26906697

  3. Environmental and Mechanical Stability of Environmental Barrier Coated SA Tyrannohex SiC Composites Under Simulated Turbine Engine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael Charles; Sing, Mrityunjay

    2014-01-01

    The environmental stability and thermal gradient cyclic durability performance of SA Tyrannohex composites were investigated for turbine engine component applications. The work has been focused on investigating the combustion rig recession, cyclic thermal stress resistance and thermomechanical low cycle fatigue of uncoated and environmental barrier coated Tyrannohex SiC SA composites in simulated turbine engine combustion water vapor, thermal gradients, and mechanical loading conditions. Flexural strength degradations have been evaluated, and the upper limits of operating temperature conditions for the SA composite material systems are discussed based on the experimental results.

  4. Physical environment. [environmental impact statement required for general aviation airport construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Environmental legislation affecting airports and the more common environmental effects resulting from airport construction are discussed with special emphasis on general aviation airports. The discussion is focused on the regulation of noise, pollution, and water quality.

  5. Teaching Guide for "The Environmental Data Book: A Guide to Statistics on the Environment and Development."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheram, Katherine

    This teaching guide accompanies "The Environmental Data Book," published by the World Bank. Environmental and development statistics are presented for discussion and analysis. Indicators of environmental quality and economic development are defined with accompanying charts and maps. Activities accompany each lesson, along with a worksheet at the…

  6. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

  7. Sensitivity of acoustic propagation to uncertainties in the marine environment as characterized by various rapid environmental assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecknold, Sean; Osler, John C.

    2012-02-01

    Accurate sonar performance prediction modelling depends on a good knowledge of the local environment, including bathymetry, oceanography and seabed properties. The function of rapid environmental assessment (REA) is to obtain relevant environmental data in a tactically relevant time frame, with REA methods categorized by the nature and immediacy of their application, from historical databases through remotely sensed data to in situ acquisition. However, each REA approach is subject to its own set of uncertainties, which are in turn transferred to uncertainty in sonar performance prediction. An approach to quantify and manage this uncertainty has been developed through the definition of sensitivity metrics and Monte Carlo simulations of acoustic propagation using multiple realizations of the marine environment. This approach can be simplified by using a linearized two-point sensitivity measure based on the statistics of the environmental parameters used by acoustic propagation models. The statistical properties of the environmental parameters may be obtained from compilations of historical data, forecast conditions or in situ measurements. During a field trial off the coast of Nova Scotia, a set of environmental data, including oceanographic and geoacoustic parameters, were collected together with acoustic transmission loss data. At the same time, several numerical models to forecast the oceanographic conditions were run for the area, including 5- and 1-day forecasts as well as nowcasts. Data from the model runs are compared to each other and to in situ environmental sampling, and estimates of the environmental uncertainties are calculated. The forecast and in situ data are used with historical geoacoustic databases and geoacoustic parameters collected using REA techniques, respectively, to perform acoustic transmission loss predictions, which are then compared to measured transmission loss. The progression of uncertainties in the marine environment, within and

  8. The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Batáry, Péter; Dicks, Lynn V; Kleijn, David; Sutherland, William J

    2015-08-01

    Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and ecosystems of conservation concern in Europe depend on agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We reviewed the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the data sets of 3 recent meta-analyses and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU's agri-environmental programs in 2007 were not more effective than schemes implemented before revision. Furthermore, schemes aimed at areas out of production (such as field margins and hedgerows) are more effective at enhancing species richness than those aimed at productive areas (such as arable crops or grasslands). Outstanding research questions include whether AES enhance ecosystem services, whether they are more effective in agriculturally marginal areas than in intensively farmed areas, whether they are more or less cost-effective for farmland biodiversity than protected areas, and how much their effectiveness is influenced by farmer training and advice? The general lesson from the European experience is that AES can be effective for conserving wildlife on farmland, but they are expensive and need to be carefully designed and targeted. PMID:25997591

  9. Meteorological Circulations at Gale Environment Through Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Observations and Mesoscale Modeling (MRAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S.

    2015-10-01

    Gale Crater, in which the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed in August 2012, is the most topographically complex area visited to date on Mars. The meteorology within the crater may also be one of the most dynamically complex meteorological environments, because topography is thought to strongly drive the near-surface atmospheric circulations. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) [5] has provided some clues on the nature of the local meteorology strongly influenced by the complex topography, as predicted by numerous previous studies. The types of perturbations of pressure, air and ground temperature and wind measured by REMS have never been observed at other locations and these data provide a great opportunity to test the models at the most meteorological interesting area measured to date. In an effort to better understand the atmospheric circulations of the Gale Crater, the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)[6]was applied to the landing site region using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over the landing site. We provide a comparison of MRAMS predictions for pressure, air temperature, winds and ground temperature,to the REMS data available at the location of the Rover for sols 51-55 (Ls=180), sols 195-199 (Ls=270), sols 348-352 (Ls=0) and sols 541-545 (Ls=90), in order to provide a baseline of model performance.Pressure and ground temperature provide the most robust parameters with which to test the model predictions(Figures 2 and 3).

  10. A model of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and its implications for targeting environmental interventions by genotype

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Helen M

    2006-01-01

    Background The potential public health benefits of targeting environmental interventions by genotype depend on the environmental and genetic contributions to the variance of common diseases, and the magnitude of any gene-environment interaction. In the absence of prior knowledge of all risk factors, twin, family and environmental data may help to define the potential limits of these benefits in a given population. However, a general methodology to analyze twin data is required because of the potential importance of gene-gene interactions (epistasis), gene-environment interactions, and conditions that break the 'equal environments' assumption for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Method A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918) assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction. Conclusion The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis, a largely environmental

  11. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  12. Environmental auditing: Theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Dixon; Wilson, Melvin J.

    1994-07-01

    The environmental audit has become a regular part of corporate environmental management in Canada and is also gaining recognition in the public sector. A 1991 survey of 75 private sector companies across Canada revealed that 76% (57/75) had established environmental auditing programs. A similar survey of 19 federal, provincial, and municipal government departments revealed that 11% (2/19) had established such programs. The information gained from environmental audits can be used to facilitate and enhance environmental management from the single facility level to the national and international levels. This paper is divided into two sections: section one examines environmental audits at the facility/company level and discusses environmental audit characteristics, trends, and driving forces not commonly found in the available literature. Important conclusions are: that wherever possible, an action plan to correct the identified problems should be an integral part of an audit, and therefore there should be a close working relationship between auditors, managers, and employees, and that the first audits will generally be more difficult, time consuming, and expensive than subsequent audits. Section two looks at environmental audits in the broader context and discusses the relationship between environmental audits and three other environmental information gathering/analysis tools: environmental impact assessments, state of the environment reports, and new systems of national accounts. The argument is made that the information collected by environmental audits and environmental impact assessments at the facility/company level can be used as the bases for regional and national state of the environment reports and new systems of national accounts.

  13. Are Environmental Influences on Physical Activity Distinct for Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools? A Multilevel Study among Secondary School Students in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobin, Erin P.; Leatherdale, Scott; Manske, Steve; Dubin, Joel A.; Elliott, Susan; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined differences in students' time spent in physical activity (PA) across secondary schools in rural, suburban, and urban environments and identified the environment-level factors associated with these between school differences in students' PA. Methods: Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to…

  14. Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18–46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. Results The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. Conclusion For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the

  15. Geophysical variables and behavior: XCVI. "Experiences" attributed to Christ and Mary at Marmora, Ontario, Canada may have been consequences of environmental electromagnetic stimulation: implications for religious movements.

    PubMed

    Suess, L A; Persinger, M A

    2001-10-01

    Since the year 1992 individuals and groups of people have reported religious experiences near Marmora, Ontario, Canada. The experiences, attributed to Christ or Mary, have occurred near the top of a hill adjacent to an open pit magnetite mine that has been accumulating about 15 million gallons of water per month for more than a decade. During the period between 1992 and 1997 epicentres for local seismic events moved significantly closer to this site. Most of the messages attributed to spiritual beings by "sensitive" individuals occurred one or two days after increased global geomagnetic activity. We suggest that conditions produced by local geophysical and geological properties created the odd lights and induced physiological changes within the thousands of people who visited the area. Direct measurements indicated that weak (0.1 microTesla to 1 microTesla) complex magnetic fields, the temporal patterns of which were similar to the experimental fields we have employed to evoke the sensed presence and altered states within the laboratory, may have been generated within the area. PMID:11769900

  16. Environmental Education Teacher's Guide, Junior High School. A Core Experience Study of the Natural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dean B.; Willink, Wesley H.

    This Environmental Education Teacher's Guide, developed for use in the junior high school, is designed to familiarize teachers with how an environmental education program can help in their teaching and in achieving the goals of the school. The suggested core activities in this guide are designed to be a motivating way of introducting junior high…

  17. Community Arts as Environmental Education and Activism: A Labour and Environment Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.

    2000-01-01

    Community arts are useful tools for environmental adult education. In Toronto, a union and an environmental group sought to raise awareness of waste management through painting on garbage trucks. Controversy over a government body's decision to censor a painting made both knowledge and the democratic process visible. (SK)

  18. S.T.E.P. - Students Toward Environmental Participation - Into Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Sandy, Ed.; Walters, Casey, Ed.

    This high school environmental guide uses the Students Toward Environmental Participation (S.T.E.P.) approach. Activities are designed to develop an awareness of the purpose, interrelationship, and wholeness of the earth through activities, games and role-playing. Sample activities include: trust walk, scavenger hunt, nature collage, and alphabet…

  19. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD): The Turn away from "Environment" in Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the implications of the shift of environmental education (EE) towards education for sustainable development (ESD) in the context of environmental ethics. While plural perspectives on ESD are encouraged both by practitioners and researchers of EE, there is also a danger that such pluralism may sustain dominant political…

  20. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  1. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  2. Canada: Country Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Canada emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and graphs. Aspects of the country depicted include: geography, population, resources, international trade, government, and energy. Short texts on multiculturalism, the Canadian economy, the country's history, and U.S.-Canada relations also are included.…

  3. Canada and the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Highlights Canada's high marks in a poll on its international image in 20 countries. Asks how Canada should take advantage of its positive international image. Notes areas where Canadian foreign policy is most admired: advancement of global peace and human rights, provision of aid, and participation in international peacekeeping. (DSK)

  4. Canada's iron creek meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    An iron mass, of meteoritical origin, found on a hilltop in the southern Canadian prairies, is unique to Canadian scientific history. It is the third largest meteorite to have been found in Canada (at one time it was reported to be Canada's largest single meteorite mass). A brief historical account, and a corrected official weight (145 kilograms), of this interesting meteorite is presented.

  5. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  6. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry computer analysis of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in man and his environment--A multimedia environmental study.

    PubMed

    Barkley, J; Bunch, J; Bursey, J T; Castillo, N; Cooper, S D; Davis, J M; Erickson, M D; Harris, B S; Kirkpatrick, M; Michael, L C; Parks, S P; Pellizzari, E D; Ray, M; Smith, D; Tomer, K B; Wagner, R; Zweidinger, R A

    1980-04-01

    As part of a study to make a comparative analysis of selected halogenated compounds in man and the environmental media, a quantitative gas chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of the levels of the halogenated compounds found in the breath, blood and urine of an exposed population (Old Love Canal area, Niagara, New York) and their immediate environment (air and water) was undertaken. In addition, levels of halogenated hydrocarbons in air samples taken in the general Buffalo, Niagara Falls area were determined. PMID:7448328

  7. The First Pennsylvania Environmental Readiness for the 21st Century Survey Report: Survey of Adult Pennsylvanians' Knowledge about, Attitudes toward and Behaviors Related to the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paulette; Smith-Sebasto, Nicholas J.

    This report presents the results of the First Pennsylvania Environmental Readiness for the 21st Century which investigates the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of Pennsylvanian adults towards the environment. The survey questions were divided into four categories: (1) environmental literacy; (2) environmental attitudes; (3) environmental…

  8. Environmental heterogeneity generates opposite gene-by-environment interactions for two fitness-related traits within a population.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Schumer, Molly; Monks, Scott; Tobler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity offers a potential solution to the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus variatus exhibits polymorphism at a single locus, with different alleles resulting in up to five distinct melanistic "tailspot" patterns within populations. We investigated the effects of heterogeneity in two ubiquitous environmental variables (temperature and food availability) on two fitness-related traits (upper thermal limits and body condition) in two different tailspot types (wild-type and upper cut crescent). We found gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions between tailspot type and food level affecting upper thermal limits (UTL), as well as between tailspot type and thermal environment affecting body condition. Exploring mechanistic bases underlying these G × E patterns, we found no differences between tailspot types in hsp70 gene expression despite significant overall increases in expression under both thermal and food stress. Similarly, there was no difference in routine metabolic rates between the tailspot types. The reversal of relative performance of the two tailspot types under different environmental conditions revealed a mechanism by which environmental heterogeneity can balance polymorphism within populations through selection on different fitness-related traits. PMID:25496554

  9. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  10. The case for a cause-effect linkage between environmental contamination and development in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra S. serpentina) from Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.A.; Brooks, R.J.; Carey, J.H.; Ng, P.; Norstrom, R.J.; Lean, D.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans, organochlorine pesticides, and their metabolites were measured in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra s.serpentina) collected from four wetlands on the shorelines of Lakes Ontario, and Erie, and one control location in central Ontario, Canada. Snapping turtle eggs from these sites were also artificially incubated to determine hatching success, and incidence of deformities in embryo and hatchling turtles. The hypothesis that elevated incidences of egg death and/or deformities of hatchling turtles would occur in populations with high concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in eggs was tested. The results were elevated using epidemiological criteria. Unhatched eggs and deformities occurred at significantly higher rates in eggs from Lake Ontario wetlands. Two of three sites from Lake Ontario had substantially higher levels of PCBs, dioxins, and furans compared to eggs from Lake Erie and the control site. It could not be shown that contamination of eggs preceded the occurrence of poor development of eggs, although excellent hatching success and low numbers of deformities in eggs from the control site were considered representative of development in healthy eggs. The statistical association between contaminant levels in eggs and poor development of these eggs supported the hypothesis that eggs from sites with the greatest contamination had the highest rates of abnormalities. PCBs were the most strongly associated chemicals, although possible effects due to the presence of other chemicals in eggs was a confounding factor. The deformities and rates of unhatched eggs were similar to those occurring in other vertebrates collected from highly contaminated areas of the Great Lakes. 54 references.

  11. Natural-enriched environments lead to enhanced environmental engagement and altered neurobiological resilience.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Kelly; Hyer, Molly; Bardi, Massimo; Rzucidlo, Amanda; Scott, Samantha; Terhune-Cotter, Brennan; Hazelgrove, Ashley; Silva, Ilton; Kinsley, Craig

    2016-08-25

    The mammalian brain has evolved in close synchrony with the natural environment; consequently, trends toward disengagement from natural environments in today's industrialized societies may compromise adaptive neural responses and lead to psychiatric illness. Investigations of rodents housed in enriched environments indicate enhanced neurobiological complexity; yet, the origin of these stimuli, natural vs. manufactured, has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study, groups of rats were exposed to one of three environments: (1) a standard environment with only food and water, (2) an artificial-enriched environment with manufactured stimuli and (3) a natural-enriched environment with natural stimuli. Results indicated that, during the dark phase, natural-enriched animals exhibited longer durations interacting with objects than the artificial-enriched group; further, the natural-enriched group engaged in more social behavior than the other two groups. Both enriched groups exhibited less anxiety in response to a novel object but the natural-enriched rats exhibited less anxiety-typical behavior in response to a predator odor than the other groups. Less fos activation in the amygdala was observed in both enriched groups following a water escape task whereas an increase in fos activation in the nucleus accumbens was observed in the natural-enriched animals. Thus, the current findings indicate the potential importance of exposure to complex environments, especially natural-like habitats, in the maintenance of emotional health, perhaps providing a buffer against the emergence of anxiogenic responses. PMID:27238894

  12. Natural Learning: The Life of an Environmental Schoolyard. Creating Environments for Rediscovering Nature's Way of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robin C.; Wong, Herb H.

    The "Environment Yard" project is a 10-year effort to transform an ordinary asphalt schoolyard into a lush, naturalized environment. This book describes the project from which a natural extension of the classroom was created, reducing student boredom and antisocial behavior as they became engaged in the landscape. It instructs on how to naturalize…

  13. Pedagogical Approaches Used by Faculty in Holland's Model Environments: The Role of Environmental Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Umbach, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which faculty members in the disparate academic environments of Holland's theory devote different amounts of time in their classes to alternative pedagogical approaches and whether such differences are comparable for those in "consistent" and "inconsistent" environments. The findings show wide variations in the…

  14. Canada Thistle Phenology: Emergence, Growth, Anthesis, and Death of Shoots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota, USA, for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the "establishment" year for the experimental populatio...

  15. Genetic and environmental factors affecting host response to drugs and other chemical compounds in our environment.

    PubMed Central

    Vesell, E S; Passananti, G T

    1977-01-01

    Compared to laboratory animals, humans are extremely heterogenous with respect to the many factors that can influence the distribution and biological effects of toxic chemicals. This heterogeneity can prevent an accurate assessment of the impact of a particular toxic compound on the health of an individual subject. Some of the factors that can significantly modify the host response to certain drugs, which serve in this review as a model for environmental chemicals, are enumerated and discussed. Although the mechanisms by which many of these factors modify the biological effects of certain environmental chemicals and drugs have been determined in some cases, better definition of the nature of interactions between these factors and environmental chemicals in a particular individual is required at a biochemical and molecular level. Recommendations are offered for the further development of our knowledge concerning interactions between environmental chemicals and such factors in a particular individual. PMID:598349

  16. Environment-induced embrittlement: Stress corrosion cracking and metal-induced embrittlement; Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Heldt, L.A.; Milligan, W.W.; White, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    This research program has included two thrusts. The first addressed environment-induced embrittlement in a parallel study of stress corrosion cracking and metal-induced embrittlement. This work has examined (1) mechanical properties as influenced by embrittling environments, (2) fractography and crystallography or transgranular cracking, (3) the mechanics of cracking, (4) the extent and role of local plastic flow, and (5) local chemistry within stress corrosion and metal-induced cracks. The embrittlement of iron aluminide alloys by air was addressed by determining the effect of water and hydrogen upon the mechanical properties. Slow strain rate testing in aqueous environments was carried out at controlled anodic and cathodic potentials. The effect of cathodically charged hydrogen and the effect of subsequent baking were measured. Environmental susceptibility was measured as affected by alloy composition, microstructure and degree of ordering.

  17. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  18. Technical and Analytical Support Services to the Office of Environmental Analysis, Office of Environment, Safety and Health. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The primary purpose of this contract was to provide technical analyses, studies, and reviews related to land use/water issues and energy resource development in support of the activities of the Office of Environmental Analysis, Office of Environment, Safety and Health. Tasks under this contract included: Issue Papers. Energetics provided issue papers on a number of specific energy and environmental issue areas. Each issue paper consisted of a systematic review and analysis of major factors (technical, legal, environmental, economic, energy, health and social) that could enter into DOE`s environmental/energy policy decisions; Special Analyses. Energetics conducted special in-depth technical analyses as requested by the Contracting Officer`s Technical Representative (COTR); and Critical Review and Evaluation of Program Reports. Energetics performed critical reviews of a number of technical reports arising from DOE program activities. These documents included issue papers and reports resulting from special technical analyses of specific issues, technologies, or broad areas of concern. Reviews focused on both the technical and programmatic impact of the report. Energetics made recommendations and gave input to assist DOE in determining the environmental impacts of energy policies and projects.

  19. Constructing Media Artifacts in a Social Constructivist Environment to Enhance Students' Environmental Awareness and Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2015-02-01

    Current science education reforms and policy documents highlight the importance of environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. As "environmental problems are socially constructed in terms of their conceptualized effects on individuals, groups, other living things and systems research based on constructivist principles provides not only a coherent framework in which to theorize about learning, but also a context for understanding socially constructed issues" (Palmer and Suggate in Res Pap Educ 19(2), 2004, p. 208). This research study investigated the impacts of the learning processes structured based on the theories of constructionism and social constructivism on students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. Students constructed multimedia artifacts expressing their knowledge, attitudes, awareness, and activism about environmental issues through a constructionist design process. In addition, a social networking site was designed and used to promote social interaction among students. Twenty-two high school environmental science students participated in this study. A convergent mixed methods design was implemented to allow for the triangulation of methods by directly comparing and contrasting quantitative results with qualitative findings for corroboration and validation purposes. Using a mixed method approach, quantitative findings are supported with qualitative data (student video projects, writing prompts, blog entries, video projects of the students, observational field notes, and reflective journals) including spontaneous responses in both synchronous and asynchronous conversations on the social network to provide a better understanding of the change in students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. The findings of the study indicated that students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism were improved at different scales (personal, community, global) throughout the constructionist and social

  20. New Markets for Private Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice; Quirke, Linda

    2002-01-01

    While provincial governments in Canada are increasingly regulating public schools in the name of accountability, more parents are choosing unregulated tutoring businesses or "new sector" private schools. Reasons include a competitive edge, an emphasis on cognitive development, a more personalized environment due to small teacher-student ratios,…

  1. The question of women and environment in the Sudan: inquiries into eco-feminism and feminist environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Nageeb, S A

    1994-12-01

    This article discusses a theoretical framework suggested by Agarwal on eco-feminism in the context of Sudan and the Kordofam region of Sudan. The paper focuses specifically on one aspect of eco-feminism that is discussed by Shiva (1988). Eco-feminism is the link between the domination and suppression of women and the domination and exploitation of nature. Women are identified with nature, while men are closer to culture, which places women in an inferior position. Because of the link of women with nature, women have a vested interest in restructuring the domination of nature. Feminism and environmentalism both reflect egalitarian and nonhierarchical systems. This analysis tests whether women are the central actors of environment and whether women's and environmental interests can be advanced simultaneously. The Indian experience reflects the class and gender process that results in loss of knowledge and livelihoods among poor rural women. The impact is related to the interaction between ideology and political and economic power. Grass-roots resistance to environmental degradation is strong, and women are engaged due to threats to survival. Sudanese women's role, position, status, and relation to the environment is shaped by the patriarchal order, class, ethnicity, and the sexual division of labor. The Shiva concepts apply to Sudan and the Kordofan region. The marginalization of traditional farming and pastoralism has pushed the growing population into marginal environmental zones. The focus on cash-oriented development, political instability, and insufficient and corrupt bureaucracies have aggravated the environmental crisis. Social inequality has increased. Shiva's theories do not fit Sudanese society and Agarwal's perspective is too general. Some Sudanese women have accumulated wealth, commercial interests, and exploited land. PMID:12292668

  2. Environmental planning for a coal terminal in a sensitive offshore environment

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, D.; Zador, A.T.

    1983-03-01

    This paper presents methods and results of environmental planning conducted for a proposed coal and iron ore transshipment terminal which would be located on reclaimed land west of Lisbon, Portugal. Oceanographic, navigational, marine, structural, material handling, and financial studies of the terminal were conducted along with the environmental analyses. However, because of the proximity of the terminal to heavily used recreational resources, residential areas, and biologically valuable habitat, anticipating and reducing the environmental effects of the terminal to minimum levels was a very important part of the overall project. The results of the study indicate that even the impacts associated with worst-case conditions would be acceptable because of appropriate pollution control measures and planning.

  3. Mechanical Properties and Durability of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings in Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miladinovich, Daniel S.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings are being developed and tested for use with SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. Several oxide and silicate based compositons are being studied for use as top-coat and intermediate layers in a three or more layer environmental barrier coating system. Specifically, the room temperature Vickers-indentation-fracture-toughness testing and high-temperature stability reaction studies with Calcium Magnesium Alumino-Silicate (CMAS or "sand") are being conducted using advanced testing techniques such as high pressure burner rig tests as well as high heat flux laser tests.

  4. Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia: a model for environmental metabolomics of plants.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Bruno Leite; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2016-01-01

    Tithonia diversifolia is an invasive weed commonly found in tropical ecosystems. In this work, we investigate the influence of different abiotic environmental factors on the plant's metabolite profile by multivariate statistical analyses of spectral data deduced by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-HRMS and NMR methods. Different plant part samples of T. diversifolia which included leaves, stems, roots, and inflorescences were collected from two Brazilian states throughout a 24-month period, along with the corresponding monthly environmental data. A metabolomic approach employing concatenated LC-MS and NMR data was utilised for the first time to study the relationships between environment and plant metabolism. A seasonal pattern was observed for the occurrence of metabolites that included sugars, sesquiterpenes lactones and phenolics in the leaf and stem parts, which can be correlated to the amount of rainfall and changes in temperature. The distribution of the metabolites in the inflorescence and root parts were mainly affected by variation of some soil nutrients such as Ca, Mg, P, K and Cu. We highlight the environment-metabolism relationship for T. diversifolia and the combined analytical approach to obtain reliable data that contributed to a holistic understanding of the influence of abiotic environmental factors on the production of metabolites in various plant parts. PMID:27383265

  5. Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia: a model for environmental metabolomics of plants

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Bruno Leite; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2016-01-01

    Tithonia diversifolia is an invasive weed commonly found in tropical ecosystems. In this work, we investigate the influence of different abiotic environmental factors on the plant’s metabolite profile by multivariate statistical analyses of spectral data deduced by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-HRMS and NMR methods. Different plant part samples of T. diversifolia which included leaves, stems, roots, and inflorescences were collected from two Brazilian states throughout a 24-month period, along with the corresponding monthly environmental data. A metabolomic approach employing concatenated LC-MS and NMR data was utilised for the first time to study the relationships between environment and plant metabolism. A seasonal pattern was observed for the occurrence of metabolites that included sugars, sesquiterpenes lactones and phenolics in the leaf and stem parts, which can be correlated to the amount of rainfall and changes in temperature. The distribution of the metabolites in the inflorescence and root parts were mainly affected by variation of some soil nutrients such as Ca, Mg, P, K and Cu. We highlight the environment-metabolism relationship for T. diversifolia and the combined analytical approach to obtain reliable data that contributed to a holistic understanding of the influence of abiotic environmental factors on the production of metabolites in various plant parts. PMID:27383265

  6. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-01-01

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway. PMID:26180529

  7. Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia: a model for environmental metabolomics of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Bruno Leite; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2016-07-01

    Tithonia diversifolia is an invasive weed commonly found in tropical ecosystems. In this work, we investigate the influence of different abiotic environmental factors on the plant’s metabolite profile by multivariate statistical analyses of spectral data deduced by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-HRMS and NMR methods. Different plant part samples of T. diversifolia which included leaves, stems, roots, and inflorescences were collected from two Brazilian states throughout a 24-month period, along with the corresponding monthly environmental data. A metabolomic approach employing concatenated LC-MS and NMR data was utilised for the first time to study the relationships between environment and plant metabolism. A seasonal pattern was observed for the occurrence of metabolites that included sugars, sesquiterpenes lactones and phenolics in the leaf and stem parts, which can be correlated to the amount of rainfall and changes in temperature. The distribution of the metabolites in the inflorescence and root parts were mainly affected by variation of some soil nutrients such as Ca, Mg, P, K and Cu. We highlight the environment-metabolism relationship for T. diversifolia and the combined analytical approach to obtain reliable data that contributed to a holistic understanding of the influence of abiotic environmental factors on the production of metabolites in various plant parts.

  8. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  9. EMERGING POLLUTANTS, AND COMMUNICATING THE SCIENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY: PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper weaves a rnulti-dimensioned perspective of mass spectrometry as a career against the backdrop of mass spectrometry's key role in the past and future of environmental chemistry. Along the way, some insights are offered for better focusing the spotlight on the discipline...

  10. Energy and the Environment. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's energy resources. The visual aids,…

  11. The Child's Environment is the School: A Human Behavior Approach to Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolsk, David

    A prerequisite to successful environmental education is major change in the educational system. As a replacement for the manpower training/selection approach, we need education as assistance in child development; as a replacement for the educational bureaucracy, we need a dynamic structure designed for individual and organizational growth and…

  12. "EMERGING" POLLUTANTS, AND COMMUNICATING THE SCIENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY: PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper weaves a rnulti-dimensioned perspective of mass spectrometry as a career against the backdrop of mass spectrometry's key role in the past and future of environmental chemistry. Along the way, some insights are offered for better focusing the spotlight on the discipline...

  13. Environmental remediation 1991: ``Cleaning up the environment for the 21st Century``. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.E.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents discussions given at a conference on environmental remediation, September 8--11, Pasco, Washington. Topics include: public confidence; education; in-situ remediation; Hanford tank operations; risk assessments; field experiences; standards; site characterization and monitoring; technology discussions; regulatory issues; compliance; and the UMTRA project. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. The Development of Environmental Education Materials for Investigating Fire-Environment-Man Relationships: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, David L.; Reider, David A.

    This publication details the development and use of environmental education materials based on the United States Forest Service "Process Approach." This publication focuses on materials that teach the ecology and management of natural and man-made forest and brush fires. The main body of the contents develop and document a rationale for…

  15. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in representative broiler feedlots environments: identification of indicator ARGs and correlations with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    He, Liang-Ying; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-11-18

    Livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that may pose a threat to public health. Broiler feedlots may represent an important source of ARGs in the environment. However, the prevalence and dissemination mechanisms of various types of ARGs in the environment of broiler feedlots have not previously been identified. We examined the occurrence, abundance and variation of ARGs conferring resistance to chloramphenicols, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in the environments of two representative types of broiler feedlots (free range and indoor) by quantitative PCR, and assessed their dissemination mechanisms. The results showed the prevalence of various types of ARGs in the environmental samples of the broiler feedlots including manure/litter, soil, sediment, and water samples, with the first report of five chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, floR, fexA, cfr, and fexB) in broiler feedlots. Overall, chloramphenicol resistance genes and sulfonamides sul genes were more abundant than tetracyclines tet genes. The ARG abundances in the samples from indoor boiler feedlots were generally different to the free range feedlots, suggesting the importance of feeding operations in ARG dissemination. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic element genes (int1 and int2), and between the different classes of ARGs themselves, revealing the roles of horizontal gene transfer and coselection for ARG dissemination in the environment. Further regression analysis revealed that fexA, sul1 and tetW could be reliable indicator genes to surrogate anthropogenic sources of ARGs in boiler feedlots (correlations of fexA, sul1 and tetW to all ARGs: R = 0.95, 0.96 and 0.86, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, significant correlations were also identified between indicator ARGs and their corresponding antibiotics. In addition, some ARGs were significantly correlated with typical metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, and As with

  16. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-01

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings. PMID:26378565

  17. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings. PMID:26378565

  18. LIFES: Laser Induced Fluorescence and Environmental Sensing. [remote sensing technique for marine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, W. R.; Stephenson, D. G.; Measures, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory investigation has been conducted to evaluate the detection and identification capabilities of laser induced fluorescence as a remote sensing technique for the marine environment. The relative merits of fluorescence parameters including emission and excitation profiles, intensity and lifetime measurements are discussed in relation to the identification of specific targets of the marine environment including crude oils, refined petroleum products, fish oils and algae. Temporal profiles displaying the variation of lifetime with emission wavelength have proven to add a new dimension of specificity and simplicity to the technique.

  19. International Perspectives on Environmental Education: Issues and Actions. Proceedings of the 1st International and 13th Annual Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 5-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.; Stapp, William B., Ed.

    The proceedings of the first International Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE), which was also the 13th annual conference of the National Association of Environmental Education as the NAEE was formerly known, provides as complete a record as possible of the conference activities. Papers and reports are…

  20. The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management

    PubMed Central

    Batáry, Péter; Dicks, Lynn V; Kleijn, David; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and ecosystems of conservation concern in Europe depend on agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We reviewed the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the data sets of 3 recent meta-analyses and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU's agri-environmental programs in 2007 were not more effective than schemes implemented before revision. Furthermore, schemes aimed at areas out of production (such as field margins and hedgerows) are more effective at enhancing species richness than those aimed at productive areas (such as arable crops or grasslands). Outstanding research questions include whether AES enhance ecosystem services, whether they are more effective in agriculturally marginal areas than in intensively farmed areas, whether they are more or less cost-effective for farmland biodiversity than protected areas, and how much their effectiveness is influenced by farmer training and advice? The general lesson from the European experience is that AES can be effective for conserving wildlife on farmland, but they are expensive and need to be carefully designed and targeted. El Papel de los Esquemas Agro-Ambientales en

  1. Is Nature Immaterial? The Possibilities for Environmental Education without an Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary thinking is generally based on substance, as opposed to process, metaphysics: in other words, the belief that the world and the universe are best understood in terms of material rather than events. The environment, for example, is conceived of as substantial; nature as a web of interconnected, if often fragile entities. In this…

  2. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  3. Energizing Your Future with Energy, Economics and the Environment! Environmental Stewardship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Mary; Thomas, Susan

    This curriculum guide is designed for educators who want to teach youths aged 5-18 about the interactions among energy, economics, and the environment. This guide contains five chapters of activities, each focusing on a different topic related to this interaction as well as several sections that guide session leaders in helping youth along the…

  4. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of Environmental Assessment Tools to Evaluate the College Nutrition Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop, evaluate, and validate 2 nutrition environment assessment tools (surveys), for specific use in combating overweight on college/university campuses. Participants and Methods: Invitations to complete surveys were e-mailed to food service and health center directors at 47 universities, Winter 2008. Overall response rate was…

  5. Acid drainage generation and associated Ca-Fe-SO 4 minerals in a periglacial environment, Eagle Plains, Northern Yukon, Canada: A potential analogue for low-temperature sulfate formation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacelle, Denis; Léveillé, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Near Eagle Plains, northern Yukon, Canada, acidic Ca-Fe-Mg sulfate waters are discharging year-long from disturbed permafrosted sandstone bedrock overlying pyritiferous black shales. These acidic waters are precipitating gypsum with minor amounts of jarosite-K (Na), schwertmannite and hematite. This mineral assemblage is similar to that observed at Meridiani Planum (and other location on Mars), making this site a valuable analogue for low-temperature sulfate geochemistry and mineral formation on Mars. Stable O-S isotope analysis of the acidic waters near Eagle Plains revealed that the oxygen in the dissolved sulfate is mostly derived from water (ca. 70%), suggesting that the sulfide oxidation process could be in part biomediated (i.e., accelerated by acidophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria). However, unlike the dissolved sulfate in the waters, the formation of the Ca-Fe-SO 4 minerals appears to be purely abiotic. The stable O-S isotope composition of the sulfate minerals is well within the predicted equilibrium range at low temperature, suggesting that they formed through physico-chemical processes (i.e., evaporation or freezing). Low-temperature geochemical modeling with FREZCHEM and PHREEQC suggests that the mineral assemblage at Eagle Plains precipitated mainly through the freezing of Ca-Fe-Mg-SO 4 acidic waters, rather than through evaporation during the dry summer season, although the latter is still possible. This suggests that the sulfate mineral assemblage observed on Mars could have also formed under a periglacial-type climate. Considering that the active layer in the zone affected by acid drainage does not freeze-over during winter, the residual talik offers a localized niche environment to support acidophilic microorganisms. Overall, the fact that acid drainage is presently active near Eagle Plains allows the direct observation of the low-temperature geochemical processes responsible for generating acid drainage conditions and precipitation of gypsum

  6. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2011-08-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4,886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of considerable heritability for both reading achievement and reading disability. A simple biometric model adequately described parent and offspring data (combined N = 9,430 parents and offspring) across differing types of families present in the sample Analyses yielded a high heritability estimate (around 0.70) and a negligible shared-environmentality estimate for both reading achievement and reading disability. No evidence of gene × environment interaction was found for parental reading ability and parental educational attainment, the two moderators analyzed. PMID:21743785

  7. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4,886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of considerable heritability for both reading achievement and reading disability. A simple biometric model adequately described parent and offspring data (combined N = 9,430 parents and offspring) across differing types of families present in the sample Analyses yielded a high heritability estimate (around 0.70) and a negligible shared-environmentality estimate for both reading achievement and reading disability. No evidence of gene × environment interaction was found for parental reading ability and parental educational attainment, the two moderators analyzed. PMID:21743785

  8. Environmental and Genetic Influences of Archaeal Lipid Distribution in Natural and Artificial Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, C.; Pagani, M.

    2012-12-01

    TEX86 is a proxy of sea surface temperature based on refractory glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT) in the cell membranes of low-temperature dwelling (non-hyperthermophilic) Archaea. The degree to which environmental signals other than temperature influence the distribution of GDGT compounds is poorly understood. Few representatives of the Thaumarchaeota — the clade to which the dominant GDGT production has been attributed — have been described or isolated in pure culture, and the role of genetic lineage in the synthesis and distribution of GDGTs is unknown. For this project we collected water, filter and substrate samples from tank systems in non-profit and commercial aquariums around the United States. This analysis compares GDGT core lipids and intact polar lipid distributions with Archaeal genetic sequence data processed using rRNA and 454 Pyrosequencing. Environmental attributes (such as dissolved oxygen concentration, salinity, organic density, etc.) specific to each tank are also compared to lipid analyses and the presence of specific lineages within select tank systems. Our preliminary results demonstrate that archaeal GDGTs are present and abundant within a range of environmental conditions, including artificial saline and brackish waters derived from municipal sources. Comparisons of existing TEX86 calibration values with known temperatures suggest that residuals vary based on non-temperature parameters. Branched compounds are absent in most aquarium systems, but dominate in systems prepared with municipal water.

  9. Association Mapping for Epistasis and Environmental Interaction of Yield Traits in 323 Cotton Cultivars under 9 Different Environments

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhaoe; Wang, Xiwen; He, Shoupu; Xiao, Songhua; Shi, Weijun; Zhou, Zhongli; Pang, Baoyin; Wang, Liru; Liu, Jianguang; Ma, Jun; Du, Xiongming; Zhu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Improving yield is a major objective for cotton breeding schemes, and lint yield and its three component traits (boll number, boll weight and lint percentage) are complex traits controlled by multiple genes and various environments. Association mapping was performed to detect markers associated with these four traits using 651 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A mixed linear model including epistasis and environmental interaction was used to screen the loci associated with these four yield traits by 323 accessions of Gossypium hirsutum L. evaluated in nine different environments. 251 significant loci were detected to be associated with lint yield and its three components, including 69 loci with individual effects and all involved in epistasis interactions. These significant loci explain ∼ 62.05% of the phenotypic variance (ranging from 49.06% ∼ 72.29% for these four traits). It was indicated by high contribution of environmental interaction to the phenotypic variance for lint yield and boll numbers, that genetic effects of SSR loci were susceptible to environment factors. Shared loci were also observed among these four traits, which may be used for simultaneous improvement in cotton breeding for yield traits. Furthermore, consistent and elite loci were screened with −Log10 (P-value) >8.0 based on predicted effects of loci detected in different environments. There was one locus and 6 pairs of epistasis for lint yield, 4 loci and 10 epistasis for boll number, 15 loci and 2 epistasis for boll weight, and 2 loci and 5 epistasis for lint percentage, respectively. These results provided insights into the genetic basis of lint yield and its components and may be useful for marker-assisted breeding to improve cotton production. PMID:24810754

  10. Environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing - Main results and recommendations from two studies on behalf of the German Environment Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischbaum, Bernd; Bertram, Andreas; Böttcher, Christian; Iyimen-Schwarz, Züleyha; Rechenberg, Jörg; Dannwolf, Uwe; Meiners, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The German Environment Agency (UBA) accompanies the debate on fracking for years. Two major reports on risks and environmental impacts regarding the exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas, in particular shale gas have been published. On the basis of these studies as well as on scientific evidence UBA considers ecological barriers as a sustainable means to minimize the risks to environment and human health. 1) Recent studies show that the contamination of shallow aquifers by rise of fluids through natural faults or artificially created fractures is extremely unlikely. However, activities on the surface and lack of wellbore integrity pose threats and substantial risks for the quality of shallow aquifers. 2) The need for thorough groundwater monitoring is fully accepted, yet its range and design is subject to discussion. 3) Formerly, analysis and mass balances of flowback and produced water have been insufficient, thus there is a lack of exact information on proportions of frac-fluids, flowback and formation water respectively, as well as data on possible reaction products. 4) Currently, neither on national nor on European level best reference techniques (BREF) for the treatment and disposal of flowback and produced water are available. 5) In addition, land consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, and induced seismicity are major issues. UBA recommends amongst others the implementation of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for fracking activities, the prohibition of fracking in water protection areas as well as their catchments, and the disclosure of all frac-fluid chemicals within a national chemical registry. To achieve these objectives the German Environment Agency suggests a step-by-step approach. The paper will present the main results from the studies and the recommendations of the German Environment Agency regarding hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas exploitation.

  11. Chemistry for the protection of the environment. Environmental science research. Volume 42

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, L.; Lacy, W.J.; Dlugosz, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    This book contains the Proceedings from an International Conference on Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment held in Lublin, Poland, September 4-7, 1989. It opens with a tribute to Andre Van Haute who was a member of the Committee on the title subject and who died in 1989. This is followed by a preface by the editors and 70 chapters, which are grouped under the following headings: General Problems; Monitoring Methods for Surface and Ground water and Analysis of Pollutants; Pathways of Chemicals in the Environment; Physicochemical Treatment: Ion Exchange; Physicochemical Treatment: Coagulation, Flocculation and Sorption; Physicochemical Treatment: Oxidation-Reduction Processes; Physicochemical Treatment; Membrane Processes; and Miscellaneous Methods for Removal of Pollutants. There is a brief subject index.

  12. Aquatic impacts of an environmental disaster in a relatively pristine watershed: the breach of the Mount Polley Mine tailings impoundment, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Albers, Sam

    2015-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids), in addition to eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek, were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a large plume of fine-grained sediment (d50 of ca. 1 µm) moved both up-lake towards important salmon spawning areas and down-lake into Quesnel River, which in turn flows into the Fraser River. This movement of the sediment plume is controlled by the physical limnology of the lake, especially seiche events. Samples of lake water and sediment samples taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of metals and other elements, which may have important implications for the ecosystem in this watershed (>11,000 km2). This presentation describes the failure and presents preliminary findings of the aquatic impacts of this environmental disaster.

  13. A prospective study to examine the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile contamination in the general environment of three community hospitals in southern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The hospital environment has been suggested as playing an important role in the transmission of hospital-associated (HA) pathogens. However, studies investigating the contamination of the hospital environment with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Clostridium difficile have generally focused on point prevalence studies of only a single pathogen. Research evaluating the roles of these two pathogens, concurrently, in the general hospital environment has not been conducted. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and identify risk factors associated with MRSA and C. difficile contamination in the general environment of three community hospitals, prospectively. Methods Sampling of environmental surfaces distributed over the medicine and surgical wards at each hospital was conducted once a week for four consecutive weeks. Sterile electrostatic cloths were used for environmental sampling and information regarding the surface sampled was recorded. For MRSA, air sampling was also conducted. Enrichment culture was performed and spa typing was performed for all MRSA isolates. For C. difficile, isolates were characterized by ribotyping and investigated for the presence of toxin genes by PCR. Using logistic regression, the following risk factors were examined for MRSA or C. difficile contamination: type of surface sampled, surface material, surface location, and the presence/absence of the other HA pathogen under investigation. Results Overall, 11.8% (n=612) and 2.4% (n=552) of surfaces were positive for MRSA and C. difficile, respectively. Based on molecular typing, five different MRSA strains and eight different C. difficile ribotypes, including ribotypes 027 (15.4%) and 078 (7.7%), were identified in the hospital environment. Results from the logistic regression model indicate that compared to computer keyboards, the following surfaces had increased odds of being contaminated with MRSA: chair backs, hand rails, isolation

  14. Resolving North America`s environmental disputes

    SciTech Connect

    Mauseth, M.

    1998-12-31

    Seventeen years ago John E. Carroll and Newell B. Mack analyzed the then-current status of environmental protection mechanisms used between Canada and the United States. They criticized the ad hoc nature of North America`s history of environmental dispute resolution, which they dubbed ``ad hockery,`` and believed the present ambiguity hurt business, diplomatic relations, and the citizenry`s environment. Since that publication, increasing efforts to incorporate environmental concerns into Conventions have resulted in several multilateral agreements focusing on environmental protection and dispute resolution. Part 2 of this paper introduces a few of these recent agreements and the mechanisms they have established to monitor environmental damage and to enforce the goals of the agreements. The agreements discussed include: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer; Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; Canada-United States: Agreement on Air Quality; Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Convention on Biological Diversity; and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. Part 3 discusses the general concern related to economic development (with the need to maintain ``sustainable development``), the possible environmental impact of NAFTA, and the Supplemental Agreement`s strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Gene-environment interaction from international cohorts: impact on development and evolution of occupational and environmental lung and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam; Christiani, David C

    2015-06-01

    Environmental and occupational pulmonary diseases impose a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality on the global population. However, it has been long observed that only some of those who are exposed to pulmonary toxicants go on to develop disease; increasingly, it is being recognized that genetic differences may underlie some of this person-to-person variability. Studies performed throughout the globe are demonstrating important gene-environment interactions for diseases as diverse as chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, asbestosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, and pollution-associated asthma. These findings have, in many instances, elucidated the pathogenesis of these highly complex diseases. At the same time, however, translation of this research into clinical practice has, for good reasons, proceeded slowly. No genetic test has yet emerged with sufficiently robust operating characteristics to be clearly useful or practicable in an occupational or environmental setting. In addition, occupational genetic testing raises serious ethical and policy concerns. Therefore, the primary objective must remain ensuring that the workplace and the environment are safe for all. PMID:26024343

  16. Modeling of Spatially Referenced Environmental and Meteorological Factors Influencing the Probability of Listeria Species Isolation from Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ivanek, R.; Gröhn, Y. T.; Wells, M. T.; Lembo, A. J.; Sauders, B. D.; Wiedmann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many pathogens have the ability to survive and multiply in abiotic environments, representing a possible reservoir and source of human and animal exposure. Our objective was to develop a methodological framework to study spatially explicit environmental and meteorological factors affecting the probability of pathogen isolation from a location. Isolation of Listeria spp. from the natural environment was used as a model system. Logistic regression and classification tree methods were applied, and their predictive performances were compared. Analyses revealed that precipitation and occurrence of alternating freezing and thawing temperatures prior to sample collection, loam soil, water storage to a soil depth of 50 cm, slope gradient, and cardinal direction to the north are key predictors for isolation of Listeria spp. from a spatial location. Different combinations of factors affected the probability of isolation of Listeria spp. from the soil, vegetation, and water layers of a location, indicating that the three layers represent different ecological niches for Listeria spp. The predictive power of classification trees was comparable to that of logistic regression. However, the former were easier to interpret, making them more appealing for field applications. Our study demonstrates how the analysis of a pathogen's spatial distribution improves understanding of the predictors of the pathogen's presence in a particular location and could be used to propose novel control strategies to reduce human and animal environmental exposure. PMID:19648372

  17. Canada's Landscape Response To Climate Change From Satellite Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifovic, R.; Trishchenko, A.; Pouliot, D.

    2005-12-01

    Progress towards sustainability, including adaptation to climate change relies on our ability to monitor and predict impacts on the environment resulting from combined human and natural causes. The synthesis of current knowledge and quantitative impact assessments used by stakeholders and decision makers regarding climate change are founded on observations sustained over decades. Such long-term observations of the earth's surface and atmospheric properties can be provided to a large degree by earth observation systems. Satellite data contain valuable measurements of sufficient length and continuity to generate geophysical time series of land cover, leaf area index, cloud fraction, albedo, radiation, lake temperature and other land, atmosphere and water properties. In addition to studying climate change the information provided by such data, can be used in wide range of applications related to natural resource development, agriculture, environmental monitoring, and ocean surveillance. In response to this recognized need, under the project National Action on Climate Change in the framework of the Climate Change Program of Natural Resources Canada the generation of a comprehensive satellite data record has been initiated. The new archive includes AVHRR data at 1-km spatial resolution over Canada for 1985-2004 (20 years), SPOT/VGT 1&2 (1998-2004) and MODIS (2000-2005). The first evaluation of landscape response to global climate change at regional level using the new archive will be presented through examples related to land cover change, landscape productivity, and lake and sea ice variability.

  18. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 2, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2004 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 6). Volume I summarizes the results from analyses of the data. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: For completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2004 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2003 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 5, 2004, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2003 data and are not included in Table 4-5 in Volume I.)

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume 2, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2006 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4). Volume I summarizes the results from analyses of the data. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: For completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2006 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2005 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 2, 2006, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2005 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.)

  20. Gene-environment interactions related to body mass: School policies and social context as environmental moderators

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Roettger, Michael E.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Harris, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of institutional resources and policies, whose origins lie in political processes, in shaping the genetic etiology of body mass among a national sample of adolescents. Using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we decompose the variance of body mass into environmental and genetic components. We then examine the extent to which the genetic influences on body mass are different across the 134 schools in the study. Taking advantage of school differences in both health-related policies and social norms regarding body size, we examine how institutional resources and policies alter the relative impact of genetic influences on body mass. For the entire sample, we estimate a heritability of .82, with the remaining .18 due to unique environmental factors. However, we also show variation about this estimate and provide evidence suggesting that social norms and institutional policies often mask genetic vulnerabilities to increased weight. Empirically, we demonstrate that more-restrictive school policies and policies designed to curb weight gain are also associated with decreases the proportion of variance in body mass that is due to additive genetic influences. PMID:23236222

  1. Environmental challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.

  2. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  3. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments

    PubMed Central

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios. PMID:27171096

  4. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios. PMID:27171096

  5. Information management architecture for an integrated computing environment for the Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program, Volume 3, Interim technical architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This third volume of the Information Management Architecture for an Integrated Computing Environment for the Environmental Restoration Program--the Interim Technical Architecture (TA) (referred to throughout the remainder of this document as the ER TA)--represents a key milestone in establishing a coordinated information management environment in which information initiatives can be pursued with the confidence that redundancy and inconsistencies will be held to a minimum. This architecture is intended to be used as a reference by anyone whose responsibilities include the acquisition or development of information technology for use by the ER Program. The interim ER TA provides technical guidance at three levels. At the highest level, the technical architecture provides an overall computing philosophy or direction. At this level, the guidance does not address specific technologies or products but addresses more general concepts, such as the use of open systems, modular architectures, graphical user interfaces, and architecture-based development. At the next level, the technical architecture provides specific information technology recommendations regarding a wide variety of specific technologies. These technologies include computing hardware, operating systems, communications software, database management software, application development software, and personal productivity software, among others. These recommendations range from the adoption of specific industry or Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) standards to the specification of individual products. At the third level, the architecture provides guidance regarding implementation strategies for the recommended technologies that can be applied to individual projects and to the ER Program as a whole.

  6. A decade of research on the environmental impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents in Canada: sources and characteristics of bioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, L Mark; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E

    2006-01-01

    industry-wide process changes. Continued research into the identities, origins, and environmental fate of these substances and the efficacy of effluent treatment is required to determine their significance and relationship to the existing impacts of effluents from pulp and paper mills in Canadian aquatic ecosystems. PMID:16723331

  7. CyberIntegrator: A Highly Interactive Problem Solving Environment to Support Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, L.; Minsker, B.; Kooper, R.; Myers, J.; Bajcsy, P.

    2006-12-01

    This work presents CyberIntegrator, a component of the Environmental Cyber-Infrastructure Demonstration (ECID) project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which is exploring cyberinfrastructure for environmental observatories with an emphasis on supporting exploratory analysis and end-to-end productivity. CyberIntegrator is a novel workflow-based system that supports interactive workflow creation, connection to external data and event streams, provenance tracking, and incorporation of workflow fragments and functionality from other systems and applications, all of which enable the types of tasks expected in observatories. This presentation describes CyberIntegrator's use in three environmental use cases that reveal its novel aspects. The three environmental use cases are: modeling fecal coliform concentrations in Copano Bay, TX; discovering vegetation variability from large remotely sensed images at the US continental scale; detecting anomalous data from sensors in Corpus Christi Bay, TX. The use cases show how CyberIntegrator supports scientists through: 1. Integration of heterogeneous tools: CyberIntegrator can execute tools from multiple (currently six) heterogeneous software packages while hiding integration complexity. It passes the outputs of a software tool to the input of another tool transparently to an end user. 2. Provenance information gathering: Meta-data about scientific analyses are gathered and stored in a meta- data repository as Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples. The information enables tracking of provenance from data to workflow to publication and provides recommendations to users based on previous community activities. 3. Interactive human-computer interface: CyberIntegrator editor provides a user-friendly interface for browsing registries of data, tools and computational resources; creating workflows in a step-by-step exploration mode; re-using and re-purposing workflows; executing process flows locally or

  8. A Mixed-Model Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Analysis for Multiple-Environment Trial Data Using Environmental Covariables for QTL-by-Environment Interactions, With an Example in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Martin P.; Wright, Deanne; Feng, Lizhi; Podlich, Dean W.; Luo, Lang; Cooper, Mark; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex quantitative traits of plants as measured on collections of genotypes across multiple environments are the outcome of processes that depend in intricate ways on genotype and environment simultaneously. For a better understanding of the genetic architecture of such traits as observed across environments, genotype-by-environment interaction should be modeled with statistical models that use explicit information on genotypes and environments. The modeling approach we propose explains genotype-by-environment interaction by differential quantitative trait locus (QTL) expression in relation to environmental variables. We analyzed grain yield and grain moisture for an experimental data set composed of 976 F5 maize testcross progenies evaluated across 12 environments in the U.S. corn belt during 1994 and 1995. The strategy we used was based on mixed models and started with a phenotypic analysis of multi-environment data, modeling genotype-by-environment interactions and associated genetic correlations between environments, while taking into account intraenvironmental error structures. The phenotypic mixed models were then extended to QTL models via the incorporation of marker information as genotypic covariables. A majority of the detected QTL showed significant QTL-by-environment interactions (QEI). The QEI were further analyzed by including environmental covariates into the mixed model. Most QEI could be understood as differential QTL expression conditional on longitude or year, both consequences of temperature differences during critical stages of the growth. PMID:17947443

  9. Environment. Development. How Can Societies Develop To Meet Basic Needs and Nurture Economies without Undermining the Natural Resources and Environmental Integrity on Which They Depend? Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachergram, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Designed for the senior secondary level, these activities and articles explore critical issues between the environment and development. Two causes of environmental degradation are wasteful affluence and desperate poverty. The problems with development and the environment addresses Canadian and global situations. An article presents three…

  10. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  11. Reduction of risk to the marine environment from oilfield chemicals - balancing environmental and technical needs

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, J.E.; Hill, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    The study argues that the regulation of offshore use of hazardous chemicals for oilfield stimulation and Completion applications is an important but not a total solution to reduce marine pollution from offshore sources. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that for a complete solution, chemical reformulation must be considered hand-in-band with improved operational practices to provide a maximum effect on overall risk reduction. The study is directed at one major service company`s approach to the whole issue of chemical management in the 1990s, based mainly on North Sea experience in cementing, drilling fluid and stimulation activities. Oilfield chemicals are incorporated into a fluid design to solve a specific technical problem in a well, such as well completion, stimulation and damage removal. While it is desirable to replace all the harmful chemicals, the practicalities of doing so are limited if the industry is to continue to produce efficiently. Other alternatives need consideration. By their very chemistry, some chemicals have primary active ingredients which may be harmful if discharged into the environment. Improving the characteristics of chemicals to marine life requires the change of previously acceptable products, such as the elimination of banned materials as well as incorporating components with reduced toxicity and greater biodegradability. The idealistic goal is the immediate replacement of all chemicals by nontoxic, biodegrade alternatives; the practical solution is replacement reformulation where possible and the improved isolation the oilwell and marine environments through improvements in continuous-mix technology along with reduction of the chemicals by better job design.

  12. Environmental life cycle assessment of different domestic wastewater streams: policy effectiveness in a tropical urban environment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Bernard J H; Zhou, Jin; Giannis, Apostolos; Chang, Victor W-C; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To enhance local water security, the Singapore government promotes two water conservation policies: the use of eco-friendly toilets to reduce yellow water (YW) disposal and the installation of water efficient devices to minimize gray water (GW) discharge. The proposed water conservation policies have different impacts on the environmental performance of local wastewater management. The main purpose of this study is to examine and compare the impacts of different domestic wastewater streams and the effectiveness of two water conservation policies by means of life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA is used to compare three scenarios, including a baseline scenario (BL), YW-reduced scenario (YWR) and GW-reduced scenario (GWR). The BL is designed based on the current wastewater management system, whereas the latter two scenarios are constructed according to the two water conservation policies that are proposed by the Singapore government. The software SIMPARO 7.3 with local data and an eco-invent database is used to build up the model, and the functional unit is defined as the daily wastewater disposal of a Singapore resident. Due to local water supply characteristics, the system boundary is extended to include the sewage sludge management and tap water production processes. The characterization results indicate that the GWR has a significant impact reduction (22-25%) while the YWR has only a 2-4% impact reduction compared with the BL. The contribution analysis reveals that the GW dominates many impact categories except eutrophication potential. The tap water production is identified as the most influential process due to its high embodied energy demand in a local context. Life cycle costing analysis shows that both YWR and GWR are financially favorable. It is also revealed that the current water conservation policies could only achieve Singapore's short-term targets. Therefore, two additional strategies are recommended for achieving long-term goals. This study provides a

  13. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  14. Organic halogens in the environment: Studies of environmental biodegradability and human exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Salkinoja-Salonen, M.; Uotila, J.; Jokela, J.; Laine, M.; Saski, E.

    1995-06-01

    Organic halogens from chlorobleaching of kraft pulp were not as biorecalcitrant as has been assumed. Fifty percent were removed during biotreatment of wastewater, and 50% of the remaining organolhalogens faded in fresh water ecosystems in 200 to 400 days. Molecular size seemed not to hinder biodegradation up to sizes of approximately 2000 daltons. Anoxic biodegradation was of prime importance for halomineralization of pulp bleaching organohalogens but could also lead to toxic metabolites such as vinyl chloride from tri- and tetrachloroethene in anoxic soil. Indigenous soil microbes were unable to clean old organohalogen pollution but had converted chlorophenols into polymeric substances, chlorohumus, which were found bioaccumulable by earthworms in spite of the large (up to 5000 g/mole) molecular sizes. Because of the danger of formation of toxic metabolites, the biochemistry of the xenobiotic degradation must be elucidated before active bioremediation is practiced on polluted soil or water. Groundwater pollution by chlorophenols led to increased disease among the exposed population in one well-studied case. Two further cases of potential environmental health impact are described. 40 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Organic halogens in the environment: studies of environmental biodegradability and human exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Uotila, J; Jokela, J; Laine, M; Saski, E

    1995-01-01

    Organic halogens from chlorobleaching of kraft pulp were not as biorecalcitrant as has been assumed. Fifty percent were removed during biotreatment of wastewater, and 50% of the remaining organohalogens faded in fresh water ecosystems in 200 to 400 days. Molecular size seemed not to hinder biodegradation up to sizes of approximately 2000 daltons. Anoxic biodegradation was of prime importance for halomineralization of pulp bleaching organohalogens but could also lead to toxic metabolites such as vinyl chloride from tri- and tetrachloroethene in anoxic soil. Indigenous soil microbes were unable to clean old organohalogen pollution but had converted chlorophenols into polymeric substances, chlorohumus, which were found bioaccumulable by earthworms in spite of the large (up to 5000 g/mole) molecular sizes. Because of the danger of formation of toxic metabolites, the biochemistry of the xenobiotic degradation must be elucidated before active bioremediation is practiced on polluted soil or water. Groundwater pollution by chlorophenols led to increased disease among the exposed population in one well-studied case. Two further cases of potential environmental health impact are described. PMID:8565914

  16. The landscape of Wageningen as an inspiring teaching environment for future environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Sonneveld, Marthijn

    2013-04-01

    Practical field work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. This is facilitated when a wide variety of geological materials geomorphological phenomena and soil patterns are within reach. One of the leading universities in soil science in the Netherlands, Wageningen University, was founded some hundred years ago in the small city of Wageningen because of the rich variety of soils and landscapes in its vicinity. Being located in the central part of the Netherlands, its region is famous because here Late-Pleistocene and Late-Holocene deposits meet. Wageningen is located on the slope of an ice pushed ridge which dates from the Saalien ice age, bordering a glacial tongue basin The ridge is mainly composed of pushed coarse grained fluvial deposits. In the Weichselien ice age cover sands have been deposited on the sides of this ridge. During the Holocene the ridge was eroded on the southern side, where the river Rhine has cut into the older deposits and deposited mainly fine grained fluvial deposits. Peat formation took place in the lower parts of the basin. In addition this region has been inhabited by people, who have worked, and fertilized the soil, creating a thickened A-horizon in some locations around Wageningen. This geological setting has created a palette of different sedimentary deposits which serve as mother material for a variety of soil types like podzols, brown forest soils, , fluvial clay to loamy soils, plaggen soils and peat soils. In our education we frequently use the soils in the surrounding as a teaching environment for our students. They are send out to use all their senses and look, feel, hear and sometimes even taste the soils. They use these impressions to describe the soils and understand why the soils are on that specific place in the landscape where we find it. We feel students benefit from this playground in our backyard, because, even though students work more and more in an individual and virtual environment where they

  17. Durability of Environmental Barrier Coatings in a Water Vapor/Oxygen Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holchin, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbide (Sic) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) show potential for application in the hot sections of advanced jet engines. The oxidation behavior of these materials has been studied in great detail. In a pure oxygen environment, a silica (SiO2) layer forms on the surface and provides protection from further oxidation. Initial oxidation is rapid, but slows as silica layer grows; this is known as parabolic oxidation. When exposed to model fuel-lean combustion applications (standard in jet engines), wherein the partial pressure of water vapor is approximately 0.5 atm., these materials exhibit different characteristics. In such an environment, the primary oxidant to form silica is water vapor. At the same time, water vapor reacts with the surface oxide to form gaseous silicon hydroxide (Si(OH)4). The simultaneous formation of both silica and Si(OH)4 -the latter which is lost to the atmosphere- the material continues to recede. Recession rates for uncoated Sic and Si3N4 are unacceptably high, for use in jet engines, - on the order of 1mm/4000h. External coatings have been developed that protect Si-based materials from water vapor attack. One such coating consists of a Ba(0.75)Sr(0.25)Al2Si2O8 (BSAS) topcoat, a mullite/BSAS intermediate layer and a Si bond coat. The key function of the topcoat is to protect the Si-base material from water vapor; therefore it must be fairly stable in water vapor (recession rate of about 1mm/40,000h) and remain crack free. Although BSAS is much more resistant to water vapor attack than pure silica, it exhibits a linear weight loss in 50% H2O - 50% O2 at 1500 C. The objective of my research is to determine the oxidation behavior of a number of alternate hot-pressed monolithic top coat candidates. Potential coatings were exposed at 1500 C to a 50% H2O - 50% O2 gas mixture flowing at 4.4 cm/s . These included rare- earth silicates, barium-strontium aluminosilicates. When weight changes were measured with a continuously recording

  18. Omics and Environmental Science Genomic Approaches With Natural Fish Populations From Polluted Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bozinovic, Goran; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptomics and population genomics are two complementary genomic approaches that can be used to gain insight into pollutant effects in natural populations. Transcriptomics identify altered gene expression pathways while population genomics approaches more directly target the causative genomic polymorphisms. Neither approach is restricted to a pre-determined set of genes or loci. Instead, both approaches allow a broad overview of genomic processes. Transcriptomics and population genomic approaches have been used to explore genomic responses in populations of fish from polluted environments and have identified sets of candidate genes and loci that appear biologically important in response to pollution. Often differences in gene expression or loci between polluted and reference populations are not conserved among polluted populations suggesting a biological complexity that we do not yet fully understand. As genomic approaches become less expensive with the advent of new sequencing and genotyping technologies, they will be more widely used in complimentary studies. However, while these genomic approaches are immensely powerful for identifying candidate gene and loci, the challenge of determining biological mechanisms that link genotypes and phenotypes remains. PMID:21072843

  19. 250 MHz/GHz scintillation parameters in the equatorial, polar, and auroral environments. Environmental research papers

    SciTech Connect

    Basu; MacKenzie, E.; Basu; Costa, E.; Fougere, P.F.

    1986-03-28

    Ionospheric scintillation effects encountered in the equatorial-anomaly crest, polar-cap, and auroral regions have been contrasted to provide information for the design and evaluation of the performance of satellite communication links in these regions. The equatorial-anomaly region is identified as the most-disturbed irregularity environment where the amplitude and phase structures of VHF/L-band scintillations are primarily dictated by the strength of scattering rather than ionospheric motion. In the anomaly region, the spectra of intense amplitude scintillations at VHF and L-band are characterized by uniform power spectral density from the lowest frequency (10 MHz) to 4 Hz at VHF and to 1 Hz at L-band and steep rolloff at higher fluctuation frequencies with power law indices of -5 to 07. Such structures are compatible with intensity decorrelation times of 0.1 and 0.3 sec at VHF and L-band frequencies, respectively. The phase spectra are described by power-law variation of psd with frequency with typical spectral indices of -2. 4. The strong scattering at VHF induces extreme phase rates of 200 deg. in 0.1 sec. The 90th percentile values of rms phase deviation at 250 MHz with 100-sec detrend are found to be 16 rads in the early evening hours whereas amplitude scintillation can cover the entire dynamic range of 30 dB not only at 250 MHz but at L-band as well.

  20. Environmental and genetic determinants of childhood depression: The roles of DAT1 and the antenatal environment.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stephanie; Thompson, John M D; Slykerman, Rebecca; Marlow, Gareth; Wall, Clare; Murphy, Rinki; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A; Waldie, Karen E

    2016-06-01

    Research on adolescent and adult populations has linked depression to variation in several monoaminergic genes, but genetic association studies on depression in children are limited. Additionally, few studies have investigated whether stressors occurring very early in development moderate the influence of certain genes on depression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from monoaminergic genes interacted with measures of early life stress to influence depressive symptoms in children. Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative cohort. Small for gestational age (SGA) and maternal stress during pregnancy were measured at birth and used as indicators of early life stress. At age 11, depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) and DNA samples were collected for genotyping. A two-way ANOVA revealed that SGA and a SNP from the dopamine transporter gene DAT1 had an interactive effect on children's depressive symptoms. Specifically, symptoms were greater in children born SGA who are T homozygous for the rs1042098 SNP. These findings suggest that adverse intrauterine environments leading to low birth weight also seem to exacerbate the effects of certain DAT1 variants on depression. PMID:26991370

  1. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance.

  2. Space Environment NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) - A New Frontier in Operational Space Environmental Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Gentile, L. C.; Bonito, N. A.; La Tour, P.; Sondecker, G.; Bishop, R. L.; Nicholas, A. C.; Doe, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats built by Boeing Phantom Works. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements. Launch is scheduled for November 2013, and we will discuss the first 30 days of on-orbit operations.

  3. Study of the quantitative evaluation of the visual satisfaction of environmental space of urban sculpture based on relationship between human and environment: taking three environmental spaces of urban sculpture in Nanjing as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Nana; Qi, Qiuyin; Qin, Chuan

    2007-06-01

    Using the methods of Semantic Differential Method and Factor analysis, and taking three environmental space of urban sculpture in Nanjing city as an example, we quantitatively evaluated the urban dwellers' subjective impressions of the different types of environmental space of urban sculpture. The result shows that the feelings of psychological environment of the target audience and the effects of landscape of the environmental space account for a very large component in the quantitative evaluation of the visual satisfaction of environmental space of urban sculpture. So the visual satisfaction research should focus on the feelings of psychological environment of the target audience and the effects of landscape of the environmental space, which are both valuable aspects.

  4. Up From Suffrage: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulaninec, John S.

    Influences on the political and economic status of women in Canada between World Wars I and II are discussed, with emphasis on the struggle to enfranchise women on the provincial level, legislative precedents, and the relationship between educational achievement and economic opportunity. Data are derived from historical accounts; trade union…

  5. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  6. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  7. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  8. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  9. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  10. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  11. Update on Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  12. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)

  13. Using Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite data to specify the radiation environment up to 1200 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. P.; Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Looper, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Data from the Deal dosimeter payload on the Rapid Pathfinder satellite provide daily maps of the radiation environment on a sphere at 1200 km altitude. Through the use of magnetic coordinates, these dosimeter maps can be projected down to lower altitudes, providing valuable information for satellite anomaly resolution for vehicles in low Earth orbit (LEO). Unfortunately, the Deal data are not widely available, and the mission has a limited lifetime. As an alternative, we present a method to estimate the Deal daily maps using belt index data from NOAA's Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) vehicles. The method addresses only trapped radiation but could readily be supplemented with POES's own measurements of solar particle radiation reaching LEO.

  14. Brazilian historiography and the environment: contributions by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda and the contemporary environmental history debate.

    PubMed

    Losada, Janaina Zito

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, Brazilian historigraphical debate was profoundly marked by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda. The problems of national identity, the occupation of the land, the social organization of Brazil and its civilizatory roots, the cultural exchanges and boundaries in inland parts, the perceptions and forms of appropriation of nature, and other topics covered by the author still echo in contemporary historical research. This article discusses how his main works contribute to environmental history, especially his interpretations of how human societies and the natural environment have affected one another. The role of nature, its metaphors, ideas, or images are the evidence of a history of Brazilian historiography. PMID:27557354

  15. THE ZURICH ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF GALAXIES IN GROUPS ALONG THE COSMIC WEB. I. WHICH ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS GALAXY EVOLUTION?

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Cameron, Ewan; Peng, Yingjie; Pipino, Antonio; Rudick, Craig S.; Norberg, Peder; Silverman, John D.; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-10-20

    The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) is based on a sample of ∼1500 galaxy members of 141 groups in the mass range ∼10{sup 12.5-14.5} M{sub ☉} within the narrow redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.0585. ZENS adopts novel approaches, described here, to quantify four different galactic environments, namely: (1) the mass of the host group halo; (2) the projected halo-centric distance; (3) the rank of galaxies as central or satellites within their group halos; and (4) the filamentary large-scale structure density. No self-consistent identification of a central galaxy is found in ∼40% of <10{sup 13.5} M{sub ☉} groups, from which we estimate that ∼15% of groups at these masses are dynamically unrelaxed systems. Central galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups generally have similar properties, suggesting that centrals are regulated by their mass and not by their environment. Centrals in relaxed groups have, however, ∼30% larger sizes than in unrelaxed groups, possibly due to accretion of small satellites in virialized group halos. At M > 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, satellite galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups have similar size, color, and (specific) star formation rate distributions; at lower galaxy masses, satellites are marginally redder in relaxed relative to unrelaxed groups, suggesting quenching of star formation in low-mass satellites by physical processes active in relaxed halos. Overall, relaxed and unrelaxed groups show similar stellar mass populations, likely indicating similar stellar mass conversion efficiencies. In the enclosed ZENS catalog, we publish all environmental diagnostics as well as the galaxy structural and photometric measurements described in companion ZENS papers II and III.

  16. The Zurich Environmental Study of Galaxies in Groups along the Cosmic Web. I. Which Environment Affects Galaxy Evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Norberg, Peder; Silverman, John D.; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Cameron, Ewan; Finoguenov, Alexis; Peng, Yingjie; Pipino, Antonio; Rudick, Craig S.

    2013-10-01

    The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) is based on a sample of ~1500 galaxy members of 141 groups in the mass range ~1012.5-14.5 M ⊙ within the narrow redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.0585. ZENS adopts novel approaches, described here, to quantify four different galactic environments, namely: (1) the mass of the host group halo; (2) the projected halo-centric distance; (3) the rank of galaxies as central or satellites within their group halos; and (4) the filamentary large-scale structure density. No self-consistent identification of a central galaxy is found in ~40% of <1013.5 M ⊙ groups, from which we estimate that ~15% of groups at these masses are dynamically unrelaxed systems. Central galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups generally have similar properties, suggesting that centrals are regulated by their mass and not by their environment. Centrals in relaxed groups have, however, ~30% larger sizes than in unrelaxed groups, possibly due to accretion of small satellites in virialized group halos. At M > 1010 M ⊙, satellite galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups have similar size, color, and (specific) star formation rate distributions; at lower galaxy masses, satellites are marginally redder in relaxed relative to unrelaxed groups, suggesting quenching of star formation in low-mass satellites by physical processes active in relaxed halos. Overall, relaxed and unrelaxed groups show similar stellar mass populations, likely indicating similar stellar mass conversion efficiencies. In the enclosed ZENS catalog, we publish all environmental diagnostics as well as the galaxy structural and photometric measurements described in companion ZENS papers II and III. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla Chile. Program ID 177.A-0680.

  17. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease. PMID:4541003

  18. Environmental specimen bank samples of Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens as indicators of the radiation environment at the surface.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, S; Taipale, T; Lappalainen, N M; Kubin, E; Lakkala, K; Kaurola, J

    2005-01-01

    Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. samples from the Finnish Environmental Specimen Bank were used to study the UV-B-absorbing compounds as potential screens of the past radiation environment. The first series from southern and central Finland consisted of samples collected from 18 P. schreberi or H. splendens dominated sites in 1985 and 1995. The second series from four H. splendens dominated sites (two in southern and two in northern Finland) and two P. schreberi dominated sites (one southern and one northern) were from the years 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2000. In the first series, the moss surface area of the analyzed specimens (5 +/- 0.2 mg DW) was smaller in 1995 (40% of both species collected in June) than in 1985 (40% of P. schreberi and 55% of H. splendens collected in September). The methanol-extractable UV-B-absorbing compounds of P. schreberi in 1985 and 1995 measured as absorbance at 10 nm intervals at 280-360 nm per mg DW revealed a negative correlation with reconstructed UV-radiation data. In the second series, the UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area (surface area mm2 per DW) showed significant differences between the years. The highest values in both species were obtained in 1990. In H. splendens, a difference between the southern and northern samples was observed. The preliminary study encouraged the use of environmental specimen bank samples to indicate changes in surface radiation conditions. PMID:15519462

  19. "Every Gene Is Everywhere but the Environment Selects": Global Geolocalization of Gene Sharing in Environmental Samples through Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fondi, Marco; Karkman, Antti; Tamminen, Manu V; Bosi, Emanuele; Virta, Marko; Fani, Renato; Alm, Eric; McInerney, James O

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of microbes on our planet is famously formulated in the Baas Becking hypothesis as "everything is everywhere but the environment selects." While this hypothesis does not strictly rule out patterns caused by geographical effects on ecology and historical founder effects, it does propose that the remarkable dispersal potential of microbes leads to distributions generally shaped by environmental factors rather than geographical distance. By constructing sequence similarity networks from uncultured environmental samples, we show that microbial gene pool distributions are not influenced nearly as much by geography as ecology, thus extending the Bass Becking hypothesis from whole organisms to microbial genes. We find that gene pools are shaped by their broad ecological niche (such as sea water, fresh water, host, and airborne). We find that freshwater habitats act as a gene exchange bridge between otherwise disconnected habitats. Finally, certain antibiotic resistance genes deviate from the general trend of habitat specificity by exhibiting a high degree of cross-habitat mobility. The strong cross-habitat mobility of antibiotic resistance genes is a cause for concern and provides a paradigmatic example of the rate by which genes colonize new habitats when new selective forces emerge. PMID:27190206

  20. St. Louis Encephalitis virus mosquito vectors dynamics in three different environments in relation to remotely sensed environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Batallán, Gonzalo P; Estallo, Elizabet L; Flores, Fernando S; Sartor, Paolo; Contigiani, Marta S; Almirón, Walter R

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina the St. Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV) is an endemic and widely distributed pathogen transmitted by the cosmopolitan mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. During two outbreaks in Córdoba city, in 2005 and 2010, Culex interfor was also found infected, but its role as vector of SLEV is poorly known. This mosquito species is distributed from central Argentina to southern Brazil. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the population dynamic of Cx. interfor and Cx. quinquefasciatus in three different environments (urban, suburban and non-urban) in relation to remotely sensed environmental data for vegetation (NDVI and NDWI) and temperature (brightness temperature). Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. interfor were found at the three sampled sites, being both the most abundant Culex species, with peaks in early and midsummer. Temporal distribution patterns of both mosquito species were highly correlated in a non-urban area of high SLEV risk transmission. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. interfor were associated with the most urbanized site and the non-urban environment, respectively; high significant correlations were detected between vegetation indices and abundance of both mosquito species confirming these associations. These data provide a foundation for building density maps of these two SLEV mosquito vectors using remotely sensed data to help inform vector control programs. PMID:25792419

  1. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil. PMID:10803544

  2. Environmental risks associated with booster biocides leaching from spent anti-fouling paint particles in coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Chowdhury K; Turner, Andrew; Readman, James; Frickers, Trish

    2014-12-01

    Boat maintenance facilities in coastal areas contribute a significant amount of antifouling paint particles (APP) to coastal environments. Very few studies have concentrated on the leaching of booster biocides embedded in old paint particles. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the leaching of Dichlofluanid and Irgarol 1051 from APP collected from Mayflower Marina in southwest England. They were analyzed by GC-MS. A leaching experiment revealed that a considerable amount of Dichlofluanid (ca. 24 μg/L) leached from 0.4 g/L of APP after the first hour, followed by a marked decline in the amount measured in the water over time, almost degrading after 24 h in seawater, affording less of an environmental threat to non-target organisms. Conversely, Irgarol 1051 appeared to be persistent and continuously leached from the 0.4 g/L of APP even after 10 days, yielding a concentration of 0.61 μg/L in seawater, potentially posing a significant threat to the aquatic environment through leaching from APP. PMID:25654936

  3. Evidence of Gene–Environment Interactions between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Established Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John L.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; The GENICA Network; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; kConFab; Group, AOCS Management; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene–environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4×10−6) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1×10−4). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01–1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96–1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16–1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85–0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14–1.85) in those who drank ≥20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3×10−5), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11–1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92–1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors

  4. Investigation of environmentally assisted fracture of metallic nuclear waste package barrier materials in simulated basalt repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pitman, S.G.

    1982-11-01

    Statically loaded corrosion tests, slow strain rate (SSR) tests, and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) tests were conducted to evaluate the relative susceptibility of two titanium-base nuclear waste package candidate structural barrier materials Ti-grade 2 and Ti-grade 12-to environmentally enhanced cracking in a simulated repository environment. Statically loaded corrosion tests were done in oxic basalt ground water at 250/sup 0/C; SSR tests were done in oxic basalt ground water at 150, 250, and 300/sup 0/C and in air at 20 and 250/sup 0/C; and FCGR tests were done in basalt ground water, fluoride-ion-enhanced basalt ground water, high-purity water, and air at 90/sup 0/C. The following conclusions can be drawn: the general corrosion rate of statically loaded corrosion coupons was very low in a 3-mo test, and no pitting or cracking of the specimens was observed. Ti-grade 2 and Ti-grade 12 exhibited strain rate dependent ductility diminution in SSR tests. The ductility diminution was most severe in Ti-grade 2 at 300/sup 0/C and in Ti-grade 12 at 250/sup 0/C. For of Ti-grade 12 it was found to be highly orientation dependent. The ductility diminution was also found in tests conducted in air as well as in those conducted in the basalt ground water environment; however, the extent of the degradation was less in air. The ductility diminution cannot be attributed to stress corrosion cracking because the fracture mode was microvoid coalescence in all tests. Evidence obtained in the current study and correlation of the present results with results obtained by other researchers indicate that dynamic strain aging is responsible for the loss of ductility. The FCGR of Ti-grade 2 and Ti-grade 12 was not affected by any of the environmental conditions used in this study, which indicates that no environmental cracking mechanism is operative under the conditions tested (90/sup 0/C, oxic ground water, and frequencies from 0.01 to 5 Hz).

  5. Canadian Environmental Issues in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakson, Reiner, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Traces Canada's conservation practices and environmental concerns from settlement to the present. The relationship between Canada and the United States on several issues is discussed. Acid rain, water resources, toxic substances, natural resource management, energy consciousness, environmental impact statements, and increased public awareness are…

  6. Application And Implication Of Nanomaterials In The Environment: An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency (Romania)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to teach a course on analytical techniques, quality assurance, environmental research protocols, and basic soil environmental chemistry at the Environmental Health Center and Babes Bolyai University in Cluj, Romania. FOR FURTHER INFORMATI...

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in Alberta, Canada: implications for public health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wright, Mary-Frances; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2004-06-01

    Climate change has received recent extensive media attention (e.g., Kyoto Protocol) and is currently on the international public health agenda. The purpose of this study was to survey knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in the province of Alberta, Canada. A random sample of 600 Alberta households, using proportional quotas based on the Canada Census of the Alberta population, was surveyed on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. Albertans are highly concerned, particularly about health problems related to the environment and air pollution; yet are only moderately informed about a variety of environmental issues. While the great majority of Albertans appear to be engaged in environmental behaviours at home, fewer consider energy efficiency when purchasing consumer goods. An even smaller percentage makes environmentally conscious transportation decisions. To encourage the population to make recommended environmental behaviours, mass media approaches may do well to target the specific beliefs that were deemed salient (e.g., promote the association between environment issues and health). The public health sector has a major role in working with inter-sectoral groups to address this significant public health issue. PMID:15203453

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D.

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  9. Focus: immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, D

    1994-01-01

    This is a special section containing four articles on aspects of immigration in Canada. The first article, by Daniel Hiebert, examines current migration policy at both federal and regional levels and the impact of these policies on the distribution of immigrants and on regional inequalities. The second article, by Alan Nash, looks at the incompatibility between regulations pertaining to business and refugee migration. The final two papers look at the specifics of acculturation among Italian and Caribbean immigrants in Toronto. PMID:12320209

  10. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    PubMed

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235

  11. Geo-Environmental Appraisal For Studying Urban Environment And Its Associated Biophysical Parameters Using Remote Sensing And GIS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, K.; Shankar, G. Ravi

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the influences of urbanization on urban ecological and thermal environment as well as the relationships of all the biophysical parameters with each other utilizing multi-temporal datasets of CORONA (1967), Landsat TM (1992 and 2009), Landsat ETM+ (2002), IRS R2 LISS-3 (2012) and Landsat 8 (2014). The urban environmental issues related to land use and land cover, greenness, surface wetness and impervious surface were assessed using change detection, SAVI, MNDWI and IBI models respectively. The land surface temperature (LST) was also retrieved from thermal infrared band of each Landsat TM, ETM+ and Landsat 8. Based on these parameters, the urban expansion, urban heat island effect and the relationships of LSTs to other biophysical parameters were analyzed. Results indicate the area ratio of impervious surface in Pune sub-urban zone increased significantly, which grew from 1.41 % in 1967 to 8.47 % in 1992 and further to 22.45 % and 44.7 % in 2002 and 2014 respectively. Simultaneously, the intensity of urban heat island increased in observed years. A correlation analyses revealed that, the association of impervious surface to other two variables i.e. greenness and land surface wetness is negatively correlated (R2 = 0.616 and 0.607 respectively). Whereas, LST possessed a strong positive correlation with impervious surfaces (R2 = 0.658). The present study provided an integrated research approach and the outcome of the study is very useful in environmental modelling and sustainable development of urban areas and natural resources conservation.

  12. How aggressive are coastal cliff environments? Monitoring micro-environmental conditions on an actively eroding rock cliff.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Michael; Rosser, Nicholas; Petley, David; Norman, Emma; Brain, Matthew; Barlow, John

    2010-05-01

    Despite their widespread occurrence, the behaviour of coastal rock cliffs, and in particular the balance between the marine and subaerial conditions that promote erosion, is poorly understood. This is mainly due to a lack of direct, quantitative data on process and response in this type of environment. This paper investigates how near-cliff environmental processes can be associated with the occurrence of rockfalls, which we argue contribute the majority of material lost from coastal cliffs. A detailed recent history of rockfall volumes, dating back to 2003, has been collected using repeat terrestrial laser scans of a 70 m high cliff section on the North Yorkshire coast, UK. This dataset is complimented with a bespoke environmental monitoring system installed upon the cliff face, which allows the influence of weathering and erosion processes on the magnitude and frequency of rockfalls to be analysed. This system is comprised of three instrument clusters at nodes that correspond to three main lithological units of the cliff, hard wired to a communications unit at the top of the cliff face. Data is collected on air temperature, humidity, irradiance, wind and precipitation. Within the near surface of the rock mass we also measure temperature, rock moisture, surface wetness and strain, to allow the direct physical response of the rock to be quantified. The cliff (local) environment monitoring system demonstrates that the rock undergoes significantly greater variability than can be identified from more generic regional weather and tide datasets, predominantly as a function of the angular geometry of the cliff face, resulting in rapid gradients of change. For example, daily variations in temperature and moisture can be seen to have a significant and direct effect on the strain responses of the rock. We seek to establish this as a long-term dataset, to provide a new quantitative assessment of the links between regional and hinterland weather conditions and those found on

  13. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  14. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1- June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-09-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources on terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  15. Environmental and radiological safety studies: Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, September 26-December 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effect of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  16. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-12-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  17. Environment Online: The Greening of Databases. Part 1. General Interest Databases [and] Environmental Terms and Phrases: A Suggested List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoss, Frederick W.; Alston, Patricia Gayle

    1991-01-01

    This first article in a three-part series on environmental databases focuses on sources for general multidisciplinary environmental information. Databases that provide access to periodical literature, news information, press releases, magazines, books, and environmental education literature are examined; and a suggested list of environmental terms…

  18. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Eduard; Bakels, Corrie

    2015-06-01

    Neandertal occupation of Eemian environments in Europe is well attested by several archaeological sites dating to this interglacial period. Does this mean that Neandertals were living in closed forest environments? Due to the potential variability of Eemian environments in space and time, it is necessary to study environmental records that can be correlated with phases of hominin presence, as reflected in the archaeological record. Such a perspective can be obtained from the small basin locality Neumark-Nord 2, as it contains an extensive and detailed environmental record, as well as a large archaeological record consisting of several distinct find levels. Analysis shows that hominin presence is predominantly associated with semi-open environmental conditions. A review of the data from the neighbouring Neumark-Nord 1 basin shows that semi-open environments were also characterizing the wider environment during phases of hominin presence at both basin localities. Large herbivores attracted to the water in these basins may have played an important role in the vegetation openness, probably in conjunction with (local) climatic conditions. The relationship between hominin presence and semi-open environments is explained as Neandertals exploiting the large herbivores aggregating around these freshwater localities, while the more varied vegetation would also have provided them with edible plant foods. Other Eemian sites from freshwater contexts provide evidence for semi-open conditions as well.

  19. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  20. Marine bivalve shell geochemistry and ultrastructure from modern low pH environments: environmental effect versus experimental bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Griesshaber, E.; Schmahl, W. W.; Buhl, D.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Baggini, C.; Fehr, K. T.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-05-01

    Bivalve shells can provide excellent archives of past environmental change but have not been used to interpret ocean acidification events. We investigated carbon, oxygen and trace element records from different shell layers in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis combined with detailed investigations of the shell ultrastructure. Mussels from the harbour of Ischia (Mediterranean, Italy) were transplanted and grown in water with mean pHT 7.3 and mean pHT 8.1 near CO2 vents on the east coast of the island. Most prominently, the shells recorded the shock of transplantation, both in their shell ultrastructure, textural and geochemical record. Shell calcite, precipitated subsequently under acidified seawater responded to the pH gradient by an in part disturbed ultrastructure. Geochemical data from all test sites show a strong metabolic effect that exceeds the influence of the low-pH environment. These field experiments showed that care is needed when interpreting potential ocean acidification signals because various parameters affect shell chemistry and ultrastructure. Besides metabolic processes, seawater pH, factors such as salinity, water temperature, food availability and population density all affect the biogenic carbonate shell archive.

  1. Environmental risk of heavy metal pollution and contamination sources using multivariate analysis in the soils of Varanasi environs, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shubhra; Raju, N Janardhana; Nazneen, Sadaf

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed soil pollution in the Varanasi environs of Uttar Pradesh in India. Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soils is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to human. To identify the concentration and sources of heavy metals and assess the soil environmental quality, 23 samples were collected from different locations covering dumping, road and agricultural area. The average concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits according to soil quality guidelines except Cu (copper) and Pb (lead) in dumping and road soils. Soil heavy metal contamination was assessed on the basis of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index (IPI). The IPI of the metals ranged from 0.59 to 9.94, with the highest IPI observed in the dumping and road soils. A very significant correlation was found between Pb and Cu. The result of principal component analysis suggested that PC1 was mainly affected by the use of agrochemicals, PC2 was affected by vehicular emission and PC3 was affected by dumping waste. Meanwhile, PC4 was mainly controlled by parent material along with anthropogenic activities. Appropriate measures should be taken to minimize the heavy metal levels in soils and thus protect human health. PMID:25963764

  2. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    PubMed

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole. PMID:22639119

  3. Canada invests in weather and climate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Canada is investing $78.7 million over the next 5 years to improve weather and climate monitoring infrastructure, Canada's minister of the environment Peter Kent announced on 20 January. The Canadian weather radar network, which consists of 31 radar sites around the country, is slated to receive the bulk of the funding ($45.2 million) to allow existing newer-generation radars to upgrade to dual-polarization technology. Of the remainder, $18.8 million is for the Canadian weather and climate observing networks to supplement existing resources and upgrade about 250 observing stations; $10.5 million is to improve the Canadian lightning detection network; and $4.2 million is to upgrade the Canadian aerological network's navigational technology with multisensor GPS radiosonde equipment.

  4. 1991 Muriel Driver lecture. The environment: a focus for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Law, M

    1991-10-01

    Individuals in Canada with a disability encounter environmental constraints that limit their active participation in the daily life of our communities. Fundamental inequities in participation and integration continue to exist and there is a need for a concerted effort to eliminate these disabling environments. Several factors, including the built environment, societal production of space, classification of individuals based on norms, the perception of disability as deviance, the power of health disciplines and bureaucracy are examined to determine their contribution to the creation of these disabling environments. Recent modifications to occupational therapy theory and practice, while meaningful, have not fully explored ways in which disabling environments limit occupation. Prevailing ideas about occupation and the environment are examined for their contribution to solving these environmental problems. Principles which can assist occupational therapy intervention directed at changing disabling environments are described. The intent is to define methods of changing disabling environments, based on the desires and active participation of people with disabilities PMID:10170862

  5. Female and Male Teachers' Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Conceptions and Attitudes Towards Nature and the Environment Do Not Differ: Ecofeminism Put to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Ewen, B.; Clément, P.; Gericke, N. M.; Nyberg, E.; Hagman, M.; Landström, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' pro-environmental behaviour, conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the environment were investigated using 47 questions from the BIOHEAD-Citizen questionnaire. The sample included 1,109 pre- and in-service teachers from Sweden and France. Analyses showed only few significant differences between female and male teachers. Forty-one…

  6. A Mirror of Society: A Discourse Analytic Study of 15- to 16-Year-Old Swiss Students' Talk about Environment and Environmental Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeyer, Albert; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-01-01

    Environment and environmental protection are on the forefront of political concerns globally. But how are the media and political discourses concerning these issues mirrored in the public more generally and in the discourses of school science students more specifically? In this study, we analyze the discourse mobilized in whole-class conversations…

  7. Sharing the Environment: Cultural Exchange through Inquiry-Based Environmental Education in Trinidad and Tobago (T & T) and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Nadine; Alvare, Bretton; Bowes, Kathleen; Childs, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Sharing the Environment (STE), a situated professional development pilot program that uses an inquiry-based approach to teaching Environmental Education (EE) to elementary students in the US and Trinidad. Inquiry is difficult to incorporate in both cultures because proficient performance on national tests is a…

  8. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  9. Canada's population is aging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages. PMID:21464621

  10. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  11. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate. PMID:26871530

  12. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  13. Canada: irrational energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Paehlke, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    Despite energy shortages, recent weeks have seen the collapse or at least postponement of three major energy projects in Canada: the Cold Lake (Alberta) heavy oil plant, the Alsands oil sands plant, and the Alaska Highway natural gas pipeline. All have fallen victim to the combination of high interest rates and increasing doubts that oil prices will continue to rise at an annual rate of five percent in real terms. Current energy problems and policies are discussed including decline of oil reserves, expanded domestic use and export of Canadian natural gas, expansion of the nuclear energy program, demand for electricity, and energy conservation. (JMT)

  14. Women Physicists in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Austin, Roby; Bhadra, Sampa; McKenna, Janis; Xu, Li-Hong; Steinitz, Michael

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the overall climate for women in academia in Canada has improved. Efforts are being made to attract girls to science at a young age. The enrollment of women across undergraduate and graduate programs in the physical sciences has increased gradually in the past decade, with a sharp increase at the graduate level. In light of a large number of upcoming retirements in academic positions, the presence of women in academia will continue to grow, supported by efforts to ensure equity in academia made by government agencies, academic institutions, and faculty associations.

  15. Mainstreaming environment and sustainability: an analysis of a master's in environmental science and a tree-planting project at Chancellor College, University of Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiotha, Sosten S.

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability in African Universities (MESA) was formally launched by UNEP, UNESCO and the Association of African Universities. This paper sets the stage for a critical analysis of ESD by reviewing historical perspectives of conservation in Africa as a means of appreciating the need for African universities to mainstream both environmental concerns and those relating to sustainability. Two case studies from Chancellor College, University of Malawi are discussed to illustrate that good practice in mainstreaming environment and sustainability requires challenges to be refined and knowledge to be extended on an ongoing basis. To analyse the reorientation of the curriculum for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), the paper examines the introduction of an Environmental Science Master's programme at the college and notes how environmental issues are covered. The article also looks at the college's tree-planting programme in terms of the training, research and outreach involved.

  16. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    SciTech Connect

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-07-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  17. A Work Force for Environment and Energy. A Master Plan for Environmental/Energy Higher Education in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    This master plan for environmental and energy higher education in Illinois is a direct result of a mandate from the Illinois General Assembly. To prepare students to confront our nation's environmental problems, each university will submit a management and development plan, designed to preserve existing environmental values and provide…

  18. Judeo-Christian Theology and the Environment: Moving beyond Scepticism to New Sources for Environmental Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitzhusen, Gregory E.

    2007-01-01

    In the USA, many environmental educators have paid little attention to Western Christian and Jewish ecotheology, in spite of its being a potentially rich resource for environmental education. In part, this neglect can be attributed to popular misconceptions about the influence of religious beliefs on environmental values. This essay reviews the…

  19. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  20. ETV INTERNATIONAL OUTREACH ACTIVITIES (ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's international outrearch activities have extended as far as Canada, Germany, Taiwan and the Philippines. Vendors from Canada and Germany were hosted at verification tests of turbidimeters. In May 1999, EPA's ETV Coordinator...

  1. Emerging Environmental Issues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Ted; Timmerman, Peter; Whyte, Anne

    2000-07-01

    Emerging environmental issues are issues that may someday be of concern but that have not yet been generally recognized. A review of such issues that have occurred over the last 50 years reveals that many of them have erupted rather suddenly (e.g., stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain). However, some issues were recognized long ago by the scientific community (e.g., land degradation, overconsumption of freshwater), but for economic or other reasons governments have refused to act. The authors of this study were commissioned by the United Nations Environment Program and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment to carry out a global survey of emerging environmental issues, using the responses received to questionnaires that were sent to scientists, managers, and policy makers around the world. It had been hoped that a short list of priority issues could be identified but the number of issues was very long. However, the issues could be divided into four major classes: 1) Transformations of old issues; continually evolving, and in most cases broadening, in response to increasing scientific and technological knowledge and to changing socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions. 2) Policy issues, the long-term environmental consequences of which may already be of concern. 3) Accidents waiting to happen, for example, chemical time bombs. 4) Surprises in the nonlinear responses of ecosystems to new and different stresses, as well as in the nature of socioeconomic drivers of environmental change. In a subsequent study, the authors applied the lessons learned in the global study to an examination of emerging environmental issues in the province of Ontario, Canada.

  2. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  3. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System: Capabilities for Operational Space Environment In Situ and Remote Sensing and Solar Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, S. A.; Denig, W. F.; Hoffman, C. W.; Furlong, D.; Haas, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, the tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Once operational later this decade, NPOESS will replace NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) systems. The IPO, through its Acquisition and Operations contractor, Northrop Grumman, will launch NPOESS spacecraft into three orbital planes to provide a single, national system capable of satisfying both civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving the existing "weather" satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - ocean, atmosphere, land, and the space environment. NPOESS will transform today's short-term, space-based space environment research missions and the previous operational missions into a sustained, operational space environment remote sensing observation program. A major portion of NPOESS is dedicated to the space environment missions of our users. Fourteen of the fifty-five NPOESS mission environmental data record [EDR] products address various aspects of the solar-geophysical parameters needed to characterize the space environment and solar irradiance. Three factors of our users' requirements present significant challenges for properly sampling the space environment spatial-temporal-spectral characteristics: 1.) the vast volume of the space environment to be covered on both regional and global scales 2.) the large range of natural time scales for the space environment phenomenology to be covered, especially the challenging

  4. The bioconcentration and bioaccumulation factors for molybdenum in the aquatic environment from natural environmental concentrations up to the toxicity boundary.

    PubMed

    Regoli, Lidia; Van Tilborg, Wim; Heijerick, Dagobert; Stubblefield, William; Carey, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    In a regulatory context, bioaccumulation or bioconcentration factors are used for considering secondary poisoning potential and assessing risks to human health via the food chain. In this paper, literature data on the bioaccumulation of molybdenum in the aquatic organisms are reviewed and assessed for relevance and reliability. The data available in the literature were generated at exposure concentrations below those recommended in the REACH registration dossiers for molybdenum compounds i.e. PNEC(freshwater) 12.7 mg Mo/L. To address possible environmental concerns at regulatorily-relevant molybdenum concentrations, both a field study and a laboratory study were conducted. In the field study, whole body and organ-specific molybdenum levels were evaluated in fish (eel, stickleback, perch, carp bream, roach) held in the discharge water collector tanks of a molybdenum processing plant, containing a mean measured molybdenum level of 1.03 mg Mo/L. In the laboratory study, rainbow trout were exposed to two different nominal molybdenum levels (1.0 and 12.7 mg Mo/L), for 60 days followed by a 60-day depuration period. Whole body concentrations in rainbow trout during the exposure period were between <0.20 and 0.53 mg Mo/L. Muscle tissue molybdenum concentrations in fish taken from both experiments remained below 0.2mg/kg dry wt. These studies show an inverse relationship between exposure concentration and bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor for molybdenum. In aquatic organisms, and in fish in particular, internal molybdenum concentrations are maintained in the presence of variation in external molybdenum concentrations. These observations must be considered when evaluating potential risks associated with the bioconcentration and/or bioaccumulation of molybdenum in the aquatic environment. PMID:22846769

  5. A product of its environment: the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) exhibits physiological tolerance to elevated environmental CO2

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Dennis D. U.; Rummer, Jodie L.; Morash, Andrea J.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification, resulting from increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, is predicted to affect the physiological performance of many marine species. Recent studies have shown substantial reductions in aerobic performance in some teleost fish species, but no change or even enhanced performance in others. Notably lacking, however, are studies on the effects of near-future CO2 conditions on larger meso and apex predators, such as elasmobranchs. The epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) lives on shallow coral reef flats and in lagoons, where it may frequently encounter short-term periods of environmental hypoxia and elevated CO2, especially during nocturnal low tides. Indeed, H. ocellatum is remarkably tolerant to short periods (hours) of hypoxia, and possibly hypercapnia, but nothing is known about its response to prolonged exposure. We exposed H. ocellatum individuals to control (390 µatm) or one of two near-future CO2 treatments (600 or 880 µatm) for a minimum of 60 days and then measured key aspects of their respiratory physiology, namely the resting oxygen consumption rate, which is used to estimate resting metabolic rate, and critical oxygen tension, a proxy for hypoxia sensitivity. Neither of these respiratory attributes was affected by the long-term exposure to elevated CO2. Furthermore, there was no change in citrate synthase activity, a cellular indicator of aerobic energy production. Plasma bicarbonate concentrations were significantly elevated in sharks exposed to 600 and 880 µatm CO2 treatments, indicating that acidosis was probably prevented by regulatory changes in acid–base relevant ions. Epaulette sharks may therefore possess adaptations that confer tolerance to CO2 levels projected to occur in the ocean by the end of this century. It remains uncertain whether other elasmobranchs, especially pelagic species that do not experience such diurnal fluctuations in their environment, will be equally tolerant. PMID:27293668

  6. Does the Effect of Micro-Environmental Factors on a Street’s Appeal for Adults’ Bicycle Transport Vary across Different Macro-Environments? An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Lieze; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Holle, Veerle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Nasar, Jack; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2015-01-01

    Background Characteristics of the physical environment can be classified into two broad categories: macro- (“raw” urban planning features influenced on a regional level) and micro- (features specifically within a streetscape influenced on a neighborhood level) environmental factors. In urban planning applications, it is more feasible to modify conditions at the neighborhood level than at the regional level. Yet for the promotion of bicycle transport we need to know whether relationships between micro-environmental factors and bicycle transport depend on different types of macro-environments. This study aimed to identify whether the effect of three micro-environmental factors (i.e., evenness of the cycle path surface, speed limits and type of separation between cycle path and motorized traffic) on the street’s appeal for adults’ bicycle transport varied across three different macro-environments (i.e., low, medium and high residential density street). Methods In total, 389 middle-aged adults completed a web-based questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic characteristics and a series of choice tasks with manipulated photographs, depicting two possible routes to cycle along. Conjoint analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Although the magnitude of the overall effects differed, in each macro-environment (i.e., low, medium and high residential density), middle-aged adults preferred a speed limit of 30 km/h, an even cycle path surface and a hedge as separation between motorized traffic and the cycle path compared to a speed limit of 50 or 70 km/h, a slightly uneven or uneven cycle path surface and a curb as separation or no separation between motorized traffic and the cycle path. Conclusions Our results suggest that irrespective of the macro-environment, the same micro-environmental factors are preferred in middle-aged adults concerning the street’s appeal for bicycle transport. The controlled environment simulations in the experimental choice task

  7. Education in Canada: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Paula

    This reference book provides a basic understanding of how education works in Canada, from preschool to adult education. Chapter 1 examines Canada's elementary and secondary schools and covers: (1) decision making for public schools (roles and responsibilities of provincial, local, and federal governments); (2) paying for public education (revenue…

  8. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  9. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  10. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  11. Effect of geological processes on coal quality and utilization potential: review with examples from western Canada.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G; Fariborz, G

    2000-05-29

    This review article compares the elemental and radionuclide concentrations in coals from western Canada, the vast majority of which are used for power generation in Alberta. The coals range in age from lower Cretaceous to middle Eocene, and in rank from subbituminous to high volatile bituminous. Some of the coals were deposited in deltaic lagoonal to marine settings while others formed under lacustrine conditions in intermontane graben settings or in alluvial plains. The role of source rock (provenance), depositional environment, tectonic regime and hydrologic conditions on elemental concentration and distribution will be discussed, with specific examples from western Canada. In addition, the effect of natural weathering, igneous intrusion and self-burning (spontaneous combustion) on the enrichment and/or depletion of elements will be presented. The emphasis throughout this review article will be on the fate of elements of environmental concern and interest (e.g. As, Ba, B, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) and of radionuclides of the U and Th series upon coal utilization. This article is also intended for those not familiar with the geological or environmental sciences, particularly as related to fossil fuel utilization. PMID:10781721

  12. Situation awareness system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  13. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  14. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Gambling households in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  16. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Canada's role in pushing back the frontiers of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Ian H.

    This paper outlines the history of Canada's involvement in space science. An early interest in upper atmosphere phenomena resulted from the influence of the north magnetic pole on long distance radio communication. With the launch of the ionospheric sounder, Alouette 1, in 1962, Canada became the third nation to have a spacecraft in space. Canada was the first country to provide domestic satellite service for commercial communications with the Anik series of satellites. The latest satellite, the M-SAT will provide two way voice and data services. ( Primarily as a result of the work of the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, Canada has been a leader in airborne remote sensing. This interest has continued in the data acquisition and interpretation of space based remote sensing. Radarsat, a remote sensing satellite which will provide synthetic aperture radar imagery at 10 meter resolution is currently in the design stage. The final role has been in the development of STEM (extendable member) devices for manned space flights. The most notable contribution is the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System first flown on Columbia in 1981. Canada's contribution to Space Station Freedom will be the Mobile Servicing System. The current space science program involves study of the universe and solar system, of the near earth environment, and of physical and biological processes occurring in space.

  18. Canada: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  19. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    -greenish areas are young jack pine trees, 3 to 5 meters (10 to 16 feet) in height and 11 to 16 years old. The green areas are due to the relative high intensity of the HV channel which is strongly correlated with the amount of biomass. L-band HV channel shows the biomass variations over the entire region. Most of the green areas, when compared to the forest cover maps are identified as black spruce trees. The dark blue and dark purple colors show recently harvested or regrowth areas respectively. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  20. MASS AND ENVIRONMENT AS DRIVERS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION. II. THE QUENCHING OF SATELLITE GALAXIES AS THE ORIGIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Yingjie; Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, Marcella; Renzini, Alvio

    2012-09-20

    We extend the phenomenological study of the evolving galaxy population of Peng et al. (2010) to the central/satellite dichotomy in Yang et al. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) groups. We find that satellite galaxies are responsible for all the environmental effects in our earlier work. The fraction of centrals that are red does not depend on their environment but only on their stellar masses, whereas that of the satellites depends on both. We define a relative satellite quenching efficiency {epsilon}{sub sat}, which is the fraction of blue centrals that are quenched upon becoming the satellite of another galaxy. This is shown to be independent of stellar mass, but to depend strongly on local overdensity, {delta}, ranging between 0.2 and at least 0.8. The red fraction of satellites correlate much better with the local overdensity {delta}, a measure of location within the group, than with the richness of the group, i.e., dark matter halo mass. This, and the fact that satellite quenching depends on local density and not on either the stellar mass of the galaxy or the dark matter halo mass, gives clues as to the nature of the satellite-quenching process. We furthermore show that the action of mass quenching on satellite galaxies is also independent of the dark matter mass of the parent halo. We then apply the Peng et al. approach to predict the mass functions of central and satellite galaxies, split into passive and active galaxies, and show that these match very well the observed mass functions from SDSS, further strengthening the validity of this phenomenological approach. We highlight the fact that the observed M* is exactly the same for the star-forming centrals and satellites and the observed M* for the star-forming satellites is independent of halo mass above 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, which emphasizes the universality of the mass-quenching process that we identified in Peng et al. Post-quenching merging modifies the mass function of the central galaxies but can

  1. The Overlooked Half of a Large Whole: The Role of Environmental Quality Management in Supporting the Educational Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackney, Jeffery A.

    This paper examines the changing role of environmental quality management from its traditional operationally-based role, to an expanded, more dynamic role in strategic educational planning activities at the local, site-based level. First, a brief review of the state of knowledge concerning the impact of environmental quality on the educational…

  2. Constructing Media Artifacts in a Social Constructivist Environment to Enhance Students' Environmental Awareness and Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Current science education reforms and policy documents highlight the importance of environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. As "environmental problems are socially constructed in terms of their conceptualized effects on individuals, groups, other living things and systems research based on constructivist principles provides…

  3. Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.

    The Indian Environmental Society, in association with the International Programme on Environmental Management Education, organized two seminars on World Environment Day and Environmental Impact Assessment during June 1980. A large number of papers on various aspects of environmental management were presented during the seminars. The papers…

  4. Is there hope for the global environment? A discussion of prospective parent corporation liability for a subsidiary's environmental practices abroad.

    PubMed

    Tuminaro, Amelia

    2003-01-01

    U.S. parent corporations should be held liable for environmental pollution caused by their foreign subsidiaries. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) already holds parent corporations liable in some ways for pollution caused by domestic subsidiaries. Regulations similar to CERCLA's could be applied extraterritorially and would be facilitated by abrogation of two common law principles: limited liability and forum non conveniens. Extraterritorial application of U.S. environmental regulations would greatly enhance transnational corporations' environmental behavior and facilitate just adjudication of plaintiffs' claims against irresponsible companies. Establishing the corporate parent's liability and upholding U.S. environmental standards in such cases would end many current hazardous practices that create pollution in developing countries. PMID:17208875

  5. Incorporating environmental concerns into power sector decision-making: A case study of Sri Lanka. World Bank Environment Paper 6

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.; Team, S.L.S.

    1994-04-01

    Weighs Sri Lanka`s options for addressing environmental concerns during the planning stages of energy policymaking. Here is a holistic approach to analyzing the environmental impact of various power systems. Unlike standard impact studies that begin at the project level, this method calls for environmental assessments that start at the planning stage of a national framework for energy policymaking. The framework would take into account the energy needs of Sri Lanka`s total economy. It also would make it easier to incorporate environmental goals into power sector decisionmaking at the critical investment stage. Sri Lanka`s development options for the power sector are reviewed in detail. Topics include alternative ways to assess the economic value of a power plant`s impact on biodiversity, human health, and air and water pollution. The study also assesses which energy planning options work best and recommends ways in which the Ceylon Electricity Board can improve its environmental policies.

  6. Creep, Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Environmental Barrier Coating and SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Systems: The Role of Environment Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for low emission SiCSiC CMC combustors and turbine airfoils have been developed to meet next generation engine emission and performance goals. This presentation will highlight the developments of NASAs current EBC system technologies for SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, their performance evaluation and modeling progress towards improving the engine SiCSiC component temperature capability and long-term durability. Our emphasis has also been placed on the fundamental aspects of the EBC-CMC creep and fatigue behaviors, and their interactions with turbine engine oxidizing and moisture environments. The EBC-CMC environmental degradation and failure modes, under various simulated engine testing environments, in particular involving high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity combustion conditions, will be discussed aiming at quantifying the protective coating functions, performance and durability, and in conjunction with damage mechanics and fracture mechanics approaches.

  7. Identity and Knowledge in Indigenous Young Children's Experiences in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In Canada, as around the world, large numbers of Indigenous children encounter culturally dissonant learning environments in preschools and schools. Many of these children experience serious challenges, in part because of a striking mismatch between their early learning experiences in the family and community, and the expectations, perceptions,…

  8. Notes from the Grassroots: Online Lobbying in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerxa, Shawn W.; Moll, Marita

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Canada's Public Advisory Council on Information Highway Policy (PACIHP) project, including attempts to involve the online community in policy making, the techniques used, the response, and the impact; and the Canadian regulatory and political environment. Thoughts are presented on the future of computer mediated communication and its…

  9. State of the Environment Report at Fort Lewis and its sub-installations: A program review of the Environmental and Natural Resources Division at Fort Lewis

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, J.K.

    1991-06-01

    Keeping pace with environmental regulations has forced federal agencies like the U.S. Army to innovatively develop programs which accomplish compliance under uncertain budgets while maintaining their mission readiness. To keep step with the rapidly growing regulatory requirements, the Fort Lewis Environmental and Natural Resources Division (ENRD) identified the need to capture the development of their programs in the State of the Environment Report. The State of the Environment Report has two primary functions: First, it serves as an informative review of the ENRD's programs for those individuals within the military community as well as for local, state and federal agencies working with ENRD. Secondly, it acts as a point of reference, providing an accurate portrait of what environmental issues have taken precedence on Fort Lewis. As the realm of environmental requirements continue to grow, the report will enable objective assessment of the ENRD program. The foresight necessary to develop successful programs in the future and maintain the goals of current programs requires an awareness of the history surrounding the development and destiny of past programs.

  10. Faculty Emphases on Alternative Course-Specific Learning Outcomes in Holland's Model Environments: The Role of Environmental Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Umbach, Paul D.; Rocconi, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines variability in the extent to which faculty members in the disciplinary-based academic environments of Holland's theory emphasize different student learning outcomes in their classes and whether such differences are comparable for those in "consistent" versus "inconsistent" environments. The findings show wide variation in the…

  11. Global Environmental Monitoring. A Report Submitted to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris (France).

    The Commission on Monitoring of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) has submitted this report to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. It reviews: (1) the origin, objectives, and membership of SCOPE and the Monitoring Committee; (2) basic…

  12. Integrating environmental covariates and crop modeling into the genomic selection framework to predict genotype by environment interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotype by environment interaction (G*E) is one of the key issues when analyzing phenotypes. The use of environment data to model G*E has long been a subject of interest but is limited by the same problems as those addressed by genomic selection GS methods: a large number of correlated predictors e...

  13. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  14. Human health and the environment: Predicting plasma protein binding and metabolic clearance rates of environmentally relevant chemicals.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In silico methods provide a rapid, inexpensive means of screening a wide array of environmentally relevant pollutants, pesticides, fungicides and consumer products for further toxicity testing. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models bridge the gap between in vitro as...

  15. Directory of Environmental Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cate, Bill, Ed.

    Over 400 inter-field professionals are named as environmental consultants in this 1972 annual directory. Primarily, they are faculty members at colleges and universities in Canada, Puerto Rico, and the United States who will provide free environmental consulting services to interested government, industry, and citizen organizations, but are not…

  16. A Plan to Appreciate Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Yorke

    1971-01-01

    A plan is suggested for establishing a chain of ecology-wildlife interpretation centers throughout Canada emphasizing regional interpretation of the landscape. Wye Marsh Wildlife Center, Midland, Ontario, is described in detail. (BL)

  17. The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deusen, Roswell D.

    1973-01-01

    Study of Canada Goose in schools can provide opportunities for many activities such as poetry writing, art, ecosystems, and outdoor education. Provides some background information about these birds. (PS)

  18. Moving beyond Green: Exploring the Relationship of Environment Type and Indicators of Perceived Environmental Quality on Emotional Well-Being following Group Walks

    PubMed Central

    Marselle, Melissa R.; Irvine, Katherine N.; Lorenzo-Arribas, Altea; Warber, Sara L.

    2014-01-01

    Against the backdrop of increasing interest in the relationship between Nature and health, this study examined the effect of perceived environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on short-term emotional well-being following outdoor group walks. Participants (n = 127) of a national group walk program completed pre- and post-walk questionnaires for each walk attended (n = 1009) within a 13-week study period. Multilevel linear modelling was used to examine the main and moderation effects. To isolate the environmental from the physical activity elements, analyses controlled for walk duration and perceived intensity. Analyses revealed that perceived restorativeness and perceived walk intensity predicted greater positive affect and happiness following an outdoor group walk. Perceived restorativeness and perceived bird biodiversity predicted post-walk negative affect. Perceived restorativeness moderated the relationship between perceived naturalness and positive affect. Results suggest that restorative quality of an environment may be an important element for enhancing well-being, and that perceived restorativeness and naturalness of an environment may interact to amplify positive affect. These findings highlight the importance of further research on the contribution of environment type and quality on well-being, and the need to control for effects of physical activity in green exercise research. PMID:25546275

  19. Moving beyond green: exploring the relationship of environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on emotional well-being following group walks.

    PubMed

    Marselle, Melissa R; Irvine, Katherine N; Lorenzo-Arribas, Altea; Warber, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of increasing interest in the relationship between Nature and health, this study examined the effect of perceived environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on short-term emotional well-being following outdoor group walks. Participants (n = 127) of a national group walk program completed pre- and post-walk questionnaires for each walk attended (n = 1009) within a 13-week study period. Multilevel linear modelling was used to examine the main and moderation effects. To isolate the environmental from the physical activity elements, analyses controlled for walk duration and perceived intensity. Analyses revealed that perceived restorativeness and perceived walk intensity predicted greater positive affect and happiness following an outdoor group walk. Perceived restorativeness and perceived bird biodiversity predicted post-walk negative affect. Perceived restorativeness moderated the relationship between perceived naturalness and positive affect. Results suggest that restorative quality of an environment may be an important element for enhancing well-being, and that perceived restorativeness and naturalness of an environment may interact to amplify positive affect. These findings highlight the importance of further research on the contribution of environment type and quality on well-being, and the need to control for effects of physical activity in green exercise research. PMID:25546275

  20. Environment-induced embrittlement: Stress corrosion cracking and metal-induced embrittlement; Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminide alloys. Final report, September 1, 1986--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Heldt, L.A.; Milligan, W.W.; White, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    This research program has included two thrusts. The first addressed environment-induced embrittlement in a parallel study of stress corrosion cracking and metal-induced embrittlement. This work has examined (1) mechanical properties as influenced by embrittling environments, (2) fractography and crystallography or transgranular cracking, (3) the mechanics of cracking, (4) the extent and role of local plastic flow, and (5) local chemistry within stress corrosion and metal-induced cracks. The embrittlement of iron aluminide alloys by air was addressed by determining the effect of water and hydrogen upon the mechanical properties. Slow strain rate testing in aqueous environments was carried out at controlled anodic and cathodic potentials. The effect of cathodically charged hydrogen and the effect of subsequent baking were measured. Environmental susceptibility was measured as affected by alloy composition, microstructure and degree of ordering.

  1. Parasite fitness traits under environmental variation: disentangling the roles of a chytrid's immediate host and external environment.

    PubMed

    Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Vanholsbeeck, Olivier; Spaak, Piet; Ibelings, Bas W

    2014-10-01

    Parasite environments are heterogeneous at different levels. The first level of variability is the host itself. The second level represents the external environment for the hosts, to which parasites may be exposed during part of their life cycle. Both levels are expected to affect parasite fitness traits. We disentangle the main and interaction effects of variation in the immediate host environment, here the diatom Asterionella formosa (variables host cell volume and host condition through herbicide pre-exposure) and variation in the external environment (variables host density and acute herbicide exposure) on three fitness traits (infection success, development time and reproductive output) of a chytrid parasite. Herbicide exposure only decreased infection success in a low host density environment. This result reinforces the hypothesis that chytrid zoospores use photosynthesis-dependent chemical cues to locate its host. At high host densities, chemotaxis becomes less relevant due to increasing chance contact rates between host and parasite, thereby following the mass-action principle in epidemiology. Theoretical support for this finding is provided by an agent-based simulation model. The immediate host environment (cell volume) substantially affected parasite reproductive output and also interacted with the external herbicide exposed environment. On the contrary, changes in the immediate host environment through herbicide pre-exposure did not increase infection success, though it had subtle effects on zoospore development time and reproductive output. This study shows that both immediate host and external environment as well as their interaction have significant effects on parasite fitness. Disentangling these effects improves our understanding of the processes underlying parasite spread and disease dynamics. PMID:24863129

  2. Representative landscapes in the forested area of Canada.

    PubMed

    Cardille, Jeffrey A; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Mike A; Holland, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Canada is a large nation with forested ecosystems that occupy over 60% of the national land base, and knowledge of the patterns of Canada's land cover is important to proper environmental management of this vast resource. To this end, a circa 2000 Landsat-derived land cover map of the forested ecosystems of Canada has created a new window into understanding the composition and configuration of land cover patterns in forested Canada. Strategies for summarizing such large expanses of land cover are increasingly important, as land managers work to study and preserve distinctive areas, as well as to identify representative examples of current land-cover and land-use assemblages. Meanwhile, the development of extremely efficient clustering algorithms has become increasingly important in the world of computer science, in which billions of pieces of information on the internet are continually sifted for meaning for a vast variety of applications. One recently developed clustering algorithm quickly groups large numbers of items of any type in a given data set while simultaneously selecting a representative-or "exemplar"-from each cluster. In this context, the availability of both advanced data processing methods and a nationally available set of landscape metrics presents an opportunity to identify sets of representative landscapes to better understand landscape pattern, variation, and distribution across the forested area of Canada. In this research, we first identify and provide context for a small, interpretable set of exemplar landscapes that objectively represent land cover in each of Canada's ten forested ecozones. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify flagship and satellite long-term study areas inside and outside protected areas in the province of Ontario. These applications aid our understanding of Canada's forest while augmenting its management toolbox, and may signal a broad range of applications for this versatile approach. PMID

  3. The principles of effective post-spill environmental monitoring in marine environments and their application to preparedness assessment.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Mark F; Gioia, Rosalinda; Law, Robin J

    2014-05-15

    Understanding the fate and effects of marine spills is essential if the scientific and response communities are to develop best practices. The effective deployment of environmental monitoring activity can be complex and requires planning and coordination but the levels of preparedness to deliver the necessary expertise, coordination and funding are often low. This paper identifies and describes the importance of 8 principles of effective post-spill monitoring programmes. These principles are then used in the assessment of monitoring preparedness through the generation of a monitoring preparedness assessment score (MPAS). This approach can be used by local, regional or national authorities to establish the level of preparedness for environmental monitoring and prioritise areas for improvement. It also has value to responders, policy makers, environmental scientists and planners as a tool to assess preparedness and capability for specific scenarios. The approach is demonstrated through the assessment of previous incidents and potential future scenarios. PMID:24576390

  4. Openness in participation, assessment, and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health: a review of literature and recent project results.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Mikko V; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2011-01-01

    Issues of environment and environmental health involve multiple interests regarding e.g. political, societal, economical, and public concerns represented by different kinds of organizations and individuals. Not surprisingly, stakeholder and public participation has become a major issue in environmental and environmental health policy and assessment. The need for participation has been discussed and reasoned by many, including environmental legislators around the world. In principle, participation is generally considered as desirable and the focus of most scholars and practitioners is on carrying out participation, and making participation more effective. In practice also doubts regarding the effectiveness and importance of participation exist among policy makers, assessors, and public, leading even to undermining participatory practices in policy making and assessment.There are many possible purposes for participation, and different possible models of interaction between assessment and policy. A solid conceptual understanding of the interrelations between participation, assessment, and policy making is necessary in order to design and implement effective participatory practices. In this paper we ask, do current common conceptions of assessment, policy making and participation provide a sufficient framework for achieving effective participation? This question is addresses by reviewing the range of approaches to participation in assessment and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health and some related insights from recent research projects, INTARESE and BENERIS.Openness, considered e.g. in terms of a) scope of participation, b) access to information, c) scope of contribution, d) timing of openness, and e) impact of contribution, provides a new perspective to the relationships between participation, assessment and policy making. Participation, assessment, and policy making form an inherently intertwined complex with interrelated objectives and

  5. Taking Environmental Action: The Role of Local Composition, Context, and Collective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, Sarah E. L.; Elliott, Susan J.; Eyles, John D.; Cole, Donald C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores individual and community action taken in response to perceived environmental risks by investigating the determinants of environmental action across a range of action types. A conceptual framework is first presented, which provides a foundation for investigating the role of local compositional (i.e., individual characteristics), contextual (i.e., neighborhood environment), and collective (i.e., social networks) factors in environmental action. To test the utility of the conceptual framework, a quantitative survey was administered to a random sample of households (n = 512) in Hamilton, Canada. The results suggest that the predictors of environmental action vary by action type (i.e., personal change, individual civic action, and cooperative civic action), and that factors related to perceived environmental exposure and social capital generally play a stronger, more consistent role in civic environmental action than sociodemographic or neighborhood factors. The results underscore the role of social connection in responses to perceived environmental risks.

  6. Environmental factors and human health: fibrous and particulate substance-induced immunological disorders and construction of a health-promoting living environment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Takemi; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Yoshitome, Kei; Nishimura, Yasumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Among the various scientific fields covered in the area of hygiene such as environmental medicine, epidemiology, public health and preventive medicine, we are investigating the immunological effects of fibrous and particulate substances in the environment and work surroundings, such as asbestos fibers and silica particles. In addition to these studies, we have attempted to construct health-promoting living conditions. Thus, in this review we will summarize our investigations regarding the (1) immunological effects of asbestos fibers, (2) immunological effects of silica particles, and (3) construction of a health-promoting living environment. This review article summarizes the 2014 Japanese Society for Hygiene (JSH) Award Lecture of the 85th Annual Meeting of the JSH entitled "Environmental health effects: immunological effects of fibrous and particulate matter and establishment of health-promoting environments" presented by the first author of this manuscript, Prof. Otsuki, Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan, the recipient of the 2014 JSH award. The results of our experiments can be summarized as follows: (1) asbestos fibers reduce anti-tumor immunity, (2) silica particles chronically activate responder and regulatory T cells causing an unbalance of these two populations of T helper cells, which may contribute to the development of autoimmune disorders frequently complicating silicosis, and (3) living conditions to enhance natural killer cell activity were developed, which may promote the prevention of cancers and diminish symptoms of virus infections. PMID:26663174

  7. Primary Health Care in Canada: Systems in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Context: During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged. Methods: This policy analysis examines primary health care reform efforts in Canada during the last decade, drawing on descriptive information from published and gray literature and from a series of semistructured interviews with informed observers of primary health care in Canada. Findings: Primary health care in Canada has entered a period of potentially transformative change. Key initiatives include support for interprofessional primary health care teams, group practices and networks, patient enrollment with a primary care provider, financial incentives and blended-payment schemes, development of primary health care governance mechanisms, expansion of the primary health care provider pool, implementation of electronic medical records, and quality improvement training and support. Conclusions: Canada's experience suggests that primary health care transformation can be achieved voluntarily in a pluralistic system of private health care delivery, given strong government and professional leadership working in concert. PMID:21676023

  8. Energy Use and the Environment. Concepts & Activities for the Classroom: Mathematics Module. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    As part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary environmental education program for elementary and secondary education in Hawaii, this teaching guide provides a variety of energy education activities for secondary school mathematics. An extensive introduction outlines the total program and how it fits into the general education program and explains…

  9. Proceedings, AMA Congress on Environmental Health Problems. Population Environment and Health (2nd, Chicago, Illinois, April 26-27, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    Included are 20 papers presented at the second AMA Congress on Environmental Health Problems. The papers have been grouped into these broad subject categories. One group relates to physical and chemical changes, living cells, mental health, and human physiology. The second category relates to tuberculosis, venereal disease, respiratory disease,…

  10. Man and Environment for the Intermediate Grades; A Curriculum Guide for Environmental Studies for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Environmental Education, Miami, FL.

    This curriculum guide consists of environmental studies modules for grades 4-8. The curriculum, which is organized around major concepts, is intended to serve as a guide for program development and as a framework for compiling and sharing ideas on methods and application on a national basis. Each module may be utilized as an integral part of the…

  11. Towards Effective Environmental Education in Ethiopia: Problems and Prospects in Responding to the Environment--Poverty Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekalo, S.; Bangay, C.

    2002-01-01

    Whether talking to local farmers or studying academic papers there is general agreement that environmental degradation is impacting upon agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. In a country, where around 90% of the population are dependent on agriculture for subsistence requirements and a similar fraction of the country's export income is generated…

  12. Environmental Toxicology: A Guide to Information Sources. Volume 7 in the "Man and the Environment Information Guide" Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Robert L.

    This annotated bibliography on environmental toxicology brings together a diverse set of information sources from the physical, social, and natural sciences. These sources include periodical literature, government documents, scientific journals, and teaching materials. The volume is divided into sixteen sections organized into four parts: (1)…

  13. Human health risks from TNT, RDX, and HMX in environmental media and consideration of the US Regulatory Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Knezovich, J.P.

    1994-12-01

    Although the most economical method for disposing of unwanted energetic high explosives [HEs; e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-triazine (RDX, also known as Cyclonite), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, also known as Octogen)] involves open burning and open or underground detonation [OB/O(U)D]; federal, state, and even local government agencies in the United States (U.S.) are implementing stricter environmental regulations that eventually may prevent such activities. These stricter regulations will promote alternative technologies that are designed to be environmentally benign. However, past HE-waste disposal practices at manufacturing and fabrication facilities in the U.S. have included uncontrolled OB/O(U)D, as well as direct surface discharge of HE-contaminated waste water, resulting in contaminated environmental media (e.g., ground water, soil, and perhaps even edible vegetation) near residential areas. Using TNT, RDX, and HMX as examples, this paper describes how risk-based standards for HEs can be derived that account for potential multimedia exposures (associated with contaminated air, water, food, and soil) by individuals near a contaminated site, and used to (1) protect public health and safety; (2)prevent limited resources from being dedicated to unnecessary cleanup activities; and (3) identify the most cost-effective, practical, and environmentally benign technologies suitable for integrating with the handling of the large quantity of high explosives scheduled for demilitarization.

  14. Moderation of the Relation between Person-Environment Congruence and Academic Success: Environmental Constraint, Personal Flexibility and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined as it was moderated by environmental constraint, individual flexibility, and congruence definition in an initial sample of 88,813 undergraduates (38,787 men and 50,026 women) from 42 different colleges and universities in 16 states. College achievement (GPA…

  15. The Obesogenic Environment of Commercial Trucking: A Worksite Environmental Audit and Implications for Systems-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael; Sönmez, Sevil; Hege, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercial trucker health is a vital public health concern. Enhanced understanding of the multiplicity, diversity, interdependence, and complexity of policies, resources, and stakeholders relevant to healthful living in trucking worksites can guide future interventions. Purpose: This article examines how the environmental attributes of…

  16. EPA Growing DASEES (Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society) - To Aid In Making Decisions On Complex Environmental Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Having a framework and tools to help sort through complicated environmental issues in an objective way would be useful to communities and risk managers, and all the stakeholders affected by these issues. This is one need that DASEES (Decision Analysis for a Sustainable En...

  17. Using Environmental Science Education Curricula and Experiences To Enhance Science Teaching for All Students: Creating an Integrated, Inclusive Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    This document presents a project that attempts to increase awareness of natural resources and surface and ground water in the Miami Valley region among elementary and middle school teachers and their students. The Miami Valley (Ohio) Environmental Science Education Teacher Enhancement Project Summer Workshop involved 33 teachers investigating a…

  18. STREAMS: Science Teams in Rural Environments for Aquatic Management Studies. An Interdisciplinary Environmental Education and Water Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Frederic R.; Julian, Timothy E.

    This booklet was created to assist teachers in integrating local environmental education topics into their classroom curriculum. It comprises curricular and instructional materials for developing students' awareness about and concern for water resources, and taking action to protect them. It enables students to learn that they are able to make a…

  19. Considerations related to the use of toxicity testing in Canada`s ocean disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Riebel, P.; Rowland, A.; Samant, H.; Doe, K.

    1995-12-31

    As part of its Ocean Disposal Program, Environment Canada is proposing the use of sediment and porewater toxicity tests to evaluate the acceptability of estuarine and marine sediments for ocean disposal. Under a tiered testing approach, sediments which fail the regulated chemical limits would be subjected to toxicity testing using 5 different type of tests: a 10-day amphipod acute test, a bacterial bioluminescence test, an echinoid fertilization test, a 28-day bioaccumulation test and a polychaete growth test which is still in development. In the past year, the use of the first four of these tests in ocean disposal projects on Canada`s west and east coasts has generated several issues which need to be addressed. Among these is the need for more guidance on the selection of reference sediments and on the selection of appropriate test species. Also, the interpretation of toxicity due to unregulated parameters such as sulfides and ammonia must be considered. Pass/fail criteria based on sound scientific rationale must be established to justify land confinement or capping of sediments, and a weight-of-evidence approach (e.g. Triad) using site-specific studies should be considered to support the results of laboratory tests. Techniques such as Ecological Risk Assessment should be considered to predict potential biological effects at an ocean dump site.

  20. The diet of Myotis lucifugus across Canada: assessing foraging quality and diet variability.

    PubMed

    Clare, Elizabeth L; Symondson, William O C; Broders, Hugh; Fabianek, François; Fraser, Erin E; MacKenzie, Alistair; Boughen, Andrew; Hamilton, Rachel; Willis, Craig K R; Martinez-Nuñez, Felix; Menzies, Allyson K; Norquay, Kaleigh J O; Brigham, Mark; Poissant, Joseph; Rintoul, Jody; Barclay, Robert M R; Reimer, Jesika P

    2014-08-01

    Variation in prey resources influences the diet and behaviour of predators. When prey become limiting, predators may travel farther to find preferred food or adjust to existing local resources. When predators are habitat limited, local resource abundance impacts foraging success. We analysed the diet of Myotis lucifugus (little brown bats) from Nova Scotia (eastern Canada) to the Northwest Territories (north-western Canada). This distribution includes extremes of season length and temperature and encompasses colonies on rural monoculture farms, and in urban and unmodified areas. We recognized nearly 600 distinct species of prey, of which ≈30% could be identified using reference sequence libraries. We found a higher than expected use of lepidopterans, which comprised a range of dietary richness from ≈35% early in the summer to ≈55% by late summer. Diptera were the second largest prey group consumed, representing ≈45% of dietary diversity early in the summer. We observed extreme local dietary variability and variation among seasons and years. Based on the species of insects that were consumed, we observed that two locations support prey species with extremely low pollution and acidification tolerances, suggesting that these are areas without environmental contamination. We conclude that there is significant local population variability in little brown bat diet that is likely driven by seasonal and geographical changes in insect diversity, and that this prey may be a good indicator of environment quality. PMID:24274182

  1. 76 FR 22744 - Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ...Consistent with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Department of State (DOS) has prepared a supplemental draft environmental impact statement (SDEIS) for the proposed TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP (TransCanada) Keystone XL Project (Project). On September 19, 2008, TransCanada filed an application for a Presidential Permit for the construction, connection,......

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part X: Health, Science, and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Health, Science, and the Environment section of these proceedings contains the following seven papers: "Columbus, Mars, and the Changing Images and Ideologies of Exploration: A Critical Examination" (Lin Bin and August T. Horvath); "Prime Time TV Portrayals of Sex, 'Safe Sex' and AIDS: A Longitudinal Analysis" (Dennis T. Lowry and Jon A.…

  3. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  4. Colour as an Environmental Cue when Learning a Route in a Virtual Environment: Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Van Herwegen, Jo; Cruickshank, Alice G.; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) 6-year-olds and 9-year-olds, and older children and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) navigated through brick-wall mazes in a virtual environment. Participants were shown a route through three mazes, each with 6 turns. In each maze the floor of each path section was a different colour such that colour acted as an…

  5. Home Environment and Cognitive Ability of 7-Year-Old Children in the Colorado Adoption Project: Genetic and Environmental Etiologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Hilary; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study results indicate that correlations between measures of the home environment and children's intelligence quotient at 7 years of age are often mediated genetically. Among 153 adoptive and 136 nonadoptive families, such correlations were generally lower in adoptive families than in nonadoptive families. (RH)

  6. Partnering for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study of a University's Participation in the Community Action for a Renewed Environment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarleta, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines an important policy initiative that creates self-sustaining partnerships among community stakeholders, including academic institutions. The Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) model of collaborative problem-solving (CPS) builds community capacity and knowledge while addressing the challenges of toxic pollution…

  7. Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.; Aulakh, G. S., Ed.

    In India, environmental education (EE) is introduced at various levels. Goals of this country's EE programs include: improving the quality of environment to create awareness among the people on environmental problems and conservation; developing skills to solve environmental problems; creating the necessary atmosphere for citizen participation in…

  8. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. I - Intrinsic crack propagation kinetics in hydrogenous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness of aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl; and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.

  9. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 1: Intrinsic crack propagation kinetics in hydrogenous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness by aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl, and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.

  10. Environmental effects of dredging. Long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated esturaine dredged material placed in an upland environment. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers/Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program (FVP), 1981-1986 (Peddicord 1988). Upland tests (plant and earthworm bioassays) were conducted on the sediment before dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under the upland disposal alternative. Laboratory test results were subsequently field verified at the field test site at `Tongue Point,` Bridgeport, Connecticut. The results of the upland disposal portion of the FVP and the changes occurring since the completion of the FVP for the upland disposal environment are summarized herein. This technical note emphasizes the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland ecosystem at this site will be evaluated until September 1995.

  11. Effects of environmental factors on corrosion behaviors of metal-fiber porous components in a simulated direct methanol fuel cell environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Zhao-chun; Deng, Jun

    2014-09-01

    To enable the use of metallic components in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), issues related to corrosion resistance must be considered because of an acid environment induced by the solid electrolyte. In this study, we report the electrochemical behaviors of metal-fiber-based porous sintered components in a simulated corrosive environment of DMFCs. Three materials were evaluated: pure copper, AISI304, and AISI316L. The environmental factors and related mechanisms affecting the corrosion behaviors were analyzed. The results demonstrated that AISI316L exhibits the best performance. A higher SO{4/2-} concentration increases the risk of material corrosion, whereas an increase in methanol concentration inhibits corrosion. The morphological features of the corroded samples were also characterized in this study.

  12. An aggregate analysis of personal care products in the environment: Identifying the distribution of environmentally-relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Zachary R; Blaney, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 3-4 decades, per capita consumption of personal care products (PCPs) has steadily risen, resulting in increased discharge of the active and inactive ingredients present in these products into wastewater collection systems. PCPs comprise a long list of compounds employed in toothpaste, sunscreen, lotions, soaps, body washes, and insect repellants, among others. While comprehensive toxicological studies are not yet available, an increasing body of literature has shown that PCPs of all classes can impact aquatic wildlife, bacteria, and/or mammalian cells at low concentrations. Ongoing research efforts have identified PCPs in a variety of environmental compartments, including raw wastewater, wastewater effluent, surface water, wastewater solids, sediment, groundwater, and drinking water. Here, an aggregate analysis of over 5000 reported detections was conducted to better understand the distribution of environmentally-relevant PCP concentrations in, and between, these compartments. The distributions were used to identify whether aggregated environmentally-relevant concentration ranges intersected with available toxicity data. For raw wastewater, wastewater effluent, and surface water, a clear overlap was present between the 25th-75th percentiles and identified toxicity levels. This analysis suggests that improved wastewater treatment of antimicrobials, UV filters, and polycyclic musks is required to prevent negative impacts on aquatic species. PMID:27128715

  13. Sustainable health care for Canada.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J; Angus, D; Albert, T

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable Health Care For Canada is a synthesis of the research findings of the Cost-Effectiveness of the Canadian Health Care System Project initiated by the Economic Council of Canada. Upon the council's closing, the team moved to become part of the Queen's-University of Ottawa Economic Projects to complete the research. During the project, 18 working papers were produced, in addition to the research report and the synthesis report. In this article, the authors provide an overview of this large-scale research program and highlight some of its key findings. PMID:10140965

  14. Exposure to Crystal Violet, Its Toxic, Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Effects on Environment and Its Degradation and Detoxification for Environmental Safety.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sujata; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal Violet (CV), a triphenylmethane dye, has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine as a biological stain, as a textile dye in textile processing industries and also used to provide a deep violet color to paints and printing ink. CV is also used as a mutagenic and bacteriostatic agent in medical solutions and antimicrobial agent to prevent the fungal growth in poultry feed. Inspite of its many uses, CV has been reported as a recalcitrant dye molecule that persists in environment for a long period and pose toxic effects in environment. It acts as a mitotic poison, potent carcinogen and a potent clastogene promoting tumor growth in some species of fish. Thus, CV is regarded as a biohazard substance. Although, there are several physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation and ion-pair extraction reported for the removal of CV, but these methods are insufficient for the complete removal of CV from industrial wastewaters and also produce large quantity of sludge containing secondary pollutants. However, biological methods are regarded as cost-effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of industrial wastewaters, but these methods also have certain limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop such eco-friendly and cost-effective biological treatment methods, which can effectively remove the dye from industrial wastewaters for the safety of environment, as well as human and animal health. PMID:26613989

  15. Open system sulphate reduction in a diagenetic environment - Isotopic analysis of barite (δ34S and δ18O) and pyrite (δ34S) from the Tom and Jason Late Devonian Zn-Pb-Ba deposits, Selwyn Basin, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnall, J. M.; Gleeson, S. A.; Stern, R. A.; Newton, R. J.; Poulton, S. W.; Paradis, S.

    2016-05-01

    Highly positive δ34S values in sulphide minerals are a common feature of shale hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS). Often this is attributed to near quantitative consumption of seawater sulphate, and for Paleozoic strata of the Selwyn Basin (Canada), this is thought to occur during bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR) in a restricted, euxinic water column. In this study, we focus on drill-core samples of sulphide and barite mineralisation from two Late Devonian SHMS deposits (Tom and Jason, Macmillan Pass, Selwyn Basin), to evaluate this euxinic basin model. The paragenetic relationship between barite, pyrite and hydrothermal base metal sulphides has been determined using transmitted and reflected light microscopy, and backscatter electron imaging. This petrographic framework provides the context for in-situ isotopic microanalysis (secondary ion mass spectrometry; SIMS) of barite and pyrite. These data are supplemented by analyses of δ34S values for bulk rock pyrite (n = 37) from drill-core samples of un-mineralised (barren), siliceous mudstone, to provide a means by which to evaluate the mass balance of sulphur in the host rock. Three generations of barite have been identified, all of which pre-date hydrothermal input. Isotopically, the three generations of barite have overlapping distributions of δ34S and δ18O values (+22.5‰ to +33.0‰ and +16.4‰ to +18.3‰, respectively) and are consistent with an origin from modified Late Devonian seawater. Radiolarian tests, enriched in barium, are abundant within the siliceous mudstones, providing evidence that primary barium enrichment was associated with biologic activity. We therefore propose that barite formed following remobilisation of productivity-derived barium within the sediment, and precipitated within diagenetic pore fluids close to the sediment water interface. Two generations of pyrite are texturally associated with barite: framboidal pyrite (py-I), which has negative δ34S values (-23‰ to -28

  16. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  17. Environmental and genetic risk factors and gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R; Gottlieb, D J; O'Connor, G T

    2000-01-01

    Current understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, suggests that chronic inflammation leads to the airways obstruction and parenchymal destruction that characterize this condition. Environmental factors, especially tobacco smoke exposure, are known to accelerate longitudinal decline of lung function, and there is substantial evidence that upregulation of inflammatory pathways plays a vital role in this process. Genetic regulation of both inflammatory responses and anti-inflammatory protective mechanisms likely underlies the heritability of COPD observed in family studies. In alpha-1 protease inhibitor deficiency, the only genetic disorder known to cause COPD, lack of inhibition of elastase activity, results in the parenchymal destruction of emphysema. Other genetic polymorphisms have been hypothesized to alter the risk of COPD but have not been established as causes of this condition. It is likely that multiple genetic factors interacting with each other and with a number of environmental agents will be found to result in the development of COPD. PMID:10931792

  18. Canadian Post-Secondary Education: A Positive Record--An Uncertain Future. Report on Learning in Canada 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report aims to inform Canadians on the extent to which Canada's post-secondary education sector is contributing to Canadians' social and economic objectives, its ability to respond to a fast-changing global environment, and how Canada's approach to higher education compares with other leading developed countries. Analysis of currently…

  19. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #12: U.S.-- CANADA SYMPOSIUM ON NORTH AMERICAN CLIMATE CHANGE AND WEATHER EXTREMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition reports on a U.S.-Canada Symposium onNorth American Climate Change and Weather Extremes that was held in Atlanta in October. This symposium was conducted by EPA's Global Change Research Program in partnership with Environment Canada and the U.S. National Weather Se...

  20. Environmental microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers issues ranging from global climate changes to biocontrol of plant diseases. Many of its contributions stress how new technologies in areas such as molecular biology and environmental engineering expand understanding and applications of basic concepts in environmental microbiology. Articles in the book are in three basic subject areas: effects of environmental contamination on the role of microbes in geochemical cycling of the major elements, pathogens in the environment, and microbial activities in environmental management.