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1

Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

2

Potential effects of environmental chemical contamination in congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

There is compelling evidence that prenatal exposures to environmental xenobiotics adversely affect human development and childhood. Among all birth defects, congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent of all congenital malformations and remains the leading cause of death. It has been estimated that in most cases the causes of heart defects remain unknown, while a growing number of studies have indicated the potential role of environmental agents as risk factors in CHD occurrence. In particular, maternal exposure to chemicals during the first trimester of pregnancy represents the most critical window of exposure for CHD. Specific classes of xenobiotics (e.g. organochlorine pesticides, organic solvents, air pollutants) have been identified as potential risk factors for CHD. Nonetheless, the knowledge gained is currently still incomplete as a consequence of the frequent heterogeneity of the methods applied and the difficulty in estimating the net effect of environmental pollution on the pregnant mother. The presence of multiple sources of pollution, both indoor and outdoor, together with individual lifestyle factors, may represent a further confounding element for association with the disease. A future new approach for research should probably focus on individual measurements of professional, domestic, and urban exposure to physical and chemical pollutants in order to accurately retrace the environmental exposure of parents of affected offspring during the pre-conceptional and pregnancy periods. PMID:24452958

Gorini, Francesca; Chiappa, Enrico; Gargani, Luna; Picano, Eugenio

2014-04-01

3

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

2001-01-01

4

Chemical activity as an integrating concept in environmental assessment and management of contaminants.  

PubMed

It is suggested that chemical activity in environmental media can serve as an integrating concept for holistic evaluations of contaminants, including their fate and effects. In support of this assertion, information underlying the thermodynamic principles and the relationships between monitored and modeled concentrations and activities are presented. The toxicological significance of activity is discussed, with emphasis on substances that exert baseline narcosis. Illustrations are given of the application of activity using models and monitoring data for chemical risk assessment and management. It is argued that the proximity of prevailing multimedia environmental activities to activities causing toxic effects is a particularly insightful metric of environmental contamination for both narcotics and reactive toxic substances. PMID:20836055

Mackay, Don; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Bailey, Robert E

2011-04-01

5

Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems  

SciTech Connect

Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

Forstner, U.

1989-01-01

6

Areawide chemical contamination  

SciTech Connect

Nine case histories illustrate the mounting problems owing to chemical contamination that often extends beyond the workplace into the community. The effects include not only carcinogenesis and teratogenesis, so much in the public's mind, but also severe neurological and gonadal disabilities immediately after exposure. Recognition of causal relationships is often made by astute clinicians. The experience of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in studying Japanese survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki serves as a model for future studies of communities exposed to unusual environmental contamination.

Miller, R.W.

1981-04-17

7

Potential External Contamination with Bisphenol A and Other Ubiquitous Organic Environmental Chemicals during Biomonitoring Analysis: An Elusive Laboratory Challenge  

PubMed Central

Background: Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. Objectives: We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. Discussions: We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Conclusions: Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid—even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices—the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples. PMID:23458838

Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua

2013-01-01

8

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS): THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS AS A TARGET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyrotoxicants. Broadly defined, thyrotoxicants are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or tissue conce...

9

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: selected methods for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effects in aquatic ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document describes the suite of biological methods of the U.S. Geological Survey- Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends program for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effects on fish. The methods, which were selected by panels of experts, are being field-tested in rivers of the Mississippi River, Columbia River, and Rio Grande basins. General health biomarkers include a health assessment index based on gross observation; histopathological examination of selected organs and tissues; condition factor; and the heptosomatic and splenosomatic indices. Immune system indicators are plasma lysozyme activity and measures of splenic macrophage aggregates. Reproductive biomarkers include plasma concentrations of sex steroid hormones (17b-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) and vitellogenin, gonadal histopathology (including reproductive stage and, in females, gonadal atresia), and the gonadosomatic index. Indicators of exposure to polycyclic aromatic and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons are the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay (performed on solvent extracts of composite fish samples) and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios are used to assess the trophic position of the fish and their exposure to sewage and other animal wastes. For each indicator we describe endpoint(s) and methods, and discuss the indicator?s value and limitations for contaminant monitoring and assessment.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dethloff, Gail M.

2000-01-01

10

Chemical contamination of ground water in India  

SciTech Connect

Ground water is the main source of drinking water in rural areas and many urban areas in India. In addition, it has been increasingly used for irrigation in farmland. Contamination of ground water by persistent inorganic and organic chemicals has emerged as a major environmental concern in recent years. Nitrate, fluoride, heavy metals and organochlorine compounds are found to be major contaminants of ground water in different parts of the country. At many places the concentrations of these chemicals exceed national and international guideline values for drinking water. While large concentrations of heavy metals come from industrial sources, agricultural activities are responsible for ground water contamination by nitrate and organochlorine insecticides.

Mohapatra, S.P.; Agnihoiri, N.P. [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

1996-10-01

11

Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern Hemisphere will likely increase the impact of anthropogenic contaminants on Antarctic ecosystems. PMID:18765160

Bargagli, R

2008-08-01

12

The effect of misunderstanding the chemical properties of environmental contaminants on exposure beliefs: A case involving dioxins  

PubMed Central

Chemical properties of contaminants lead them to behave in particular ways in the environment and hence have specific pathways to human exposure. If residents of affected communities lack awareness of these properties, however, they could make incorrect assumptions about where and how exposure occurs. We conducted a mailed survey of 904 residents of Midland and Saginaw counties in Michigan, USA to assess to what degree residents of a community with known dioxin contamination appear to understand the hydrophobic nature of dioxins and the implications of that fact on different potential exposure pathways. Participants assessed whether various statements about dioxins were true, including multiple statements assessing beliefs about dioxins in different types of water. Participants also stated whether they believed different exposure pathways were currently significant sources of dioxin exposure in this community. A majority of residents believed that dioxins can be found in river water that has been filtered to completely remove all particulates, well water, and even city tap water, beliefs which are incongruous with the hydrophobic nature of dioxins. Mistrust of government and personal concern about dioxins predicted greater beliefs about dioxins in water. In turn, holding more beliefs about dioxins in water predicted beliefs that drinking and touching water are currently significant exposure pathways for dioxins. Ensuring that community residents’ mental models accurately reflect the chemical properties of different contaminants can be important to helping them to adjust their risk perceptions and potentially their risk mitigation behaviors accordingly. PMID:23391895

Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Turkelson, Angela; Franzblau, Alfred; Diebol, Julia K.; Allerton, Lindsay A.; Parker, Edith A.

2013-01-01

13

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer

S. S. Talmage; B. T. Walton

1991-01-01

14

Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17?-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor ? and ? isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein ?, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in principle, to field-captured Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PMID:24055988

Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Skirrow, Rachel C; Rieberger, Kevin J; van Aggelen, Graham; Meays, Cynthia L; Helbing, Caren C

2013-10-15

15

Data-Mining and Informatics Approaches for Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

New and emerging environmental contaminants are chemicals that have not been previously detected or that are being detected at levels significantly different from those expected in both biological and ecological arenas (that is, human, wildlife, and environment). Many chemicals c...

16

Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species\\u000a varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across\\u000a Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). ?PCB\\u000a and ?DDT followed by ?CHL were most

Birgit M. Braune; David G. Noble

2009-01-01

17

NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION STUDIES OF HUMAN AND FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasm...

18

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between contaminant exposure and trophic level emerged. Insectivores (shrews) had the highest levels of contaminants, followed by omnivores (cricetid mice) with intermediate levels, and herbivores (voles) with the lowest levels. A substantial number of these biomonitoring studies using small mammals collectively point to the importance of food habits and habitat of small mammals, and their availability and abundance as factors that should influence species selection for monitoring studies. The type of contaminants under consideration as well as the appropriateness of the endpoints selected are important factors to consider when deciding whether or not to include small mammals in biomonitoring studies. PMID:1992495

Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

1991-01-01

19

Chemical and Environmental Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two-year curriculum in chemical technology presented in the document is designed to prepare high school graduates for technical positions in the chemical industry. Course outlines are given for general chemistry, chemical calculations, quantitative analysis, environmental chemistry, organic chemistry 1 and 2, instrumental analysis, and…

Sheather, Harry

20

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

21

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

1998-01-01

22

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

2005-11-29

23

Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

Banwell, John G.

1979-01-01

24

Environmental/chemical thesaurus  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

1978-06-01

25

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

26

Peering Into the Shadows of Chemical Space. Emerging Contaminants and Environmental Science: Is Either Being Served by the Other?  

EPA Science Inventory

A decade has passed since the term ?emerging? was first formally used to describe the existence of waterpollutants not previously recognized; a 1998 NRC workshop ("Identifying Future Drinking WaterContaminants") and several 1999 reports by USGS were among the first to feature the...

27

FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDIES OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND ENVIRONMENTALLY RELATED DISEASES IN FISH AND MOLLUSCS OF NEW ENGLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of PCBS, PAHS, insecticides and metals in some aquatic ecosystems have reached high levels placing identified populations at risk to chemical, physical and biological agents in estuarine and open coastal areas of the United States. n the last three decades scien...

28

Control of chemical contaminants in foods: past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1930s and early 1940s, almost the only analyses carried out for chemical contaminants in foods were for lead arsenate and other arsenical pesticides in fruits. Since then, a tremendous expansion has occurred in the types of chemical contaminants found in foods and in the activities of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other organizations responsible for monitoring and controlling the presence of these contaminants in the food supply. This paper describes the findings and control of additional chemical contaminants in foods, including synthetic pesticides, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), other industrial chemicals, fungal metabolites such as aflatoxins, toxic metals, and radionuclides. The common characteristics of problems connected with these different types of contaminants include uncontrolled entry into the food supply, incidents causing extreme public worry, and near impossibility in removing these contaminants from the food supply. Problems may also arise from new technologies and environmental developments. New approaches beyond ordinary regulatory activities are being used to meet these problems. Broader analytical methods requiring less time and faster and more sophisticated toxicological methods are needed to assess the hazard of these environmental food contaminants.

Jelinek, C.F.

1985-11-01

29

Environmental Contamination by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE. PMID:23115260

Lerner, A.; Adler, A.; Abu-Hanna, J.; Meitus, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.

2013-01-01

30

CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to more accurately assess children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Children have unstructured eating behaviors which cause excess exposures as a result of their activities. Determining total dietary intak...

31

Modeling geochemical reactions in contaminated aquifers: Transformation of aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria and concomitant inorganic chemical evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical environment of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, the chemical environment of contaminant-water-rock interactions, and the biological environment of microbially mediated processes act to influence the fate of groundwater contaminants in a complex and interconnected way. Prediction of the chemical evolution of groundwater in the complex environment of a contaminated aquifer is necessary to address environmental contamination and remediation

J. S. Herman; W. R. Kelly; A. L. Mills; G. M. Hornberger

1992-01-01

32

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power

M. D. Siegel; C. R. Bryan

2003-01-01

33

Chemical contaminants, pharmacokinetics, and the lactating mother.  

PubMed Central

We review the commonly occurring persistent pesticides and industrial chemicals in breast milk. These chemicals are dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane as dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene dieldrin, chlordane as oxychlordane, heptachlor, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. We present a worked example of the kinds of pharmacokinetic assumptions and calculations necessary for setting regulatory limits of contaminants in the food supply, calculating dose of chemical contaminants to the nursed infant, converting risks from lifetime exposure in laboratory animals to risks for short-term exposure in humans, and estimating the excess cancer risk to the nursed infant. PMID:7737048

Rogan, W J; Ragan, N B

1994-01-01

34

A Framework for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis for Remediation or Restoration of Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net environmental benefits are gains in value of environmental services or other ecological properties attained by remediation or ecological restoration minus the value of adverse environmental effects caused by those actions. Net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) is a methodology for comparing and ranking net environmental benefits associated with multiple management alternatives. A NEBA for chemically contaminated sites typically involves comparison

Rebecca A. Efroymson; Joseph P. Nicolette; Glenn W. Suter II

2004-01-01

35

Susceptibility of human populations to environmental exposure to organic contaminants.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure to organic contaminants is a complex function of environmental conditions, food chain characteristics, and chemical properties. In this study the susceptibility of various human populations to environmental exposure to neutral organic contaminants was compared. An environmental fate model and a linked bioaccumulation model were parametrized to describe ecosystems in different climatic regions (temperate, arctic, tropical, and steppe). The human body burden resulting from constant emissions of hypothetical chemicals was estimated for each region. An exposure susceptibility index was defined as the body burden in the region of interest normalized to the burden of the same chemical in a reference human from the temperate region eating an average diet. For most persistent chemicals emitted to air, the Arctic had the highest susceptibility index (max 520). Susceptibility to exposure was largely determined by the food web properties. The properties of the physical environment only had a marked effect when air or water, not food, was the dominant source of human exposure. Shifting the mode of emission markedly changed the relative susceptibility of the ecosystems in some cases. The exposure arising from chemical use clearly varies between ecosystems, which makes an understanding of ecosystem susceptibility to exposure important for chemicals management. PMID:20704223

Undeman, Emma; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; McLachlan, Michael S

2010-08-15

36

Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on owls has been largely understudied. Research primarily has focused on two species, the eastern screech owl (Otus asio) and barn owl (Tyto alba). Most of this work has been conducted with captive populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, MD. In the wild, work has been, or is currently being, conducted with great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) at a Superfund site in Colorado and in agricultural croplands in Iowa, and barn owls at a Superfund site in Texas and in metal-contaminated regions of the Netherlands. As higher order consumers, owls bioconcentrate many different environmental contaminants through their prey. Owls have proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of toxic compounds, including PCB`s, metals, and fluoride. Endpoints examined include reproductive effects, eggshell thickness, residue analyses, cholinesterase inhibition, and induction of liver MFO`s. Much more work remains to be done using owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination, particularly with captive populations, salvaged individuals, raptor rehabilitation center birds, and with wild populations in areas around hazardous waste sites, smelters, landfills, agricultural croplands, and other major sources of environmental contamination.

Sheffield, S.R. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

37

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths  

PubMed Central

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

2014-01-01

38

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.  

PubMed

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

2014-01-01

39

The Toxicity Data Landscape for Environmental Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Objective Thousands of chemicals are in common use, but only a portion of them have undergone significant toxicologic evaluation, leading to the need to prioritize the remainder for targeted testing. To address this issue, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other organizations are developing chemical screening and prioritization programs. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog, from widely dispersed sources, the toxicology information that is available. The main objective of this analysis is to define a list of environmental chemicals that are candidates for the U.S. EPA screening and prioritization process, and to catalog the available toxicology information. Data sources We are developing ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource), which combines information for hundreds of thousands of chemicals from > 200 public sources, including the U.S. EPA, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, corresponding agencies in Canada, Europe, and Japan, and academic sources. Data extraction ACToR contains chemical structure information; physical–chemical properties; in vitro assay data; tabular in vivo data; summary toxicology calls (e.g., a statement that a chemical is considered to be a human carcinogen); and links to online toxicology summaries. Here, we use data from ACToR to assess the toxicity data landscape for environmental chemicals. Data synthesis We show results for a set of 9,912 environmental chemicals being considered for analysis as part of the U.S. EPA ToxCast screening and prioritization program. These include high-and medium-production-volume chemicals, pesticide active and inert ingredients, and drinking water contaminants. Conclusions Approximately two-thirds of these chemicals have at least limited toxicity summaries available. About one-quarter have been assessed in at least one highly curated toxicology evaluation database such as the U.S. EPA Toxicology Reference Database, U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System, and the National Toxicology Program. PMID:19479008

Judson, Richard; Richard, Ann; Dix, David J.; Houck, Keith; Martin, Matthew; Kavlock, Robert; Dellarco, Vicki; Henry, Tala; Holderman, Todd; Sayre, Philip; Tan, Shirlee; Carpenter, Thomas; Smith, Edwin

2009-01-01

40

Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

41

DERMAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb in ground water, dioxins...

42

Environmental impact of mining activities in the Lousal area (Portugal): chemical and diatom characterization of metal-contaminated stream sediments and surface water of Corona stream.  

PubMed

Lousal mine is a typical "abandoned mine" with all sorts of problems as consequence of the cessation of the mining activity and lack of infrastructure maintenance. The mine is closed at present, but the heavy metal enriched tailings remain at the surface in oxidizing conditions. Surface water and stream sediments revealed much higher concentrations than the local geochemical background values, which the "Contaminated Sediment Standing Team" classifies as very toxic. High concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cd and Hg occurred within the stream sediments downstream of the tailings sites (up to: 817 mg kg(-1) As, 6.7 mg kg(-1) Cd, 1568 mg kg(-1) Cu, 1059 mg kg(-1) Pb, 82.4 mg kg(-1) Sb, 4373 mg kg(-1) Zn). The AMD waters showed values of pH ranging from 1.9 to 2.9 and concentrations of 9249 to 20,700 mg L(-1) SO(4)(-2), 959 to 4830 mg L(-1) Fe and 136 to 624 mg L(-1) Al. Meanwhile, the acid effluents and mixed stream waters also carried high contents of SO(4)(2-,) Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As, generally exceeding the Fresh Water Aquatic Life Acute Criteria. Negative impacts in the diatom communities growing at different sites along a strong metal pollution gradient were shown through Canonical Correspondence Analysis: in the sites influenced by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), the dominant taxon was Achnanthidium minutissimum. However, Pinnularia acoricola was the dominant species when the environmental conditions were extremely adverse: very low pH and high metal concentrations (sites 2 and 3). Teratological forms of Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki, Brachysira vitrea (Grunow) Ross in Hartley, Fragilaria rumpens (Kützing) G. W. F. Carlson and Nitzschia hantzschiana Rabenhorst were found. A morphometric study of B. vitrea showed that a decrease in size was evident at the most contaminated sites. These results are evidence of metal and acidic pollution. PMID:21802708

Luís, Ana Teresa; Teixeira, Paula; Almeida, Salomé Fernandes Pinheiro; Matos, João Xavier; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira

2011-09-15

43

Monitoring the Natural Recovery of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sediments with Chemical Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drs. Scott A. Stout, Gregory S. Douglas, and Allen D. Uhler are principals at NewFields Environmental Forensics Practice, LLC, in Rockland, Massachusetts. They each have over 15 years experience in the chemical characterization of petroleum and related contaminants in the environment. Their firm specializes in the application of chemical fingerprinting and other forensic tools in assessing liability associated with environmental

Scott A. Stout; Allen D. Uhler; Gregory S. Douglas

2005-01-01

44

SUITABILITY OF CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS) FOR INVESTIGATING REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) are being studied at our laboratory as a model species to determine the effects of environmental contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), on estuarine fish populations. Cunner are easily obtainable and are amenable to laborator...

45

Trace chemical contaminant generation rates for spacecraft contamination control system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft presents a unique design challenge with respect to providing a comfortable environment in which people can live and work. All aspects of the spacecraft environmental design including the size of the habitable volume, its temperature, relative humidity, and composition must be considered to ensure the comfort and health of the occupants. The crew members and the materials selected for outfitting the spacecraft play an integral part in designing a habitable spacecraft because material offgassing and human metabolism are the primary sources for continuous trace chemical contaminant generation onboard a spacecraft. Since these contamination sources cannot be completely eliminated, active control processes must be designed and deployed onboard the spacecraft to ensure an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Knowledge of the expected rates at which contaminants are generated is very important to the design of these processes. Data from past spacecraft missions and human contaminant production studies have been analyzed to provide this knowledge. The resulting compilation of contaminants and generation rates serve as a firm basis for past, present, and future contamination control system designs for space and aeronautics applications.

Perry, J. L.

1995-01-01

46

Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls. Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how application of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in determining the distributions and concentrations cf. constituents are provided by several studies, including infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers. These studies show that heterogeneity and the dominance of organically controlled reactions greatly increase the complexity of investigations.

Back, William; Baedecker, Mary Jo

1989-03-01

47

Environmental benefits of chemical propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper identifies the necessity of chemical propulsion to satellite usage and some of the benefits accrued through monitoring global resources and patterns, including the Global Climate Change Model (GCM). The paper also summarized how the satellite observations are used to affect national and international policies. Chemical propulsion, like all environmentally conscious industries, does provide limited, controlled pollutant sources through its manufacture and usage. However, chemical propulsion is the sole source which enables mankind to launch spacecraft and monitor the Earth. The information provided by remote sensing directly affects national and international policies designed to protect the environment and enhance the overall quality of life on Earth. The resultant of chemical propulsion is the capability to reduce overall pollutant emissions to the benefit of mankind.

Hayes, Joyce A.; Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Anderson, David M.

1995-01-01

48

Transport of organic environmental contaminants to animal products.  

PubMed

A large number of chemical contaminants potentially may be present in agricultural environments, leading to exposure of animals and potential residues in animal products. The contamination may be either widespread, as a result of aerial transport of industrial emissions, or localized, as a result of accidental emissions and spills, improper waste disposal, contaminants in useful products, and areas of past use of products now banned. The halogenated hydrocarbons, including the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and persistent organochlorine insecticides remaining from past use, are the contaminants of most concern. Depending on the degree and pattern of chlorine substitution, these compounds are resistant to degradation and tend to accumulate in the fat of animals and their products. Other classes of environmental contaminants as exemplified by the PAHs, phthalate esters, acid phenolics, and nitrosamines also may occur widely in the environment. These compounds are unlikely to be transported to animal products because the compounds are water-soluble or can be metabolized to water-soluble products, which are excreted in the urine and thus do not bioaccumulate in products such as milk and meat. The points of entry of environmental contaminants into agricultural environments usually are plants and soils. Lipophilic compounds such as the halogenated hydrocarbons are not taken up and translocated by plants. Contamination of plants is mainly a surface phenomenon resulting from aerial deposition of emissions or deposition of compounds volatilized from the surface of contaminated soil. Thus, fibrous roughages used primarily in feeding cattle and other ruminants will be the most important pathway of animal exposure and transport to human foods. The second pathway of animal exposure is by ingestion of contaminated soil while grazing or when confined to unpaved facilities. As in the case of feed sources, cattle is the species most vulnerable to exposure by the soil ingestion pathway under most commercial management systems, but poultry and swine are more vulnerable in those infrequent situations in which these species have access to contaminated soil. PMID:7886255

Fries, G F

1995-01-01

49

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

Ware, G. (ed.)

2007-07-01

50

Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

51

Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls. Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how applications of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in determining the distribution and concentrations cf. constituents are provided by several studies, including infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers. These studies show that heterogeneity and the dominance of organically controlled reactions greatly increase the complexity of investigations.Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how application of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity is illustrated by studies of infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers.

Back, W.; Baedecker, M.J.

1989-01-01

52

Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

Moody, R P; Chu, I

1995-01-01

53

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,  

E-print Network

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist the importance of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development, it is of potential concern that a wide variety of environmental chemicals can interfere with thyroid function or, perhaps of greater concern, with TH action

Zoeller, R. Thomas

54

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues, 2008 Review  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2006-2007. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2008 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

55

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

56

A framework for net environmental benefit analysis for remediation or restoration of contaminated sites.  

PubMed

Net environmental benefits are gains in value of environmental services or other ecological properties attained by remediation or ecological restoration minus the value of adverse environmental effects caused by those actions. Net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) is a methodology for comparing and ranking net environmental benefits associated with multiple management alternatives. A NEBA for chemically contaminated sites typically involves comparison of several management alternatives: (1) leaving contamination in place; (2) physically, chemically, or biologically remediating the site through traditional means; (3) improving ecological value through onsite and offsite restoration alternatives that do not directly focus on removal of chemical contamination; or (4) a combination of those alternatives. NEBA involves activities that are common to remedial alternatives analysis for state regulations and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, post-closure and corrective action permits under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, evaluation of generic types of response actions pertinent to the Oil Pollution Act, and land management actions that are negotiated with regulatory agencies in flexible regulatory environments (i.e., valuing environmental services or other ecological properties, assessing adverse impacts, and evaluating remediation or restoration options). This article presents a high-level framework for NEBA at contaminated sites with subframeworks for natural attenuation (the contaminated reference state), remediation, and ecological restoration alternatives. Primary information gaps related to NEBA include nonmonetary valuation methods, exposure-response models for all stressors, the temporal dynamics of ecological recovery, and optimal strategies for ecological restoration. PMID:15520889

Efroymson, Rebecca A; Nicolette, Joseph P; Suter, Glenn W

2004-09-01

57

Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and

S. G. Donaldson; J. Van Oostdam; C. Tikhonov; M. Feeley; B. Armstrong; P. Ayotte; O. Boucher; W. Bowers; L. Chan; F. Dallaire; R. Dallaire; É. Dewailly; J. Edwards; G. M. Egeland; J. Fontaine; C. Furgal; T. Leech; E. Loring; G. Muckle; T. Nancarrow; D. Pereg; P. Plusquellec; M. Potyrala; O. Receveur; R. G. Shearer

2010-01-01

58

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

59

Characterization of chemical waste site contamination and its extent using bioassays  

SciTech Connect

Bioassays were used in a three-phase research project to assess the comparative sensitivity of test organisms to known chemicals, determine if the chemical components in field soil and water samples containing unknown contaminants could be inferred from our laboratory studies using known chemicals, and to investigate kriging (a relatively new statistical mapping technique) and bioassays as methods to define the areal extent of chemical contamination. The algal assay generally was most sensitive to samples of pure chemicals, soil elutriates and water from eight sites with known chemical contamination. Bioassays of nine samples of unknown chemical composition from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) site showed that a lettuce seed soil contact phytoassay was most sensitive. In general, our bioassays can be used to broadly identify toxic components of contaminated soil. Nearly pure compounds of insecticides and herbicides were less toxic in the sensitive bioassays than were the counterpart commercial formulations. This finding indicates that chemical analysis alone may fail to correctly rate the severity of environmental toxicity. Finally, we used the lettuce seed phytoassay and kriging techniques in a field study at RMA to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping contamination to aid in cleanup decisions. 25 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

Thomas, J.M.; Callahan, C.A.; Cline, J.F.; Greene, J.C.; McShane, M.C.; Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

1984-12-01

60

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

2000-01-01

61

CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews the manner in which chemical contaminants found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents enter the environment and subsequently human tissue. Approximately 100 contaminants are treated. Sources of literature used in the survey covered a 30-year period, the b...

62

Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site.

Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

1995-07-01

63

HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS. Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA. Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

64

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

65

Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons under Chemical-Biological Degradation in Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial decontamination of petroleum-polluted soils has been recognized to be an efficient, economical and versatile alternative for physical or chemical treatments. In this study, different components of petroleum in contaminated soil were investigated under optimal environmental conditions which were determined by previous experiments. An aerobic bacteria with the ability to utilize both hydrocarbons and benzene as carbon sources was identified

Ningning Sun; Hongqi Wang; Jingqi Liu; Yongqiang Qi

2009-01-01

66

LEVELS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a compilation of information on chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution and found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents. Listed in tabular form for each of approximately 100 elements or compounds are: the tissue the compound was found in;...

67

PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL FROM THE CHEMICAL INSECTICIDE CORPORATION SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental protection Agency's Incinerator Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils at the Chemical insecticide Corporation Site. The test data show that: he orga...

68

Chemical contaminants in the Wadden Sea: Sources, transport, fate and effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wadden Sea receives contaminants from various sources and via various transport routes. The contaminants described in this overview are various metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) and various organic contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane, ?-HCH)). In addition, information is presented about other and emerging contaminants such as antifouling biocides (e.g. TBT and Irgarol), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). Special attention is given to biogeochemical processes that contribute to the mobilization of contaminants in the surface sediments of the Wadden Sea. Finally, the effects on organisms of contaminants are reviewed and discussed. The main source of contaminants in the Wadden Sea are the rivers Rhine (via de Dutch coastal zone), Elbe and Weser. The Wadden Sea is not a sink for contaminants and adsorbed contaminants are transported from east to west. The surface sediments of the Wadden Sea are an important source for contaminants to the water above. The input and concentration of most contaminants have significantly decreased in water, sediments, organisms (e.g., mussel, flounder and bird eggs) in various parts of the Wadden Sea in the last three decades. Remarkably, the Cd concentration in mussels is increasing the last decades. In recent decades, the effects of contaminants on organisms (e.g., flounder, seal) have fallen markedly. Most of the affected populations have recovered, except for TBT induced effects in snails. Little is known about the concentration and effects of most emerging contaminants and the complex environmental mixtures of contaminants. It is recommended to install an international coordinated monitoring programme for contaminants and their effects in the whole Wadden Sea and to identify the chemical contaminants that really cause the effect.

Laane, R. W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. D.; Gandrass, J.; Vorkamp, K.; Köhler, A.; Larsen, M. M.; Strand, J.

2013-09-01

69

Pesticides, Metals, Chemical Contaminants & Natural Toxins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is maintained by the U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Information in this site includes FDA food consumption warnings and advisories related to the presence of contaminants in various foods. Some information about toxicology is also available in this site.

2007-02-27

70

THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING NEUROTOXIC RISK FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

71

Project Overview: PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The human health and ecological assessment issues related to environmental contamination by perchlorate are complex and continue to emerge. Perchlorate, ClO4-, is an anion that originates as a contaminant from the solid salts of ammonium, potassium or sodium perchlorate. These ...

72

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the

Jill M. Larson; William H. Karasov; Louis Sileo; Kenneth L. Stromborg; J. P. Giesy; P. D. Jones; D. E. Tillitt; D. A. Verbrugge; B. A. Hanbidge

1996-01-01

73

Assimilation efficiencies of chemical contaminants in aquatic invertebrates: A synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Assimilation efficiencies of contaminants from ingested food are critical for understanding chemical accumulation and trophic transfer in aquatic invertebrates. Assimilation efficiency is a first-order physiological parameter that can be used to systematically compare the bioavailability of different contaminants from different foods. The various techniques used to measure contaminant assimilation efficiencies are reviewed. Pulse-chase feeding techniques and the application of gamma-emitting radiotracers have been invaluable in measuring metal assimilation efficiencies in aquatic animals. Uniform radiolabeling of food is required to measure assimilation, but this can be difficult when sediments are the food source. Biological factors that influence contaminant assimilation include food quantity and quality, partitioning of contaminants in the food particles, and digestive physiology of the animals. Other factors influencing assimilation include the behavior of the chemical within the animal's gut and its associations with different geochemical fractions of food particles. Assimilation efficiency is a critical parameter to determine (and to make predictions of) bioaccumulation of chemicals from dietary exposure. Robust estimates of assimilation efficiency coupled with estimates of aqueous uptake can be used to determine the relative importance of aqueous and dietary exposures. For bioaccumulation of metals from sediments, additional studies are required to test whether metals bound to the acid-volatile sulfide fraction of sediments can be available to benthic deposit-feeding inverterbrates. Most assimilation efficiency studies have focused on chemical transfer in organisms at the bottom of the food chain; additional studies are required to examine chemical transfer at higher trophic levels.

Wang, W.X.; Fisher, N.S.

1999-09-01

74

Bacteria and Emerging Chemical Contaminants in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Since the enactment of the Clean Water Act in 1972, awareness of the quality of the Nation's water has continued to improve. Despite improvements to wastewater-treatment systems and increased regulation on waste discharge, bacterial and chemical contamination is still a problem for many rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Pathogenic microorganism and newly recognized chemical contaminants have been found in waters that are used for drinking water and recreation (Rose and Grimes, 2001; Kolpin and others, 2002). This summary of bacteria and emerging-chemical-contaminant monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin (fig. 1) was initiated by the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (LSCRMP) in 2003, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Counties of Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Fogarty, Lisa R.

2007-01-01

75

Structural Damage and Chemical Contaminants on Reprocessed Arthroscopic Shaver Blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In response to socioeconomic pressure to cut budgets in medicine, single-use surgical instruments are often reprocessed despite potential biological hazard.Purpose: To evaluate the quality and contaminants of reprocessed shaver blades.Hypothesis: Reprocessed shaver blades have mechanical damage and chemical contamination.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Seven blades and 3 abraders were reprocessed 1 time or 3 times and then were assessed.

Masahiko Kobayashi; Yasuaki Nakagawa; Yukihiro Okamoto; Shinichiro Nakamura; Takashi Nakamura

2009-01-01

76

Organic chemical contaminants in Biosolids Sally Brown  

E-print Network

a head of lettuce and the plastic bag that you put it in at the supermarket are organic, carbon based to clean out the vegetable bin in the refrigerator can attest. Plastics, on the other hand, can persist and explains their behaviors and persistence. The names of different organic chemicals are often derived from

Brown, Sally

77

Thyroid disruption in walleye ( Sander vitreus) exposed to environmental contaminants: Cloning and use of iodothyronine deiodinases as molecular biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormones play a role in the initiation of ovarian maturation in fish. Thus, reports of delayed sexual maturation in female walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to contaminants in the Ottawa River suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of environmental contaminants in the Ottawa River on thyroid hormones of immature

Michelle Picard-Aitken; Henri Fournier; Richard Pariseau; David J. Marcogliese; Daniel G. Cyr

2007-01-01

78

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial Review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 20102011. Analytical Chemistry?s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Ev...

79

Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents  

DOEpatents

A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

1999-01-01

80

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

) tissue analyses showed that concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se in fish and some clams but not in sediments is that these pollutants are biomagnified in the food chain al. 2000; Van Dolah et al. 2008). Such contaminants have also entered food chains, concentrated

Mallin, Michael

81

Tactical approach to maneuvering within the chemical contamination labyrinth  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the need and accepts the responsibility for understanding the reality and mitigating the consequence of the complex chemical contamination legacy it inherited as well as controlling, reducing, and eliminating extant emissions and effluents. The key to maneuvering through this complicated and multifaceted labyrinth of concerns, from which a meaningful, high quality, and cost-effective restoration/mitigation machine is then set in motions, is the ability to perform accurate, factual, and explicit health and environmental/ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the common denominator for carrying out this essential task is to have access to comprehensive and reliable data of known quality with which to perform those analyses. DOE is committed to identifying the data universe; to technically scrutinize and ensure the quality of that data; to develop efficient and cost-effective means to maximize the handling, utilization, and sharing of that universe; and to undertake those assessments. DOE views this as an effort that can only be accomplished through a merging of the technical excellence that exists within federal and state agencies, academia, and industry. The task at hand is so large that only by integrating that intelligence base can we hope to accomplish the goals of establishing meaningful standards, developing functional and effective solutions, and providing quality guidance at a national scale.

Joseph, T.W. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1990-12-31

82

Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.  

PubMed

Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

2011-01-01

83

Archaeological recording and chemical stratigraphy applied to contaminated land studies.  

PubMed

The method used by archaeologists for excavation and recording of the stratigraphic evidence, within trenches with or without archaeological remains, can potentially be useful to contaminated land consultants (CLCs). The implementation of archaeological practice in contaminated land assessments (CLAs) is not meant to be an exercise in data overkill; neither should it increase costs. Rather, we suggest, that if the excavation and recording, by a trained archaeologist, of the stratigraphy is followed by in-situ chemical characterisation then it is possible that much uncertainty associated with current field sampling practices, may be removed. This is because built into the chemical stratigraphy is the temporal and spatial relationship between different parts of the site reflecting the logic behind the distribution of contamination. An archaeological recording with chemical stratigraphy approach to sampling may possibly provide 'one method fits all' for potentially contaminated land sites (CLSs), just as archaeological characterisation of the stratigraphic record provides 'one method fits all' for all archaeological sites irrespective of period (prehistoric to modern) or type (rural, urban or industrial). We also suggest that there may be practical and financial benefits to be gained by pulling together expertise and resources stemming from different disciplines, not simply at the assessment phase, but also subsequent phases, in contaminated land improvement. PMID:21962595

Photos-Jones, Effie; Hall, Allan J

2011-11-15

84

Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.  

PubMed

The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

2014-11-01

85

HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2011-01-01

86

The toll of toxics: Investigating environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On Earth Day of this year, the British Petroleum-operated Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, 41 miles off the Louisiana coast. The blast killed 11 workers, injured 17, launched a massive oil spill, and triggered an environmental catastrophe—the full impact of which may not be realized for years.

Sparling, Donald W.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Barclay, John S.

2010-01-01

87

Handbook of mass spectra of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook is a collection of the electron impact mass spectra of 394 commonly encountered environmental pollutants. Each page is devoted to the examination of a single pollutant, which is presented as a bar graph always starting at M\\/z = 40. Each spectra is determined by analyses of data in EPA data bases. The major fragment ions are correlated with

Hites

1985-01-01

88

Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-04-01

89

Prioritisation of organic contaminants in a river basin using chemical analyses and bioassays.  

PubMed

Region-specific contaminant prioritisation is an important prerequisite for sustainable and cost-effective monitoring due to the high number of different contaminants that may be present. Surface water and sediment samples from the Sava River, Croatia, were collected at four locations covering a 150-km-long river section characterised by well-defined pollution gradients. Analysis of contaminant profiles along the pollution gradients was performed by combining toxicity screening using a battery of small-scale or in vitro bioassays, which covered different modes of action, with detailed chemical characterisation based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). A large number of contaminants, belonging to different toxicant classes, were identified in both analysed matrices. Analyses of water samples showed that contaminants having polar character occurred in the highest concentrations, while in sediments, contributions from both non-polar and amphiphilic contaminants should be taken into account. Estimated contributions of individual contaminant classes to the overall toxicity indicated that, besides the classical pollutants, a number of emerging contaminants, including surfactants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products and plasticizers, should be taken into consideration in future monitoring activities. This work demonstrates the importance of the integrated chemical and bioanalytical approach for a systematic region-specific pollutant prioritisation. Finally, the results presented in this study confirm that hazard assessment in complex environmental matrices should be directed towards identification of key pollutants, rather than focusing on a priori selected contaminants alone. PMID:22798145

Smital, Tvrtko; Terzi?, Senka; Lon?ar, Jovica; Senta, Ivan; Žaja, Roko; Popovi?, Marta; Mikac, Iva; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Thomas, Kevin V; Ahel, Marijan

2013-03-01

90

Environmental contamination and human exposure to lead in Brazil.  

PubMed

Adverse effects caused by environmental lead pollution are well recognized. Being a widespread agent in the environment and a major harmful element to organic systems, mostly to children, lead has been investigated all over the world, aiming to improve measures regarding its control. The purpose of this chapter is to present a review of the situation of production, uses, assessment of exposure, and adverse effects from environmental lead contamination in Brazil. It also presents aspects of Brazilian legislation setting up maximum permissible levels of lead in several environmental compartments such as surface and drinking water, soils, sediment, urban air, and also in commercially sold food, vegetables, fish, and meat, in an effort to control industrial emissions. Epidemiological investigations on children's lead exposure around industrial and mining areas are revised, showing that many situations where lead contamination is potentially present still need to be addressed by governmental agencies. In Brazil, lead was withdrawn from gasoline by the end of the 1980s, and the last lead mining and primary smelting plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination, which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Nevertheless, there are hundreds of small secondary battery recycling plants all over the country, running smelting facilities that produce local urban areas of lead contamination. PMID:15790173

Paoliello, Monica M B; De Capitani, Eduardo M

2005-01-01

91

Artemia as a Bioindicator of Environmental Contamination by Trace Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crustacean Artemia is the main component of zooplankton in natural salt ponds and salines of Sardinia. This organism appears to be suitable as an environmental bioindicator because it can reflect the degree of contamination by trace elements in the aquatic compartment. Moreover, given its role in hydroponics, where it is used to feed larvae and fry, it may clearly

F. Petrucci; S. Caimi; G. Mura; S. Caroli

1995-01-01

92

Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic

Christopher J. Griffith; Rifhat Malik; Rose A. Cooper; Nick Looker; Barry Michaels

2003-01-01

93

Birds and environmental contaminants in San Francisco and Chesapeake Bays  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The direct and indirect effects of human activities, including environmental contamination, upon bird populations in San Francisco Bay and Chesapeake Bay are imperfectly understood, and few data are available. that allow a comparison of the contamination levels in birds from these two areas. Certain trace elements and organochlorine compounds have been found at sufficiently high concentrations in bird tissues or their foods to expect adverse effects in these birds, based upon results of field and laboratory studies conducted with other avian species. The decline and recovery of populations of many avian species have been recorded, including some associated with organochlorine contamination. The present paper summarizes available information on the occurrence and potential effects of contaminants upon birds in these two regions.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Fleming, W.J.

1988-01-01

94

Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

1987-08-01

95

In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically

Gregory G. Miller; Leonard I. Sweet; Jean V. Adams; Geneva M. Omann; Dora R. Passino-Reader; Peter G. Meier

2002-01-01

96

Antimicrobial efficacy of chemical disinfectants on contaminated full metal crowns.  

PubMed

Prosthetic restorations that have been tried in the patient's mouth are potential sources of infection. In order to avoid cross-infection, protocols for infection control should be established in dental office and laboratory. This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of disinfectants on full metal crowns contaminated with microorganisms. Full crowns cast in a Ni-Cr alloy were assigned to one control group (n=6) and 5 experimental groups (n=18). The crowns were placed in flat-bottom glass balloons and were autoclaved. A microbial suspension of each type of strain - S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. mutans, E. faecalis and C. albicans- was aseptically added to each experimental group, the crowns being allowed for contamination during 30 min. The contaminated specimens were placed into recipients with the chemical disinfectants (1% and 2% sodium hypochlorite and 2% glutaraldehyde) for 5, 10 and 15 min. Thereafter, the crowns were placed into tubes containing different broths and incubated at 35ºC. The control specimens were contaminated, immersed in distilled water for 20 min and cultured in Thioglycollate broth at 35ºC. Microbial growth assay was performed by qualitative visual examination after 48 h, 7 and 12 days. Microbial growth was noticed only in the control group. In the experimental groups, turbidity of the broths was not observed, regardless of the strains and immersion intervals, thus indicating absence of microbial growth. In conclusion, all chemical disinfectants were effective in preventing microbial growth onto full metal crowns. PMID:21203708

Orsi, Iara Augusta; Villabona, Camilo Andrés; Kameoka, Eliana; Ferreira, Marly Christiènne C G; Ito, Izabel Yoko; Saravia, Marta Estela

2010-01-01

97

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.  

PubMed

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field plot experiment. Results showed that treatments with CC, SS and FS decreased Cd uptake by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat by 23-95% compared with the unamended control. Among the three amendments, FS was the most efficient at suppressing Cd uptake by the plants, probably due to its higher content of available silicon (Si). The concentrations of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and Cd in the shoots of vetiver grass were 42-67%, 500-1200% and 120-260% higher in contaminated plots than in control, respectively. Cadmium accumulation by vetiver shoots was 218 g Cd/ha at a soil Cd concentration of 0.33 mg Cd/kg. It is suggested that heavy metal-contaminated soil could be remediated with a combination of chemical treatments and plants. PMID:10819205

Chen, H M; Zheng, C R; Tu, C; Shen, Z G

2000-07-01

98

Neurogenic inflammation and sensitivity to environmental chemicals.  

PubMed Central

Neurogenic inflammation as a pathway distinct from antigen-driven, immune-mediated inflammation may play a pivotal role in understanding a broad class of environmental health problems resulting from chemical exposures. Recent progress in understanding the mediators, triggers, and regulation of neurogenic inflammation is reviewed. Evidence for and speculations about a role for neurogenic inflammation in established disorders such as asthma, rhinitis, contact dermatitis, migraine headache, and rheumatoid arthritis are presented. The sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome have been defined as clinical entities in which exposure to chemical inhalants gives rise to disease. Current data on the existence of chemical irritant receptors in the airway and skin are discussed; neurogenic inflammation arising from stimulation of chemical irritant receptors is a possible model to explain many of the aspects of chemical sensitivities. Images p234-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. p237-a PMID:8404760

Meggs, W J

1993-01-01

99

Chemical and radiochemical characterization of depleted uranium in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main results of chemical and radiochemical characterization and fractionation of depleted uranium in soils contaminated\\u000a during the Balkan conflict in 1999 are presented in the paper. Alpha-spectrometric analysis of used depleted uranium material\\u000a has shown the presence of man-made radioisotopes 236U, 237Np, and 239, 240Pu traces. The fractionation in different soil types was examined by the application of a

M. B. Radenkovi?; A. B. Kandi?; I. S. Vukana?; J. D. Joksi?; D. S. Djordjevi?

2007-01-01

100

Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous type...

101

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, Len

1992-01-01

102

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

SciTech Connect

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, L.

1992-03-01

103

Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.  

PubMed

In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries. PMID:19117208

Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

2009-01-01

104

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Gale, R.W.; Lebo, J.A.; Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Cranor, W.L.

2000-01-01

105

Mathematical Methods in Chemical and Environmental Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive book covers a broad selection of mathematical topics that are essential for a modern chemical\\/environmental engineer. It features a blend of analytical and numerical techniques for solving problems in diverse areas, such as, heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, reaction engineering, transport phenomena, and process systems engineering. This new text emphasizes problem solving, and deals extensively with

Ajay K. Ray; Santosh K. Gupta

2004-01-01

106

Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

2006-09-01

107

Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5 Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-09-18

108

DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING AN ELECTROSPRAY INTERFACE COMBINED WITH AN ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development, was interested in determining environmental contaminants using a commercial electrospray which is interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) to analyze contaminants of concern. ptimi...

109

Chemical contamination of free-range eggs from Belgium.  

PubMed

The elements manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, thallium, lead and mercury, and selected persistent organochlorine compounds (dioxins, marker and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT) and metabolites as well as other chlorinated pesticides) were analysed in Belgian free-range eggs obtained from hens of private owners and of commercial farms. It was found that eggs from private owners were more contaminated than eggs from commercial farms. The ratios of levels in eggs from private owners to the levels in eggs from commercial farms ranged from 2 to 8 for the toxic contaminants lead, mercury, thallium, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and the group of DDT. DDT contamination was marked by the substantial presence of p,p'-DDT in eggs from private owners in addition to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethane (p,p'-DDD). It is postulated that environmental pollution is at the origin of the higher contamination of eggs from private owners. Extensive consumption of eggs from private owners is likely to result in toxic equivalent quantity intake levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake. PMID:17071513

Van Overmeire, I; Pussemier, L; Hanot, V; De Temmerman, L; Hoenig, M; Goeyens, L

2006-11-01

110

A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field. PMID:24735943

Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

2014-07-01

111

Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed. PMID:23012541

Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

2012-01-01

112

Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

113

Environmental contamination of groundwater in the Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental problems of groundwater contamination in the Gaza Strip are summarized in this paper. The Gaza Strip is a very narrow and highly populated area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (360 km2). Human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources in the area, while the unconfined nature of some parts of the coastal main aquifer favors groundwater contamination. Recent investigations show contamination of the aquifer with organic substances from detergents, agrochemicals, sewage (cesspools), and waste degradation. These effects enhance each other because there is no recycling industry, sewage system, or any type of environmental protection management at present. Inorganic contamination results from overpumping, which increases the salinity of the groundwater. Seawater intrusion also increases the salinity of the groundwater that are used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Consequently, at present about 80 percent of the groundwater in the Gaza Strip is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Solutions are very urgently needed for these problems in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases.

Al-Agha, M. R.

1995-03-01

114

REPORTING NEEDS FOR STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN HUMAN MILK  

E-print Network

REPORTING NEEDS FOR STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN HUMAN MILK Michael N. Bates School, USA Studies of environmental chemicals in human milk have been carried out in many coun- tries trends in exposure to chemicals, for research into the determinants of environmental chemicals in milk

California at Berkeley, University of

115

NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is a new publication that will provide an ongoing assessment of the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. For this Report, an environmental chemical means a chemical compound or ...

116

Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); thesemeshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit is eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype sorber device for simultaneous CO2 and trace contarninant removal and its attendant weight and energy savings.

Roychoudhury, S.; Perry, J.

2004-01-01

117

Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants. Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (2) smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (3) smokers who expose their children to ETS. Setting: Homes of smokers and non-smokers. Participants: Smoking and non-smoking mothers and their infants ? 1 year. Main outcome measures: ETS contamination as measured by nicotine in household dust, indoor air, and household surfaces. ETS exposure as measured by cotinine levels in infant urine. Results: ETS contamination and ETS exposure were 5–7 times higher in households of smokers trying to protect their infants by smoking outdoors than in households of non-smokers. ETS contamination and exposure were 3–8 times higher in households of smokers who exposed their infants to ETS by smoking indoors than in households of smokers trying to protect their children by smoking outdoors. Conclusions: Dust and surfaces in homes of smokers are contaminated with ETS. Infants of smokers are at risk of ETS exposure in their homes through dust, surfaces, and air. Smoking outside the home and away from the infant reduces but does not completely protect a smoker's home from ETS contamination and a smoker's infant from ETS exposure. PMID:14985592

Matt, G; Quintana, P; Hovell, M; Bernert, J; Song, S; Novianti, N; Juarez, T; Floro, J; Gehrman, C; Garcia, M; Larson, S

2004-01-01

118

Characterization of sea surface chemical contamination after shipping accidents.  

PubMed

A contamination survey was conducted after the beaching of the stricken cargo ship MSC Napoli in Lyme Bay on the south coast of Devon (UK). A grid of 22 coastal and offshore stations was sampled to investigate the extent of spilled oil and to screen for chemical contamination, as well as to evaluate the behavior of the oil at the air-sea interface. Samples were collected from the sea surface microlayer (SML) and from subsurface waters (SSW) at each station. The fuel oil spilled (IFO 380) was also analyzed. The determination of oil-related hydrocarbons (aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), terpanes, and steranes) and the screening for other harmful chemicals on the inventory of the MSC Napoli in the seawater samples, was performed by PTV-GC/ MS using large volume injection (LVI) techniques. Screening did not reveal the presence of any harmful chemicals other than petroleum-related compounds. Results afforded investigation of oil sources and spatial distributions of total PAH concentrations and enrichments in the sea surface microlayer (SML). Rather than a single source, oil fingerprinting analyses of the samples revealed a mixture of three types of oil: heavy fuel oil, lubricating oil, and a lighter oil (probably diesel oil). Enrichment factors (EF) in the SML (EF = C(SML)/C(SSW)) were calculated and, in the vicinity of the ship, approached 2000, declining with distance away from the wreck. These factors represent approximately a 1000-fold enrichment over typical coastal total PAH enrichments in the SML and reflected a clear petrogenic origin of the contamination (as demonstrated, for example, by a Fl/Pgamma ratio < 1). In addition, the spatial transport and fate (i.e., air-sea exchange processes and water column diffusion) of the oil-related hydrocarbons in the sea surface were investigated. Essentially, near the wreck, the SML was highly enriched in oil forming a visible sheen, both disrupting the normal air-seawater exchange processes and generating a downward diffusion flux of contaminants from the SML to the SSW. This was reflected by a higher occurrence of naphthalene relative to alkyl-naphthalenes in the SSW compared to the SML. The higher concentrations and different sources of oil found in the SML in comparison to those found in the SSW indicate that, if only subsurface water samples are investigated in isolation, the true extent and impact of a spill could be underestimated. It is important to simultaneously evaluate contamination in the sea surface during emergency response. PMID:18504953

Guitart, Carlos; Frickers, Patricia; Horrillo-Caraballo, Jose; Law, Robin J; Readman, James W

2008-04-01

119

Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10% R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50% R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) cleaners chemical composition. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

Biegert, L. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.

2001-01-01

120

Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

1994-12-31

121

The chemical and environmental property space of REACH chemicals.  

PubMed

The European regulation on chemicals, REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), came into force on 1 June 2007. With pre-registration complete in 2008, data for these substances may provide an overview of the expected chemical space and its characteristics. In this paper, using various in silico computation tools, we evaluate 48782 neutral organic compounds from the list to identify hazardous and safe compounds. Two different classification schemes (modified Verhaar and ECOSAR) identified between 17% and 25% of the compounds as expressing only baseline toxicity (narcosis). A smaller portion could be identified as reactive (19%) or specifically acting (2.7%), while the majority were non-assigned (61%). Overall environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential were evaluated using structure-activity relationships and a multimedia fugacity-based model. A surprisingly high proportion of compounds (20%), mainly aromatic and halogenated, had a very high estimated persistence (>195 d). The proportion of compounds with a very high estimated bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor (>5000) was substantially less (6.9%). Finally, a list was compiled of those compounds within the applicability domain of the models used, meeting both persistence and bioaccumulation criteria, and with a long-range transport potential comparable to PCB. This list of 68 potential persistent organic pollutants contained many well-known compounds (all halogenated), but notably also five fluorinated compounds that were not included in the EINECS inventory. This study demonstrates the usability of in silico tools for identification of potentially environmentally hazardous chemicals. PMID:22386455

Öberg, Tomas; Iqbal, M Sarfraz

2012-05-01

122

Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

2014-04-01

123

Alterations in macrophage functions by environmental chemicals.  

PubMed Central

The establishment of infectious diseases is rarely entirely attributed to a single entity, but instead is the result of a primary stress and one or more secondary factors that interfere with homeostasis and the ability of the host to cope with the primary etiologic assault. Any environmental chemical that can suppress the normal functioning of the host's body defenses would be expected to increase the risk of the host to such diseases. Within the lung, the alveolar macrophages are the crucial elements responsible for defending the body against such airborne viable agents. The effects of inhaled gases and particulates on these defense cells are a major concern of the environmental health scientist since such chemicals have the capability of adversely affecting the integrity and functioning of these pulmonary defense cells. The objective of this report is to provide an overview that will improve our understanding of how a variety of environmental chemicals can alter the biochemical, physiological and immunological functioning of these cells. PMID:6376106

Gardner, D E

1984-01-01

124

Potential for portal detection of human chemical and biological contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The walk-through metal-detection portal is a paradigm of non-intrusive passenger screening in aviation security. Modern explosive detection portals based on this paradigm will soon appear in airports. This paper suggests that the airborne trace detection technology developed for that purpose can also be adapted to human chemical and biological contamination. The waste heat of the human body produces a rising warm-air sheath of 50-80 liters/sec known as the human thermal plume. Contained within this plume are hundreds of bioeffluents from perspiration and breath, and millions of skin flakes. Since early medicine, the airborne human scent was used in the diagnosis of disease. Recent examples also include toxicity and substance abuse, but this approach has never been quantified. The appearance of new bioeffluents or subtle changes in the steady-state may signal the onset of a chemical/biological attack. Portal sampling of the human thermal plume is suggested, followed by a pre-concentration step and the detection of the attacking agent or the early human response. The ability to detect nanogram levels of explosive trace contamination this way was already demonstrated. Key advantages of the portal approach are its rapidity and non-intrusiveness, and the advantage that it does not require the traditional bodily fluid or tissue sampling.

Settles, Gary S.; McGann, William J.

2001-08-01

125

Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

2009-01-01

126

National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancel Submit Search The CDC National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Note: Javascript is disabled ... 6,517 KB] The Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, 2009 , (the Fourth Report, ...

127

Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

Hall, R.J.

1980-01-01

128

USE OF CHEMICAL MANIPULATIONS TO ALTER CONTAMINANT BIOAVAILABILITY: SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A common method for determining whether contaminants in sediments represent an environmental risk is to perform toxicity tests. Toxicity tests indicate if contaminants in sediments are bioavailable and capable of causing adverse biological effects (e.g., mortality, reduced growt...

129

Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

2007-01-01

130

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment PI: _________________________________ Date: ______________________________________ Inspection Finding Categories: A. No items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. B. Items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. C

131

Stability of earth dam contaminated by chemical transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When chemicals are introduced into the oil, they affect soil properties such as hydraulic conductivity and stress-strain behavior. In this study, several chloride concentrations are varied from 0 to 20 per cent to analyse the effect of chemicals on soil properties. A series of laboratory triaxial tests are performed on the cylindrical specimens of sand-bentonite mixture with different sodium chloride contents (5, 10, 15 per cent) by Nannapaneni. Deformation (elastic modulus, E) and strength (cohesion, c, and angle of friction, ) parameters are obtained from the triaxial tests as functions of confining pressure and sodium chloride concentrations, and variations of parameters are incorporated into stability analysis.The stress-strain-strength behaviour based on the above strength parameters is introduced in a finite element procedure with a modified residual flow procedure (RFP). By integrating a slope stability procedure in the finite element method, the stability with time of earth dam contaminated by sodium chloride is examined. It is found that increasing sodium chloride concentration for the soil considered increases stability. However, the procedure is general and can allow stability analysis under the influence of other chemical which may lead to decrease in stability.

Ahn, Taebong; Desai, Chandra S.

1999-12-01

132

Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-Part B: Working papers  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management; (2) Assessment of carcinogenic risks from PCBs in food; (3) Economic analysis of alternative action levels in the regulation of environmental contaminants in food; (4) Analysis of foods for radioactivity; (5) Approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants in food; (6) Analytical systems for the determination of metals in food and water supplies; (7) Assessment of methods for regulating 'unavoidable' contaminants in the food supply; and (8) Consumer risk from environmental contaminants in food.

Not Available

1980-01-01

133

Alterations in steroidogenesis in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) exposed naturally and experimentally to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed Central

Many environmental contaminants alter the reproduction of animals by altering the development and function of the endocrine system. The ability of environmental contaminants to alter the endocrine system of alligators was studied both in a descriptive study in which juvenile alligators from a historically contaminated lake were compared to animals from a control lake and in an experimental study in which hatchling control alligators were exposed in ovo to several endocrine-disrupting standards and two modern-use herbicides. Endocrine status was assessed by examining plasma hormone concentrations, gonadal-adrenal mesonephros (GAM) aromatase activity, and gonadal histopathology. In the descriptive study, juvenile alligators from the contaminated lake had significantly lower plasma testosterone concentrations (29.2 pg/ml compared to 51.3 pg/ml), whereas plasma 17 beta-estradiol concentrations did not vary when compared to controls. GAM aromatase activity was significantly decreased n the alligators from the contaminated lake (7.6 pmol/g/hr compared to 11.4 pmol/g/hr). In the experimental study, the endocrine-disrupting standards had the expected effects. 17 beta-Estradiol and tamoxifen caused sex reversal from male to female, with a corresponding increase in aromatase activity. Vinclozolin had no apparent effect on male or female alligators. Among the herbicides tested, atrazine induced GAM aromatase activity in male hatchling alligators that was neither characteristic of males nor females, although testicular differentiation was not altered. Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid had no effect on the endocrine parameters that were measured. Together, these studies show that exposure to some environmental chemicals (such as atrazine) can alter steroidogenesis in alligators, but the endocrine alterations previously noted for Lake Apopka, Florida, alligators can not be fully explained by this mechanism. Images Figure 1. PMID:9222139

Crain, D A; Guillette, L J; Rooney, A A; Pickford, D B

1997-01-01

134

Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

NONE

1996-10-01

135

A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Furlong, E.T.

2004-01-01

136

Chemical extraction of arsenic from contaminated soil under subcritical conditions.  

PubMed

In this research, we investigated a chemical extraction process, under subcritical conditions, for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil in the vicinity of an abandoned smelting plant in South Korea. The total concentration of As in soil was 75.5 mg/kg, 68% of which was As(+III). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the possible As(+III)-bearing compounds in the soil were As(2)O(3) and R-AsOOH. At 20°C, 100 mM of NaOH could extract 26% of the As from the soil samples. In contrast, 100 mM of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid showed less than 10% extraction efficiency. However, as the temperature increased to 250 and 300°C, extraction efficiencies increased to 75-91% and 94-103%, respectively, regardless of the extraction reagent used. Control experiments with subcritical water at 300°C showed complete extraction of As from the soil. Arsenic species in the solution extracted at 300°C indicated that subcritical water oxidation may be involved in the dissolution of As(+III)-bearing minerals under given conditions. Our results suggest that subcritical water extraction/oxidation is a promising option for effective disposal of As-contaminated soil. PMID:21601910

Oh, Seok-Young; Yoon, Myong-Keun; Kim, Ick-Hyun; Kim, Ju Yup; Bae, Wookeun

2011-07-15

137

Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.  

PubMed

Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

2010-10-01

138

DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE ASSAY FOR VITELLOGENIN TO MONITOR ESTROGEN-LIKE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many environmental contaminants have the potential to disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife and humans resulting in impairment of reproductive and other systems. A subset of these contaminants may initiate these effects by binding to the estrogen receptor. In oviparous vertebrate...

139

The toxicology of climate change: environmental contaminants in a warming world.  

PubMed

Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. This review examines one of the consequences of climate change that has only recently attracted attention: namely, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemical pollutants. A review was undertaken of the scientific literature (original research articles, reviews, government and intergovernmental reports) focusing on the interactions of toxicants with the environmental parameters, temperature, precipitation, and salinity, as altered by climate change. Three broad classes of chemical toxicants of global significance were the focus: air pollutants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including some organochlorine pesticides, and other classes of pesticides. Generally, increases in temperature will enhance the toxicity of contaminants and increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone regionally, but will also likely increase rates of chemical degradation. While further research is needed, climate change coupled with air pollutant exposures may have potentially serious adverse consequences for human health in urban and polluted regions. Climate change producing alterations in: food webs, lipid dynamics, ice and snow melt, and organic carbon cycling could result in increased POP levels in water, soil, and biota. There is also compelling evidence that increasing temperatures could be deleterious to pollutant-exposed wildlife. For example, elevated water temperatures may alter the biotransformation of contaminants to more bioactive metabolites and impair homeostasis. The complex interactions between climate change and pollutants may be particularly problematic for species living at the edge of their physiological tolerance range where acclimation capacity may be limited. In addition to temperature increases, regional precipitation patterns are projected to be altered with climate change. Regions subject to decreases in precipitation may experience enhanced volatilization of POPs and pesticides to the atmosphere. Reduced precipitation will also increase air pollution in urbanized regions resulting in negative health effects, which may be exacerbated by temperature increases. Regions subject to increased precipitation will have lower levels of air pollution, but will likely experience enhanced surface deposition of airborne POPs and increased run-off of pesticides. Moreover, increases in the intensity and frequency of storm events linked to climate change could lead to more severe episodes of chemical contamination of water bodies and surrounding watersheds. Changes in salinity may affect aquatic organisms as an independent stressor as well as by altering the bioavailability and in some instances increasing the toxicity of chemicals. A paramount issue will be to identify species and populations especially vulnerable to climate-pollutant interactions, in the context of the many other physical, chemical, and biological stressors that will be altered with climate change. Moreover, it will be important to predict tipping points that might trigger or accelerate synergistic interactions between climate change and contaminant exposures. PMID:19375165

Noyes, Pamela D; McElwee, Matthew K; Miller, Hilary D; Clark, Bryan W; Van Tiem, Lindsey A; Walcott, Kia C; Erwin, Kyle N; Levin, Edward D

2009-08-01

140

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.  

PubMed Central

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Changes in immune function were monitored over a 2 1/2-year period. The seals that were fed contaminated Baltic herring developed significantly higher body burdens of potentially immunotoxic organochlorines and displayed impaired immune responses as demonstrated by suppression of natural killer cell activity and specific T-cell responses. During a 2-week fasting experiment performed at the end of the feeding study, mobilization of organochlorines from the blubber did not lead to a strong increase of contaminant levels in the blood, and no enhancement of the existing immunosuppression was observed. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain affects immune function in harbour seals, whereas short-term fasting periods, which are normal for seals, do not seem to pose an additional risk. The seals of this study were not exposed perinatally to high levels of environmental chemicals, and body burdens of organochlorines measured near the end of the study were lower than those generally observed in free-ranging seals inhabiting many contaminated regions. Therefore, it may be expected that environmental contaminants adversely affect immune function of free-ranging seals inhabiting contaminated regions at least as seriously as observed in these studies. PMID:8880005

de Swart, R L; Ross, P S; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D

1996-01-01

141

Cumulative Index to Chemicals and to Common and Scientific Names of Species Listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) series synthesizes ecotoxicological data of selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998 a total of 34 reviews were published in various Reports series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), herbicides (acrolein, atrazine), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), predacides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol), veterinary chemicals (famphur), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, mining wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced by contaminant and corresponding page numbers. A similar index is shown for chemicals.

Eisler, R.

1999-01-01

142

Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.  

PubMed

Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying their resources during incidents of lesser significance, for special projects, and for routine surveillance and monitoring as part of ongoing activities of the environmental laboratory community. PMID:24534702

Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

2014-11-01

143

Chemical Contamination of the Lower Rio Grande near Laredo, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rio Grande River stretches over 2000 miles from the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado to the tip of Texas where the Rio Grande meets the Gulf of Mexico. It is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX, to Brownsville, TX. The communities along the border heavily rely upon the Rio Grande as a primary source of water for consumption, agricultural uses, supporting wildlife and recreation. For many years the Rio Grande has been polluted with municipal, industrial, agricultural and farming contaminants from both sides of the border. This pollution has led to the extinction or reduction of certain wildlife species as well as affecting the health of the residences along the border. Even though great strides have been made in monitoring the Rio Grande, there has been a lack of intense monitoring data collection for pollutants such as pesticides. Three sampling sites including Manadas Creek, the Rio Grande River at International Bridge I, and USGS monitoring site 08459200 off of Highway 83 were chosen. The water quality parameters focused include temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total dissolved solids, nutrients, metals and pesticides. Preliminary results have shown elevated concentration of total phosphorus and ortho-phosphorus in the Manadas Creek site. Organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor and 4, 4 DDE were detected at various concentrations at all sites and endrin aldehyde was found at Manadas Creek site. This research has provided more information on the current chemical contamination level of the Rio Grande in the Laredo area.

Flores, B.; Ren, J.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Belzer, W.

2006-12-01

144

SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first Report on 27 chemicals was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 20...

145

Pilot-scale evaluation of chemical oxidation for MTBE-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has tentatively classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen, thus further emphasizing the importance for study of fate, transport, and environmental effects of MTBE. The treatment of subsurface contaminants (e.g., MTBE) from leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents many complex challenges. Many techniques have been employed for the remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater at LUST sites. Under sponsorship of US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, IT Corporation has conducted evaluations of chemical oxidation of MTBE contaminated soil using Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous sulfate), simulating both ex-situ and in-situ soil remediation. Bench-scale ex-situ tests have shown up to 90% degradation of MTBE within 12 hours. Pilot-scale MTBE oxidation tests were conducted in a stainless paddle-type mixer with a 10 cubic foot mixing volume. The reactor was designed with a heavy duty mixer shaft assembly to homogenize soil and included provisions for contaminant and reagent addition, mixing, and sample acquisition. The tests were performed by placing 400 pounds of a synthetic soil matrix (consisting of a mixture of top soil, sand, gravel and clay) in the reactor, spiking with 20 ppm of MTBE, and mixing thoroughly. The variables evaluated in the pilot-scale tests included reaction time, amount of hydrogen peroxide, and amount of ferrous sulfate. After 8 hours of reaction, using 4 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide and a 10:1 hydrogen peroxide: ferrous iron weight ratio, approximately 60% MTBE degradation was observed. When 10 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide was used (with the same ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ferrous iron), 90% MTBE degradation was observed. When the same test was performed without any ferrous iron addition, 75% MTBE degradation was observed.

Rahman, M.; Schupp, D.A.; Krishnan, E.R.; Tafuri, A.N.; Chen, C.T.

1999-07-01

146

Effects of Phosphate Rock on Sequential Chemical Extraction of Lead in Contaminated Soils  

E-print Network

Effects of Phosphate Rock on Sequential Chemical Extraction of Lead in Contaminated Soils Lena Q, the potential of using Florida phosphate rock to immobilize aqueous Pb from Pb-contaminated soils on human health, especially children. This research evaluated the effects of phosphate rock on chemical

Ma, Lena

147

An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor canaries?  

PubMed

Nearly two decades ago, the global biodiversity crisis was catapulted to the front pages of newspapers with the recognition of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, 'canaries in a coal mine', because of apparent high sensitivity to human-mediated environmental change. The most frequently cited causes for high susceptibility include permeable skin, a dual aquatic-terrestrial life cycle and a relatively rudimentary immune system. While some researchers have questioned the basis for the canary assertion, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative to other taxa. Here, we apply a database representing thousands of toxicity tests to compare the responses of amphibians relative to that of other taxonomic groups. The use of standardized methods combined with large numbers of identical challenges enables a particularly powerful test of relative effect size. Overall, we found that amphibians only exhibit moderate relative responses to water-borne toxins. Our findings imply that, as far as chemical contaminants are concerned, amphibians are not particularly sensitive and might more aptly be described as 'miners in a coal mine'. To the extent that amphibian declines have been mediated by chemical contaminants, our findings suggest that population losses and extinctions may have already occurred in a variety of taxa much more sensitive than amphibians. PMID:19845728

Kerby, Jacob L; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Storfer, Andrew; Skelly, David K

2010-01-01

148

Cord serum immunoglobulin E related to the environmental contamination of human placentas with organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed Central

Allergic diseases are on the rise in both prevalence and severity, especially in industrialized countries. The process of allergic sensitization needs an understanding of the role environmental factors play in its development. In addition to traditionally considered air pollutants, various persistent organochlorine pollutants, which accumulate in the human body over a lifetime via food intake, are toxic in humans. Placental contamination by chemicals may act as a biologic marker for the exposure of the mother or for the fetus via transplacental transfer. Placentas were collected from term deliveries in two Slovak regions. The samples were then analyzed for 21 selected organochlorine compounds. Specimens of cord blood from 2,050 neonates were gathered for the determination of levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE). The regions were chosen according to their environmental characteristics: a city polluted with organic chemical industry versus a rural region devoid of industrial sources of pollution. In addition, data regarding the incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the regions were considered. Comparisons between regions revealed that both the placental contamination with 16 of 21 organochlorine compounds and the cord serum IgE levels were significantly higher in the industrial region. The findings pointed to an association between organochlorine compounds and the higher levels of total IgE in newborns, signaling a higher allergic sensitization in the industrial region. This association was supported by the higher incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the population registered in the industrial region. Images Figure 1 PMID:10544157

Reichrtova, E; Ciznar, P; Prachar, V; Palkovicova, L; Veningerova, M

1999-01-01

149

Environmental stability of chemically amplified resists: proposing an industry standard methodology for testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose the establishment of a new industry standard methodology for testing the environmental stability of chemically amplified chemical resists. Preparatory to making this proposal, they developed a pertinent test apparatus and test procedure that might be used uniformly as an industry-wide best practice. To demonstrate and validate their proposed methodology, the authors subjected two different 193 nm chemically amplified photoresists to test conditions in the 'torture chamber,' simulating actual lithographic environmental scenarios. Depending on the variables of each test run (e.g., different resists, different resist thicknesses, different pollutants, different concentrations, and different humidity levels), a variety of defects were noted and described quantitatively. Of the three contaminants tested, ammonia had the strongest effect. The thin resists were more strongly affected by the contamination.

Dean, Kim R.; Kishkovich, Oleg P.

2000-06-01

150

Environmental chemical tributyltin augments adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Scientific attention has been drawn to environmental factors that affect obesity and type II diabetes. Previously, acute organotin toxicosis was reported to induce hyperglycemia without morphological abnormalities in islet tissue, suggesting that these compounds have a direct effect on adipose tissue. Therefore, we investigated the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on adipocyte differentiation. When confluent 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with TBT for 2 days in the presence or absence of isobutyl methylxanthine, dexamethasone and insulin (MDI), the lipid accumulation in adipocytes was greatly enhanced. These morphological changes induced by TBT were accompanied by the expression of a differentiation marker for adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma antagonist GW9662 did not inhibit the effect of TBT, suggesting that the observed effect of TBT may not be PPARgamma-dependent. Although TBT was reported to exert androgenic effects and inhibit the activity of aromatase, treatments with dihydrotestosterone or 17beta-estradiol did not influence the aP2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting that the TBT effect does not occur via sex-steroids. These findings indicate that TBT may be one of the environmental chemicals that lead to excessive accumulation of adipose tissue, which can result in obesity. PMID:15993011

Inadera, Hidekuni; Shimomura, Akiko

2005-12-15

151

ADAPTIONS OF WILD POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS TO PERSISTENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many aquatic species, including the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichogs), adapt to local environmental conditions. We conducted studies to evaluate whether highly exposed populations of mummichogs adapt to toxic environmental contaminants. These fish populations are ...

152

Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.  

PubMed

Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. PMID:23998894

Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

2013-12-15

153

Integrated Proteomic Approaches for Understanding Toxicity of Environmental Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

To apply quantitative proteomic analysis to the evaluation of toxicity of environmental chemicals, we have developed an integrated proteomic technology platform. This platform has been applied to the analysis of the toxic effects and pathways of many important environmental chemi...

154

In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: Anexperimental study  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an experimentalstudytesting a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaimarsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from severalindustrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenicthrough heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. Themean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soilscollected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogicaland organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form,distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenictrioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320 341]indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associatedwith amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slowrelease against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphousaluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the mostsignificant effect on its ability to retain arsenic.Based on thisobservation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatmentsolutions in an effort to promote the formation of insolublearsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic.Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were usedas the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in threesets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO4; (2) FeSO4 and KMnO4; (3) FeSO4,KMnO4 and CaCO3. The optimum treatment solutions for each soil wereidentified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching oftreated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311[USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Testmethods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed.Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of SolidWaste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992]toxic characteristicsleaching procedure (TCLP) and EPA Method 1312 [USEPA.Method 1312:synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluatingsolid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office; 1994]synthetic precipitation leaching procedure(SPLP).Both FW and BH soils showed significant decreases in arsenicleachability for all three treatment solutions, compared to untreatedsoil. While soils treated with solution (3) showed the best results withsubsequent TCLP sequential leaching, SPLP sequential leaching of treatedsoils indicated that lowest arsenic mobility was obtained using treatmentsolution (1). Treatment solution (1) with only FeSO4 is considered thebest choice for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil because SPLPsequential leaching better simulates natural weathering. Analysis oftreated soils produced no evidence of newly-formed arsenic-bearing phasesin either soil after treatment. Sequential chemical extractions oftreated soils indicate that surface complexation of arsenic on ferrichydroxide is the major mechanism for the fixation process.

Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J.; Redwine, James C.

2007-03-27

155

DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDICES FOR GREEN CHEMICAL PRODUCTION AND USE  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical production, use and disposal cause adverse impacts on the environment. Consequently, much research has been conducted to develop methods for estimating the risk of chemicals and to screen them based on environmental impact. Risk assessment may be subdivide...

156

A Framework for the Environmental Professional in the Chemical Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses four areas of environmental concern in the chemical industry: (1) needs and responsibilities of environmental protection; (2) organization and distribution of environmental affairs within the corporate structure; (3) functions and operations associated with industrial environmental management; and (4) origins and tasks of the…

Priesing, Charles P.

1982-01-01

157

Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July 1898 by P. and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which 2106 Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th 8 anniversary of Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this paper is to review several aspect of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including : i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; ii) its main sources and uses; iii) its physico-chemical properties; iv) its main analytical methods; v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion and wound contamination; vii) its dosimetry and viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination.

Ansoborlo, Eric [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Berard, Philippe [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Den Auwer, Christophe [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Menetrier, Florence [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Younes, Ali [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Montavon, Gilles [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Moisy, Phillipe [Atomic Energy Commission (France)

2012-01-01

158

A risk-based methodology for ranking environmental chemical stressors at the regional scale.  

PubMed

A "Risk-based Tool for the Regional Ranking of Environmental Chemical Stressors" has been developed, aimed at supporting decision-makers in the identification of priority environmental contaminants, as well as priority areas, to be further assessed. The tool implements a methodology based on a quantitative Weight-of-Evidence approach, integrating three types of information, identified as "Lines-of-Evidence" (LoE), namely: LoE "Environmental Contamination" (including data on chemical contamination in environmental matrices in the region, thus providing information on potential population exposure), LoE "Intake" (including results from human biomonitoring studies, i.e. concentration of chemicals in human biological matrices, thus providing an integrated estimation of exposure) and LoE "Observed Effects" (including information on the incidence of adverse health outcomes associated with environmental exposure to chemicals). A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology based on fuzzy logic has been developed to support the integration of information related to these three LoEs for each chemical stressor. The tool allows one to rank chemical stressors at different spatial scales, such as at the regional level as well as within each sub-area (e.g., counties). Moreover, it supports the identification of priority sub-areas within the region, where environmental and health data suggest possible adverse health effects and thus more investigation efforts are needed. To evaluate the performance of this newly developed tool, a case-study in the Flemish region (north of Belgium) has been selected. In the case-study, data on soil contamination by metals and organic contaminants were integrated with data on exposure and effect biomarkers measured in adolescents within the framework of the human biomonitoring study performed by the Flemish Centre of Expertise on Environment and Health in the period 2002-2006. The case-study demonstrated the performance of the tool in integrating qualitative and quantitative data with expert judgement for the identification of priority contaminants and areas. The proposed approach proved to be flexible, allowing for the incorporation of individual decision-maker's preferences, and, at the same time, to be transparent since all assumptions and value attributions are traceable. PMID:24440801

Giubilato, Elisa; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Giove, Silvio; Bierkens, Johan; Den Hond, Elly; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-04-01

159

Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Polychlorinated dioxins and –furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also have been found to have a negative influence on thyroid hormone metabolism. The lower brominated flame retardants are now banned in the EU, however higher brominated decabromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are not yet banned. They too can negatively influence thyroid hormone metabolism. An additional brominated flame retardant that is still in use is tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), which has also been shown to influence thyroid hormone metabolism. Influences of brominated flame retardants, PCDD/F’s and dioxin like-PCBs (dl-PCB’s) on thyroid hormone metabolism in adolescence in the Netherlands will be presented in this study and determined if there are reasons for concern to human health for these toxins. In the period 1987-1991, a cohort of mother-baby pairs was formed in order to detect abnormalities in relation to dioxin levels in the perinatal period. The study demonstrated that PCDD/Fs were found around the time of birth, suggesting a modulation of the setpoint of thyroid hormone metabolism with a higher 3,3’, 5,5’tetrathyroxine (T4) levels and an increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). While the same serum thyroid hormone tests (- TSH and T4) were again normal by 2 years of age and were still normal at 8-12 years, adolescence is a period with extra stress on thyroid hormone metabolism. Therefore we measured serum levels of TSH, T4, 3,3’,5- triiodothyronine (T3), free T4 (FT4), antibodies and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in our adolescent cohort. Methods Vena puncture was performed to obtain samples for the measurement of thyroid hormone metabolism related parameters and the current serum dioxin (PCDD/Fs), PCB and PBDE levels. Results The current levels of T3 were positively correlated to BDE-99. A positive trend with FT4 and BDE-99 was also seen, while a positive correlation with T3 and dl-PCB was also seen. No correlation with TBG was seen for any of the contaminants. Neither the prenatal nor the current PCDD/F levels showed a relationship with the thyroid parameters in this relatively small group. Conclusion Once again the thyroid hormone metabolism (an increase in T3) seems to have been influenced by current background levels of common environmental contaminants: dl-PCBs and BDE-99. T3 is a product of target organs and abnormalities might indicate effects on hormone transporters and could cause pathology. While the influence on T3 levels may have been compensated, because the adolescents functioned normal at the time of the study period, it is questionable if this compensation is enough for all organs depending on thyroid hormones. PMID:22759492

2012-01-01

160

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

McLachlan, J.

1998-06-01

161

Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts.  

PubMed

In this review, we address the identification of residual chemical hazards in shellfish collected from the marine environment or in marketed shellfish. Data, assembled on the concentration of contaminants detected, were compared with the appropriate regulatory and food safety standards. Moreover, data on human exposure and body burden levels were evaluated in the context of potential health risks.Shellfish farming is a common industry along European coasts. The primary types of shellfish consumed in France are oysters, mussels, king scallops, winkles,whelks, cockles, clams, and other scallops. Shellfish filter large volumes of water to extract their food and are excellent bioaccumulators. Metals and other pollutants that exist in the marine environment partition into particular organs, according to their individual chemical characteristics. In shellfish, accumulation often occurs in the digestive gland, which plays a role in assimilation, excretion, and detoxification of contaminants. The concentrations of chemical contaminants in bivalve mollusks are known to fluctuate with the seasons.European regulations limit the amount and type of contaminants that can appear in foodstuffs. Current European standards regulate the levels of micro-biological agents, phycotoxins, and some chemical contaminants in food. Since 2006, these regulations have been compiled into the "Hygiene Package." Bivalve mollusks must comply with maximum levels of certain contaminants as follows:lead (1.5 mg kg-1), cadmium (1 mg kg-1), mercury (0.5 mg kg-1), dioxins (4 pg g-1 and dioxins + DL-PCBs 8 pg g-1), and benzo[a]pyrene (10 ?p.g kg-1).In this review, we identify the levels of major contaminants that exist in shellfish(collected from the marine environment and/or in marketed shellfish). The follow-ing contaminants are among those that are profiled: Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Ni, Cr, V,Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, Mg, Mo, radionuclides, benzo[a]pyrene, PCBs, dioxins and furans, PAHs, TBT, HCB, dieldrin, DDT, lindane, triazines, PBDE, and chlorinated paraffins.In France, the results of contaminant monitoring have indicated that Cd, but not lead (< 0.26 mg kg-1) or mercury (< 0.003 mg kg-1), has had some non-compliances. Detections for PCBs and dioxins in shellfish were far below the regulatory thresholds in oysters (< 0.6 pg g-l), mussels (< 0.6 pg g-1), and king scallops (< 0.4 pg g-1). The benzo[a]pyrene concentration in marketed mussels and farmed shellfish does not exceed the regulatory threshold. Some monitoring data are available on shellfish flesh contamination for unregulated organic contaminants.Of about 100 existing organo stannic compounds, residues of the mono-, di-, and tributyltin (MBT, DBT, and TBT) and mono-, di-, and triphenyltin (MPT, DPT,and TPT) compounds are the most frequently detected in fishery products. Octyltins are not found in fishery products. Some bivalve mollusks show arsenic levels up to 15.8 mg kg-1. It seems that the levels of arsenic in the environment derive less from bioaccumulation, than from whether the arsenic is in an organic or an inorganic form. In regard to the other metals, levels of zinc and magnesium are higher in oysters than in mussels.To protect shellfish from chemical contamination, programs have been established to monitor water masses along coastal areas. The French monitoring network(ROCCH) focuses on environmental matrices that accumulate contaminants. These include both biota and sediment. Example contaminants were studied in a French coastal lagoon (Arcachon Bay) and in an estuary (Bay of Seine), and these were used to illustrate the usefulness of the monitoring programs. Twenty-one pesticidal and biocidal active substances were detected in the waters of Arcachon Bay during the summers from 1999 to 2003, at concentrations ranging from a few nanograms per liter to several hundred nanograms per liter. Most of the detected substances were herbicides, including some that are now banned. Organotin compounds have been detected in similarly semi-enclosed waters elsewhere (bays, estuaries, and ha

Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

2011-01-01

162

Environmental contaminant exposure data and monitoring priorities for wild terrestrial vertebrates at national parks in coastal and estuarine habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on select species and habitats in the United States. One of the many BEST Project activities entails the development of decision-support tools to assist in the identification of chemical threats to species and lands under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior. Although there are many ecotoxicological monitoring programs that focus on aquatic species and habitats, there are currently no large-scale efforts that are focused on terrestrial vertebrates in the United States. Nonetheless, organochlorine contaminants, metals, and new pollutants continue to pose hazards to terrestrial vertebrates at many spatial scales (ranging from small hazardous-waste-site point sources to entire watersheds). To evaluate and prioritize pollutant hazards for terrestrial vertebrates, a ?Contaminant Exposure and EffectsTerrestrial Vertebrates? (CEE-TV) database (www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online) was developed. The CEE-TV database has been used to conduct simple searches for exposure and biological effects information for a given species or location, identification of temporal contaminant exposure trends, information gap analyses for national wildlife refuge and national park units, and ranking of terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological information needs based on data density and water quality problems. Despite widespread concerns about environmental contamination, during the past decade only about one-half of the coastal National Park units appear to have terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data. Based upon known environmental contaminant hazards, it is recommended that regionalized monitoring programs or efforts focused on lands managed by the Department of the Interior should be undertaken to prevent serious natural resource problems.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.; Eisenreich, K. M.; McKernan, M.A.

2006-01-01

163

Filthy Lucre: The Chemical Detection of Cocaine-Contaminated Currency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem of seizing cocaine-tainted money. Describes an experiment designed to determine what percentage of paper currency is contaminated with cocaine. Considers sampling, the analysis method, contamination, levels of cocaine in money and criminal activity, and the reliability of results. (SAH)

Acheson, Ed

2001-01-01

164

Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (?10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., environmental contaminants. PMID:24038072

Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

2014-03-01

165

Propolis as an indicator of environmental contamination by metals.  

PubMed

Concentrations of eleven representative metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn) in forty-two propolis samples were measured by electrothermal atomization and flame atomic absorption spectrometry after calcination in a muffle furnace. Samples were collected from different regions from Paraná State - Brazil where apiculture is an important economic activity. Results showed that the average content of Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn in propolis was 0.68, 1.66, 7.59, 1.27, 0.08, 0.58 and 0.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Levels of Al, Ca, and Mg were statistically different in some regions of Paraná and could be used to assign the geographical origin of the propolis. The average concentration of the Cd, Cr, and Pb in raw propolis was 0.13, 5.53 and 9.85 ?g g(-1), respectively, and allowed for identification of specific areas with environmental contamination. PMID:24414164

Finger, Daiane; Filho, Irineo Kelte; Torres, Yohandra Reyes; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

2014-03-01

166

Cumulative index to chemicals and to common and scientific names of species listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contaminant Hazard Review (CHR) series--sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center--synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998, 34 reviews were published in various report series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (acrolein, atrazine, carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, famphur, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), mammalian biocides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial and municipal wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls), minin wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This current report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced with contaminant hazard review and corresponding page numbers. A similar index for chemicals is included.

Eisler, Ronald, (Edited By)

1999-01-01

167

Vitellogenin as a potential biomarker for environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The authors have recently obtained N-terminal amino acid sequences for the egg protein vitellogenin (Vtg) from phylogenetically diverse teleost fish ranging from rainbow trout to the striped bass. Using the striped bass sequence as a template, the other teleost fish showed at least an 87% identity through the region of amino acids 7--20. The amino acid sequence was not as well conserved for other fishes; white sturgeon (60%) and brook lamprey (47%), the clawed frog Xenopus (47--60%) or the domestic chicken (40%). The authors synthesized a consensus peptide to this highly conserved region and have raised a polygonal antibody from rabbit. This antibody shows wide cross-reactivity to Vtg from many species of teleost fish. The authors have found that serum Vtg levels are elevated in both male and female brown bullheads with liver tumors from an area contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Serum levels of Vtg were also elevated in rainbow trout with liver tumors induced with aflatoxin B-1. The authors also describe an in-vitro system of plated hepatocytes to screen for estrogenic and antiestrogenic xenobiotic chemicals in the environment and using Vtg as a screening tool to establish structure-activity relationships for reproductive failure in female fish.

Denslow, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Molecular Biology; Folmar, L.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Sullivan, C.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1994-12-31

168

Decontamination of radioactive-contaminated soils: Evaluation of chemical extraction/selective dissolution processes  

SciTech Connect

Rust Federal Services, Inc.`s Clemson Technical Center (CTC) has investigated the remediation of several radioactive-contaminated soils, from various DOE-FUSRAP sites, via soil washing/chemical extraction of the radioactive contaminants. The second phase of this work, which is the subject of this presentation, focused on chemical extraction via selective dissolution of radioactive contaminants. In those instances where simple physical separation processes are not practicable, e.g., when there are relatively high proportions of silt and/or clay particles, chemical extraction and the selective dissolution of target contaminants is required. Soil-decontamination processes frequently employ chelating agents which are meant to selectively enhance the dissolution of target contaminants while minimizing the dissolution of benign soil constituents. This paper will present the dissolution kinetics results from the bench-scale soil-decontamination studies.

Diel, B.N.; North, J.R.; Widner, D.G. [Rust-Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

169

Environmental analysis of the chemical release module. [space shuttle payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental analysis of the Chemical Release Module (a free flying spacecraft deployed from the space shuttle to perform chemical release experiments) is reviewed. Considerations of possible effects of the injectants on human health, ionosphere, weather, ground based optical astronomical observations, and satellite operations are included. It is concluded that no deleterious environmental effects of widespread or long lasting nature are anticipated from chemical releases in the upper atmosphere of the type indicated for the program.

Heppner, J. P.; Dubin, M.

1980-01-01

170

New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, we consider the logic of environmental decision making. In the coke industry, and in the chemical industry as a whole, environmental protection is not a primary consideration in comparison with the desired properties of the products obtained in processing natural fuels. Environmental measures are adopted either in response to administrative measures or in the face of

A. Yu. Naletov; V. A. Naletov

2007-01-01

171

USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S.

William D. Bostick

2003-01-01

172

Indoor air quality for chemical and ultrafine particle contaminants from printers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various emission sources of chemical contaminants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone and particulate matter. This report is a study into the indoor air of a room containing either a laser printer\\/ink-jet printer, and the air contaminations were monitored for VOCs, ozone and ultrafine particle. The result confirmed an increase in the concentration of ozone and

Naoki Kagi; Shuji Fujii; Youhei Horiba; Norikazu Namiki; Yoshio Ohtani; Hitoshi Emi; Hajime Tamura; Yong Shik Kim

2007-01-01

173

A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

174

CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

175

Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Landrum, P.F. [Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

176

Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

1985-01-01

177

Bages-Sigean and Canet-St Nazaire lagoons (France): physico-chemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations (Cu, Cd, PCBs and PBDEs) as environmental quality of water and sediment.  

PubMed

Environmental characteristics in water and sediments of two contrasted coastal Mediterranean lagoons, Bages-Sigean and Canet-St Nazaire, were measured over a three season survey. The urban pollution (treatment plant discharges) is very important in Canet-St Nazaire lagoon reflecting untreated sewages, while in Bages-Sigean, the northern part appears more impacted due to larger anthropogenic inputs. Dissolved Cd concentrations are on the whole similar in both lagoons, whereas Cu concentrations are by far higher in lagoon Canet-St Nazaire. Cu concentrations appear to be highly dependent on dissolved organic carbon whereas salinity seems to control Cd variations. Concerning the sediments, the confined northern part of lagoon Bages-Sigean shows organic carbon and total nitrogen enrichment whereas lipid concentrations are much higher in the Canet-St Nazaire lagoon. Cu complexation seems to be strongly related to organic matter as evidenced by the two significant positive relationships, on one hand between Cu and organic carbon, and on the other hand, between Cu and lipids. On the contrary, Cd concentrations appear to be mainly controlled by carbonates. PCBs and PBDEs were detected only in sediments and show relatively low concentrations compared to similar lagoon environments. Regarding the sediment quality guidelines, Cd, Cu and PCBs in both lagoons did not exceed any Probable Effect Concentration (PEC). PMID:24174314

Vouvé, Florence; Buscail, Roselyne; Aubert, Dominique; Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc; Canal, Christophe; Desmousseaux, Marion; Alliot, Fabrice; Amilhat, Elsa; Faliex, Elisabeth; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

2014-02-01

178

Manure-borne estrogens as potential environmental contaminants: a review.  

PubMed

Livestock wastes are potential sources of endocrine disrupting compounds to the environment. Steroidal estrogen hormones such as estradiol, estrone, and estriol are a particular concern because there is evidence that low nanogram per liter concentrations of estrogens in water can adversely affect the reproductive biology of fish and other aquatic vertebrate species. We performed a literature review to assess the current state of science regarding estrogen physicochemical properties, livestock excretion, and the fate of manure-borne estrogens in the environment. Unconjugated steroidal estrogens have low solubility in water (0.8-13.3 mg L(-1)) and are moderately hydrophobic (log Kow 2.6-4.0). Cattle excrete mostly 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts, whereas swine and poultry excrete mostly 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts. The environmental fate of estrogens is not clearly known. Laboratory-based studies have found that the biological activity of these compounds is greatly reduced or eliminated within several hours to days due to degradation and sorption. On the other hand, field studies have demonstrated that estrogens are sufficiently mobile and persistent to impact surface and groundwater quality. Future research should use standardized methods for the analysis of manure, soil, and water. More information is needed about the types and amounts of estrogens that exist in livestock wastes and the fate of manure-borne estrogens applied to agricultural lands. Field and laboratory studies should work toward revealing the mechanisms of estrogen degradation, sorption, and transport so that the risk of estrogen contamination of waterways can be minimized. PMID:14717153

Hanselman, Travis A; Graetz, Donald A; Wilkie, Ann C

2003-12-15

179

INCIDENCE OF STRESS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITIES ALONG THE U.S. ATLANTIC AND GULF OF MEXICO COASTS WITHIN DIFFERENT RANGES OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION FROM CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Synoptic data on concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and benthic macroinfaunal community structure were collected from 1,389 stations in estuaries along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts as part of the nationwide Environmental Monitoring and Asse...

180

INCIDENCE OF STRESS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITIES ALONG U.S. ATLANTIC AND GULF OF MEXICO COASTS WITHIN DIFFERENT RANGES OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION FROM CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Synoptic data on concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and benthic macroinfaunal community structure were collected from 1,389 stations in estuaries along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts as part of the nationwide Environmental Monitoring and Asse...

181

A GIS-based environmental decision support system to assess the transfer of long-lived radiocaesium through food chains in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the EC-financed RESTORE project ('Restoration of radioactively contaminated ecosystems'), an operational, user-friendly GIS-based Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) has been developed. The RESTORE EDSS comprises a GIS-embedded modelling tool to assess the transfer of radiocaesium via food chains and external radiation exposures to humans based on an understanding of the nature of contamination, geo-chemical, hydrological, and biological

M. Van Der Perk; J. R. Burema; Peter A. Burrough; A. G. Gillett; M. B. Van Der Meer

2001-01-01

182

Benthic diatom community response to environmental variables and metal concentrations in a contaminated bay adjacent to Casey Station, Antarctica.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of anthropogenic contaminants and environmental variables on the composition of benthic diatom communities within a contaminated bay adjacent to an abandoned waste disposal site in Antarctica. The combination of geographical, environmental and chemical data included in the study explained all of the variation observed within the diatom communities. The chemical data, particularly metal concentrations, explained 45.9% of variation in the diatom communities, once the effects of grain-size and spatial structure had been excluded. Of the metals, tin explained the greatest proportion of variation in the diatom communities (28%). Tin was very highly correlated (R2>0.95) with several other variables (copper, iron, lead, and sum of metals), all of which explained similarly high proportions of total variation. Grain-size data explained 23% of variation once the effects of spatial structure and the chemical data had been excluded. The pure spatial component explained only 1.8% of the total variance. The study demonstrates that much of the compositional variability observed in the bay can be explained by concentrations of metal contaminants. PMID:15757690

Cunningham, Laura; Snape, Ian; Stark, Jonathan S; Riddle, Martin J

2005-03-01

183

Contamination from electrically conductive silicone tubing during aerosol chemical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically conductive silicone tubing is used to minimize losses in sampling lines during the analysis of airborne particle size distributions and number concentrations. We report contamination from this tubing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of filter-collected samples as well as by particle mass spectrometry. Comparison of electrically conductive silicone and stainless steel tubing showed elevated siloxanes only for the silicone tubing. The extent of contamination increased with length of tubing to which the sample was exposed, and decreased with increasing relative humidity.

Yu, Yong; Liz Alexander, M.; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily A.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

184

Association between indoor environmental contamination by Salmonella enterica and contamination of eggs on layer farms.  

PubMed

This study involves longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella carriage and environmental contamination on two commercial cage layer farms positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (flock A age, 32 weeks; flock B age, 34 weeks). Salmonella-positive fecal, egg belt, and dust samples were all unconditionally associated with eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. The odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella were 91.8, 61.5, and 18.2 times higher when fecal, egg belt, and dust samples, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella. The agreement between the culture-based methods and real-time PCR on preenriched broths for detecting Salmonella was almost perfect for eggshell (observed agreement, 99.19%; kappa coefficient, 0.94) and egg belt samples (observed agreement, 95%; kappa coefficient, 0.88), and it was substantial for fecal (observed agreement, 87.14%; kappa coefficient, 0.47) and floor dust samples (observed agreement, 80.61%; kappa coefficient, 0.58). A 1-log increase in the load of Salmonella detected in the fecal, egg belt, and floor dust samples resulted in 35%, 43%, and 45% increases, respectively (P < 0.001), in the odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella. The multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) patterns of the S. Typhimurium strains isolated from flock A were distinct from those of flock B. S. Typhimurium strains detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited an MLVA pattern similar to those of the strains isolated from flocks A and B. PMID:24966362

Gole, Vaibhav C; Torok, Valeria; Sexton, Margaret; Caraguel, Charles G B; Chousalkar, Kapil K

2014-09-01

185

A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management.  

PubMed

A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including "residential land" and "industrial land" environmental guidelines under "strict" and "loose" strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management. PMID:23995555

Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-Ya; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Da-Zhou; Li, Yu

2013-10-15

186

Microbial and chemical contamination during and after flooding in the Ohio River-Kentucky, 2011.  

PubMed

Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical contaminants. Contaminant concentrations during and after flooding were compared using linear and logistic regression. Surface water samples collected during flooding had higher levels of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, adenovirus, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to surface water samples collected 3-months post-flood (P < 0.05). These results suggest that flooding increases microbial and chemical loads in surface water. These findings reinforce commonly recommended guidelines to limit exposure to flood water and to appropriately sanitize contaminated surfaces and drinking wells after contamination by flood water. PMID:24967556

Yard, Ellen E; Murphy, Matthew W; Schneeberger, Chandra; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hoo, Elizabeth; Freiman, Alexander; Lewis, Lauren S; Hill, Vincent R

2014-09-19

187

Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. PMID:23820191

Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

2013-09-30

188

Appendix G. Chemicals Annual Site Environmental Report  

E-print Network

chemicals. Through the use of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more, soils contain naturally elevated concentrations of metals such as selenium, arsenic, or molybdenum, which may be hazardous to humans or animals. Even some of the foods we eat contain natural toxins

Pennycook, Steve

189

Isotope Biomonitoring in Riverine Ecosystems: Tools for Understanding Linkages Between Environmental Contaminants and Basin Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of accumulative environmental contaminants (e.g., metals and organocholoro-pesticides) often exhibit wide temporal variations in riverine systems. Aquatic fauna, however, concentrate these contaminants into their biomass, providing a relatively long-term integrated record of water quality. In order to accurately determine how these contaminants are bioaccumulated within local food webs, it is essential to understand the relative trophic positions of the

C. Kendall; S. D. Wankel; G. Cabana; C. Schmitt

2002-01-01

190

Endocrine disrupting effects of environmental contaminants in herring gull embryos and cultured avian hepatocytes.  

E-print Network

??The effects of non-polar environmental contaminants on components of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis were examined in herring gull (Larus… (more)

Lorenzen, Angela.

2009-01-01

191

Studies in Avian Biology No. 26:168176, 2003. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN SURROGATE BIRDS AND  

E-print Network

. SFERRA, AND KIRKE KING Abstract. Several deformed Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii, Empidonax traillii extimus, inorganic elements, insectiv- orous birds, PCBs, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). Environmental contaminants

Mora, Miguel A.

192

The Accumulation and Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Snakes: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any ecological risk assessment, afull complement of the relevant members of theecosystems being studied should be considered. Reptiles in general, and snakes in particular, areimportant although often neglected components ofterrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and should beincluded in any study on environmental contamination. By neglecting reptiles, the risks posed by aparticular contaminant cannot be fully assessed. Since all snakes are

Kym Rouse Campbell; Todd S. Campbell

2001-01-01

193

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane ( Grus canadensis pulla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained

Donald H. White; Clifford P. Rice; David J. Hoffman; George F. Gee

1994-01-01

194

Stability of earth dam contaminated by chemical transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

When chemicals are introduced into the oil, they affect soil properties such as hydraulic conductivity and stress-strain behavior. In this study, several chloride concentrations are varied from 0 to 20 per cent to analyse the effect of chemicals on soil properties. A series of laboratory triaxial tests are performed on the cylindrical specimens of sand-bentonite mixture with different sodium chloride

Taebong Ahn; Chandra S. Desai

1999-01-01

195

Proteomic analyses of the environmental toxicity of carcinogenic chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

Protein expression and posttranslational modifications consistently change in response to the exposure to environmental chemicals. Recent technological advances in proteomics provide new tools for more efficient characterization of protein expression and posttranslational modific...

196

SIMULATION MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MULTIMEDIA ANALYSIS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Multimedia understanding of pollutant behavior in the environment is of particular concern for chemicals that are toxic and are subject to accumulation in the environmental media (air, soil, water, vegetation) where biota and human exposure is significant. Multimedia simulation ...

197

Decision support tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design  

E-print Network

The environment has emerged as an important determinant of the performance of the modern chemical industry. Process engineering in the 21st century needs to evolve to include environmental issues as part of the design ...

Cano Ruiz, José Alejandro, 1969-

1999-01-01

198

THE TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PRIORITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals...

199

Current methods for evaluating the bioavailability of chemicals from contaminated soils using soil invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated soils are an extremely complex, variable matrix where many modifying factors of toxicity (e.g., particle size, organic matter content) alter the availability of chemicals to biota. Although many methods have been standardized for assessing the toxicity of contaminated soils to invertebrates and plants, few studies have actually addressed the issue of contaminant bioavailability from soils. Since bioavailability is a measure of uptake of contaminants from the soil by living organisms, one approach to determining bioavailability is to measure residues of contaminants in biota. Body residues related to a specific lethal or sublethal toxicity endpoint offer the unique opportunity to relate bioavailability to biological response. This paper will present an overview of the use of body residues in assessing the bioavailability of soil contaminants by earthworms and soil arthropods. The applications of body residues in the development of soil quality guidelines will also be discussed.

Lanno, R.P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1995-12-31

200

Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J. [and others

1995-06-01

201

Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

202

DIOXIN AND FURAN CONTAMINATION IN THE MANUFACTURE OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The manufacture of halogenated organic chemicals results in the formation of small amounts of undesirable side reaction by-products. These contaminants may be contained in the product chemical, separated into a processing step residue, or lost to the air or wastewater as a pollut...

203

Contaminant modeling. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This note provides initial information on contaminant models that are potentially applicable to situations where the presence of toxic materials in sediments complicates Corps of Engineers (CE) dredging activities.

Bird, S.L.; Dortch, M.

1988-03-01

204

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

Not Available

1991-10-01

205

Environmental toxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-print Network

and wildlife tissues were collected from four National Priority List Superfund sites within the United States. In general, chemical analysis was not always predictive of mixture toxicity. Although biodegradation reduced the concentration of total...

Gillespie, Annika Margaret

2009-05-15

206

Environmental Contaminants in Hospital Settings and Progress in Disinfecting Techniques  

PubMed Central

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36°C/22°C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22°C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

207

Environmental contaminants in hospital settings and progress in disinfecting techniques.  

PubMed

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36°C/22°C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22°C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Messina, Gabriele; Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

208

Chemical oxidation treatment of petroleum contaminated soil using Fenton's reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenton's reagent, a strong oxidant, was evaluated for suitability to treat soils contaminated with 2?methylnaphthalene (an aromatic compound), n?hexdecane (an aliphatic compound) and diesel fuel (a complicated hydrocarbon mixture). Laboratory?scale results show that Fenton's reagent reacts rapidly with these materials in soil, and will completely mineralize them if enough hydrogen peroxide is added. The effectiveness of the reaction at neutral

Chien T. Chen; Anthony N. Tafuri; Maqsud Rahman; Mary B. Foerst

1998-01-01

209

Chemical analysis of outgassing contaminants on spacecraft surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for analyzing and characterizing outgassing contaminants from such materials as RTV 501 potting compound and S 13 G paint are presented. Fractional distillation of a gross distillate from RTV 501 rubber was carried out and the distilled fractions examined as to their ultraviolet and infrared spectra by gas liquid chromatography. A sensitive technique for structural analysis and molecular identification was found to consist of a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy system, which was determined to be economically unfeasible at present.

Mcnutt, R. C.

1973-01-01

210

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry over the period of 2000-2001. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2002 are also included. The previous Environmental Mass Spectrometry review was very comprehensive, including...

211

Contamination by Persistent Chemical Pesticides in Livestock Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of persistent organic pesticides represents one of the major environmental problems as reported in several studies\\u000a and reflected in some mandatory actions at the inter-governmental level. In particular, isomers of Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH),\\u000a like many others Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), are of human health and environmental concern due to their persistence\\u000a in the biosphere. In industrialised countries, Lindane (the ?-isomer

Bruno Ronchi; Pier Paolo Danieli

212

Fate and Transport of Chemical Contaminants in Karst Terranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical spills that reach an aquifer in karst terranes do not behave like those in granular or highly fractured aquifers. Spills reaching diffuse-flow aquifers display relatively slow transport, are radially dispersive, and can be tracked through the use...

M. S. Field

1989-01-01

213

KINETICS OF CHEMICAL & MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Once treated drinking water enters the distribution system, substantial microbial, chemical, and physical changes can occur. Examples of such changes can nclude loss of disinfectant residual, increases in disinfection byproducts (DBP), growth of microbial diversity and population...

214

Nanostructured Materials for Environmental Remediation of Organic Contaminants in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials have opened new avenues in various scientific fields and are providing novel opportunities in environmental science. The increased surface area-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles, quantum size effects, and the ability to tune surface properties through molecular modification make nanostructures ideal for many environmental remediation applications. We describe herein the fabrication of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications,

Sherine O. Obare; Gerald J. Meyer

2004-01-01

215

CHEMICAL INDUCTION MIXER VERIFICATION - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wet-Weather Flow Technologies Pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which is supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and facilitated by NSF International, has recently evaluated the performance of chemical induction mixers used for di...

216

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1600 Sayles*, G.D. Environmental Engineering and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering (Arnold, R.G. (Ed.), Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers) 128 (1):1-2 (2002). EPA/600/J- 02/001. ...

217

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

218

RAPID SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING CAPACITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemical...

219

UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

220

Linking Empirical Estimates of Body Burden of Environmental Chemicals and Wellness using NHANES Data  

PubMed Central

Biomonitoring of industrial chemicals in human tissues and fluids has shown that all people carry a “body burden” of synthetic chemicals. Although measurement of an environmental chemical in a person’s tissues/fluids is an indication of exposure, it does not necessarily mean the exposure concentration is sufficient to cause an adverse effect. Since humans are exposed to multiple chemicals, there may be a combination effect (e.g., additive, synergistic) associated with low-level exposures to multiple classes of contaminants, which may impact a variety of organ systems. The objective of this research is to link measures of body burden of environmental chemicals and a “holistic” measure of wellness. The approach is demonstrated using biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Forty-two chemicals were selected for analysis based on their detection levels. Six biological pathway-specific indices were evaluated using groups of chemicals associated with each pathway. Five of the six pathways were negatively associated with wellness. Three non-zero interaction terms were detected which may provide empirical evidence of crosstalk across pathways. The approach identified five of the 42 chemicals from a variety of classes (metals, pesticides, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as accounting for 71% of the weight linking body burden to wellness. Significant interactions were detected indicating the effect of smoking is exacerbated by body burden of environmental chemicals. Use of a holistic index on both sides of the exposure-health equation is a novel and promising empirical “systems biology” approach to risk evaluation of complex environmental exposures. PMID:22208743

Gennings, Chris; Ellis, Rhonda; Ritter, Joe

2011-01-01

221

Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants. This research will form the foundation for future experiments into the genetic manipulation of plants to potentially promote greater or more specific symbiotic relationships between plant and Rhizobium allowing this biological phenomenon to be used in a greater number of crop types. Future technology developments could include the genetic engineering of crops suitable for in situ vadose zone 2 bioremediation (via microbes) and phytoremediation (through the crop, itself) in contaminated DOE sites.

McLachlan, John A.

2000-06-01

222

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

SciTech Connect

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Schuler, C.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-01-01

223

DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil†  

PubMed Central

Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as ?(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

224

Linking chemical contamination to biological effects in coastal pollution monitoring.  

PubMed

To establish the connection between pollutant levels and their harmful effects on living resources, coastal monitoring programmes have incorporated biological tools, such as the scope for growth (SFG) in marine mussels and benthic macrofauna community indices. Although the relation between oxygen-depleting anthropogenic inputs and the alteration of benthic communities is well described, the effects of chemical pollutants are unknown because they are not expected to favour any particular taxa. In this study, the combined efforts of five research teams involved in the investigative monitoring of marine pollution allowed the generation of a multiyear data set for Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula). Multivariate analysis of these data allowed the identification of the chemical-matrix combinations responsible for most of the variability among sites and the construction of a chemical pollution index (CPI) that significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with biological effects at both the individual and the community levels. We report a consistent reduction in the physiological fitness of local populations of mussels as chemical pollution increases. The energy balance was more sensitive to pollution than individual physiological rates, but the reduction in the SFG was primarily due to significantly decreased clearance rates. We also found a decrease in benthic macrofauna diversity as chemical pollution increases. This diversity reduction resulted not from altered evenness, as the classic paradigm might suggest, but from a loss of species richness. PMID:21805214

Beiras, Ricardo; Durán, Iria; Parra, Santiago; Urrutia, Miren B; Besada, Victoria; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Sánchez-Marín, Paula; González-Quijano, Amelia; Franco, María A; Nieto, Óscar; González, Juan J

2012-01-01

225

Characteristics of distribution and chemical speciation of heavy metals in environmental mediums around Jinchang mining city, Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal contamination was the main environmental problem around the Jinchang Ni–Cu mine area of Gansu, Northwest China.\\u000a The concentration of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in various environmental mediums around the Jinchang Ni–Cu mine\\u000a area were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The different chemical speciation of heavy metals was extracted\\u000a using BCR (European Community Bureau

Xiao-Hu Li; Zhong-Li Tang; Feng-You Chu; Ling-Yuan Yang

226

Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

Maria Pallavicini

2001-05-04

227

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.  

PubMed

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

2007-09-01

228

Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.  

PubMed

The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures. PMID:15464626

Malina, Grzegorz

2004-12-15

229

Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA (United States). Northwest Fisheries Science Center

1995-12-31

230

The use of nontraditional assays in an integrated environmental assessment of contaminated ground water  

SciTech Connect

The toxic potential of ground water contaminated with several probable carcinogenic heavy metals and halogenated solvents was evaluated using an integrated environmental assessment approach. A number of assays, which included acute toxicity, short-term chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, developmental toxicity and carcinogenicity, were used to assist in a hazard assessment. Comprehensive analytical chemistry was performed throughout the 9-month exposure to document the chemical characteristics of the ground water. An initiation-promotion protocol using a non-neoplastic concentration of diethylnitrosamine as an initiator in a 9-month chronic exposure of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was used to evaluate potential carcinogenicity of the ground water. The fish were exposed to groundwater concentrations of 1% and 10% ground water by volume. No significant lesions were found in the Japanese medaka exposed to groundwater concentrations at 1% or 10% ground water by volume. Likewise, no genotoxicity, developmental toxicity, acute toxicity or short-term chronic toxicity, were found at concentrations of {le} 10% ground water by volume. The negative results obtained in this study show that the potential hazard posed by low concentrations of a complex mixture containing suspect carcinogens may not be manifested at environmentally relevant concentrations.

Twerdok, L.E. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Detrick, MD (United States); Burton, D.T. [Univ. of Maryland, Queenstown, MD (United States). Wye Research and Education Center; Gardner, H.S.; Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Fort Detrick, MD (United States); Wolfe, M.J. [Experimental Pathology Labs., Herndon, VA (United States)

1997-09-01

231

Contaminant and genotoxicity profiles of sediments and zebra mussels as indicators of chemical contamination in Hamilton Harbour  

SciTech Connect

Samples of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and Zebra mussels were collected from Hamilton Harbour, an embayment of western Lake Ontario. In addition, sediment samples were collected from creeks which flow into the Harbour. These sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic extract was cleaned up prior to analysis for PAH and thia-arenes by GC-MS. These extracts were also subjected to genotoxicity bioassays (Ames assays) in two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (a TA98-like strain, YG1024-S9 and a TA100-like strain, YG1025 + S9). The sediment and Zebra mussels samples collected near sites of heavy coal tar contamination showed PAH, thia-arene and genotoxicity profiles that are very similar to the corresponding profiles for coal tar. These observations are consistent with the resuspension and distribution of coal tar-contaminated bottom sediments in the water column. The sediment samples collected in a major creek entering the Harbor and the sediment and Zebra mussels samples collected in Windemere Arm near the mouth of this creek showed very different chemical and genotoxicity profiles. Thus, the chemical and genotoxicity burdens on Hamilton Harbour posed by the resuspension of coal tar-contaminated sediments and the inputs from urban activity into a major creek and the Harbor can be differentiated.

McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.M.; Marvin, C.H.; Villella, J.; Bryant, D.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

232

An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor  

E-print Network

LETTER An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative found that amphibians only exhibit moderate relative responses to water-borne toxins. Our findings imply

Storfer, Andrew

233

GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children?s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

234

Cost assessment of various means of averting environmental damage and groundwater contamination from nitrate seepage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizers are used in addition to irrigation water to increase soil fertility and productivity, but cropped areas are sources of groundwater contamination due to loads of nitrates carried downwards by seepage of excess water. The public is increasingly aware of the grave problems of environmental damage caused by groundwater pollution. These environmental effects are not considered by farmers, whose production

Nava Haruvy; A. Hadas

1997-01-01

235

Multiple classes of environmental chemicals are associated with liver disease: NHANES 2003-2004.  

PubMed

Biomonitoring studies show that humans carry a body burden of multiple classes of contaminants which are not often studied together. Many of these chemicals may be hepatotoxic. We used the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to evaluate the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and 37 environmental contaminants, comprising heavy metals, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxin-like compounds, using a novel method. Linear regression models were constructed for each chemical separately, then as a class, using quartiles to represent exposure and adjusting for age, sex, race, income, and BMI. We then used an optimization approach to compile a weighted sum of the quartile scores, both within and across chemical classes. Using the optimization approach to construct weighted quartile scores, the dioxin like PCB, the non-dioxin like PCB and metal class-level scores were significantly associated with elevated ALT. A significant interaction was detected between the class-level score for metals, and the score for non-dioxin-like PCBs. When including all chemicals in one model, 3 chemicals accounted for 78% of the weight (mercury, PCB 180, 3,3',4,4',5-PNCB) with the remaining 22% associated with 4 chemicals (a dioxin and 3 PCBs). Validation with a holdout dataset indicated that the weighted quartile sum estimator efficiently identifies reproducible significant associations. PMID:23491026

Yorita Christensen, Krista L; Carrico, Caroline K; Sanyal, Arun J; Gennings, Chris

2013-11-01

236

In situ remediation of aquifers contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids by chemically enhanced solubilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically enhanced solubilization (CES) is an advanced variant of pump?andtreat that results in more effective and more rapid remediation of groundwater contaminated with organic solvents and other dense nonaqueous?phase liquids (DNAPLs). Attempts to remediate DNAPL?contaminated groundwater by pump?and?treat have generally not been successful, due to the low aqueous solubility of most DNAPLs. Regions of undissolved, organic liquids slowly release additional

R. W. Wunderlich; J. C. Fountain; R. E. Jackson

1992-01-01

237

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN KARST TERRANES: OUTLINE AND SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical spills that reach an aquifer in karst terranes do not behave like those in granular or highly fractured aquifers. pills reaching diffuse-flow aquifers display relatively slow transport, are radially dispersive, and can be tracked through the use of monitoring wells. pill...

238

Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

1975-01-01

239

CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED DISSOLUTION AND MOBILIZATION OF RESIDUAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pore-scale micromodels and a computer-controlled imaging system will be used to examine fluid dynamics and phase behavior during chemically-enhanced NAPL dissolution and mobilization. Mechanistic insights gained at this microscopic level will be used to help explain observations...

240

National guidance for assessing the risks of consuming chemically contaminated fish  

SciTech Connect

The EPA`s Fish Contamination Program (FCP) provides technical assistance and guidance to State, Federal, and Tribal agencies for assessing human health risks associated with dietary exposure to chemically contaminated noncommercial freshwater and estuarine fish and shellfish. the program includes guidance documents which may be used for developing fish consumption advisories. One series of guidance documents, titled Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data for Use in Fish Advisories, are designed to provide the States, Tribes, and other interested parties with a scientifically defensible, cost effective methodology for developing, implementing, managing and communicating risk-base fish consumption advisories. The fist document of the series, Volume 1: Fish Sampling and Analysis (September 1993), provides recommended methods for sampling strategies, field collection procedure, chemical analysis, data management and profiles of 24 chemicals which have been identified as analyses of concern with respect to dietary exposure to chemical contaminants in fish. volume 2: Risk Assessment and Fish Consumption Limits (June 1994), provides chemical specific risk based fish consumption limits for 24 analyses based on the amount and frequency of individual fish consumption patterns. Specific fish consumption limits and advice for the general population and women of child-bearing age are provided. Volume 3: Risk Management, is scheduled for release in late 1 994. This document will review management options which should be considered in the development of fish consumption advisories. Volume 4: Risk Communication, is scheduled for release in the fall of 1994. This document will address effective communication of fish consumption advisories to targeted audiences.

Bigler, J.

1994-12-31

241

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and

T. C. Michot; T. W. Custer; A. J. Nault; C. A. Mitchell

1994-01-01

242

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: Monitoring environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (PMustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from

R. S. Halbrook; J. H. Jenkins; P. B. Bush; N. D. Seabolt

1994-01-01

243

Monitoring of lymphocyte micronuclei among newborns from Kragujevac in Central Serbia before and after environmental contamination.  

PubMed

The air strikes on "Zastava" complex in Kragujevac, in the spring of 1999, caused extensive environmental pollution with damage to soil, water and air. Since the main problem was the leakage of several tones of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as heavy metals Cr and Ni into the environment and groundwater, we decided to evaluate influence of the environmental contamination on eventual changes of genetic constitution of human body cells. The subjects analyzed were 36 phenotypically healthy newborn babies, who were born 12 months (n=22) and 18 months (n=14) after environmental contamination, and 25 newborns in 1998 as a control group. For the assessment of mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants in vivo, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test was employed. The results show significant increase of micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from newborns born 12 months after contamination (9.36 +/- 5.60), in comparison to controls (5.53 +/- 3.02) and newborns born 18 months after contamination (6.14 +/- 3.57). Only 3 newborns (12%) out of 25 controls showed more than 1 MN/1000 binucleated cells in respect to 8/22 after 12 months (36%) and 2/14 after 18 months from contamination (14%). The mean number of binucleated cells with MN significantly varied in function of sex and environmental changes in newborns born 12 months after contamination (as demonstrated by the analysis of covariance F=9.61, p <0.003). After 18 months of contamination, environmental components had no noticeable effects on MN frequency (F=0.5, p >0.48). These results suggest that the exposure to environmental pollutants in utero affects genetic constitution of fetus and increases MN values in their body cells, which is detectable right after birth in peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:15635268

Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera; Grujicic, Darko; Arsenijevic, Slobodan; Marinkovic, Dragoslav

2005-01-01

244

Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

2009-05-01

245

The lead content of plants and animals as indicators of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Lead content of tissues from some edible plants, pigeons and a vulture, and from human and cattle blood were determined to gain insight into the extent of environmental lead contamination in Zaria and Kaduna environs of Kaduna state of Nigeria. The results suggest that environmental lead contamination in these areas was insignificant when compared to values from developed countries like US. However, there is need for more work of this nature on a regional basis to ascertain the true picture of total environmental lead pollution in Nigeria.

Adaudi, A.O.; Gbodi, T.A.; Aliu, Y.O. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria))

1990-10-01

246

Environmental assessment of waste matrices contaminated with arsenic.  

PubMed

The use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests has been proposed to provide an integrated assessment of leaching processes from solid wastes. The objectives of the research presented here are to (i) validate this assessment approach for contaminated soils and cement-based matrices, (ii) evaluate the use of diffusion and coupled dissolution-diffusion models for estimating constituent release, and (iii) evaluate model parameterization using results from batch equilibrium leaching tests and physical characterization. The test matrices consisted of (i) a soil contaminated with arsenic from a pesticide production facility, (ii) the same soil subsequently treated by a Portland cement stabilization/solidification (S/S) process, and (iii) a synthetic cement-based matrix spiked with arsenic(III) oxide. Results indicated that a good assessment of contaminant release from contaminated soils and cement-based S/S treated wastes can be obtained by the integrated use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests in conjunction with the appropriate release model. During the time scale of laboratory testing, the release of arsenic from the contaminated soil matrix was governed by diffusion and the solubility of arsenic in the pore solution while the release of arsenic from the cement-based matrices was mainly controlled by solubilization at the interface between the matrix and the bulk leaching solution. In addition, results indicated that (i) estimation of the activity coefficient within the matrix pore water is necessary for accurate prediction of constituent release rates and (ii) inaccurate representation of the factors controlling release during laboratory testing can result in significant errors in release estimates. PMID:12493211

Sanchez, F; Garrabrants, A C; Vandecasteele, C; Moszkowicz, P; Kosson, D S

2003-01-31

247

Environmental contaminants in caribou in the Northwest Territories, Canada.  

PubMed

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are strict herbivores with a winter diet consisting primarily of lichen. This simple food chain makes caribou a good species for monitoring changes in arctic terrestrial ecosystem contamination. The defined ranges of herds across the Northwest Territories (NWT) also enables examination of spatial trends in contaminant exposure. Caribou were collected from five locations in the first half of a study designed to examine levels of a broad spectrum of organochlorine, heavy metal, and radionuclide contaminants. A wide range of contaminants were detected, with most compounds found at relatively low levels. In general, organochlorine residues were significantly lower in caribou from the mainland Bathurst and Qamanirjuaq (Arviat) and the Southampton Island herds than in caribou from Cape Dorset and Lake Harbour on southern Baffin Island. Moderate levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) were detected at all five study sites. HCB residues ranged from a lipid corrected mean of 32.83 ng/g in fat of Bathurst caribou to 129.41 ng/g in Lake Harbour animals. Alpha-HCH levels ranged from 8.11 ng/g in Bathurst animals to 37.9 ng/g in Cape Dorset caribou. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma PCB) residues ranged from 6.24 ng/g in fat of Arviat caribou to 31.68 ng/g in Cape Dorset animals. Congeners 153 and 138 were the most dominant of the 43 congeners tested. Metal levels were also relatively low with the exception of cadmium, which had community means of 9.68- 33.87 micrograms/g in kidney tissue and 1.96-4.39 micrograms/g in liver tissue. Moderate levels of cesium-137 were detected, with community means of 33.2-184.1 Bq/kg in muscle tissue. Long-range atmospheric transport appears to be the primary source of the contaminants detected in this study. PMID:7892575

Elkin, B T; Bethke, R W

1995-01-15

248

Solving practical problems in environmental sampling for chemical agents and their degradation compounds  

SciTech Connect

The analyses of environmental samples for chemical agent degradation products were conducted using analytical test methods designed for evaluation of solid waste samples. All methods are found in the 3rd Edition of EPA`s compendium of analytical methods (SW-846) dated July 1992. These EPA methods are recommended for compliance testing required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and are routinely used for the analysis of environmental samples. In the past several years, these same methods were used to support the survey of areas suspected of having chemical agent or chemical agent degradation compound contamination. An overview is presented of the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine`s (previously the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency) involvement with the analysis of samples for chemical agents and their degradation compounds collected from sites such as Tooele Army Depot, Rocky Mt. Arsenal, Newport Army Depot, Johnston Island, and Spring Valley, (a residential site near American University in Washington D.C.) Discussed are practical problems encountered during a quick response of a non-surety laboratory to analyze environmental samples for agents and their degradation compounds.

Williams, K.E.; Sheely, M.V. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

249

Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

2012-12-01

250

In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Ground Water: Permanganate Reactive Barrier Systems for the Long-Term Treatment of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation of chlorinated solvents by permanganate has proven to be effective in destroying these compounds in the aqueous phase. A semi-passive, well-based permanganate reactive barrier system (PRBS) was designed in order for the long-term treatment of dissolved contaminant in the ground water. Results from laboratory experiments indicate the PRBS could deliver permanganate at a stable, constant and controllable rate. In this paper, different field designs of the PRBS are discussed. Numerical simulation was conducted to elucidate the parameters that will influence the field implementation of a PRBS. We investigated issues such as permanganate consumption by aquifer materials, variable density flow effect, as well as lateral spreading under different geological settings. Results from this study continue to point to the promise of an in situ chemical oxidation scheme. PRBS provides a potential treatment of the contaminated ground water at relatively low management cost as compared with other alternatives.

Li, X. David; Schwartz, Frank W.

2004-03-31

251

Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.  

PubMed

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2008-08-01

252

PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This important outcome results from the way risk is perceived, which in turn is little affected by factual weight-of-evidence. Essentially, drugs in drinking water supplies are considered "out-of-place" chemicals and as such are sometimes looked upon as "chemical weeds" by the co...

253

Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

Tanzman, E.A.

1994-04-07

254

The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

Metcalf, R.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

1990-12-31

255

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Field Procedures for Assessing the Exposure of Fish to Environmental Contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document describes procedures used to collect information, tissues, and fluids for documenting the exposure of fish to environmental contaminants. For the procedures described here, fish are captured (preferably by electrofishing) and held alive until processing (generally <1 h). Fish are weighed, measured, and examined for grossly visible external lesions and pathologies. A blood sample is collected by caudal veinipuncture using a needle and syringe. The fish is subdued and it's abdominal cavity opened. The internal organs are dissected from the fish for examination. The sex of the fish is determined by direct observation of its gonads. The liver is weighed (most species) and cut into small cubes and flash-frozen in cryogenic vials, which are stored and shipped in dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Additional liver cubes plus all grossly visible anomalies are preserved for histopathology. The gonads and spleen are weighed, and samples are preserved for histopathology. The kidneys are examined, and histopathology samples collected. A gill sample is also collected and preserved. All remaining tissues are returned to the carcass, which is wrapped in foil, labeled for chemical analysis, and chilled. Individual fish carcasses are composited by station, species, and gender; frozen; and shipped to the analytical laboratory. Procedures are also described for record keeping; processing blood to obtain serum and plasma; flash-freezing samples; cleaning equipment; and preventing the transport of living organisms among waterways. A list of necessary equipment and supplies is also provided.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gross, Timothy S.; Bryant, Wade L., Jr.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Smith, Stephen B.; Goede, Ronald W.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Kubiak, Timothy J.

1999-01-01

256

Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.  

PubMed

Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. PMID:23845936

Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

2013-09-01

257

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants  

E-print Network

, a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter for groundwater treatment inoculated with a microbial consortium filter. Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a frequent co-contaminant of MTBE had no inhibitory effect on MTBE tert-butyl ether; TBA ­ tert-butyl alcohol Introduction Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its biodeg

258

Potential of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for remediation of environmental organic contaminants in water: a review.  

PubMed

Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has the potential to degrade different organic contaminants. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) can reduce the contaminants even more rapidly due to its small size and large specific surface area (SSA), compared to granular ZVI. The main objective of this paper is to assess and compare the potential of NZVI for degradation of different contaminants in water under specific environmental conditions. As a first step, the potential reactive functional groups/bonds associated with different contaminants are identified and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. Thereafter, the reaction efficiencies of different organic contaminants with NZVI are compared. Mass of ZVI and reaction time required to transform a certain amount of contaminated water are calculated based on literature data. Sources of contaminants in the environment and their environmental occurrences are discussed to understand the potential locations where NZVI could be applied for removal of different contaminants. Overall it is observed that azo-compounds are readily transformed in the presence of NZVI particles. Reaction efficiencies of ZVI for reduction of nitro-organic compounds are also reasonably high. However, halogenated compounds with high molecular weights or complex structures (i.e., iodinated contrast media, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) show lower reaction rates with NZVI compared to the widely studied chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e., trichloroethylene). PMID:24135090

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Scheytt, Traugott

2013-01-01

259

Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

1993-09-01

260

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses.

R. G. Anthony; M. G. Garrett; C. A. Schuler

1993-01-01

261

SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added heat to the containers from ambient conditions during storage especially during the summer months. Treatability tests under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes (wet method) and chemical-gel matrices (dry method) during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial decontamination agents such as RadPro? , Glygel? and ASPIGEL 100?. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. From these wet and dry method treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning and waste disposition process.

Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

2005-10-12

262

Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

263

Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The subsequent analysis of soils (after 6 and 8 months months) is expected to better demonstrate the influence of soil properties on human bioaccessibility of Pb in contaminated soils. Furthermore, the geochemical forms of Pb will be correlated with bioaccessible Pb to identify those soil-Pb species with higher solubility in the human gastrointestinal system. Key words: Lead, Geochemical species, Bioaccessibility, In-vitro model, Health risk

Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

2006-05-01

264

Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.  

PubMed

Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

2012-12-01

265

Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

266

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

1993-01-01

267

Chemical Genomics Profiling of Environmental Chemical Modulation of Human Nuclear Receptors  

EPA Science Inventory

The large and increasing number of chemicals released into the environment demand more efficient and cost effective approaches for assessing environmental chemical toxicity. The U.S. Tox21 program has responded to this challenge by proposing alternative strategies for toxicity te...

268

Solid state cadmium-113 nuclear magnetic resonance study of cadmium speciation in environmentally contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial investigation used solid state ¹¹³Cd nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to analyze five soil samples taken from an environmental site that is heavily contaminated with Cd and other metals. The samples were obtained from the contaminated sediment in Foundry Cove near Cold Spring, NY. The discharges of a nickel-cadmium battery factory in the 1950s have left an estimated

S. Bank; J. F. Bank; P. S. Marchetti; P. D. Ellis

2009-01-01

269

Estrogenic effects of environmental chemicals: An interspecies comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of various in vitro screening methods has led to identification of novel estrogenic chemicals of natural and anthropogenic origin. In this study, the (anti)estrogenic potential of several environmental chemicals were compared in an array of in vitro test systems comprising: (i) competitive binding to estrogen receptors derived from the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 (hER) and rainbow

Christel M. Olsen; Elise T. M. Meussen-Elholm; Jan K. Hongslo; Jørgen Stenersen; Knut-Erik Tollefsen

2005-01-01

270

REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. uminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. lso, examples of recent...

271

Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil PhysicoChemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry.

S. Saminathan; D. Sarkar; R. Datta; S. P. Andra

2006-01-01

272

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: an epidemiological approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success - egg hatchability and fry survival - were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.

1991-01-01

273

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success--egg hatchability and fry survival--were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1991-08-01

274

Multi-residue analysis of 80 environmental contaminants in honeys, honeybees and pollens by one extraction procedure followed by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

One of the factors that may explain nowadays honeybees' colonies losses is the increasing presence of chemicals in the environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a global view of the presence of environmental contaminants in beehives and, develop a fast, cheap and sensitive tool to analyze environmental contaminants in apiarian matrices. A multi residue analysis was developed to quantify 80 environmental contaminants, pesticides and veterinary drugs, belonging to different chemical classes, in honeys, honeybees and pollens. It consists in a single extraction, based on a modified "QuEChERS method", followed by gas chromatography coupled with Time of Flight mass spectrometry (GC-ToF) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The "QuEChERS method" combines salting-out liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean up. It was adjusted to honey and especially to honeybee and pollen, by adding a small fraction of hexane in acetonitrile to eliminate lipids that interfere with mass spectrometry analysis. This method, combined with accurate and sensitive detection, allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 10 ng/g, with recoveries between 60 and 120%. Application to more than 100 samples of each matrix was achieved for a global view of pesticide presence in the honeybee environment. Relatively high percentages of honeys, honeybees and pollens were found to be contaminated by pesticides used to combat varroa but also by fungicides like carbendazim and ubiquitous contaminants. PMID:21783197

Wiest, Laure; Buleté, Audrey; Giroud, Barbara; Fratta, Cédric; Amic, Sophie; Lambert, Olivier; Pouliquen, Hervé; Arnaudguilhem, Carine

2011-08-26

275

Effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol and environmentally persistent free radicals.  

PubMed

The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs' and the PCP molecules' chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 °C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2-12 × 10(18) spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and line width (?Hp-p) of 2.00311-2.00323 and 4.190-5.472 G, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1-10 × 10(18) spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327-2.00341, and ?Hp-p of 5.209-6.721 G. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 × 10(18) spins/g of soil at 100 °C for open heating and 12 × 10(18) spins/g at 75 °C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2-24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure. PMID:22548284

dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Cook, Robert L; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Dellinger, Barry

2012-06-01

276

Identification of sentinel health events as indicators of environmental contamination.  

PubMed Central

The consensus process was applied to addressing a public health topic; this was a novel endeavor. The following question was addressed: What role, if any, should sentinel health events play in the decision-making process for identifying the effects of environmental exposure? The panel developed three levels of sentinel health events lists: those that are clearly identifiable, those that are potential signs, and those that are indicators of body burdens. Additionally, the panel developed several salient statements regarding the principles of environmental health surveillance and, especially, recommendations for future research. PMID:1683284

Rothwell, C J; Hamilton, C B; Leaverton, P E

1991-01-01

277

Removal of chemical and microbiological contaminants from domestic greywater using a recycled vertical flow bioreactor (RVFB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reuse of domestic greywater (GW) for non-potable purposes is emerging as an important approach to the management and conservation of water resources, particularly in rural and developing areas where small-scale decentralized treatments are suited. Recently, researchers at Ben-Gurion University (Israel) have developed a modular system – the recycled vertical flow bioreactor (RVFB) – for the removal of chemical contaminants from

Amit Gross; Drora Kaplan; Katherine Baker

2007-01-01

278

TOXICITY AND MUTAGENICITY OF A MIXTURE OF 25 CHEMICALS FOUND IN CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A defined mixture of 25 chemicals that are often found in contaminated ground water was prepared as a water solution and studied for mutagenicity in bacteria, for prophage induction in bacteria, for palatability and effect on weight-gain in rats and mice, and for cytogenetic effe...

279

Gonadosomatic Index and Testis Morphology of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Rivers Contaminated with Estrogenic Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of estrogenic chemicals on fish, the gonadosomatic index (GSI = (testis weight\\/body weight) × 100) and testis histology of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from 2 contaminated sites (Ishizu and Wada rivers, Osaka) and a control site were examined between June 1998 and March 2001. The concentration of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17?-estradiol in the Ishizu

Amin HASSANIN; Sachi KUWAHARA; Yasuhiro TSUKAMOTO; Kazushige OGAWA; Kazuya HIRAMATSU; Fumihiko SASAKI

2002-01-01

280

REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD-TREATMENT CHEMICALS (PCP AND CREOSOTE)  

EPA Science Inventory

PCP and creosote PAHs are found in most of the contaminated soils at wood-treatment sites. The treatment methods currently being used for such soils include soil washing, incineration, and biotreatment. Soil washing involves removal of the hazardous chemicals from soils ...

281

Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

1994-01-01

282

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

1994-01-01

283

High throughput heuristics for prioritizing human exposure to environmental chemicals.  

PubMed

The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the hazard presented by the chemical and the extent of exposure. However, many chemicals lack estimates of exposure intake, limiting the understanding of health risks. We aim to develop a rapid heuristic method to determine potential human exposure to chemicals for application to the thousands of chemicals with little or no exposure data. We used Bayesian methodology to infer ranges of exposure consistent with biomarkers identified in urine samples from the U.S. population by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We performed linear regression on inferred exposure for demographic subsets of NHANES demarked by age, gender, and weight using chemical descriptors and use information from multiple databases and structure-based calculators. Five descriptors are capable of explaining roughly 50% of the variability in geometric means across 106 NHANES chemicals for all the demographic groups, including children aged 6-11. We use these descriptors to estimate human exposure to 7968 chemicals, the majority of which have no other quantitative exposure prediction. For thousands of chemicals with no other information, this approach allows forecasting of average exposure intake of environmental chemicals. PMID:25343693

Wambaugh, John F; Wang, Anran; Dionisio, Kathie L; Frame, Alicia; Egeghy, Peter; Judson, Richard; Setzer, R Woodrow

2014-11-01

284

Effect of Chemical Stabilization by Phosphate Amendment on the Desorption of P and Pb From a Contaminated Soil  

E-print Network

Effect of Chemical Stabilization by Phosphate Amendment on the Desorption of P and Pb From a Contaminated Soil E. M. Cooper, D. G. Strawn, J. T. Sims and B. M. Onken The amendment of Pb contaminated soils contaminated soil treated with H3PO4 synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), and HCl + K3PO4 was investigated using

Sparks, Donald L.

285

Impact of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on the collard arthropod community  

SciTech Connect

Stress effects on a terrestrial arthropod community were evident in a study of collards grown in soil amended with chemically contaminated sewage sludge. Plant growth in the contaminated sludge was significantly reduced compared with growth in plots treated with relatively uncontaminated sludge from two small towns or with mature alone. Population densities of major arthropod taxa tended to be lower in plots of contaminated sludge than they were in uncontaminated sludge and manure plots. Species richness and diversity were also reduced in contaminated-sludge plots compared with those of uncontaminated sludge and manure treatments. In general, few differences were observed in plant growth and arthropod numbers between the uncontaminated-sludge treatment, or uncontaminated sludge treated with cadmium or with the insecticide dieldrin. Because cadmium and dieldrin were applied at dosages of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in the contaminated sludge, results suggested that these two toxins were not responsible for the effects on plants and arthropods observed in the contaminated-sludge treatment. Results of this study indicated the potential for sludge-borne contaminants to suppress growth in crop plants and reduce abundance of their associated arthropods.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.; Lisk, D.J.

1986-08-01

286

Cave and cliff swallows as indicators of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on birds from the Rio Grande, Texas.  

E-print Network

??Cave (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were collected along the Rio Grande and evaluated as potential indicators of environmental contamination. The Rio Grande… (more)

Musquiz, Daniel

2004-01-01

287

Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.  

PubMed

Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity. However, the same techniques discussed could also have application to catastrophes resulting from other incidents, such as natural disasters or industrial accidents. Further, the high sample throughput enabled by the techniques discussed could be employed for conventional environmental studies and compliance monitoring, potentially decreasing costs and/or increasing the quantity of data available to decision-makers. PMID:24568927

Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

2014-11-01

288

Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes  

SciTech Connect

Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1990-12-31

289

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry over the period of 2004-2005. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2006 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 100-200 s...

290

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2004 REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry over the period of 2002-2003. A few significant references that appeared between January and March 2004 are also included. This review is in keeping with a current approach of Analytical Chemistry to include onl...

291

CRC handbook of mass spectra of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook presents a collection of the electron impact mass spectra of 394 commonly encountered environmental pollutants. Each pollutant is examined on a separate page and is presented as a bar graph always starting at M\\/z = 40. All spectra are determined by analyses of data in EPA data bases. The major fragment ions are correlated with their respective structure.

Hites

1985-01-01

292

Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. PMID:21724330

Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

2011-09-15

293

Environmental sentinel biomonitors: integrated response systems for monitoring toxic chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational environments for military forces are becoming potentially more dangerous due to the increased number, use, and misuse of toxic chemicals across the entire range of military missions. Defense personnel may be exposed to harmful chemicals as a result of industrial accidents or intentional or unintentional action of enemy, friendly forces, or indigenous populations. While there has been a significant military effort to enable forces to operate safely and survive and sustain operations in nuclear, biological, chemical warfare agent environments, until recently there has not been a concomitant effort associated with potential adverse health effects from exposures of deployed personnel to toxic industrial chemicals. To provide continuous real-time toxicity assessments across a broad spectrum of individual chemicals or chemical mixtures, an Environmental Sentinel Biomonitor (ESB) system concept is proposed. An ESB system will integrate data from one or more platforms of biologically-based systems and chemical detectors placed in the environment to sense developing toxic conditions and transmit time-relevant data for use in risk assessment, mitigation, and/or management. Issues, challenges, and next steps for the ESB system concept are described, based in part on discussions at a September 2001 workshop sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research.

van der Schalie, William H.; Reuter, Roy; Shedd, Tommy R.; Knechtges, Paul L.

2002-02-01

294

Environmental contaminants in canvasbacks wintering on San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of 11 trace elements, 21 organochlorines, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 13 aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined in canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering on San Francisco Bay, California during 1988. With the exception of Se, concentrations of potentially toxic elements were low. Similarly, concentrations of most organic compounds were near or below detection limits. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and DDE were common, but at levels lower than those known to be harmful to waterfowl. Innocuous trace elements (Cu, Fe, and Zn), which are often associated with anthropogenic contamination, occurred at high levels. Concentrations of toxic elements were several times lower and those of benign elements were similar or greater than concentrations reported for surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) or greater scaup (Aythya marila) from San Francisco Bay.

Miles, A.K.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

1993-01-01

295

CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL WASTE SITE CONTAMINATION AND DETERMINATION OF ITS EXTENT USING BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of using bioassays to evaluate soils, soil elutriates, and surface and subsurface water from hazardous chemical waste sites is to provide a more direct, integrated estimate of environmental toxicity. Based on bioassay data, chemical waste sites can be ranked according...

296

Polybrominated biphenyls in model and environmentally contaminated human blood: protein binding and immunotoxicological studies.  

PubMed Central

A review and summary is given of analytical, biochemical, and immunological studies made following an immunodiagnostic investigation which revealed significant decreases in the numbers, and changes in the functional integrity, of both T-and B-lymphocytes in a group of Michigan dairy farmers exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) which had been inadvertently introduced into the food chain in 1973. A quantification technique based on selected ion monitoring of bromine anions, obtained in negative chemical ionization, permitted determination of 10-35 pg of individual PBB congener per mL serum, a 20-fold improvement over electron capture gas chromatography. An in vitro spiked system was established and shown to be a representative model of environmentally contaminated blood. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric quantification determined that the distribution of PBB among plasma, erythrocytes, mononucleocytes and polymorphonucleocytes was 89:9:less than 1:less than 1. In plasma 80% of the PBB was bound to apolipoproteins B and A in a 3:1 ratio. No preferential absorption of PBB congeners was found in the blood compartments suggesting that changes in the relative abundances of PBB congeners observed in longitudinal studies on Michigan subjects reflect differences in excretion rates or metabolism. A repeat in 1981 of the immunodiagnostic tests conducted in 1976 revealed a virtually complete persistence of the immune dysfunctions in the Michigan farmers exposed to PBB a decade ago. PMID:2992920

Roboz, J; Greaves, J; Bekesi, J G

1985-01-01

297

The Toxicity Data Landscape for Environmental Chemicals (journal)  

EPA Science Inventory

Thousands of chemicals are in common use but only a portion of them have undergone significant toxicological evaluation, leading to the need to prioritize the remainder for targeted testing. To address this issue, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and other orga...

298

ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

299

AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The processes of aging result in many physiological changes which can lead to alterations in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. uch changes can result in altered sensitivity to chemicals, whether drugs or environmental agents, in the elderly. t is extremely diff...

300

Hospital ventilation standards and energy conservation: chemical contamination of hospital air. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In an era of increasing energy conservation consciousness, a critical reassessment of the validity of hospital ventilation and thermal standards is made. If current standards are found to be excessively conservative, major energy conservation measures could be undertaken by rebalancing and/or modification of current HVAC systems. To establish whether or not reducing ventilation rates would increase airborne chemical contamination to unacceptable levels, a field survey was conducted to develop an inventory and dosage estimates of hospital generated airborne chemical contaminants to which patients, staff, and visitors are exposed. The results of the study are presented. Emphasis is on patient exposure, but an examination of occupational exposure was also made. An in-depth assessment of the laboratory air environment is documented. Housekeeping products used in survey hospitals, hazardous properties of housekeeping chemicals and probable product composition are discussed in the appendices.

Rainer, D.; Michaelsen, G.S.

1980-03-01

301

Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

2003-06-01

302

ANAEROBIC DEHALOGENATION OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTSOF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTSOF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTSOF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remediation of sediments contaminated with toxic chemicals is one of the greatest challenges for restoration of estuaries.\\u000a Halogenated organic compounds constitute one of the largest groups of environmental pollutants and their use has resulted\\u000a in widespread dissemination and environmental contamination, with freshwater, estuarine and marine sediments as significant\\u000a sinks.

Max M. Häggblom; Donna E. Fennell; Young-Beom Ahn; Beth Ravit; Lee J. Kerkhof

303

Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

Not Available

1985-01-01

304

A Raman chemical imaging system for detection of contaminants in food  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presented a preliminary investigation into the use of macro-scale Raman chemical imaging for the screening of dry milk powder for the presence of chemical contaminants. Melamine was mixed into dry milk at concentrations (w/w) of 0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 5.0%, and 10.0% and images of the mixtures were analyzed by a spectral information divergence algorithm. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and urea were each separately mixed into dry milk at concentrations of (w/w) of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 5.0%, and an algorithm based on self-modeling mixture analysis was applied to these sample images. The contaminants were successfully detected and the spatial distribution of the contaminants within the sample mixtures was visualized using these algorithms. Although further studies are necessary, macro-scale Raman chemical imaging shows promise for use in detecting contaminants in food ingredients and may also be useful for authentication of food ingredients.

Chao, Kaunglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S.; Mo, Chang Yeon

2011-06-01

305

The remedial action priority system (RAPS): Comparison between simulated and observed environmental contaminant levels  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) is an objective, physics-based, fully integrated multimedia environmental assessment methodology. RAPS assesses environmental issues associated with hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites based on relative human health risk and limited site information. the purpose of this paper is to report on the results associated with applying components of the RAPS methodology to a variety of sites with different contaminant release mechanisms. These applications illustrate the type of data typically required to implement the methodology and several of the types of contaminant releases (e.g., direct discharge, French drain, cribs, tile field, and stacks) that can be considered by the methodology. They thus demonstrate the applicability of the methodology at a wide variety of sites. The various components of the RAPS methodology have been implemented at actual sites where contaminant levels have been monitored in the environment. The monitored contaminant levels are compared to simulated contaminant levels associated with the application to the RAPS methodology at these sites. The purpose of the comparison is to demonstrate the applicability of implementing RAPS to a wide variety of hazardous waste sites and releases of contaminants into the environment. 21 refs., 13 figs.

Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

1988-08-01

306

Catchment-scale environmental controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally river sediment associated contaminants, most notably heavy metals, radionuclides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and phosphorous, constitute one the most significant long-term risks to ecosystems and human health. These can impact both urban and rural areas and, because of their prolonged environmental residence times, are major sources of secondary pollution if contaminated soil and sediment are disturbed by human activity or by natural processes such as water or wind erosion. River catchments are also the primary source of sediment-associated contaminants to the coastal zone, and to the ocean, and an understanding of the factors that control contaminated sediment fluxes and delivery in river systems is essential for effective environmental management and protection. In this paper the catchment-scale controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal are reviewed, including climate-related variations in flooding regime, land-use change, channel engineering, restoration and flood defence. Drawing on case studies from metal mining impacted catchments in Bolivia (Río Pilcomayo), Spain (Río Guadiamar), Romania (River Tisa) and the UK (River Swale) some improved methodologies for identifying, tracing, modelling and managing contaminated river sediments are proposed that could have more general application in similarly affected river systems worldwide.

Macklin, Mark

2010-05-01

307

Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination.

Not Available

1980-01-01

308

Environmental contaminants as risk factors for developing diabetes.  

PubMed

The contribution of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the incidence of diabetes has received little attention until recently. A number of reports have emerged, however, concerning elevated diabetes in persons occupationally exposed to dioxin. United States (US) Air Force personnel in Vietnam who sprayed Agent Orange containing dioxin as a contaminant had elevated rates of diabetes, leading to US government compensation for diabetes in these veterans. Recent studies in populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides found a dose-dependent elevated risk of diabetes. An elevation in risk of diabetes in relation to levels of several POPs has been demonstrated by two different groups using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a random sampling of US citizens. The strong associations seen in quite different studies suggest the possibility that exposure to POPs could cause diabetes. One striking observation is that obese persons that do not have elevated POPs are not at elevated risk of diabetes, suggesting that the POPs rather than the obesity per se is responsible for the association. Although a specific mechanism is not known, most POPs induce a great number and variety of genes, including several that alter insulin action. Because diabetes is a dangerous disease that is increasing in frequency throughout the world, further study of the possibility that exposure to POPs contributes to the etiology of diabetes is critical. PMID:18557598

Carpenter, David O

2008-01-01

309

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: monitoring environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in otters from the lower coastal plain (4.42 and 24.25 mg/kg wet wt, respectively) compared to otters from the piedmont (1.48 and 15.24 mg/kg, respectively). Liver tissue from lower coastal plain otters averaged 7.53 mg/kg mercury. Mean fetus brain and muscle mercury concentrations were 1.03 and 1.58 mg/kg wet wt, respectively, and fetal muscle mercury concentrations were correlated (r = 0.92) with maternal muscle mercury concentrations. Comparison of mercury concentrations found in Georgia otters to those associated with adverse effects in otter and mink (Mustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from the lower coastal plain approached or exceeded concentrations demonstrated to be toxic to experimentally dosed otters. PMID:7944553

Halbrook, R S; Jenkins, J H; Bush, P B; Seabolt, N D

1994-10-01

310

Stormwater Chemical Contamination Caused by Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) Infrastructure Rehabilitation Activities.  

PubMed

Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) is becoming a popular U.S. stormwater culvert rehabilitation method. Several State transportation agencies have reported that CIPP activities can release styrene into stormwater, but no other contaminants have been monitored. CIPP's stormwater contamination potential and that of its condensate waste was characterized. Condensate completely dissolved Daphnia magna within 24 h. Condensate pH was 6.2 and its chemical oxygen demand (COD) level was 36?000 ppm. D. magna mortality (100%) occurred in 48 h, even when condensate was diluted by a factor of 10?000 and styrene was present at a magnitude less than its LC50. Condensate and stormwater contained numerous carcinogenic solvents used in resin synthesis, endocrine disrupting contaminants such as plasticizers, and initiator degradation products. For 35 days, COD levels at the culvert outlets and downstream ranged from 100 to 375 ppm and styrene was 0.01 to 7.4 ppm. Although contaminant levels generally reduced with time, styrene levels were greatest 50 ft downstream, not at the culvert outlet. Cured CIPP extraction tests confirmed that numerous contaminants other than styrene were released into the environment and their persistence and toxicity should be investigated. More effective contaminant containment and cleaner installation processes must be developed to protect the environment. PMID:25127182

Tabor, Matthew L; Newman, Derrick; Whelton, Andrew J

2014-09-16

311

IDENTIFICATION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR SELECTION OF WATERBORNE ORGANISMS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENY'S CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the revisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to identify contaminants which may have an adverse health effects for inclusion on a Contaminant Candidate List. Contaminants from this list are further reviewed to de...

312

DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF VULNERABILITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The susceptibility of the developing nervous system to damage following exposure to environmental contaminants is believed to be based upon the critical nature of the organizational events that occur in both a regionally- and temporally-dependent manner. The age-related susceptib...

313

Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may

R. L. Hothem; S. G. Zador

1995-01-01

314

Investigation of environmental contamination in lichens of Gökçeada (Imbroz) Island in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to determine the type of environmental contamination in lichens in Gökçeada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey. We used two different lichen species Cladonia foliacea and Ramalina pollinaria. In the first part of the investigation, the beta activities of lichens have been measured by using a TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector.The

A. Kahraman; G. Kaynak; O. Gurler; S. Yalcin; S. Ozturk; O. Gundogdu

2009-01-01

315

Osprey: Worldwide Sentinel Species for Assessing and Monitoring Environmental Contamination in Rivers, Lakes, Reservoirs, and Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel

Robert A. Grove; Charles J. Henny; James L. Kaiser

2009-01-01

316

Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

2001-01-01

317

A systems biology approach to understanding impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past decade, our research team at the US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division has employed systems biology approaches to examine and understand impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction. Our systems biology approach is one in which iterations of model cons...

318

Recent Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard as Recorded in Lake Sediments – an Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an interdisciplinary project on recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (76°30'N–80°30'N). It describes the rationale and aims of the project and summarises the location, climate, geology, vegetation, and land-use of Svalbard.

H. J. B. Birks; Vivienne J. Jones; N. L. Rose

2004-01-01

319

Valuing Environmental Quality Changes Using Averting Expenditures: An Application to Groundwater Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public decision-makers require information on the benefits and costs of policies for groundwater protection. The averting expenditures method for valuing environmental improvements is examined and used to approximate the economic costs of groundwater degradation to households in a southeastern Pennsylvania community. Results indicate that households' knowledge of contamination, perception of risk, and presence of children determine whether they undertake averting

Charles W. Abdalla; Brian A. Roach; Donald J. Epp

1992-01-01

320

HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

321

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

322

Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.  

PubMed

A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals. PMID:21972521

Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

2011-09-01

323

Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

Meyers-Schoene, L. (IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-04-01

324

INTERFERENCE OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT EXTRACTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS WITH RETINOID SIGNALING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis. Some effects, such as malformations in frogs or changes in metabolism of birds, could be related to disruption of the retinoid signaling pathway by exposure to organic contaminants. A new reporter gene assay has been established for evaluation of the modulation of retinoid signaling by individual chemicals

Ji?í Novák; Martin Beníšek; Ji?í Pacherník; Jaroslav Janošek; Tereza Šídlová; Hannu Kiviranta; Matti Verta; John P. Giesy; Lud?k Bláha; Klára Hilscherová

2007-01-01

325

Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills, disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters, antifouling agents, and the preservation of wood. Due to its widespread use as an antifouling agent in boat paints, TBT is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems exceeding acute and chronic toxicity levels. TBT

Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

2008-01-01

326

Environmental contamination associated with a marine landfill (‘seafill’) beside a coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bermuda, bulk waste such as scrap metal, cars, etc., and blocks of cement-stabilized incinerator ash (produced from burning garbage) are disposed of in a foreshore reclamation site, i.e., a seafill. Chemical analyses show that seawater leaching out of the dump regularly exceeds water quality guidelines for Zn and Cu, and that the surrounding sediments are enriched in multiple contaminant

Ross Jones

2010-01-01

327

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. The most threatened sites include Jefferson National Forest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

2008-01-01

328

Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals? - Missing links in EU chemical management.  

PubMed

It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles. PMID:22858536

Molander, Linda; Breitholtz, Magnus; Andersson, Patrik L; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Rudén, Christina

2012-10-01

329

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities. PMID:18393576

Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

2008-07-01

330

Author-produced version of the article published in Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2007, 53, 57-65.  

E-print Network

of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53 (2007) p. 57 - p. 65" DOI : 10.1007/s00244-006-0046-y #12Author-produced version of the article published in Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2007, 53, 57-65. The original publication is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/ doi : 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Environmental contamination by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production  

PubMed Central

Background Vancomycin resistant enterococci are a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and their presence among farm animals is unwanted. Using media supplemented with vancomycin an increase in the proportion of samples from Swedish broilers positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci has been detected. The situation at farm level is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline knowledge about environmental contamination with vancomycin resistant enterococci in Swedish broiler production and the association between environmental contamination and colonisation of birds. Methods Environmental samples were taken before, during and after a batch of broilers at three farms. Samples were cultured both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. In addition, caecal content from birds in the batch following at each farm was cultured qualitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. Results The number of samples positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Also the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the positive samples and the proportion of caecal samples containing vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Still, the temporal changes in environmental contamination followed a similar pattern in all farms. Conclusion Vancomycin resistant enterococci persist in the compartments even after cleaning and the temporal changes in environmental contamination were similar among farms. There were however differences among farms regarding both degree of contamination and proportion of birds colonized with vancomycin resistant enterococci. The proportion of colonized birds and the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the compartments seems to be associated. If the factor(s) causing the differences among farms could be identified, it might be possible to reduce both the risk for colonisation by vancomycin resistant enterococci of the subsequent flock and the risk for spread of vancomycin resistant enterococci via the food chain to humans. PMID:19954525

2009-01-01

332

Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

Costain, D. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-07-01

333

The effects of cationic contamination on the physio-chemical properties of perfluoroionomer membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology cannot meet fuel cell and electrolyzer durability standards for stationary and transportation applications. Cell designs are not of sufficient maturity to demonstrate more than several thousand hours of invariant performance. One of the limiting factors is the operational lifetime of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA's) because of pin-holing, dry-out, mechanical breeches, chemical attack and contamination. This program investigated the role of contamination on the degradation of perfluorinated membranes in fuel cell and electrolysis environments. Tests were conducted to develop an understanding of the effects of cationic contaminants on fundamental design parameters for these membranes including water content, ion exchange capacity, gas diffusion, ionic conductivity, and mechanical properties. Tests showed that cations rapidly transport into the membrane and disperse throughout its structure achieving high equilibrium concentrations. Ion charge density appears to govern membrane water content with small ions demonstrating the highest water content. Permeability studies showed transport in accordance with Fick's law in the following order: H2>O2>N 2>H2O. Cations negatively affect gas and water transport, with charge density affecting transport rates. Unique diffusion coefficients were calculated for each contaminating species suggesting that the contaminant is an integral participant in the transport process. AC resistance measurements showed that size of the ion charge carrier is an important factor in the conduction mechanism and that membrane area specific resistance correlates well with water content. Increases in membrane yield strength and the modulus of elasticity were demonstrated with increased contamination. Tensile tests showed that cation size plays an important role in determining the magnitude of this increase, indicating that larger ions interfere more with strain than smaller ones. Contaminants reduced strain to break with smaller ions showing the greatest effect. Ultimate tensile strength increased slightly with all contaminants except lithium, which effected a reduction in this property, reflecting a relationship with contaminant size. This study has produced key data and relationships concerning the effects of cationic contamination on perfluoroionomer membranes such as Nafion 117. This provides a framework for the determination of empirical coefficients that are essential to developing multiphysics models relating to the effects of cationic contaminants on perfluoroionomer membranes.

Molter, Trent M.

334

Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitat types in addition to estuaries, and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional or national environmental quality assessments.

Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

2003-01-01

335

Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.  

PubMed

This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated. PMID:24281673

French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

2014-08-01

336

Survey of Radiological and Chemical Contaminants in the Near-Shore Environment at the Hanford Site 300 Area  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an environmental surveillance study of the near-shore of the Columbia River at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The study was conducted in August - October, 2001 to coincide with expected low river stage. The low river stage facilitated locating and sampling riverbank spring water and other media along the Columbia River shoreline. River water, riverbank spring water, near shore groundwater, riparian and aquatic biota samples were collected. Contaminants of concern included radionuclides, metals, organics, and anions. A survey of the external radiation levels along the near-shore area was also conducted. The report presents the objectives and regulatory drivers for this study, a description of the sample collection process, analytical results and discussion for both radiological and non-radiological (chemical) samples. In addition, human and ecological dose/risk assessments based upon the analytical results are presented.

Patton, Gregory W.; Tiller, Brett L.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.; Van Verst, Scott P.

2002-09-27

337

Environmental Contamination due to Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii surrounding Colonized or Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients colonized or infected with MDR-AB at a tertiary-care hospital from October 2008 to January 2009. For each patient, 10 surfaces in the patient room were sampled and evaluated for the presence of A. baumannii. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on all environmental isolates and a clinical isolate if available. RESULTS 50 rooms were sampled; 48% (24/50) were positive at one or more environmental sites. Supply carts (10/50, 20%); floors (8/50, 16%); infusion pumps (7/50, 14%); and ventilator touch pads (5/44, 11.4%) were most commonly contaminated. Patients with a recent history of MDR-AB were no more likely to contaminate their environment than patients with a remote history (51% vs. 36%, p-value = 0.50). In 85% (17/20) of cases the environmental isolate was classified as genetically similar to the patient isolate. CONCLUSIONS For patients with MDR-AB, the surrounding environment is frequently contaminated, even among patients with a remote history of MDR-AB. Surfaces often touched by healthcare workers during routine patient care are commonly contaminated and may be a source of nosocomial spread. PMID:22041290

Thom, Kerri A.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Lee, Mary S.; Harris, Anthony D.

2011-01-01

338

Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

2012-01-01

339

Organic carbon and chemical contaminant relationships in river and lake sediments  

SciTech Connect

Sediment collected from 11 sites within the Fox and East Rivers of Brown County, Wisconsin, and two near-shore sites in Green Bay (Lake Michigan) were analyzed for organic carbon content and various pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorodibenzodioxins, chlorodibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfur and heavy metals. Representative chemicals from the organic and inorganic groups were examined for their concentrations at the various sites relative to organic carbon content. Correlations between organic carbon and contaminant concentrations resulted in simple linear regression models with high degrees of predictive capability for most chemicals. For example, chemical concentration relationships with organic carbon (r{sup 2}) were p,p{prime}-DDE (0.85), total PCBs (0.69), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (0.76), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin (0.87), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (0.71), fluoranthene (0.46), pyrene (0.51), total sulfur (0.75), cadmium (0.76), copper (0.84), lead (0.85), zinc (0.80), chromium (0.04), and nickel (0.39). All correlations were positive with the exception of nickel. This suggests that contaminants within the lower Fox River/Green Bay system are at steady-state with respect to organic carbon. Knowledge of relationships such as this within aquatic systems may be useful in planning and budgeting contaminant mass balance studies within the systems.

Call, D.J.; Markee, T.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States). Lake Superior Research Inst.; Lodge, K. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Cook, P.D.; Ankley, G.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1995-12-31

340

Experimental study on trace chemical contaminant generation rates of human metabolism in spacecraft crew module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace chemical contaminants generated by human metabolism is a major source of contamination in spacecraft crew module. In this research, types and generation rates of pollutants from human metabolism were determined in the Chinese diets. Expired air, skin gas, and sweat of 20 subjects were analyzed at different exercise states in a simulated module. The exercise states were designed according to the basic activities in the orbit of astronauts. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of contaminants generated by human metabolic were performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometer. Sixteen chemical compounds from metabolic sources were found. With the increase in physical load, the concentrations of chemical compounds from human skin and expired air correspondingly increased. The species and the offgassing rates of pollutants from human metabolism are different among the Chinese, Americans and the Russians due to differences in ethnicity and dietary customs. This research provides data to aid in the design, development and operation of China's long duration space mission.

Lihua, Guo; Xinxing, He; Guoxin, Xu; Xin, Qi

2012-12-01

341

REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.  

SciTech Connect

Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

2004-09-25

342

Gene expression profiling and environmental contaminant assessment of migrating Pacific salmon in the Fraser River watershed of British Columbia.  

PubMed

The health and physiological condition of anadromous salmon is of concern as their upriver migration requires navigation of human-impacted waterways and metabolism of stored energy reserves containing anthropogenic contaminants. Such factors may affect reproductive success of fish stocks. This study investigates chemical contaminant burdens and select gene expression profiles in Pacific Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon which traverse the Fraser River watershed during their spawning migration. Chemical analyses of muscle tissue and eggs of salmon collected from the lower Fraser River (pre-migration) and from upstream spawning grounds (post-migration) during the 2007 migration revealed the presence of numerous chemical contaminants, including PCBs, dioxins/furans, pesticides, and heavy metals. However, muscle tissue residue concentrations were well below human health consumption guidelines and 2,3,7,8 TCDD toxic equivalents (SigmaTEQs) in salmon eggs, calculated using WHO toxic equivalency factors (WHO-TEFs) for fish health, did not exceed the 0.3pgg(-1) wet weight toxicological threshold level previously associated with 30% egg mortality in salmon populations. Quantitative real-time PCR probes were generated and used to assess differences in abundance of key mRNA transcripts encoding nine gene products associated with reproduction, stress, metal toxicity, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Gene expression profiles were characterized in liver and muscle tissue of pre- and post-migration Sockeye and Chinook salmon. The results of stock-matched animals indicate that dynamic changes in mRNA levels occur for a number of genes in both species during migration and suggest that Sockeye salmon exhibit a greater level of biological stress compared to the Chinook salmon population. Using a male-specific genotypic marker, we found that out of the 154 animals examined, one Sockeye was genotypically male but phenotypically female. This individual's gene expression profile in liver and muscle was reminiscent of, but not identical to, the female expression profile. These studies provide the first glimpse of the dynamic yet common nature of changes in the transcriptome that are shared between species during in-migration and highlight differences that may relate to population success. Continued longitudinal assessment will further define the association between contaminant burden, physiological stress, and modulation of gene expression in migrating Pacific salmon. PMID:19811841

Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Dubetz, Cory; Macpherson, Nancy; Sampson, Tracy; Kelly, Barry C; Helbing, Caren C

2010-05-01

343

Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

344

What environmental fate processes have the strongest influence on a completely persistent organic chemical's accumulation in the Arctic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fate and transport models can be used to identify and classify chemicals that have the potential to undergo long-range transport and to accumulate in remote environments. For example, the Arctic contamination potential (ACP), calculated with the help of the zonally averaged global transport model Globo-POP, is a numerical indicator of an organic chemical's potential to be transported to polar latitudes and to accumulate in the Arctic ecosystem. It is important to evaluate how robust such model predictions are and in particular to appreciate to what extent they may depend on a specific choice of environmental model input parameters. Here, we employ a recently developed graphical method based on partitioning maps to comprehensively explore the sensitivity of ACP estimates to variations in environmental parameters. Specifically, the changes in the ACP of persistent organic contaminants to changes in each environmental input parameter are plotted as a function of the two-dimensional hypothetical "chemical space" defined by two of the three equilibrium partition coefficients between air, water and octanol. Based on the patterns obtained, this chemical space is then segmented into areas of similar parameter sensitivities and superimposed with areas of high default ACP and elevated environmental bioaccumulation potential within the Arctic. Sea ice cover, latitudinal temperature gradient, and macro-diffusive atmospheric transport coefficients, and to a lesser extent precipitation rate, display the largest influence on ACP-values for persistent organic contaminants, including those that may bioaccumulate within the polar marine ecosystems. These environmental characteristics are expected to be significantly impacted by global climate change processes, highlighting the need to explore more explicitly how climate change may affect the long-range transport and accumulation behavior of persistent organic pollutants.

Meyer, Torsten; Wania, Frank

345

Effects of a complex mixture of chemical contaminants on hepatic glutathione, L-cysteine and {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of chemical contaminants on concentrations of hepatic glutathione (GSH), cysteine (L-Cys), and the activity of {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) were assessed in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) in the laboratory and in fish from the Duwamish Waterway, a contaminated urban site in Puget Sound, Washington. In the laboratory studies, fish from a nonurban (reference) site were exposed to an organic-solvent extract of sediment from the Duwamish Waterway. Hepatic GSH concentrations significantly increased at 3 d after exposure to the extract at 1,000 g sediment extracted/kg fish. At this time point, hepatic GSH showed a dose-dependent increase at dosages ranging from 300 to 1,600 g sediment extracted/kg fish, whereas fish exposed to a reference sediment extract showed no increase. Moreover, the increases in GSH in fish exposed to the contaminated sediment extract were not accompanied by changes in either L-Cys concentrations or {gamma}-GCS activity. Similarly, fish sampled directly from the Duwamish Waterway showed increased GSH concentrations but showed no significant differences in L-Cys levels or {gamma}-GCS activity compared to fish from a reference site. These results substantiate the hepatic GSH in fish is responsive to chemical contaminant exposure and further support its use as a biomarker in environmental monitoring studies. The findings also indicate that L-Cys availability and induction of {gamma}-GCS were not major factors in the increase of hepatic GSH in contaminant-exposed English sole.

Nishimoto, M.; Le Eberhart, B.T.; Sanborn, H.R.; Krone, C.; Varanasi, U.; Stein, J.E. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-03-01

346

Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  

PubMed

Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

2014-07-01

347

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

SciTech Connect

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 {micro}g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 {micro}g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p < 0.05) than at Lake Winnipegosis (70%), and the prevalence of hatchlings with deformed bills was greater (p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J.M.; Karasov, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI (United States); Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Giesy, J.P.; Jones, P.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Verbrugge, D.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hanbidge, B.A.

1996-04-01

348

Time trends of Arctic contamination in relation to emission history and chemical persistence and partitioning properties.  

PubMed

How long does ittake for organic contaminant concentrations to decline in the Arctic after regulatory measures have succeeded in reducing emissions globally? This question is explored by using a zonally averaged global distribution model to estimate the lag-time between the period when emissions begin to decrease and when a decline in a chemical's Arctic Contamination Potential is observed. A long lag is problematic, as contaminant concentrations can continue to increase well after a potential hazard is recognized. Using three different emission scenarios, the chemical property combinations that are most likely to experience a lag on the order of decades were identifed among 96 hypothetical chemicals with different partitioning and reactivity properties. The first such property combination comprises the persistent "swimmers" that reach the Arctic by slow long-range oceanic transport. They require a half-life (t(1/2)) in water of more than 10 years for a significant lag to occur. The second group of compounds experiencing a long lag includes semivolatile chemicals that are in dynamic exchange between atmosphere and ocean. These "multihoppers", with air-water partition coefficients, K(AW) of approximately 0.01, need to be highly persistent in air (t(1/2) >3 years) and surface media (t(1/2) >10 years). Their lag depends both on the oceans' large storage capacity and relatively low stickiness, i.e., a high likelihood of return to the atmosphere. Notably, no lag is predicted for less water soluble multihoppers (K(AW) >1), which are more likely to distribute into soils and foliage, because the terrestrial environment is "stickier" than the oceans, greatly reducing the number of hops these chemical will experience. The oceans thus play a crucial role in facilitating delayed Arctic contamination, either by transporting dissolved contaminants slowly to higher latitudes, or by providing a relatively nonsticky temporary storage reservoir which is in constant exchange with the atmosphere. Precaution advises a swift regulatory response to increasing concentrations in remote marine organisms of substances that have property combinations that are predicted to result in a significant delay between emission reductions and concentration declines. PMID:17937271

Gouin, Todd; Wania, Frank

2007-09-01

349

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant hazards (e.g., Blue Ridge Parkway, George Washington National Forest, Shenandoah National Park) had no recent avian ecotoxicological data. Contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from such efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

2007-01-01

350

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01

351

Federal environmental legislation in the U.S. for protection of wildlife and regulation of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The U.S. has a long history of legislation to protect wildlife, beginning with the Lacey Act of 1900. There are now over 170 Federal laws that regulate environmental activities which may affect wildlife. Two important laws are the Pittman-Robertson Act enacted in 1937 that authorizes a tax for wildlife management and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act passed in 1958 whose primary purpose is conservation of fish and wildlife, both of which continue to provide significant funding for wildlife management. Modern environmental regulations began by passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, followed by the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and other laws to regulate pesticides and toxics and clean up contaminated sites. International conventions regulate sale, use and disposal of toxics and ocean dumping. These laws and conventions should protect wildlife from unintended consequences of global industrialization. PMID:19562483

Fairbrother, Anne

2009-10-01

352

Faecal contamination on children's hands and environmental surfaces in primary schools in Leeds.  

PubMed Central

Gastro-intestinal diseases continue to be a major health problem in primary schools in the UK. This study, which took place in 20 primary schools in the Leeds area, investigated the presence of faecal indicator bacteria on children's hands and environmental surfaces. Faecal streptococci were used as an indicator of faecal contamination. A handwashing knowledge score was developed for each child. Those children with good hygiene knowledge had less faecal contamination on their hands (relative risk: 1.4, 95% CI = 1.09-1.81, P = 0.005). Those schools with higher hand counts were more likely to have had a reported outbreak of gastroenteritis in the past. Values of the Townsend Deprivation Index, an indicator of deprivation, were compared with the hand results and those schools in high deprivation areas had higher hand counts. Of the swabs taken from surfaces in the toilet areas and classrooms, the carpets in the classrooms were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. PMID:8557085

Kaltenthaler, E. C.; Elsworth, A. M.; Schweiger, M. S.; Mara, D. D.; Braunholtz, D. A.

1995-01-01

353

Faecal contamination on children's hands and environmental surfaces in primary schools in Leeds.  

PubMed

Gastro-intestinal diseases continue to be a major health problem in primary schools in the UK. This study, which took place in 20 primary schools in the Leeds area, investigated the presence of faecal indicator bacteria on children's hands and environmental surfaces. Faecal streptococci were used as an indicator of faecal contamination. A handwashing knowledge score was developed for each child. Those children with good hygiene knowledge had less faecal contamination on their hands (relative risk: 1.4, 95% CI = 1.09-1.81, P = 0.005). Those schools with higher hand counts were more likely to have had a reported outbreak of gastroenteritis in the past. Values of the Townsend Deprivation Index, an indicator of deprivation, were compared with the hand results and those schools in high deprivation areas had higher hand counts. Of the swabs taken from surfaces in the toilet areas and classrooms, the carpets in the classrooms were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. PMID:8557085

Kaltenthaler, E C; Elsworth, A M; Schweiger, M S; Mara, D D; Braunholtz, D A

1995-12-01

354

Congener-specific PCB chemical and physical parameters for evaluation of environmental weathering of Aroclors  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solubility, Henry's law constant, and vapor pressure data for PCBs were experimentally determined. Experimental data were successfully used to develop quantitative structure-property relationship models to determine factors governing selected chemical parameters. Desorption kinetics of 8PCB congeners from sediment suspensions were investigated using a gas stripping technique. Data suggest that resuspension of contaminated lake sediments can result in short term releases of up to 70 percent of the total PCBs associated with the sediment. Detailed laboratory experiments showed significant changes in the composition of PCBs can result from a series of resuspension (mixing) events. Less-chlorinated PCBs were selectively removed from the sediments while higher-chlorinated PCBs were enriched. Chemical data were used to develop a qualitative model predicting environmental weathering of Aroclors in Lake Hartwell. Model predictions were in good agreement with the laboratory results and recent field data from Lake Hartwell. Results suggest that chemical and physical processes are the major environmental weathering factors acting on PCBs in Lake Hartwell, however, some congener specific biodegradation could also be occurring.

Dunnivant, F.M.

1988-01-01

355

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

1999-05-07

356

TESTING DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLE COLLECTION METHODS FOR MEASURING PERSONAL DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dietary ingestion may be a significant pathway of human exposure to many potentially toxic chemicals. The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency-National Human Exposure Laboratory has made the development of methods for measuring persoanl dietary exposures a high priority for its di...

357

Associating Changes in Endogenous Metabolite Profiles of Field-Deployed Fish with Chemical Contaminants and Other Stressors  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing risk from contaminant exposure in the aquatic environment typically begins (and often ends) with identification of “listed” chemicals in water samples. While providing useful information about potential exposures, this approach to monitoring – in the a...

358

Contaminants at the sediment-water interface: implications for environmental impact assessment and effects monitoring.  

PubMed

Many contaminants in aquatic environments are associated with loosely packed aggregates of particulate material called flocs. Flocculation allows contaminants to accumulate at the sediment-water interface and it packages them in a form that is readily available for ingestion by filter feeding organisms. Unfortunately, most samplers being used for environmental assessment and monitoring suspend this material on impact and fail to sample this critical component of the seabed. In this study we use a slo-corer to collect seabed samples with an undisturbed surface layer and a Gust microcosm erosion chamber to erode the surface of the cores at increasing shear stresses. Results from two different sites, one impacted by tailings from historic gold mining and the other by open-pen salmon aquaculture, showed the levels of metals suspended at stresses below 0.24 Pa were greater than in the underlying sediment. Sampling this highly mobile surface layer is critical for determining the total contaminant load in bottom sediments and, more importantly, this layer represents the most readily available material for suspension. The loss of this layer during sampling could lead to inaccurate measurements of contaminant levels during environmental assessment and effects monitoring. A re-evaluation of the ISO standard for bottom sediment sampling is recommended. PMID:23647260

Milligan, T G; Law, B A

2013-06-01

359

Thyroid disruption in walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to environmental contaminants: cloning and use of iodothyronine deiodinases as molecular biomarkers.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones play a role in the initiation of ovarian maturation in fish. Thus, reports of delayed sexual maturation in female walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to contaminants in the Ottawa River suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of environmental contaminants in the Ottawa River on thyroid hormones of immature walleye and to develop a molecular biomarker of thyroid status. Walleye were sampled in the Ottawa River at Deep River (reference site), at Rivière Blanche (downstream from the Ottawa and Gatineau municipal wastewater treatment plants outflows), and at Plaisance (downstream from a pulp and paper mill). Plasma thyroid hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Walleye at Plaisance had two-fold elevated levels of thyroxine (T(4)) and 1.5-fold elevated levels triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas the molar ratio of T(3):T(4) was reduced by over 50% compared to Deep River. Plasma T(3) levels were also elevated by approximately 1.5-fold at Rivière Blanche. Three iodothyronine deiodinases, a family of enzymes responsible for converting the prohormone T(4) to biologically active T(3), as well as for inactivating these two hormones, were partially cloned in walleye. A real-time PCR assay of deiodinase expression indicated that hepatic mRNA levels of type I and type III deiodinase were not modified between sites, whereas they were increased for type II deiodinase at Rivière Blanche as compared to the other sites. The response of this novel molecular transcript indicates a divergence with that expected based on the effects of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on fish deiodinase expression; additional endpoints are therefore necessary to interpret changes in thyroid hormones levels in fish exposed to environmental contaminants. PMID:17524500

Picard-Aitken, Michelle; Fournier, Henri; Pariseau, Richard; Marcogliese, David J; Cyr, Daniel G

2007-07-20

360

Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contamination of spacecraft in the aerospace environment is examined. The optical systems, thermal control systems and solar power systems were deemed to be most vulnerable to particle damage. It was decided that all orbits should be considered. Specific issues concern whether there are changes in transmittance of optics and the radiative properties of protective coatings.

Maag, Carl R.

1989-01-01

361

Characterization of organic chemical contaminants in sediments from Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Jobos Bay, located on the southeastern coast of Puerto Rico, contains a variety of habitats including mangroves, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs. The watershed surrounding the bay includes a number of towns, agricultural areas, and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR). Jobos Bay and the surrounding watershed are part of a Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), involving the Jobos Bay NERR, the US Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess the benefits of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on the terrestrial and marine environments. As part of the Jobos Bay CEAP, NOAA collected sediment samples in May 2008 to characterize over 130 organic chemical contaminants. This paper presents the results of the organic contaminant analysis. The organic contaminants detected in the sediments included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, and the pesticide DDT. PAHs at one site in the inner bay near a boat yard were significantly elevated; however, all organic contaminant classes measured were below NOAA sediment quality guidelines that would have indicated that impacts were likely. The results of this work provide an important baseline assessment of the marine environment that will assist in understanding the benefits of implementing BMPs on water quality in Jobos Bay. PMID:21956337

Pait, Anthony S; Whitall, David R; Dieppa, Angel; Newton, Sarah E; Brune, Lia; Caldow, Chris; Mason, Andrew L; Apeti, Dennis A; Christensen, John D

2012-08-01

362

Assessment of the application of bioanalytical tools as surrogate measure of chemical contaminants in recycled water.  

PubMed

The growing use of recycled water in large urban centres requires comprehensive public health risk assessment and management, an important aspect of which is the assessment and management of residual trace chemical substances. Bioanalytical methods such as in vitro bioassays may be ideal screening tools that can detect a wide range of contaminants based on their biological effect. In this study, we applied thirteen in vitro assays selected explicitly for their ability to detect molecular and cellular effects relevant to potential chemical exposure via drinking water as a means of screening for chemical contaminants from recycled water at 9 Australian water reclamation plants, in parallel to more targeted direct chemical analysis of 39 priority compounds. The selected assays provided measures of primary non-specific (cytotoxicity to various cell types), specific (inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and endocrine receptor-mediated effects) and reactive toxicity (mutagenicity and genotoxicity), as well as markers of adaptive stress response (modulation of cytokine production) and xenobiotic metabolism (liver enzyme induction). Chemical and bioassay analyses were in agreement and complementary to each other: the results show that source water (treated wastewater) contained high levels of biologically active compounds, with positive results in almost all bioassays. The quality of the product water (reclaimed water) was only marginally better after ultrafiltration or dissolved air floatation/filtration, but greatly improved after reverse osmosis often reducing biological activity to below detection limit. The bioassays were able to detect activity at concentrations below current chemical method detection limits and provided a sum measure of all biologically active compounds for that bioassay, thus providing an additional degree of confidence in water quality. PMID:24355290

Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Laingam, Somprasong; Prochazka, Erik; Froscio, Suzanne; Trinh, Trang; Chapman, Heather F; Humpage, Andrew

2014-02-01

363

Environmental contaminants and biochemical responses in flatfish from the Hvaler Archipelago in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of several environmental contaminants, including selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organochlorines (DDT\\/DDE, hexachlorobenzene), 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF\\/PCDD), and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, and As) were analyzed in muscle and liver of three different flatfish species (dab,Limanda limanda; flounder,Platichthys flesus; plaice,Pleuronectes platessa) caught by gill netting at different sites in the Hvaler

Anders Goksøyr; Astrid-Mette Husøy; Hfivard E. Larsen; Jarle Klungsøyr; Svein Wilhelmsen; Amund Maage; Einar M. Brevik; Tommy Andersson; Malin Celander; Maija Pesonen; Lars Förlin

1991-01-01

364

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg\\/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05–9.2 mg\\/kg) was recorded in urban

H. Taylor; J. d. Appletonsupasu; R. Lister; B. Smith; D. Chitamweba; O. Mkumbo; J. F. Machiwa; A. L. Tesha; C. Beinhoff

2005-01-01

365

Bioconcentration potential of organic environmental chemicals in humans  

SciTech Connect

A list of environmental chemicals detectable in adipose tissue and/or milk of non-occupationally exposed humans is presented. Besides their physiochemical properties (n-octanol/water partition coefficient and water solubility), their acceptable daily intake (ADI) values, production figures, fate in the environment, concentrations in human adipose tissue, and data from total diet studies from market basket investigations are given. Average bioconcentration factors (BCF) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) in human adipose tissue are calculated. The bioconcentration factors (wet wt basis) of these compounds are between 3 and 47 times higher in humans than in rats. The environmental chemicals are divided into three groups in respect to their bioconcentration factors in human adipose tissue: group I, high BCF (greater than 100); group II, medium BCF (10-100); and group III, low BCF (less than 10). The bioconcentration factors are useful for hazard assessment of chemicals to humans.

Geyer, H.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

1986-12-01

366

The chemical biology of naphthoquinones and its environmental implications.  

PubMed

Quinones are a group of highly reactive organic chemical species that interact with biological systems to promote inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer actions and to induce toxicities. This review describes the chemistry, biochemistry, and cellular effects of 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones and their derivatives. The naphthoquinones are of particular interest because of their prevalence as natural products and as environmental chemicals, present in the atmosphere as products of fuel and tobacco combustion. 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones are also toxic metabolites of naphthalene, the major polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon present in ambient air. Quinones exert their actions through two reactions: as prooxidants, reducing oxygen to reactive oxygen species; and as electrophiles, forming covalent bonds with tissue nucleophiles. The targets for these reactions include regulatory proteins such as protein tyrosine phosphatases; Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, the regulatory protein for NF-E2-related factor 2; and the glycolysis enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Through their actions on regulatory proteins, quinones affect various cell signaling pathways that promote and protect against inflammatory responses and cell damage. These actions vary with the specific quinone and its concentration. Effects of exposure to naphthoquinones as environmental chemicals can vary with the physical state, i.e., whether the quinone is particle bound or is in the vapor state. The exacerbation of pulmonary diseases by air pollutants can, in part, be attributed to quinone action. PMID:21942631

Kumagai, Yoshito; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Miura, Takashi; Cho, Arthur K

2012-01-01

367

Environmental risk assessment of a metal-contaminated area in the Tropics. Tier I: screening phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The present study presents data on the screening phase (tier 1) of a site-specific ecological risk assessment in a former\\u000a smelter area heavily contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil). Joining information from three lines of evidence\\u000a (LoE), chemical, ecotoxicological, and ecological, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites within the area and\\u000a identify those that may need further

Júlia C. Niemeyer; Matilde Moreira-Santos; Marco Antonio Nogueira; Gabriel Machado Carvalho; Rui Ribeiro; Eduardo Mendes Da Silva; José Paulo Sousa

2010-01-01

368

Influence of environmental factors on the biological treatment of organic compounds in contaminated lagoon sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Scope  Many technologies available to remediate soils are not cost-effective when applied to marine and lagoon sediments, due to\\u000a the physico-chemical characteristics of these matrices (high percentages of small particle size material, high moisture and\\u000a organic matter content, many different types of inorganic and organic contamination). For these types of waste, slurry phase\\u000a bioreactors can provide versatile processes, with

Sabrina Saponaro; Luca Bonomo

2003-01-01

369

Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

A bacterial biosensor for benzene, toluene, and similar compounds has been constructed, characterized, and field tested on contaminated water and soil. The biosensor is based on a plasmid incorporating the transcriptional activator xylR from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The XylR protein binds a subset of toluene-like compounds and activates transcription at its promoter, Pu. A reporter plasmid was constructed by placing the luc gene for firefly luciferase under the control of XylR and Pu. When Escherichia coli cells were transformed with this plasmid vector, luminescence from the cells was induced in the presence of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and similar molecules. Accurate concentration dependencies of luminescence were obtained and exhibited K1/2 values ranging from 39.0 ± 3.8 ?M for 3-xylene to 2,690 ± 160 ?M for 3-methylbenzylalcohol (means ± standard deviations). The luminescence response was specific for only toluene-like molecules that bind to and activate XylR. The biosensor cells were field tested on deep aquifer water, for which contaminant levels were known, and were able to accurately detect toluene derivative contamination in this water. The biosensor cells were also shown to detect BETX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) contamination in soil samples. These results demonstrate the capability of such a bacterial biosensor to accurately measure environmental contaminants and suggest a potential for its inexpensive application in field-ready assays. PMID:9501440

Willardson, Barry M.; Wilkins, Jon F.; Rand, Timothy A.; Schupp, James M.; Hill, Karen K.; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J.

1998-01-01

370

Possible mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants on St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).  

PubMed Central

A small isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that are highly contaminated by pollutants, mostly of industrial origin, resides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada. Overhunting in the first half of the century was the probable cause for this population to dwindle from several thousand animals to the current estimate of 500. The failure of the population to recover might be due to contamination by organochlorine compounds, which are known to lead to reproductive failure and immunosuppression in domestic and laboratory animals and seals. Functional and morphological changes have been demonstrated in thyroid gland and adrenal cortex in many species exposed to organochlorinated compounds, including seals. Morphological lesions, although different, were also found in belugas. Functional evaluation of thyroid and adrenal glands of contaminated (St. Lawrence) versus much less contaminated (Arctic) belugas is currently under way. Necropsy of St. Lawrence belugas showed numerous severe and disseminated infections with rather mildly pathogenic bacteria, which suggests immunosuppression. Organochlorine compounds and other contaminants found in beluga whales cause immunosuppression in a variety of animal species including seals. Thirty-seven percent of all the tumors reported in cetaceans were observed in St. Lawrence beluga whales. This could be explained by two different mechanisms: high exposure to environmental carcinogens and suppression of immunosurveillance against tumors. Overall, St. Lawrence belugas might well represent the risk associated with long-term exposure to pollutants present in their environment and might be a good model to predict health problems that could emerge in highly exposed human populations over time. PMID:7556028

De Guise, S; Martineau, D; Beland, P; Fournier, M

1995-01-01

371

A Finite Rate Chemical Analysis of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination Effects on Scramjet Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. A finite rate chemical analysis was performed to determine the levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility at conditions corresponding to Mach 6 to 8 flight simulations. Results indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, corroborating previously obtained measurements. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate the effects of nitric oxide on scramjet performance. Results indicate that nitric oxide in the test gas causes a small increase in heat release and thrust performance for the test conditions investigated. However, a rate constant uncertainty analysis suggests that the effect of nitric oxide ranges from no net effect, to an increase of about 10 percent in thrust performance.

Cabell, Karen F.; Rock, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

372

Groundwater contamination from an inactive uranium mill tailings pile: 1. Application of a chemical mixing model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-pH process waters contained in a number of inactive and abandoned uranium mill tailings in the United States represent potential sources of radionuclide and trace metal contamination of groundwater. Detailed investigations at a typical site at Riverton, Wyoming, indicate that chemical transport occurs from initial dewatering of the tailings, downward infiltration due to precipitation, and groundwater intrusion into the base of the tailings pile. Except for elevated uranium and molybdenum concentrations, current radionuclide and trace metal transport is limited by the near-neutral pH conditions of the groundwater. Significant reactions include the dissolution of calcite, production of CO2, and precipitation of gypsum and the hydroxides of iron and aluminum. A geochemical mixing model employing the PHREEQE computer code is used to estimate current rates of the groundwater contamination by tailings water. A maximum mixing of 1.7% of pore water is a factor of 2 less than steady state estimates based on hydraulic parameters.

White, A. F.; Delany, J. M.; Narasimhan, T. N.; Smith, A.

1984-11-01

373

Chemical contaminants in juvenile gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) from a subsistence harvest in Arctic feeding grounds.  

PubMed

Gray whales are coastal migratory baleen whales that are benthic feeders. Most of their feeding takes place in the northern Pacific Ocean with opportunistic feeding taking place during their migrations and residence on the breeding grounds. The concentrations of organochlorines and trace elements were determined in tissues and stomach contents of juvenile gray whales that were taken on their Arctic feeding grounds in the western Bering Sea during a Russian subsistence harvest. These concentrations were compared to previously published data for contaminants in gray whales that stranded along the west coast of the US during their northbound migration. Feeding in coastal waters during their migrations may present a risk of exposure to toxic chemicals in some regions. The mean concentration (standard error of the mean, SEM) of sigmaPCBs [1400 (130) ng/g, lipid weight] in the blubber of juvenile subsistence whales was significantly lower than the mean level [27,000 (11,000) ng/g, lipid weight] reported previously in juvenile gray whales that stranded in waters off the west coast of the US. Aluminum in stomach contents of the subsistence whales was high compared to other marine mammal species, which is consistent with the ingestion of sediment during feeding. Furthermore, the concentrations of potentially toxic chemicals in tissues were relatively low when compared to the concentrations in tissues of other marine mammals feeding at higher trophic levels. These chemical contaminant data for the subsistence gray whales substantially increase the information available for presumably healthy animals. PMID:12047066

Tilbury, Karen L; Stein, John E; Krone, Cheryl A; Brownell, Robert L; Blokhin, S A; Bolton, Jennie L; Ernest, Don W

2002-05-01

374

Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).  

PubMed

Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17?-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17?-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

2014-10-01

375

Chemical Treatments for Mobilizing Arsenic from Contaminated Aquifer Solids to Accelerate Remediation.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at US Superfund sites where remediation by pump and treat systems is often complicated by slow desorption of As from Fe and Al (hydr)oxides in aquifer solids. Chemical amendments that either compete with As for sorption sites or dissolve Fe and Al (hydr)oxides can increase As mobility and improve pump and treat remediation efficiency. The goal of this work was to determine optimal amendments for improving pump and treat at As contaminated sites such as the Vineland Chemical Co. Superfund site in southern New Jersey. Extraction and column experiments were performed using As contaminated aquifer solids (81 ± 1 mg/kg), site groundwater, and either phosphate (NaH(2)PO(4)·H(2)O) or oxalic acid (C(2)H(2)O(4)·2H(2)O). In extraction experiments, phosphate mobilized between 11% and 94% of As from the aquifer solids depending on phosphate concentration and extraction time (1 mM-1 M; 1-24 h) and oxalic acid mobilized between 38 and 102% depending on oxalic acid concentration and extraction time (1-400 mM; 1-24 h). In column experiments, phosphate additions induced more As mobilization in the first few pore volumes but oxalic acid was more effective at mobilizing As overall and at lower amendment concentrations. At the end of the laboratory column experiments, 48% of As had been mobilized from the aquifer sediments with 100 mM phosphate and 88% had been mobilized with 10 mM oxalic acid compared with 5% with ambient groundwater alone. Furthermore, simple extrapolations based on pore volumes suggest that chemical treatments could lower the time necessary for clean up at the Vineland site from 600 a with ambient groundwater alone to potentially as little as 4 a with 10 mM oxalic acid. PMID:21076621

Wovkulich, Karen; Mailloux, Brian J; Lacko, Allison; Keimowitz, Alison R; Stute, Martin; Simpson, H James; Chillrud, Steven N

2010-10-01

376

Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

Bannochie, Christopher J.

2013-07-31

377

Results for the Third Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

Bannochie, C. J.

2012-10-26

378

Semi-Passive Chemical Oxidation Schemes for the Long-Term Treatment of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

As of the third year of this 3-year project, we have developed numerical models and performed a series of computer simulations to investigate the problems related to the delivery of permanganate to the saturated porous media. Primary results of this study are being prepared for presentation in national conferences and as papers in peer-reviewed publications. In addition, we have assessed the capabilities of various types of chemical mixtures in providing both contaminant destruction and plugging control. Results of this study have been published in peer-review journals.

Schwartz, Frank

2005-06-01

379

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental sites in 3 commercial dairy herds in the Northeast US were cultured quarterly for MAP, providing 1131 samples (133 (11.8%) were culture-positive), and all adult animals in the herds were tested biannually by fecal culture (FC), for 6 years. Of the environmental sites sampled, manure storage areas and shared alleyways were most likely to be culture-positive. Environmental sample results were compared to FC results from either the concurrent or previous sampling date at both the herd and the pen level. At the herd level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding increased the odds of a positive non-pen environmental sample by a factor of 6 and increased the average amount of MAP in non-pen samples by 2.9 cfu/g. At the pen level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding in the pen increased the odds of a positive environment by a factor of 2.4 and the average amount of MAP was increased by 3.5 cfu/g. We were not able to model the relationship between non-pen environmental sample status and the distance between shedding animals and the sample's location, and neighboring pens did not significantly affect the results of the pen-level analysis. The amount of MAP in pen-level samples and the probability of a pen testing positive for MAP were both positively but non-significantly correlated with the number of animals in the pen shedding >30 cfu/g of MAP. At least 6 environmental samples met the criteria for the U.S. Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program on 47 of the 72 sampling dates; of these, 19 of the 47 FC-positive sampling dates were positive by the 6-sample environmental testing method, resulting in a herd sensitivity of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.26-0.54). None of the 3 FC-negative sampling dates produced positive environmental samples. Although environmental sampling can be used as a tool in understanding the level of MAP infection in a herd or pen, it did not appear to be a sensitive diagnostic method for herd positivity in these low prevalence herds, and its use may require caution. PMID:21775002

Smith, R L; Schukken, Y H; Pradhan, A K; Smith, J M; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Wolfgang, D R; Grohn, Y T

2011-10-01

380

CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A DOSIMETRY-BASED CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR MIXTURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report, Considerations for Developing a Dosimetry-Based Cumulative Risk Assessment Approach for Mixtures of Environmental Contaminants , addresses the justification for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for cumulative risk assessment....

381

Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

Bengelsdorf, I.

1988-01-01

382

Study of human lactation for effects of environmental contaminants: the North Carolina Breast Milk and Formula Project and some other ideas.  

PubMed Central

The presence of environmental contaminant chemicals in human milk, their demonstrated toxicity, and the lack of data in human beings led to the North Carolina Breast Milk and Formula project, a three-center prospective birth cohort study of 856 children. In this study, we measure polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDE in milk and other fluids, follow the course of lactation, and note growth, morbidity and development in the children. Lactation is hormonally complicated and has parts that are plausibly interfered with by contaminant chemicals, and certain kinds of morbidity that occur in breastfed children might also represent the result of chemical contamination of milk. Preliminary data analysis confirms the widespread presence of chemicals in milk; women with higher DDE levels do not breast-feed as long, but this is not true for women with higher PCBs. Besides this study, several case-control or survey-type studies, such as studies of failure to thrive, certain rashes, or short-term breast-feeding would be helpful. Laboratory studies of enzyme induction are now feasible in children and might be a very sensitive if not totally specific endpoint for study of PCBs in milk. PMID:3928347

Rogan, W J; Gladen, B C

1985-01-01

383

Relationships of environmental contaminants to reproductive success in red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) from Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1977 and 1978, we studied red-breasted mergansers Mergus serrator nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan to determine whether environmental contaminants were having effects on reproduction. Seventeen contaminants were measured in randomly chosen eggs from 206 nests under study. Using a variety of statistical approaches, we looked for effects of individual contaminants and combinations of contaminants on reproductive measurements such as nest desertion, failure of eggs to hatch, death of newly hatched ducklings, percentage hatching success, number of ducklings leaving the nest and eggshell thickness. We also looked for relationships between the levels of some contaminants in blood samples of 39 incubating females and reproductive success. A small degree of eggshell thinning was attributed to DDE and a few other statistical tests were significant, but no contaminant or combination of contaminants we measured seemed to have a pronounced effect on the aspects of reproduction we followed.

Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Reichel, W.L.; Hensler, G.L.

1983-01-01

384

Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

385

Altered gonadal expression of TGF-? superfamily signaling factors in environmental contaminant-exposed juvenile alligators.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminant exposure can influence gonadal steroid signaling milieus; however, little research has investigated the vulnerability of non-steroidal signaling pathways in the gonads. Here we use American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) hatched from field-collected eggs to analyze gonadal mRNA transcript levels of the activin-inhibin-follistatin gene expression network and growth differentiation factor 9. The eggs were collected from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, a site with minimal anthropogenic influence, and Lake Apopka, a highly contaminated lake adjacent to a former EPA Superfund site. The hatchling alligators were raised for 13 months under controlled conditions, thus limiting differences to embryonic origins. Our data reveal sexually dimorphic mRNA expression in 13-month-old alligator gonads similar to patterns established in vertebrates with genetic sex determination. In addition, we observed a relationship between lake of origin and mRNA expression of activin/inhibin subunits ? and ?B, follistatin, and growth differentiation factor 9. Our study suggests that embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants can affect future non-steroidal signaling patterns in the gonads of a long-lived species. PMID:21251980

Moore, Brandon C; Milnes, Matthew R; Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Woodruff, Teresa K; Guillette, Louis J

2011-10-01

386

Evaluation of the role of environmental contamination in the microbial degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Studies were undertaken to determine the effect of environmental contamination upon the potential for degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by the microbial populations in freshwater sediments. Naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and benzo(a)pyrene(BP) were employed as substrates for PAH biodegradation. Biodegradation was assessed by mineralization of the /sup 14/C-PAH substrates incubated in sediment slurries. Mineralization rate constants and substrate turnover times were calculated for PAH mineralization studies. Sediment microcosms treated with individual, unlabeled PAH or a synthetic oil (SO) were sampled for the mineralization assay after various periods of acclimation. NAP and PHE treatments enhanced PAH mineralization rates while BP was inhibitory. The SO treatment caused a substantial enhancement of PAH mineralization rates. A PAH-degrading bacterial population added to various sediment systems did not significantly enhance PAH mineralizaion rates. Studies with natural sediment samples also indicated that previous environmental contamination tends to enhance the potential for PAH biodegradation. Studies indicated PAH mineralization in sediments was related to the length of incubation time, temperature, molecular size of the substrate and prior exposure to PAH or related contaminants.

Sherrill, T.W.

1982-01-01

387

The toxicology of climate change: Environmental contaminants in a warming world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. This review examines one of the consequences of climate change that has only recently attracted attention: namely, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemical pollutants. A review was undertaken of the scientific literature (original research articles, reviews, government and intergovernmental

Pamela D. Noyes; Matthew K. McElwee; Hilary D. Miller; Bryan W. Clark; Lindsey A. Van Tiem; Kia C. Walcott; Kyle N. Erwin; Edward D. Levin

2009-01-01

388

Data?derived safety factors for the evaluation of food additives and environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety factor of 100?fold is commonly applied to animal data to derive the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of food additives; other factors have been used in some cases and higher values are used more frequently for determining the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of environmental chemicals. The 100?fold factor is considered to represent the product of a 10?fold factor to

A. G. Renwick

1993-01-01

389

Biodegradation of creosote and pentachlorophenol in contaminated ground-water: Chemical and biological assessment  

SciTech Connect

Shake flask studies examined the rate and extent of biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 42 components of coal-tar creosote present in contaminated groundwater recovered from the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Fla. The ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to remove these contaminants from aqueous solutions was determined by gas chromatographic analysis of organic extracts of biotreated groundwater. Changes in potential environmental and human health hazards associated with the biodegradation of the material were determined at intervals by Microtox assays and fish toxicity and teratogenicity tests. After 14 days of incubation at 30 C, indigenous microorganisms effectively removed 100, 99, 94, 88, and 87% of measured phenolic and lower-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and S-heterocyclic, N-heterocyclic, and O-heterocyclic constituents of creosote, respectively. However, only 53% of the higher-molecular-weight PAHs were degraded; PCP was not removed. Despite the removal of a majority of the organic contaminants through biotreatment, only a slight decrease in the toxicity and teratogenicity of biotreated groundwater was observed. Data suggest that toxicity and teratogenicity are associated with compounds difficult to treat biologically and that one may not necessarily rely on indigenous microorganisms to effectively remove these compounds in a reasonable time span; to this end, alternative or supplemental approaches may be necessary. Similar measures of the toxicity and teratogenicity of treated material may offer a simple, yet important, guide to bioremediation effectiveness. (Copyright (c) 1991, American Society for Microbiology.)

Mueller, J.G.; Middaugh, D.P.; Lantz, S.E.; Chapman, P.J.

1991-01-01

390

Biodegradation of creosote and pentachlorophenol in contaminated groundwater: Chemical and biological assessment  

SciTech Connect

Shake flask studies examined the rate and extent of biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 42 components of coal-tar creosote present in contaminated groundwater recovered from the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, FL. The ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to remove these contaminants from aqueous solutions was determined by gas chromatographic analysis of organic extracts of biotreated groundwater. Changes in potential environmental and human health hazards associated with the biodegradation of this material were determined at intervals by Microtox assays and fish toxicity and teratogenicity tests. After 14 days of incubation at 30C, indigenous microorganisms effectively removed 100, 99, 94, 88, and 87% of measured phenolic and lower-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) and S-heterocyclic, N-heterocyclic, and O-heterocyclic constituents of creosote, respectively. However, only 53% of the higher-molecular-weight PAHS were degraded; PCP was not removed. Despite the removal of a majority of the organic contaminants through biotreatment, only a slight decrease in the toxicity and teratogenicity of biotreated groundwater was observed. Data suggest that toxicity and teratogenicity are associated with compounds difficult to treat biologically and that one may not necessarily rely on indigenous microorganisms to effectively remove these compounds in a reasonable time span.

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E. (Southern Bio Products, Inc., Gulf Breeze, FL (USA)); Middaugh, D.P.; Chapman, P.J. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (USA))

1991-05-01

391

Unreliability of co-occurrence-based sediment quality guidelines for contaminated sediment evaluations at Superfund\\/hazardous chemical sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Superfund\\/hazardous chemical sites include waterbodies whose sediments contain hazardous chemicals. With the need to assess, rank, and remediate contaminated sediments at such sites, as well as in other waterways, regulators seek a simple, quantitative assessment approach that feeds easily into a decision-making scheme. Numeric, co-occurrence-based \\

Anne Jones-Lee; G. Fred Lee

2005-01-01

392

Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

J. R. Pugh; J. H. Grinstead; J. A. Farley; P. D. Enlow; D. A. Kelly

1996-01-01

393

Possible environmental contaminant effects in neotropical migrants nesting at a Superfund site  

SciTech Connect

Forest fragmentation, insularization, and tropical deforestation have been named as significant factors in the decline of many neotropical migrant bird species, however, contamination of breeding grounds also may be of concern. Additionally, neotropical migrants may serve as a route of transport of contaminants from breeding grounds in North America to wintering grounds in the tropics. Accumulation and effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and heavy metal concentrations in avian species were evaluated at a Superfund site (Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois) using the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) as a model. Starlings were monitored at 12 nest boxes constructed at each of 3 study and 2 reference sites. Behavior of adult starlings was observed in the field to assess possible contaminant effects on nest attentiveness and reproductive success was recorded as the number of chicks surviving to 15 days post-hatch. Effects included a significant reduction in nest attentiveness behavior and increased chick mortality between PCB and reference sites. There were no significant differences among study and reference sites in number of eggs laid and percent of eggs hatched. Because Crab Orchard NWR serves as breeding ground for approximately 80 neotropical migrant species, the results suggest that species with feeding habits similar to starlings also may have greater body burdens of metals and PCBs and may suffer similar reductions in nesting success. The potential exists for transport and incorporation of environmental contaminants into the food chain at sites along the migration route.

Arenal, C.; Halbrook, R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

1995-12-31

394

Water monitoring system for oil contamination using polymer-coated quartz crystal microbalance chemical sensor.  

PubMed

A water monitoring system with a new chemical sensor for oil contamination was developed. The sensor had an organic polymer film on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The organic film was a hydrocarbon polymer and had high affinities for the organic compounds of petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil and fuel oil. The monitoring system as composed of a sampling part, a purging part, a humidity control part and a sensor part. The oil in contaminated river water could be detected whose threshold odour number (TON) was less than three. The detecting time was less than 5 min depending on the oil kindness. This system was tested using artificially contaminated river water with the oils, to be found that the sensitivity was kept steady for longer than 6 months with 400 detections of diesel oil and heavy oil. Moreover, the oil kind could be discriminated with only one sensor device by analyzing the desorption response curves obtained by flowing a clean air on the sensor instead of the purging air. PMID:11936631

Ueyama, S; Hijikata, K; Hirotsuji, J

2002-01-01

395

Estimation of the environmental risk posed by landfills using chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological testing of leachates.  

PubMed

The leachates from 22 municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites in Southern Poland were characterized by evaluation of chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological parameters. Chemical analyses were mainly focused on the identification of the priority hazardous substances according to Directive on Priority Substances, 2008/105/EC (a daughter directive of the WFD) in leachates. As showed, only five substances (Cd, Hg, hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene and PAHs) were detected in the leachates. The compounds tested were absent or present at very low concentrations. Among them, only PAHs were found in all samples in the range from 0.057 to 77.2 ?g L?¹. The leachates were contaminated with bacteria, including aerobic, psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliforms, and spore-forming-bacteria, including Clostridium perfringens, and with filamentous fungi. From the analysis of specific microorganism groups (indicators of environmental pollution by pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic organisms) it can be concluded that the landfill leachates showed sanitary and epidemiological hazard. In the ecotoxicological study, a battery of tests comprised of 5 bioassays, i.e. Microtox(®), Spirotox, Rotoxkit F™, Thamnotoxkit F™ and Daphtoxkit F™ magna was applied. The leachate samples were classified as toxic in 13.6%, highly toxic in 54.6% and very highly toxic in 31.8%. The Spirotox test was the most sensitive bioassay used. The percentage of class weight score was very high - above 60%; these samples could definitely be considered seriously hazardous and acutely toxic to the fauna and microflora. No correlations were found between the toxicity values and chemical parameters. The toxicity of leachate samples cannot be explained by low levels of the priority pollutants. It seems that other kinds of xenobiotics present in the samples at subacute levels gave the high aggregate toxic effect. The chemical, ecotoxicological and microbiological parameters of the landfill leachates should be analyzed together to assess the environmental risk posed by landfill emissions. PMID:21087786

Matejczyk, Marek; P?aza, Gra?yna A; Na??cz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Markowska-Szczupak, Agata

2011-02-01

396

Contamination, bioaccumulation and toxic effects of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the water environment: a review paper.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, biota and humans. The paper focuses on the distribution, bioaccumulation and toxic effects of PFOS and PFOA in the water. From the available literature, tap and surface water samples in several countries were found to be contaminated with PFOS and PFOA. These compounds were detected globally in the tissues of fish, bird and marine mammals. Their concentrations from relatively more industrialized areas were greater than those from the less populated and remote locations. Blood samples of occupationally exposed people and the general population in various countries were found to contain PFOS and PFOA which suggested a possibility of atmospheric transport of these compounds. There is still a death of information about the environmental pathways of PFOS and PFOA. The presence of these compounds in the tap water, surface water and animal and human tissues indicates their global contamination and bioaccumulative phenomena in the ecosystems. PMID:19759456

Suja, Fatihah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Zain, Shahrom Md

2009-01-01

397

Results For The First Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminant Results  

SciTech Connect

This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this memorandum: The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted; The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit but below the estimated limit; {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits. However, they are below the limits established; The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from the WAC; The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from WAC; Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples; The values reported in this report are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument, however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50; The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

Bannochie, C. J.

2012-07-16

398

Results For The First Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminates unless noted in this section; {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations. However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL; Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50; and, The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

Bannochie, C. J.

2013-05-14

399

In vitro cytogenetic studies of organic chemicals found as contaminants in spacecraft cabin atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts can be exposed during spaceflight to organic chemical contaminants in the spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Toxic exposures may cause lesions in the cellular DNA which are subsequently expressed as sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE). Analysis of SCE is a sensitive short-term assay technique to detect and quantitate exposures to DNA-damaging (mutagenic) substances. The increase in SCE incidence over baseline (control) levels is generally proportional to the concentration of the mutagen and to the duration of exposure. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) was chosen for this study since it occurred as an atmospheric contaminant in ten of the first 12 STS flights, and has been reported to have toxic and mutagenic effects in various test systems. Glutaraldehyde was chosen because relatively few data are available on the toxicity or mutagenicity of this common biological fixative, which is carried on STS flights for use in biological experiments. The BHK-21 baby hamster kidney cell line was the in vitro test system used in this study. Neither dichloromethane (10 ppm to 500 ppm) nor glutaraldehyde (1 ppm to 10 ppm) increased SCE levels following 20-hour exposure of BHK-21 cells to the test chemicals.

Torres, J.

1986-01-01

400

Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh groundwater: a major environmental and social disaster.  

PubMed

In attempting to eliminate disease caused by drinking polluted surface water, millions of shallow surface wells were drilled into the Ganges delta alluvium in Bangladesh. The latest statistics indicate that 80% of Bangladesh and an estimated 40 million people are at risk of arsenic poisoning-related diseases because the ground water in these wells is contaminated with arsenic. The clinical manifestations of arsenic poisoning are myriad, and the correct diagnosis depends largely on awareness of the problem. Patients with melanosis, leuco-melanosis, keratosis, hyperkeratosis, dorsum, non-petting edema, gangrene and skin cancer have been identified. The present article reviews the current arsenic contamination of ground water, hydrological systems, groundwater potential and utilization and environmental pollution in Bangladesh. This paper concludes by clarifying the main actions required to ensure the sustainable development of water resources in Bangladesh. PMID:12396524

Alam, M G M; Allinson, G; Stagnitti, F; Tanaka, A; Westbrooke, M

2002-09-01

401

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

1994-01-01

402

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla).  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants. PMID:24213965

White, D H; Rice, C P; Hoffman, D J; Gee, G F

1994-07-01

403

Prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver colony and the resulting environmental contamination.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver (Castor canadensis) colony in Colorado was determined by the collection and analysis of fecal samples over a period of 14 mo. Environmental contamination was monitored through the use and analysis of water filter samples. Beaver shed cysts of Giardia sp. in their feces throughout the year with temporal variations in the prevalence, and became infected as kits and remained infected as juveniles and adults. Beaver served as amplification hosts for Giardia sp. and contaminated surface waters downstream from their dams in late spring and early fall. In slow moving waters the cysts of Giardia sp. settled rapidly. Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were the only other species of wildlife shedding cysts of Giardia sp. on the study area. PMID:3682082

Monzingo, D L; Hibler, C P

1987-10-01

404

Air is Still Contaminated 40 Years after the Michigan Chemical Plant Disaster in St. Louis, Michigan.  

PubMed

The Michigan Chemical (also known as Velsicol Chemical) plant located in St. Louis, Michigan operated from 1936-1978. During this time, the plant manufactured polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), and tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), among other products. Due to widespread PBB contamination of Michigan, the plant eventually became a Superfund site, and despite years of cleanup activities, many of the compounds can still be found in the local ecosystem. To investigate the current atmospheric levels and to determine their spatial distributions, we collected tree bark samples from around Michigan and measured the concentrations of these pollutants. For comparison, other organic pollutants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs), which were not manufactured at the Michigan Chemical plant, were also measured in the same tree bark samples. Our results show levels of PBBs, DDT, and HBB in tree bark collected within 10 km of the Velsicol Superfund site (43, 477, and 108 ng/g lipid wgt., respectively) are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than at sites located more than 10 km from the site (0.36, 28, and 0.36 ng/g lipid wgt., respectively). Levels of PBDEs and OPEs did not depend on distance from St. Louis. This is the first study on the atmospheric distribution of these chemicals around the Superfund site. PMID:25211223

Peverly, Angela A; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

2014-10-01

405

System for the removal of airborne contaminants from aircraft environmental control systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The system comprises a high pressure moisture remover, a conduit interconnecting the moisture remover with the compressor of the turbine engine of the aircraft which provides a source of pressurized air, a high pressure diffuser connected to the outlet of the moisture remover to diffuse the dried pressurized air stream to lower pressure, and an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the diffuser for removing particulate contaminants from the air stream. Alternatively, a low pressure moisture remover may be included downstream of the diffuser. A reactor and absorber may be included in the system to supplement the processes in the removal of chemical contaminants. Vent lines and discharge ports may be connected to the system where convenient, such as to the moisture remover, precipitator and absorber, in order to discharge overboard of the aircraft the liquid effluent and particles removed from the air stream.

Barnes, D. R.; Watts, R. J.

1984-05-01

406

The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species  

SciTech Connect

Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3,000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 {mu}g/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 {mu}g/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption.

Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.; van Belle, G.; Mottet, N.K.; Polissar, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Bolgiano, D. (Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Coble, K. (Tacoma-Pierce County Health Dept., WA (USA))

1990-11-01

407

The use of biota sampling for environmental contaminant analysis for characterization of benthic communities in the Aleutians.  

PubMed

It is increasingly clear that the public, native tribes, and governmental agencies are interested in assessing the well-being of natural resources and ecosystems. This may take the form of understanding species presence, monitoring population status and trends, measuring behavior, or quantifying physiology, biological stresses, or chemical/radiological exposure through biomarkers. Often there is a separation between understanding the biological aspects of species well-being and assessing exposure to contaminants. In this paper we examine the applicability of using scuba sampling aimed primarily at specimen collection for radionuclide analysis to assess species presence/absence and to compare among sampling sites and depths. We were especially interested in whether dive transects could provide information on species presence and potential exposure to environmental contaminants. In June/July 2004 we sampled at 49 depth stations along 19 transects at Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the western Aleutian Islands in the Northern Pacific/Bering Sea region. Amchitka Island, a former World War II U.S. Navy base, was the site of three underground nuclear test shots from 1965 to 1971. Four to six transects were established at three Amchitka sites and two Kiska Sites, and 2 to 4 stations were sampled on each transect. Bottom conditions, weather and currents prevented a complete sampling of all stations. There were interspecific differences in the percent of stations where biota were found and collected, in their occurrence near the three test shots on Amchitka, and in the depth where they were found. There were no significant differences between Amchitka and Kiska Island in the percent of stations where species were found. These data suggest that information gathered incidentally to the collection of specimens for chemical/radiological analysis can prove useful for understanding the presence of benthic organisms along particular transects, at given depths, and at different geographical locations. This information also provides a baseline for the range of organisms that could be exposed to future physical or chemical/radiological stressors. The data are useful for developing future biomonitoring plans to assess biological well-being and chemical/radiological exposure only if they are published and available to the public, public policy makers, and managers. Just as it is critical to select endpoints and bioindicators that are of interest for assessing both human and ecological health, specimens should be collected using a protocol that is useful for both chemical/radiological analysis and biological information. PMID:16828148

Burger, Joanna; Jewett, Stephen; Gochfeld, Michael; Hoberg, Max; Harper, Shawn; Chenelot, Heloise; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean

2006-10-01

408

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Executive Summary  

E-print Network

's exposure to environmental dust, or other environmental media, such as chemicals by measuring chemicals does not mean that it will cause effects or disease. The toxicity of a chemical is related to its dose or concentration, in addition to a person's individual susceptibility. Small amounts may be of no health

409

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PHOSPHATE-BASED REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGY IN METAL CONTAMINATED URBAN AND MINING AREAS IN A SELECTED MISSOURI SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project provided important data on fundamental processes responsible for health and environmental risk reductions and environmental safety of the phosphate-based treatments in metal, specifically Pb, contamin