Note: This page contains sample records for the topic environmental chemical contaminants from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

2

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.

Custer, T. W.

2000-01-01

3

Epidemiologic Evidence of Relationships Between Reproductive and Child Health Outcomes and Environmental Chemical Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and\\/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures.

Donald T. Wigle; Tye E. Arbuckle; Michelle C. Turner; Annie Bérubé; Qiuying Yang; Shiliang Liu; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

4

Chemical activity as an integrating concept in environmental assessment and management of contaminants.  

PubMed

It is suggested that chemical activity in environmental media can serve as an integrating concept for holistic evaluations of contaminants, including their fate and effects. In support of this assertion, information underlying the thermodynamic principles and the relationships between monitored and modeled concentrations and activities are presented. The toxicological significance of activity is discussed, with emphasis on substances that exert baseline narcosis. Illustrations are given of the application of activity using models and monitoring data for chemical risk assessment and management. It is argued that the proximity of prevailing multimedia environmental activities to activities causing toxic effects is a particularly insightful metric of environmental contamination for both narcotics and reactive toxic substances. PMID:20836055

Mackay, Don; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Bailey, Robert E

2011-04-01

5

Environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies.

2011-01-01

6

Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

1982-01-01

7

Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems  

SciTech Connect

Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

Forstner, U.

1989-01-01

8

Epidemiologic evidence of relationships between reproductive and child health outcomes and environmental chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures. Environmental exposures considered here include chemical toxicants in air, water, soil/house dust and foods (including human breast milk), and consumer products. Reports reviewed here included original epidemiologic studies (with at least basic descriptions of methods and results), literature reviews, expert group reports, meta-analyses, and pooled analyses. Levels of evidence for causal relationships were categorized as sufficient, limited, or inadequate according to predefined criteria. There was sufficient epidemiological evidence for causal relationships between several adverse pregnancy or child health outcomes and prenatal or childhood exposure to environmental chemical contaminants. These included prenatal high-level methylmercury (CH(3)Hg) exposure (delayed developmental milestones and cognitive, motor, auditory, and visual deficits), high-level prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related toxicants (neonatal tooth abnormalities, cognitive and motor deficits), maternal active smoking (delayed conception, preterm birth, fetal growth deficit [FGD] and sudden infant death syndrome [SIDS]) and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (preterm birth), low-level childhood lead exposure (cognitive deficits and renal tubular damage), high-level childhood CH(3)Hg exposure (visual deficits), high-level childhood exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (chloracne), childhood ETS exposure (SIDS, new-onset asthma, increased asthma severity, lung and middle ear infections, and adult breast and lung cancer), childhood exposure to biomass smoke (lung infections), and childhood exposure to outdoor air pollutants (increased asthma severity). Evidence for some proven relationships came from investigation of relatively small numbers of children with high-dose prenatal or early childhood exposures, e.g., CH(3)Hg poisoning episodes in Japan and Iraq. In contrast, consensus on a causal relationship between incident asthma and ETS exposure came only recently after many studies and prolonged debate. There were many relationships supported by limited epidemiologic evidence, ranging from several studies with fairly consistent findings and evidence of dose-response relationships to those where 20 or more studies provided inconsistent or otherwise less than convincing evidence of an association. The latter included childhood cancer and parental or childhood exposures to pesticides. In most cases, relationships supported by inadequate epidemiologic evidence reflect scarcity of evidence as opposed to strong evidence of no effect. This summary points to three main needs: (1) Where relationships between child health and environmental exposures are supported by sufficient evidence of causal relationships, there is a need for (a) policies and programs to minimize population exposures and (b) population-based biomonitoring to track exposure levels, i.e., through ongoing or periodic surveys with measurements of contaminant levels in blood, urine and other samples. (2) For relationships supported by limited evidence, there is a need for targeted research and policy options ranging from ongoing evaluation of evidence to proactive actions. (3) There is a great need for population-based, multidisciplinary and collaborative research on the many relationships supported by inadequate evidence, as these represent major knowledge gaps. Expert groups faced with evaluating epidemiologic evidence of potential causal relationships repeatedly encounter problems in summarizing the available data. A major driver for un

Wigle, Donald T; Arbuckle, Tye E; Turner, Michelle C; Bérubé, Annie; Yang, Qiuying; Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel

2008-05-01

9

Potential External Contamination with Bisphenol A and Other Ubiquitous Organic Environmental Chemicals during Biomonitoring Analysis: An Elusive Laboratory Challenge  

PubMed Central

Background: Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. Objectives: We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. Discussions: We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Conclusions: Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid—even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices—the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples.

Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua

2013-01-01

10

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Selected Methods for Monitoring Chemical Contaminants and Their Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the suite of biological methods of the U.S. Geological Survey-Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends program for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effect on fish. The methods, which were selected by panels of exp...

C. J. Schmitt G. M. Dethloff

2000-01-01

11

Chemical contamination remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground mobile laser test bed system was assembled to assess the feasibility of detection of various types of chemical contamination using Differential Scattering (DISC) and Differential Absorption (DIAL) Lidar techniques. Field experiments with the test bed system using chemical simulants were performed. Topographic reflection and range resolved DIAL detection of vapors as well as DISC detection of aerosols and surface contamination were achieved. Review of detection principles, design of the test bed system, and results of the experiments are discussed.

Carrico, J. P.; Phelps, K. R.; Webb, E. N.; Mackay, R. A.; Murray, E. R.

1986-01-01

12

Atrazine contamination at the watershed scale and environmental factors affecting sampling rates of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS).  

PubMed

Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used to estimate atrazine contamination at 24 stream/river sites located across a watershed with land use ranging from 6.7 to 97.4% annual crops and surface water nitrate concentrations ranging from 3 to 5404 ?g/L. A gradient of atrazine contamination spanning two orders of magnitude was observed over two POCIS deployments of 28 d and was positively correlated with measures of agricultural intensity. The metabolite desisopropyl atrazine was used as a performance reference compound in field calibration studies. Sampling rates were similar between field sites but differed seasonally. Temperature had a significant effect on sampling rates while other environmental variables, including water velocity, appeared to have no effect on sampling rates. A performance reference compound approach showed potential in evaluating spatial and temporal differences in field sampling rates and as a tool for further understanding processes governing uptake of polar compounds by POCIS. PMID:24661999

Dalton, Rebecca L; Pick, Frances R; Boutin, Céline; Saleem, Ammar

2014-06-01

13

Environmental contaminants in breast milk.  

PubMed

Toxic environmental contaminants can be transferred from mother to infant via breastfeeding. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a family of lipophilic stable chemicals that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue and create a lasting toxic body burden. Breastfeeding provides a significant source of exposure to POPs early in human life, the effects of which are unknown, and is the subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. This article reviews what is known about POPs in breast milk and their effect on infant development to inform clinicians about the issue, provide recommendations for practice, and promote environmental and public health policies that reduce human exposure to harmful pollutants. PMID:16399607

Nickerson, Krista

2006-01-01

14

Strategic Plan: Environmental Contaminants Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vision of the Region 3 Environmental Contaminants Program is to leave a legacy of fish, wildlife, and plants and their habitats free from adverse impacts of environmental contaminants. We will pursue this vision by: emphasizing prevention of contamina...

2006-01-01

15

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS): THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS AS A TARGET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyrotoxicants. Broadly defined, thyrotoxicants are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or tissue conce...

16

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: selected methods for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effects in aquatic ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document describes the suite of biological methods of the U.S. Geological Survey- Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends program for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effects on fish. The methods, which were selected by panels of experts, are being field-tested in rivers of the Mississippi River, Columbia River, and Rio Grande basins. General health biomarkers include a health assessment index based on gross observation; histopathological examination of selected organs and tissues; condition factor; and the heptosomatic and splenosomatic indices. Immune system indicators are plasma lysozyme activity and measures of splenic macrophage aggregates. Reproductive biomarkers include plasma concentrations of sex steroid hormones (17b-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) and vitellogenin, gonadal histopathology (including reproductive stage and, in females, gonadal atresia), and the gonadosomatic index. Indicators of exposure to polycyclic aromatic and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons are the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay (performed on solvent extracts of composite fish samples) and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios are used to assess the trophic position of the fish and their exposure to sewage and other animal wastes. For each indicator we describe endpoint(s) and methods, and discuss the indicator?s value and limitations for contaminant monitoring and assessment.

edited by Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dethloff, Gail M.

2000-01-01

17

Chemical contaminants in human milk: an overview.  

PubMed Central

This review contains a succinct overview of the nature and extent of the problem of contamination of human milk with environmental and occupational chemicals, excluding drugs. Factors influencing the levels of contaminants in breast milk are discussed. Also, data on major chemicals of concern with potential health risk(s) to the general population and risk-benefit considerations are dealt with briefly. Based on the available data on the subject, research needs have been identified and policy recommendations are suggested.

Sonawane, B R

1995-01-01

18

Chemical composition of burnt smell caused by accidental fires: environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the odors typical of fires has recently been deciphered. Basically the constituents are mixtures of acetophenone, benzyl alcohol, hydroxylated derivatives of benzaldehyde, methoxylated and/or alkylated phenols and naphthalene. This finding makes it possible to develop objective, practical analytic measurement methods for the burnt smell as a contribution to improving fire damage assessment and remediation monitoring. With the aid of an artificially produced burnt smell and a panel of testers the odor detection threshold of a test mixture was determined olfactometrically to 2 ?g m?³. Using a defined burnt-smell atmosphere in a test chamber, analytical methods with active sampling, the adsorbents XAD 7 and TENAX TA, and GC/MS measurement were then optimized and tested with a view to being able to carry out sensitive quantitative measurement of burnt smells. A further practical method with particular application to the qualitative characterization of this odor is based on the use of a new SPME (solid-phase microextraction) field sampler with DVB/CAR/PDMS (divinylbenzene/Carboxen™/polydimethylsiloxane) fibers. PMID:20947130

Heitmann, K; Wichmann, H; Bahadir, M; Gunschera, J; Schulz, N; Salthammer, T

2011-01-01

19

Environmentally contaminated families: therapeutic considerations  

SciTech Connect

The unique stress for families of exposure to environmental toxins is discussed in terms of the physical characteristics of such contaminants and resultant adaptational dilemmas, the agent or cause of the injury, and institutional responses to the contamination. Recommendations for mental health professionals working with contaminated families are presented.

Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Murphy, B.C.; Reusser, J.W. (Social Research Institute of New England, Newton, MA (United States))

1992-01-01

20

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Assess History, Environmental Risks, and Remediation Feasability of Soils Contaminated by Metallurgical Activities. Part A: Chemical and Physical Properties of Metals and Leaching Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Three soils contaminated by heavy metals (HMs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons originating from different industrial sources\\u000a were characterized in a multidisciplinary study combining chemical, physical (Part A), and mineralogical (Part B) approaches\\u000a to define history, environmental risks, and remediation feasibility. These were an agricultural soil located nearby a Zn\\/Pb\\u000a smelter and two soils from a steel metallurgical (siderurgy) waste land.

D. Venditti; S. Durécu; J. Berthelin

2000-01-01

21

2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

22

The effect of misunderstanding the chemical properties of environmental contaminants on exposure beliefs: a case involving dioxins.  

PubMed

Chemical properties of contaminants lead them to behave in particular ways in the environment and hence have specific pathways to human exposure. If residents of affected communities lack awareness of these properties, however, they could make incorrect assumptions about where and how exposure occurs. We conducted a mailed survey of 904 residents of Midland and Saginaw counties in Michigan, USA to assess to what degree residents of a community with known dioxin contamination appear to understand the hydrophobic nature of dioxins and the implications of that fact on different potential exposure pathways. Participants assessed whether various statements about dioxins were true, including multiple statements assessing beliefs about dioxins in different types of water. Participants also stated whether they believed different exposure pathways were currently significant sources of dioxin exposure in this community. A majority of residents believed that dioxins can be found in river water that has been filtered to completely remove all particulates, well water, and even city tap water, beliefs which are incongruous with the hydrophobic nature of dioxins. Mistrust of government and personal concern about dioxins predicted greater beliefs about dioxins in water. In turn, holding more beliefs about dioxins in water predicted beliefs that drinking and touching water are currently significant exposure pathways for dioxins. Ensuring that community residents' mental models accurately reflect the chemical properties of different contaminants can be important to helping them to adjust their risk perceptions and potentially their risk mitigation behaviors accordingly. PMID:23391895

Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Turkelson, Angela; Franzblau, Alfred; Diebol, Julia K; Allerton, Lindsay A; Parker, Edith A

2013-03-01

23

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer

S. S. Talmage; B. T. Walton

1991-01-01

24

Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17?-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor ? and ? isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein ?, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in principle, to field-captured Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PMID:24055988

Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Skirrow, Rachel C; Rieberger, Kevin J; van Aggelen, Graham; Meays, Cynthia L; Helbing, Caren C

2013-10-15

25

Data-Mining and Informatics Approaches for Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

New and emerging environmental contaminants are chemicals that have not been previously detected or that are being detected at levels significantly different from those expected in both biological and ecological arenas (that is, human, wildlife, and environment). Many chemicals c...

26

Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Covers the complex issue of how to evaluate contaminants in wildlife. This comprehensive resource deals with the question: 'How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?' Features: Authoritative and sound advice is provided on many environmental contaminants, including what the contaminants are and how to interpret the data on them. Each chapter includes a review of the literature on a specific chemical, followed by a clear technical summary that provides research guidance. Direction is given on how to interpret data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient. Data are presented in easy to use tables. Primary attention is given to toxic concentrations of contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, and fluorides.

1996-01-01

27

Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species\\u000a varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across\\u000a Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). ?PCB\\u000a and ?DDT followed by ?CHL were most

Birgit M. Braune; David G. Noble

2009-01-01

28

Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or mutagenic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers, when exposures are related to "life-style" factors such as diet, tobacco use, etc. This chapter summarizes several aspects of environmental chemical carcinogenesis that have been extensively studied and illustrates the power of mechanistic investigation combined with molecular epidemiologic approaches in establishing causative linkages between environmental exposures and increased cancer risks. A causative relationship between exposure to aflatoxin, a strongly carcinogenic mold-produced contaminant of dietary staples in Asia and Africa, and elevated risk for primary liver cancer has been demonstrated through the application of well-validated biomarkers in molecular epidemiology. These studies have also identified a striking synergistic interaction between aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus infection in elevating liver cancer risk. Use of tobacco products provides a clear example of cancer causation by a life-style factor involving carcinogen exposure. Tobacco carcinogens and their DNA adducts are central to cancer induction by tobacco products, and the contribution of specific tobacco carcinogens (e.g. PAH and NNK) to tobacco-induced lung cancer, can be evaluated by a weight of evidence approach. Factors considered include presence in tobacco products, carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, human uptake, metabolism and adduct formation, possible role in causing molecular changes in oncogenes or suppressor genes, and other relevant data. This approach can be applied to evaluation of other environmental carcinogens, and the evaluations would be markedly facilitated by prospective epidemiologic studies incorporating phenotypic carcinogen-specific biomarkers. Heterocyclic amines represent an important class of carcinogens in foods. They are mutagens and carcinogens at numerous organ sites in experimental animals, are produced when meats are heated above 180 degrees C for long periods. Four of these compounds can consistently be identified in well-done meat products from the North American diet, and although a causal linkage has not been established, a majority of epidemiology studies have linked consumption of well-done meat products to cancer of the colon, breast and stomach. Studies employing molecular biomarkers suggest that individuals may differ in their susceptibility to these carcinogens, and genetic polymorphisms may contribute to this variability. Heterocyclic amines, like most other chemical carcinogens, are not carcinogenic per se but must be metabolized by a family of cytochrome P450 enzymes to chemically reactive electrophiles prior to reacting with DNA to initiate a carcinogenic response. These same cytochrome P450 enzymes--as well as enzymes that act on the metabolic products of the cytochromes P450 (e.g. glucuronyl transferase, glutathione S-transferase and others)--also metabolize chemicals by inactivation pathways, and the relative amounts of activation and detoxification will determine whether a chemical is carcinogenic. Because both genetic and environmental factors influence the levels of enzymes that metabolically activate and detoxify chemicals, they can also influence carcinogenic risk. Many of the phenotypes of cancer cells can be the result of mutations, i.e., changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA that accumulate as tumors progress. These can arise as a result of DNA damage or by the incorporation of non-complementary nucleotides during DNA synthetic processes. Based upon the disparity between the infrequency of spontaneous mutations and the large numbers of

Wogan, Gerald N; Hecht, Stephen S; Felton, James S; Conney, Allan H; Loeb, Lawrence A

2004-12-01

29

Negative Chemical Ionization Studies of Human and Food Chain Contamination with Xenobiotic Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish ti...

R. C. Dougherty M. J. Whitaker L. M. Smith D. L. Stalling D. W. Kuehl

1980-01-01

30

NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION STUDIES OF HUMAN AND FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasm...

31

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

1998-01-01

32

Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject.

Banwell, John G.

1979-01-01

33

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

34

Environmental contaminants in California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five wild Califorinia condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumably of cyanide (CN) poisoning, and 1 nestling of handling shock. Organochlorine concentrations were low in 4 condors that were analyzed for these contaminants. Blood samples from 14 wild and 14 captive condors were analyzed primarily for Pb. Five of 14 wild condors sampled had elevated (> 0.70 ppm) concentrations of Pb in blood whereas Pb concentrations in all captive condors were low. Lead levels in individual birds often fluctuated over time. Lead exposure, especially poisoning, was a major factor affecting the wild California condor population during 1982-86. The probable source of Pb was bullet fragments in carrion on which condors were feeding.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Scott, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.; Bloom, P.H.; Stafford, C.J.

1988-01-01

35

Peering Into the Shadows of Chemical Space. Emerging Contaminants and Environmental Science: Is Either Being Served by the Other?  

EPA Science Inventory

A decade has passed since the term ?emerging? was first formally used to describe the existence of waterpollutants not previously recognized; a 1998 NRC workshop ("Identifying Future Drinking WaterContaminants") and several 1999 reports by USGS were among the first to feature the...

36

Residue reviews: Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Vol. 92  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume 92 of this series consists of four chapters reviewing environmental contamination by chemicals. The most timely article summarizes the toxicological effects of the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T which were determined by direct experimentation. The latter is inevitably contaminated with dioxin. Bibliographies with full citations are provided.

F. A. Gunther; J. D. Gunther

1984-01-01

37

Chemical contamination of water supplies.  

PubMed Central

Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

Shy, C M

1985-01-01

38

Chemical contamination of water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

Shy, C.M.

1985-10-01

39

Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or mutagenic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental

Gerald N. Wogan; Stephen S. Hecht; James S. Felton; Allan H. Conney; Lawrence A. Loeb

2004-01-01

40

Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Beta Cell Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing concern that chemicals in the environment are contributing to the global rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is limited evidence for direct effects of these chemicals on beta cell function. Therefore, the goals of this study were (1) to test the hypothesis that environmental contaminants can directly affect beta cell function

Emilija Makaji; Sandeep Raha; Michael G. Wade; Alison C. Holloway

2011-01-01

41

Pet dogs as sentinels for environmental contamination.  

PubMed

The presence of environmental contaminants in air, water and food may pose significant health risks to the exposed human population. However, problems associated with assessing chronic exposure to low doses of environmental chemicals, multiple exposure routes, diseases with long latency periods, and non-specific health outcomes make it difficult to conduct the appropriate human epidemiologic studies. It may be useful to complement human epidemiology with animal studies. Animals monitored or evaluated in situ for the appropriate suite of endpoints can provide information about both exposure levels and potential adverse health effects. Animals have served as sentinel indicators for health effects associated with a number of environmental exposures, including pesticides and asbestos. Pet dogs may be particularly valuable sentinels because they share the human environment. In addition, dogs respond to many toxic insults in ways analogous to humans, they have physiologically compressed life spans, and they are free from some important lifestyle risk factors for disease. An example of how pet dogs may be used as sentinels for potential human health hazards involves a study of the genotoxic effects resulting from exposure to a mixture of chemicals from nearby Superfund sites. We conducted a cross-sectional study of exposed dogs (living in the community with the Superfund sites) and controls (living in a nearby community). The pet owners completed a questionnaire, and we collected a blood sample from each dog. The blood samples were analyzed for standard clinical parameters and assays for possible genotoxic effects (peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus frequency and lymphocyte subtyping). Pet dogs living near the Superfund sites had a higher micronucleus frequency than control animals, suggesting that the dogs may have been exposed to environmental contaminants from these sites. PMID:11453293

Backer, L C; Grindem, C B; Corbett, W T; Cullins, L; Hunter, J L

2001-07-01

42

Environmental geochemistry of radioactive contamination.  

SciTech Connect

This report attempts to describe the geochemical foundations of the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. The information is obtained and applied in three interacting spheres of inquiry and analysis: (1) experimental studies and theoretical calculations, (2) field studies of contaminated and natural analog sites and (3) model predictions of radionuclide behavior in remediation and waste disposal. Analyses of the risks from radioactive contamination require estimation of the rates of release and dispersion of the radionuclides through potential exposure pathways. These processes are controlled by solubility, speciation, sorption, and colloidal transport, which are strong functions of the compositions of the groundwater and geomedia as well as the atomic structure of the radionuclides. The chemistry of the fission products is relatively simple compared to the actinides. Because of their relatively short half-lives, fission products account for a large fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear waste for the first several hundred years but do not represent a long-term hazard in the environment. The chemistry of the longer-lived actinides is complex; however, some trends in their behavior can be described. Actinide elements of a given oxidation state have either similar or systematically varying chemical properties due to similarities in ionic size, coordination number, valence, and electron structure. In dilute aqueous systems at neutral to basic pH, the dominant actinide species are hydroxy- and carbonato-complexes, and the solubility-limiting solid phases are commonly oxides, hydroxides or carbonates. In general, actinide sorption will decrease in the presence of ligands that complex with the radionuclide; sorption of the (IV) species of actinides (Np, Pu, U) is generally greater than of the (V) species. The geochemistry of key radionuclides in three different environments is described in this report. These include: (1) low ionic strength reducing waters from crystalline rocks at nuclear waste research sites in Sweden; (2) oxic water from the J-13 well at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a proposed repository for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in tuffaceous rocks; and (3) reference brines associated with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The transport behaviors of radionuclides associated with the Chernobyl reactor accident and the Oklo Natural Reactor are described. These examples span wide temporal and spatial scales and include the rapid geochemical and physical processes important to nuclear reactor accidents or industrial discharges as well as the slower processes important to the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Application of geochemical information to remediating or assessing the risk posed by radioactive contamination is the final subject of this report. After radioactive source terms have been removed, large volumes of soil and water with low but potentially hazardous levels of contamination may remain. For poorly-sorbing radionuclides, capture of contaminated water and removal of radionuclides may be possible using permeable reactive barriers and bioremediation. For strongly sorbing radionuclides, contaminant plumes will move very slowly. Through a combination of monitoring, regulations and modeling, it may be possible to have confidence that they will not be a hazard to current or future populations. Abstraction of the hydrogeochemical properties of real systems into simple models is required for probabilistic risk assessment. Simplifications in solubility and sorption models used in performance assessment calculations for the WIPP and the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain are briefly described.

Bryan, Charles R.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2003-09-01

43

Environmental Contamination by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE.

Lerner, A.; Adler, A.; Abu-Hanna, J.; Meitus, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.

2013-01-01

44

Environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE. PMID:23115260

Lerner, A; Adler, A; Abu-Hanna, J; Meitus, I; Navon-Venezia, S; Carmeli, Y

2013-01-01

45

Control of chemical contaminants in foods: past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1930s and early 1940s, almost the only analyses carried out for chemical contaminants in foods were for lead arsenate and other arsenical pesticides in fruits. Since then, a tremendous expansion has occurred in the types of chemical contaminants found in foods and in the activities of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other organizations responsible for monitoring and controlling the presence of these contaminants in the food supply. This paper describes the findings and control of additional chemical contaminants in foods, including synthetic pesticides, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), other industrial chemicals, fungal metabolites such as aflatoxins, toxic metals, and radionuclides. The common characteristics of problems connected with these different types of contaminants include uncontrolled entry into the food supply, incidents causing extreme public worry, and near impossibility in removing these contaminants from the food supply. Problems may also arise from new technologies and environmental developments. New approaches beyond ordinary regulatory activities are being used to meet these problems. Broader analytical methods requiring less time and faster and more sophisticated toxicological methods are needed to assess the hazard of these environmental food contaminants.

Jelinek, C.F.

1985-11-01

46

DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is examining processes for remedial action at Superfund sites, and corrective action at operating disposal sites. ecent legislation emphasizes destruction and detoxification of contaminants, rathe...

47

A new multimedia contaminant fate model for China: How important are environmental parameters in influencing chemical persistence and long-range transport potential?  

PubMed

We present a new multimedia chemical fate model (SESAMe) which was developed to assess chemical fate and behaviour across China. We apply the model to quantify the influence of environmental parameters on chemical overall persistence (POV) and long-range transport potential (LRTP) in China, which has extreme diversity in environmental conditions. Sobol sensitivity analysis was used to identify the relative importance of input parameters. Physicochemical properties were identified as more influential than environmental parameters on model output. Interactive effects of environmental parameters on POV and LRTP occur mainly in combination with chemical properties. Hypothetical chemicals and emission data were used to model POV and LRTP for neutral and acidic chemicals with different KOW/DOW, vapour pressure and pKa under different precipitation, wind speed, temperature and soil organic carbon contents (fOC). Generally for POV, precipitation was more influential than the other environmental parameters, whilst temperature and wind speed did not contribute significantly to POV variation; for LRTP, wind speed was more influential than the other environmental parameters, whilst the effects of other environmental parameters relied on specific chemical properties. fOC had a slight effect on POV and LRTP, and higher fOC always increased POV and decreased LRTP. Example case studies were performed on real test chemicals using SESAMe to explore the spatial variability of model output and how environmental properties affect POV and LRTP. Dibenzofuran released to multiple media had higher POV in northwest of Xinjiang, part of Gansu, northeast of Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and Jilin. Benzo[a]pyrene released to the air had higher LRTP in south Xinjiang and west Inner Mongolia, whilst acenaphthene had higher LRTP in Tibet and west Inner Mongolia. TCS released into water had higher LRTP in Yellow River and Yangtze River catchments. The initial case studies demonstrated that SESAMe performed well on comparing POV and LRTP of chemicals in different regions across China in order to potentially identify the most sensitive regions. This model should not only be used to estimate POV and LRTP for screening and risk assessments of chemicals, but could potentially be used to help design chemical monitoring programmes across China in the future. PMID:24791706

Zhu, Ying; Price, Oliver R; Tao, Shu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andy J

2014-08-01

48

Contamination weeping: A chemical ion exchange model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been conducted to determine the applicability of a chemical ion-exchange model to characterize the problem of nuclear fuel transportation cask contamination and release ( weeping''). Surface charge characteristics of CrâOâ and stainless steel (304) powders have been measured to determine the potential for ion exchange at metal oxide -- aqueous interfaces. The solubility of pool contaminant Co and

W. B. Chambers; D. H. Doughty; H. D. T. Jones; S. L. Martinez; P. C. Bennett

1991-01-01

49

Measurement of Contamination in Environmental Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contamination of environmental samples and measurement systems can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. During the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specif...

G. F. Simes J. S. Harrington

1993-01-01

50

Dermal and Gastrointestinal Absorption of Environmental Contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb...

P. V. Shah F. E. Guthrie

1985-01-01

51

Environmental Contaminants as Origins of Disordered Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Behavioral toxicology studies the behavioral effects of contaminants, such as heavy metals, in environmental and occupational settings. A classic example of metal poisoning with behavioral effects is Pink Disease, or acrodynia, due to mercurous chloride i...

B. Weiss

1978-01-01

52

Chemical contaminants, pharmacokinetics, and the lactating mother.  

PubMed Central

We review the commonly occurring persistent pesticides and industrial chemicals in breast milk. These chemicals are dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane as dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene dieldrin, chlordane as oxychlordane, heptachlor, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. We present a worked example of the kinds of pharmacokinetic assumptions and calculations necessary for setting regulatory limits of contaminants in the food supply, calculating dose of chemical contaminants to the nursed infant, converting risks from lifetime exposure in laboratory animals to risks for short-term exposure in humans, and estimating the excess cancer risk to the nursed infant.

Rogan, W J; Ragan, N B

1994-01-01

53

Chemical contamination of California drinking water.  

PubMed

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

Russell, H H; Jackson, R J; Spath, D P; Book, S A

1987-11-01

54

Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs.

Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

1987-01-01

55

BIOASSAY-DIRECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology 'bioassay directed chemical analysis' to best describe this marriage of analy...

56

Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6

Warner, Richard E.

1967-01-01

57

Bioassy-directed chemical analysis in environmental research  

SciTech Connect

Using short-term bioassays in conjunction with analytical measurements simplifies the identification of environmental contaminants. The term bioassay-directed chemical analysis is used to describe this combination of analytical chemistry and biology. The use of this procedure to identify chemical mutagens in environmental samples is described and explained in this article. 36 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Schuetzle, D.; Lewtas, J.

1986-09-01

58

MEASUREMENT OF CONTAMINATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Contamination of environmental samples and measurement system can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. uring the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specification of appropriate blan...

59

DERMAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb in ground water, dioxins...

60

Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth.

Ferguson, Kelly K.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

61

Biodegradation of environmental contaminants using white rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi are a common, naturally-occurring class of wood-degrading fungi that evolved to degrade lignin. Extensive research conducted since the early 1980s has shown that many of the same mechanisms used by the fungi for lignin degradation also promote the degradation of several carbon-based environmental contaminants. These contaminants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, wood preservatives, chlorinated solvents, PCBs, explosives, cyanide, dyes and others. The fungi use an extra-cellular, free-radical, nonspecific mode of degradation, which allows them to degrade both soluble and insoluble contaminants, whether they are absorbed or in solution. The extra-cellular substances secreted by the fungi include several enzymes (which catalyze the initial oxidation of contaminant molecules), hydrogen ions (to maintain a slightly acidic pH), electrons (to maintain a charge balance and to reduce contaminant through the breaking of chemical bonds), and the fungi secrete veratryl alcohol (a free-radical mediator that catalyzes reductions) and oxalate (an organic acid that is a highly effective reductant). Application of white rot fungi for the remediation of contaminated soils involves mixing fungal-inoculated substrates with the soil. The materials are moistened during mixing to provide an environment that is conducive to fungal growth. The soil/substrate mixture is then placed in a biocell and aerated to promote contaminant degradation. Case histories of bench-scale tests and field applications are presented.

White, R.B.; Aust, S.D. (Utah State Univ., Midvale, UT (United States))

1994-08-01

62

Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or muta- genic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to

Gerald N. Wogana; Stephen S. Hecht; James S. Felton; Allan H. Conney; Lawrence A. Loeb

2004-01-01

63

CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

64

Negative chemical ionization studied of human and food chain contamination with xenobiotic chemicals.  

PubMed Central

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasma, and human adipose tissue, were cleaned up by one of the following three cleanup procedures: (1) continuous liquid-liquid extraction steam distillation; (2) gel-permeation chromatography; and (3) adsorption on activated carbon followed by elution with toluene. The third procedure was used only for the examination of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples. Using these techniques, we have found evidence for contamination of fish samples with polychloronaphthalenes, polychlorostyrenes, polychlorobiphenyls, polychlorodibenzofurans, and polychlorodibenzodioxins among other chemicals. The polychlorodibenzodioxins appeared only in the spectra of extracts of fish obtained from the Tittabawassee River at Midland Michigan. The polychlorodibenzofuran ions appeared in NCI mass spectra of fish that were significantly contaminated (above 2 ppm) with polychlorobiphenyls. Toxic substances occurring in human seminal plasma included pentachlorophenol, hexachlorobenzene, DDT metabolites, and polychlorobiphenyls. We have investigated toxic substances in human seminal plasma because of the apparent decrease in sperm density in U.S. males over the last 30 years. Results of screening human adipose tissue for contamination with xenobiotic chemicals have been largely coincident with result of the EPA human monitoring program. Polychlorobiphenyls, DDT metabolites, nonachlor, and chlordane have appeared in most samples examined. Detection limits for all of these chemicals were of the order of 1 ppb.

Dougherty, R C; Whitaker, M J; Smith, L M; Stalling, D L; Kuehl, D W

1980-01-01

65

Using model-based screening to help discover unknown environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use, only a small fraction have been analyzed in environmental samples. To effectively identify environmental contaminants, methods to prioritize chemicals for analytical method development are required. We used a high-throughput model of chemical emissions, fate, and bioaccumulation to identify chemicals likely to have high concentrations in specific environmental media, and we prioritized these for target analysis. This model-based screening was applied to 215 organosilicon chemicals culled from industrial chemical production statistics. The model-based screening prioritized several recognized organosilicon contaminants and generated hypotheses leading to the selection of three chemicals that have not previously been identified as potential environmental contaminants for target analysis. Trace analytical methods were developed, and the chemicals were analyzed in air, sewage sludge, and sediment. All three substances were found to be environmental contaminants. Phenyl-tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane was present in all samples analyzed, with concentrations of ?50 pg m(-3) in Stockholm air and ?0.5 ng g(-1) dw in sediment from the Stockholm archipelago. Tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethyl-cyclotrisiloxane and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane were found in sediments from Lake Mjøsa at ?1 ng g(-1) dw. The discovery of three novel environmental contaminants shows that models can be useful for prioritizing chemicals for exploratory assessment. PMID:24869768

McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Radke, Michael; Sobek, Anna; Malmvärn, Anna; Alsberg, Tomas; Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; Xu, Shihe

2014-07-01

66

Chemical contaminants in feedlot wastes: concentrations, effects and attenuation.  

PubMed

Commercial feedlots for beef cattle finishing are potential sources of a range of trace chemicals which have human health or environmental significance. To ensure adequate protection of human and environmental health from exposure to these chemicals, the application of effective manure and effluent management practices is warranted. The Australian meat and livestock industry has adopted a proactive approach to the identification of best management practices. Accordingly, this review was undertaken to identify key chemical species that may require consideration in the development of guidelines for feedlot manure and effluent management practices in Australia. Important classes of trace chemicals identified include steroidal hormones, antibiotics, ectoparasiticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals and dioxins. These are described in terms of their likely sources, expected concentrations and public health or environmental significance based on international data and research. Androgenic hormones such as testosterone and trenbolone are significantly active in feedlot wastes, but they are poorly understood in terms of fate and environmental implications. The careful management of residues of antibiotics including virginiamycin, tylosin and oxytetracycline appears prudent in terms of minimising the risk of potential public health impacts from resistant strains of bacteria. Good management of ectoparasiticides including synthetic pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones, fluazuron, and amitraz is important for the prevention of potential ecological implications, particularly towards dung beetles. Very few of these individual chemical contaminants have been thoroughly investigated in terms of concentrations, effects and attenuation in Australian feedlot wastes. PMID:18055014

Khan, S J; Roser, D J; Davies, C M; Peters, G M; Stuetz, R M; Tucker, R; Ashbolt, N J

2008-08-01

67

SUITABILITY OF CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS) FOR INVESTIGATING REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) are being studied at our laboratory as a model species to determine the effects of environmental contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), on estuarine fish populations. Cunner are easily obtainable and are amenable to laborator...

68

Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.  

PubMed Central

For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimulate an immune response, are associated with the occurrence of these diseases. We reviewed the epidemiologic data that addressed whether environmental contaminants might cause type 1 or type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, higher intake of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, as well as higher serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with increased risk. Overall, however, the data were limited or inconsistent. With respect to type 2 diabetes, data on arsenic and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin relative to risk were suggestive of a direct association but were inconclusive. The occupational data suggested that more data on exposure to N-nitroso compounds, arsenic, dioxins, talc, and straight oil machining fluids in relation to diabetes would be useful. Although environmental factors other than contaminants may account for the majority of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the etiologic role of several contaminants and occupational exposures deserves further study.

Longnecker, M P; Daniels, J L

2001-01-01

69

Trace chemical contaminant generation rates for spacecraft contamination control system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft presents a unique design challenge with respect to providing a comfortable environment in which people can live and work. All aspects of the spacecraft environmental design including the size of the habitable volume, its temperature, relative humidity, and composition must be considered to ensure the comfort and health of the occupants. The crew members and the materials selected for outfitting the spacecraft play an integral part in designing a habitable spacecraft because material offgassing and human metabolism are the primary sources for continuous trace chemical contaminant generation onboard a spacecraft. Since these contamination sources cannot be completely eliminated, active control processes must be designed and deployed onboard the spacecraft to ensure an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Knowledge of the expected rates at which contaminants are generated is very important to the design of these processes. Data from past spacecraft missions and human contaminant production studies have been analyzed to provide this knowledge. The resulting compilation of contaminants and generation rates serve as a firm basis for past, present, and future contamination control system designs for space and aeronautics applications.

Perry, J. L.

1995-01-01

70

Shear strength characteristics and chemical characteristics of leachate-contaminated lateritic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate is a hazardous liquid and is a major cause of concern in landfills. Numerous environmental problems such as soil and groundwater contamination occur in unlined landfills due to free flow of leachate. Large quantities of leachate-contaminated soils result from open dumping in the study area. These dump yards receive large quantities of municipal solid waste which includes chemical and

B. M. Sunil; S. Shrihari; Sitaram Nayak

2009-01-01

71

Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability.  

PubMed

Research on environmentally related chemical contaminants in breast milk spans several decades and dozens of countries. The ability to use this research as an environmental indicator is limited because of a lack of consistent protocols. Data on xenobiotics in breast milk are influenced by choices in sample selection, sample pooling, analysis, and reporting. In addition, most studies have focused only on a small panel of persistent organic pollutants, despite indications that a wide range of additional chemical contaminants may also enter breast milk. Despite these limitations, however, it is possible to draw some generalizations. In this paper we review available data on levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), metals, and solvents in breast milk. Examples drawn from around the world illustrate the available data and the patterns that have appeared in various areas over time. Over the past few decades, levels of the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins have declined in breast milk in countries where these chemicals have been banned or otherwise regulated. In contrast, the levels of PBDEs are rising. Regional differences in levels of xenobiotics in breast milk are related to historical and current local use patterns. Diet is a major factor that influences breast milk levels of persistent organic pollutants, with patterns in fish consumption playing a particularly significant role. Improved global breast milk monitoring programs would allow for more consistent data on trends over time, detection of new xenobiotics in breast milk, and identification of disproportionately exposed populations. PMID:12055065

Solomon, Gina M; Weiss, Pilar M

2002-06-01

72

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

Ware, G. (ed.)

2007-07-01

73

Dermal absorption of environmental contaminants from soil and sediment: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment of hazardous wastes sites may require characterization of the dermal availability of chemical contaminants in soil and\\/or sediment. Current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance for assessment of dermal exposures to contaminants in water and soil was finalized in 2004 as a supplement (Part E) to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). The soil protocol presented in RAGS

Elizabeth W Spalt; John C Kissel; Jeffry H Shirai; Annette L Bunge

2009-01-01

74

Chemical, biochemical, and environmental fiber sensors  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings on chemical, biochemical, and environmental fiber sensors. Topics covered include: direct spectroscopic sensing technique, environmental sensors, and biochemical sensors.

Lieberman, R.A.; Wlodarczyk, M.T.

1989-01-01

75

Mapping Environmental Contaminants at Ray Mine, AZ  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data was collected over Ray Mine as part of a demonstration project for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through the Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI). The overall goal of AMI is to accelerate adoption and application of advanced measurement technologies for cost effective environmental monitoring. The site was selected to demonstrate the benefit to EPA in using advanced remote sensing technologies for the detection of environmental contaminants due to the mineral extraction industry. The role of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in this pilot study is to provide data as well as performing calibration, data analysis, and validation of the AVIRIS results. EPA is also interested in developing protocols that use commercial software to perform such work on other high priority EPA sites. Reflectance retrieval was performed using outputs generated by the MODTRAN radiative transfer model and field spectra collected for the purpose of calibration. We are presenting advanced applications of the ENVI software package using n-Dimensional Partial Unmixing to identify image-derived endmembers that best match target materials reference spectra from multiple spectral libraries. Upon identification of the image endmembers the Mixture Tuned Match Filter algorithm was applied to map the endmembers within each scene. Using this technique it was possible to map four different mineral classes that are associated with mine generated acid waste.

McCubbin, Ian; Lang, Harold

2000-01-01

76

Nanomaterials in Environmental Contamination, Their Nanotoxicological Peculiarities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-nanothreat arises from a lack of knowledge about new states of matter (spheroidal molecules of carbon, nanostructures, nanoparticles and nanophases). Newly discovered nanomaterials are likely to have different behavior and properties than their predecessors. New approaches for creating nanotechnologies are developed by using nanomaterials. Nanotechnology is considered as a panacea for resolving global problems that may affect the duration and quality of life. However, progress in technology historically leads to positive and negative consequences, thus the same can be expected from nanotechnology. Several un-researched threats may arise from uncontrolled development of nanotechnology. Some scientists foresee nanotechnological and nanodemocratic threats connected to possible undesirable self-replication of different nanosystems, and uncontrolled application of cheap ubiquitous personal nanosensors for permanent surveillance of individuals. In addition, little research is aimed to study how nanomaterials may attribute to environmental contamination. Finally, the influence of nanoparticles and nanostructures on the human organism may also be threatening in certain circumstances.

Kharlamova, G.; Kirillova, N.

77

Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.  

PubMed

Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports. PMID:22002748

Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

2011-11-01

78

Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers.

Moody, R P; Chu, I

1995-01-01

79

On the reversibility of environmental contamination with persistent organic pollutants.  

PubMed

An understanding of the factors that control the time trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment is required to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reductions and to predict future exposure. Using a regional contaminant fate model, CoZMo-POP 2, and a generic bell-shaped emission profile, we simulated time trends of hypothetical chemicals with a range of POP-like partitioning and degradation properties in different compartments of a generic warm temperate environment, with the objective of identifying the processes that may prevent the reversibility of environmental contamination with POPs after the end of primary emissions. Evaporation from soil and water can prevent complete reversibility of POP contamination of the atmosphere after the end of emissions. However, under the selected conditions, only for organic chemicals within a narrow range of volatility, that is, a logarithm of the octanol air equilibrium partition coefficient between 7 and 8, and with atmospheric degradation half-lives in excess of a few month can evaporation from environmental reservoirs sustain atmospheric levels that are within an order of magnitude of those resulting from primary emissions. HCB and ?-HCH fulfill these criteria, which may explain, why their atmospheric concentrations have remained relatively high decades after their main primary emissions have been largely eliminated. Soil-to-water transfer is found responsible for the lack of reversibility of POP contamination of the aqueous environment after the end of emissions, whereas reversal of water-sediment exchange, although possible, is unlikely to contribute significantly. Differences in the reversibility of contamination in air and water suggests the possibility of changes in the relative importance of various exposure pathways after the end of primary emissions, namely an increase in the importance of the aquatic food chain relative to the agricultural one, especially if the former has a benthic component. Since simulated time trends were strongly dependent on degradation half-lives, partitioning properties and selected environmental input parameters, it should not be surprising, that different field studies often generate highly divergent time trends. PMID:21905649

Choi, Sung-Deuk; Wania, Frank

2011-10-15

80

Contamination and galvanic corrosion in metal chemical-mechanical planarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of metals is a critical process in the manufacturing of ultra-large scale integrated (ULSI) circuit devices. The overall success of a CMP process requires minimal particulate and metallic contamination of the structures subjected to CMP. The objective of this study was to investigate alumina particle contamination during tungsten CMP, copper contamination in copper CMP, and galvanic

Liming Zhang

1998-01-01

81

Bioassay-directed chemical analysis in environmental research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology bioassay directed chemical analysis to best describe this marriage of analytical chemistry and biology. The objective of this methodology is to identify key compounds in various types of air-pollutant samples. Once that task is

Dennis Schuetzle; Joellen Lewtas

1986-01-01

82

Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls. Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how applications of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in determining the distribution and concentrations cf. constituents are provided by several studies, including infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers. These studies show that heterogeneity and the dominance of organically controlled reactions greatly increase the complexity of investigations.Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how application of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity is illustrated by studies of infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers.

Back, W.; Baedecker, M. J.

1989-01-01

83

Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and

S. G. Donaldson; J. Van Oostdam; C. Tikhonov; M. Feeley; B. Armstrong; P. Ayotte; O. Boucher; W. Bowers; L. Chan; F. Dallaire; R. Dallaire; É. Dewailly; J. Edwards; G. M. Egeland; J. Fontaine; C. Furgal; T. Leech; E. Loring; G. Muckle; T. Nancarrow; D. Pereg; P. Plusquellec; M. Potyrala; O. Receveur; R. G. Shearer

2010-01-01

84

Congenital malformations and birthweight in areas with potential environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern exists about the potential for reproductive damage that may result from exposures to environmental contaminants. Therefore, the authors sought to determine if there was an association between a child's congenital malformation or a child's lowered weight at birth and his or her mother's residence in a census tract where a site of environmental contamination had been documented. Exposure

G. M. Shaw; J. Schulman; J. D. Frisch; J. A. Harris; S. K. Cummins

2009-01-01

85

Congenital Malformations and Birthweight in Areas with Potential Environmental Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern exists about the potential for reproductive damage that may result from exposures to environmental contaminants. Therefore, the authors sought to determine if there was an association between a child's congenital malformation or a child's lowered weight at birth and his or her mother's residence in a census tract where a site of environmental contamination had been documented. Exposure

Gary M. Shaw; Jane Schulman; Jonathan D. Frisch; Susan K. Cummins; John A. Harris

1992-01-01

86

Assessment of environmental contamination associated with a mammalian cell transformation assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To estimate worker exposures to, and environmental contamination from, test chemicals and organic solvents used in an in vitro\\u000a assay to assess the carcinogenic potential of chemicals, sodium fluorescein, a noncarcinogenic fluorescent material, was dissolved\\u000a in tissue culture medium used to maintain early passage hamster embryo cells. Personal and environmental samples were taken\\u000a over a 14-d period. The assay was

E. B. Sansone; A. M. Losikoff; W. B. Lebherz; J. A. Poiley

1981-01-01

87

Occurrence and methods of control of chemical contaminants in foods.  

PubMed Central

Contamination of food by chemicals can result from their use on agricultural commodities; accidents or misuse during food handling and processing; nucler weapon testing and operation of nuclear power plants; and disposal of industrial chemicals or by-products with subsequent dispersal into the environment. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as the Federal agency mainly responsible for evaluating the hazards of chemical contaminants and enforcing any established tolerance levels for them in foods, has been monitoring pesticides, industrial chemicals, metals, and radionuclides in foods in its nationwide programs for many years. In addition, FDA searches for potential contaminants among the approximately 50,000 industrial chemicals manufactured in the United States and coordinates its efforts with those of other Federal and state agencies in these investigations. The overall results of the FDA surveillance and compliance programs for chemical contaminants in foods, as well as specific examples illustrating the wide range of incidents and types of occurrences, are presented.

Jelinek, C

1981-01-01

88

Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

89

HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS. Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA. Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

90

Natural and modified nanomaterials as sorbents of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology is a revolutionary scientific and engineering concept that will have a large impact on our life. A core piece of this technology is the production of nanomaterials for electronic, chemical, medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications. In the last case, natural and modified natural nanomaterials would be good reference points for comparison of the functionality, cost, and potential ecological implications of synthetic nanomaterials. Here we investigated the performance of natural and modified nanomaterials (an allophane and a surface-modified smectite) in adsorbing copper (a common heavy metal contaminant), naphthalene (a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon), or 17beta-estradiol (an endocrine-disrupting chemical). Allophane is an effective sorbent of copper (Cu): at pH 5.5 it can take up 4448 mg Cu/kg at the equilibrium concentration of 10mg Cu/L. On the other hand, the surface-modified smectite is an excellent sorbent for naphthalene and 17beta-estradiol. It can sorb 1180mg naphthalene/kg at the equilibrium concentration of 1 mg/L or remove 98% of 17beta-estradiol from a solution after 4h of reaction. While the environmental impact and health effects of synthetic nanomaterials are essentially unknown and their use is of concern, natural nanomaterials (e.g., allophane and smectites) have been part of human existence since antiquity. As such, they do not pose much risk either to the physical environment or to human health. PMID:15509015

Yuan, Guodong

2004-01-01

91

Applications in food quality and environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potatoes, carrots, beetroots, lettuce and rhubarb were cultivated on soil, that had been severely lead?contaminated by industrial activities at three different locations in Sweden. The vegetables were grown in the gardens of people living in the district, or in some other way making use of the land in the contaminated areas. In some cases, the vegetables were grown in a

Lars Jorhem; Joakim Engman; Lennart Lindeström; Torbjörn Schröder

2000-01-01

92

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

93

Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for young coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel). The report provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian subacute dietary toxicity tests and is primarily intended for use in ranking toxicities by a standard method that has a reasonable degree of environmental relevance. Findings are presented in two parts: Part I is a critique of selected drugs that includes discussion of subacute toxicity in relation to chemical class and structure, pesticide formulation, and age of animals; Part II is a summary of toxicologic findings for each test substance and provides a statistically basis for comparing toxicities. Data presented include the median lethal concentration (LC50), slope of the probit regression curve (dose-response curve), response chronology, and food consumption. We observed that: 1) fewer than 15% of the compounds were classed 'very' or 'highly' toxic (i.e, LC50 < 200 ppm) and all of these were either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, or organometallics; 2) subacute toxicity may vary widely among structurally similar chemicals and between different formulations of the same chemical; therefore, conclusions about lethal hazard must be made cautiously until the actual formulation of inset has been tested: 3) inclusion of a general standard in each battery of tests is useful for detection of atypical trials and monitoring population changes but should not be used indiscriminantly for adjusting LC50's for intertest differences unless the chemicals of concern and the standard elicit their toxicities through the same action; 4) although other species have been tested effectively under the subacute protocol, coturnix were ideal for the stated purpose of this research because they are inexpensive, well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and yield good intertest reproducibility of response.

Hill, E.F.;Camardese, M.B.

1986-01-01

94

Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site.

Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

1995-07-01

95

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

2000-01-01

96

Investigation of Fiber Optics Sensor for Monitoring of Chemical Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and characterization of chemical contamin ants in water streams is paramount for water qualit y and water security. The current trend of monitoring the presence of contaminants is the batch sampling technique, where sample of water is collected and a nalyzed in the laboratory this method is not practi cal in case of disasters. A modified cladding Polyanili ne

Sistla S Shastry; Abdeq M. Abdi; A. G. Agwu Nnanna; Nabil Ibrahim

97

Environmental simulation testing of solar cell contamination by hydrazine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test results for thermal vacuum and radiation environment simulation of hydrazine contamination are discussed. Solar cell performance degradation, measured by short circuit current, is presented in correlation with the variations used in environmental parameters.

Moore, W. W., Jr.

1972-01-01

98

High Throughput Screening For Hazard and Risk of Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

High throughput toxicity testing provides detailed mechanistic information on the concentration response of environmental contaminants in numerous potential toxicity pathways. High throughput screening (HTS) has several key advantages: (1) expense orders of magnitude less than an...

99

Improved Luminescence Technique for Screening Aromatic Contaminants in Environmental Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sensitive spectroscopic technique of synchronous fluorescence (SF) is readily applied to screening environmental samples for semi-volatile aromatic contaminants. The technique is applicable to water and soil samples, either directly as water or as sol...

R. B. Gammage G. H. Miller J. W. Haas T. Vo-Dinh

1988-01-01

100

Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for Coturnix. These results provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian ...

E. F. Hill M. B. Camardese

1986-01-01

101

PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM THE DRAKE CHEMICAL SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, ...

102

Environmental contaminants influencing immunefunction in marine bivalve molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased observation of pollution induced disease conditions in marine organisms has led to a growing interest on the effects of environmental contaminants on the immune system. Most studies on modulation of the immune system in bivalves by pollutants have concentrated on the effects of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The current literature on contaminant effects on specific

Richard K Pipe; Jackie A. Coles

1995-01-01

103

Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative

S. Roychoudhury; D. Walsh; J. Perry

2004-01-01

104

Solubility, Sorption and Transport of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals in Complex Mixtures. Environmental Research Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental contamination problems commonly involve Wastes consisting of complex mixtures of chemicals. The behavior of these mixtures has not been well understood because the primary chemodynamic properties (e.g. Solubility, sorption, transport) of org...

A. Lee A. L. Wood L. S. Rao

1991-01-01

105

THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING NEUROTOXIC RISK FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

106

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the

Jill M. Larson; William H. Karasov; Louis Sileo; Kenneth L. Stromborg; J. P. Giesy; P. D. Jones; D. E. Tillitt; D. A. Verbrugge; B. A. Hanbidge

1996-01-01

107

Pesticides, Metals, Chemical Contaminants & Natural Toxins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is maintained by the U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Information in this site includes FDA food consumption warnings and advisories related to the presence of contaminants in various foods. Some information about toxicology is also available in this site.

2007-02-27

108

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Nitroaromatics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers the large number of chemicals which contain at least one nitro substituent on an aromatic ring. Approximately 250-300 chemicals are listed as commercial nitroaromatic compounds. However, only about 40 compounds are produced or consum...

P. H. Howard J. Santodonato J. Saxena J. Malling D. Greninger

1976-01-01

109

Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs. PMID:22925856

Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

2012-01-01

110

BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Before a chemical can elicit toxicity, the animal must accumulate a dose at a target tissue of sufficient magnitude to produce a response. Bioavailability refers to the degree to which this accumulation occurs relative to the amount of chemical present in the environment, and is ...

111

E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) is a comprehensive, fully-integrated approach to in-situ, real-time detection and monitoring of environmental contaminants. E-SMART will provide new class of smart, highly sensitive, chemically-specific, in-situ, multichannel microsensors utilizing integrated optical interferometry technology, large, commercially viable set of E-SMART-compatible sensors, samplers, and network management components, and user-friendly graphical user interface for data evaluation and visualization.

NONE

1996-01-01

112

Extraction of Arsenic from Soils Contaminated with Wood Preservation Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three soil samples contaminated by chromated zinc arsenate (CZA) or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) were investigated in a laboratory scale to study As mobilization and to identify a chemical agent that could be used in soil washing to extract arsenic. Besides high As extraction, the cost, occupational health issues and technical aspects were considered when selecting the chemical. Arsenic is

Lea Rastas Amofah; Christian Maurice; Prosun Bhattacharya

2010-01-01

113

Environmental Contaminants and Human Infertility: Hypothesis or Cause for Concern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the crude human birth rate (live births per 1000 population) declined, indicating reduced fertility and suggesting a potential decline in fecundity (the potential to conceive). Detection of environmental contaminants in human tissues, together with reports of a global decline in semen quality, further fueled speculation that human infertility rates are increasing and environmental toxicants are

Warren G. Foster; Michael S. Neal; Myoung-Soek Han; Miguel M. Dominguez

2008-01-01

114

Contamination diffusion and environmental sampling, an overview  

SciTech Connect

This document contains: (1) A general overview of the contamination process-geological and hydrological; (2) A brief description of the `dynamic cluster` sampling technique developed for the comprehensive survey at RMA; and (3) Summary of the sampling program which is grouped into 3 categories - 3600 monitoring program, geophysical sampling, and the projected comprehensive sampling program.

Timofeeff, N.

1976-08-01

115

Thyroid disruption in walleye ( Sander vitreus) exposed to environmental contaminants: Cloning and use of iodothyronine deiodinases as molecular biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormones play a role in the initiation of ovarian maturation in fish. Thus, reports of delayed sexual maturation in female walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to contaminants in the Ottawa River suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of environmental contaminants in the Ottawa River on thyroid hormones of immature

Michelle Picard-Aitken; Henri Fournier; Richard Pariseau; David J. Marcogliese; Daniel G. Cyr

2007-01-01

116

40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals. 141.11 Section...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.11 Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals. (a) The...

2010-07-01

117

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Haloethers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the potential environmental hazard from the commercial use of haloether compounds. The fluorinated anesthetic ethers, methoxyfurane (2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethyl methyl ether) and fluroxene (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl ether), are onl...

P. R. Durkin P. H. Howard J. Saxena

1975-01-01

118

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Acrylonitrile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a survey and summary of the literature on acrylonitrile. Major aspects of its biological effects, environmental exposure, chemistry, production and use, and regulations are reviewed and assessed. Acrylonitrile is used in a wide variety of pl...

J. E. Villaume L. M. Miller

1978-01-01

119

Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seventh topical meeting on Lasers and Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis continued the tradition of state-of-the-art research and applications and was presented in an informal atmosphere designed to foster communication among research...

J. A. Thorner

2000-01-01

120

Biodegradation of environmental contaminants using white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi are a common, naturally-occurring class of wood-degrading fungi that evolved to degrade lignin. Extensive research conducted since the early 1980s has shown that many of the same mechanisms used by the fungi for lignin degradation also promote the degradation of several carbon-based environmental contaminants. These contaminants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, wood preservatives, chlorinated solvents, PCBs,

R. B. White; S. D. Aust

1994-01-01

121

Assessment of environmental contaminant-induced lymphocyte dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Although it has been established that environmental contaminants can alter immune function, the mechanisms of action have yet to be determined. This paper reviews the effects of hydrocarbon environmental contaminants on lymphocyte function and presents an approach which may serve to delineate the mechanisms of action. The approach is based on the use of the developmental phases of an immune response and assays which can be used for their functional assessment. Possible interactions between environmental contaminants and lymphocyte function and factors which must be considered in the evaluation of immune status are discussed. In addition, a study on the influence of the chronic exposure to two polyhalogenated hydrocarbons, PCB and HCB, on several parameters of lymphocyte function in mice is presented.

Silkworth, J B; Loose, L D

1981-01-01

122

HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2011-01-01

123

Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise; for example, potential adverse health effects (e.g., cancer, reproductive and developmental effects, and endocrine disruption), bioaccumulation, an...

124

Environmental Implications of Fire-Retardant Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report ensures the environmental safety of fire-retardant chemicals used to fight forest fires, the U.S. Forest Service requested an investigation to determine the potential for UV-enhanced toxicity and environmental persistence of fire-retardant chem...

E. E. Little R. D. Calfee

2002-01-01

125

Environmental contaminant studies by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of the effects of environmental contaminants on wildlife is geared to interpreting events in the field, especially population effects, and both field and laboratory studies are planned for this purpose; procedures are adapted to specific problems and therefore do not include strict protocols or routine testing. Field evaluations include measurements of cholinesterase inhibition in brain or blood, search for dead or disabled animals, study of nesting success of birds, and general ecological observations. Residue analyses are used in evaluating organochlorine chemicals; samples may include whole bodies for determining level of exposure, brains for mortality diagnosis, whole blood for certain special studies, and eggs to help in evaluation of possible reproductive effects. Bird counts, singing-male census counts, small mamrnal trapping, and cage-in-field tests have proven to be ineffective or misleading and are not considered suitable for field evaluations under most circumstances. Usefulness of simulated field trials is limited to very special situations. Experimental studies that help predict and interpret field effects include determinations of lethal diagnostic levels, comparative lethal dietary toxicity tests, tests of secondary poisoning measurement of residue loss rates, measurement of blood enzymes, tests of behavioral effects, and studies of reproductive effects.

Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.

1979-01-01

126

USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.

Dr. William D. Bostick

2003-05-01

127

Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was evaluated in (i) artificially spiked sand with HCH isomers (?, ?, ? and ?) and (ii) contaminated soil sampled from a former gravel pit backfilled with wastes of lindane (?-HCH). Following oxidation treatments were employed: hydrogen peroxide alone (HP), hydrogen peroxide with soluble Fe(II) (Fenton-F), sodium persulfate alone (PS), Fe(II) activated persulfate (AP) and permanganate (PM). GC-MS results revealed a significant degradation of all isomers in spiked soil in the order: F>PS>AP>HP>PM. Soluble Fe(II) enhanced the efficiency of H2O2 but decreased the reactivity of persulfate. Similar trend was observed in contaminated soil, but with less degradation probably caused by scavenging effect of organic matter and soil minerals and/or pollutant unavailability. No significant increase in oxidation efficiency was observed after using availability-enhancement agents in contaminated soil. Other limitation factors (oxidant dose, pH, catalyst type etc.) were also addressed. Among all the isomers tested, ?-HCH was the most recalcitrant one which could be explained by higher metabolic and chemical stability. No by-products were observed by GC-MS regardless of the oxidant used. For being the premier study reporting chemical oxidation of HCH isomers in contaminated soils, it will serve as a base for in-situ treatments of sites contaminated by HCH isomers and other persistent organic pollutants. PMID:24486498

Usman, M; Tascone, O; Faure, P; Hanna, K

2014-04-01

128

Contamination and galvanic corrosion in metal chemical-mechanical planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of metals is a critical process in the manufacturing of ultra-large scale integrated (ULSI) circuit devices. The overall success of a CMP process requires minimal particulate and metallic contamination of the structures subjected to CMP. The objective of this study was to investigate alumina particle contamination during tungsten CMP, copper contamination in copper CMP, and galvanic corrosion between metal films and adhesion layers during the final stages of tungsten and copper CMP. Particular attention was paid to the use of short chain organic carboxylic acids in reducing the contamination. Both electrokinetic and uptake measurements showed that citric acid and malonic acid interact with alumina particles by electrostatic as well as specific adsorption forces. Systematic immersion contamination and polishing experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the acids in controlling alumina particulate contamination on wafer surfaces. The difference in the surface cleanliness was interpreted using the electrokinetic data and the calculated interaction energy between alumina particles and the wafer surface. Electrochemical tests showed no severe attack on tungsten films by the acids. Copper ions were found to adsorb onto the silicon dioxide surface, leading to copper contamination levels of upto 1013 atoms/cm 2. The extent of copper contamination was found to depend on the solution pH and the presence of additives such as hydrogen peroxide. Both electrokinetic measurements and immersion contamination experiments showed that citric acid can reduce the copper contamination on the silicon dioxide surface. TiN is more noble than tungsten in the solutions containing oxidants used in tungsten CMP slurries. The most significant corrosion of tungsten was found in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Copper was found to be more noble than tantalum in acidic solutions. However, in alkaline ammonium hydroxide solutions, the relative nobility of copper and tantalum can be reversed by adding hydrogen peroxide. The corrosion of tungsten and copper appears to be very minimally affected by coupling with TiN and tantalum, respectively.

Zhang, Liming

129

A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical

J. D Petty; J. N Huckins; D. A Alvarez; W. G Brumbaugh; W. L Cranor; R. W Gale; A. C Rastall; T. L Jones-Lepp; T. J Leiker; C. E Rostad; E. T Furlong

2004-01-01

130

Environmental chemical-induced macrophage dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Immunomodulation by environmental chemical contaminants and the role immune parameters play in toxicity and risk assessment studies is of increasing concern. Although considerable evidence has indicated that various xenobiotics may be immunosuppressive, little attention has been directed toward ascertaining a specific cellular locus which could be responsible for the impaired immune responsiveness. Since previous studies had suggested a macrophage defect in xenobiotic-induced immunosuppression and since macrophages are integral components of an immune response, an in-depth evaluation of macrophage function was conducted in xenobiotic-exposed mice. Macrophages isolated from mice receiving PCB, HCB, and dieldrin had no alteration in their in vitro O2 consumption while at rest or during phagocytosis. In addition, no alteration in in vitro phagocytic activity, phagocytic capacity or microbicidal activity was demonstrated. However, a significant impairment in the in vivo phagocytic clearance of a labelled antigen and an altered tissue distribution of the antigen was observed and was, perhaps, related, in part, to a significant decrease in serum fibronectin, an opsonic alpha 2 surface-binding glycoprotein. Furthermore, animals exposed to HCB and dieldrin, but not to PCB, had a profound decrease in their resistance to a challenge tumor cell implant which was related to a select alteration in tumor cell killing. The adherent spleen cells from HCB-treated mice had a profound suppression in their tumoricidal activity which was in contrast to dieldrin-treated mice, where the target cell type appeared to be the nonadherent cells. However, although dieldrin-exposed adherent cells (macrophages ?) did nt appear to have an altered tumoricidal capacity, all four macrophage types isolated from dieldrin-treated mice had a significantly impaired ability to process a cellular antigen. Splenic and alveolar macrophages appeared to be the most sensitive cell types to dieldrin. The present studies suggest that macrophage dysfunction may be an integral part of xenobiotic-induced immunosuppression and that the effector but not affector component of macrophage function may be the site of alteration.

Loose, L D; Silkworth, J B; Charbonneau, T; Blumenstock, F

1981-01-01

131

Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%,

L. Zhang; M. H. Wong

2007-01-01

132

Arsenic speciation in environmental samples of contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled method of high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine arsenic compounds, such as arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine and arsenocholine in soils. The technique was successfully applied to analyse environmental samples from an arsenic-contaminated soil; arsenate was found to be the major component. Due to microbial activity, transformation from

Richard Pongratz

1998-01-01

133

Environmental Geological Examination of Chromium-Contamination in Eastern Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrialisation in Hungary in recent decades was not accompanied by appropriate environmental regulation. The government orders protecting the geological environment were only formulated in the year 2000. After the regime change in 1989 the government undertook the rehabilitation of the contaminated areas. The regional environment protection authorities have surveyed the significant pollution sources nationally since 1995 and the remediation of

Gy. Maján; M. Kozák; Z. Püspöki; R. McIntosh; L. Mikó

2001-01-01

134

Birds and environmental contaminants in San Francisco and Chesapeake Bays  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The direct and indirect effects of human activities, including environmental contamination, upon bird populations in San Francisco Bay and Chesapeake Bay are imperfectly understood, and few data are available. that allow a comparison of the contamination levels in birds from these two areas. Certain trace elements and organochlorine compounds have been found at sufficiently high concentrations in bird tissues or their foods to expect adverse effects in these birds, based upon results of field and laboratory studies conducted with other avian species. The decline and recovery of populations of many avian species have been recorded, including some associated with organochlorine contamination. The present paper summarizes available information on the occurrence and potential effects of contaminants upon birds in these two regions.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Fleming, W.J.

1988-01-01

135

Multi-residue analysis of 80 environmental contaminants in honeys, honeybees and pollens by one extraction procedure followed by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the factors that may explain nowadays honeybees’ colonies losses is the increasing presence of chemicals in the environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a global view of the presence of environmental contaminants in beehives and, develop a fast, cheap and sensitive tool to analyze environmental contaminants in apiarian matrices. A multi residue analysis was developed

Laure Wiest; Audrey Buleté; Barbara Giroud; Cédric Fratta; Sophie Amic; Olivier Lambert; Hervé Pouliquen; Carine Arnaudguilhem

2011-01-01

136

Bioassay-directed chemical analysis in environmental research  

SciTech Connect

The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology bioassay directed chemical analysis to best describe this marriage of analytical chemistry and biology. The objective of this methodology is to identify key compounds in various types of air-pollutant samples. Once that task is completed, studies on metabolism, sources, environmental exposure and atmospheric chemistry can be undertaken. The principles and methodologies for bioassay directed chemical analysis are presented and illustrated in this paper. Most of this work has been directed toward the characterization of ambient air and diesel particulates, which are used as examples in this report to illustrate the analytical logic used for identifying the bio-active components of complex mixtures.

Schuetzle, D.; Lewtas, J.

1986-01-01

137

FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT DATA: A FORENSIC TOOL FOR EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have been conducted on behalf of the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify detection monitoring parameters for specific industries.1,2,3,4,5 One outcome of these studies was the evolution of an empirical multi-variant contaminant fingerprinting p...

138

Alterations in macrophage functions by environmental chemicals.  

PubMed Central

The establishment of infectious diseases is rarely entirely attributed to a single entity, but instead is the result of a primary stress and one or more secondary factors that interfere with homeostasis and the ability of the host to cope with the primary etiologic assault. Any environmental chemical that can suppress the normal functioning of the host's body defenses would be expected to increase the risk of the host to such diseases. Within the lung, the alveolar macrophages are the crucial elements responsible for defending the body against such airborne viable agents. The effects of inhaled gases and particulates on these defense cells are a major concern of the environmental health scientist since such chemicals have the capability of adversely affecting the integrity and functioning of these pulmonary defense cells. The objective of this report is to provide an overview that will improve our understanding of how a variety of environmental chemicals can alter the biochemical, physiological and immunological functioning of these cells.

Gardner, D E

1984-01-01

139

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, Len

1992-01-01

140

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

SciTech Connect

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, L.

1992-03-01

141

Solubility, sorption, and transport of hydrophobic organic chemicals in complex mixtures. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination problems commonly involve wastes consisting of complex mixtures of chemicals. The behavior of these mixtures has not been well understood because the primary chemodynamic properties of organic chemicals have usually been characterized in aqueous solutions which are simple in composition relative to many waste mixtures found at or near disposal\\/spill sites. The research summarized in the report focuses

P. S. C. Rao; L. S. Lee; A. L. Wood

1991-01-01

142

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

Petty, J. D.; Orazio, C. E.; Huckins, J. N.; Gale, R. W.; Lebo, J. A.; Meadows, J. C.; Echols, K. R.; Cranor, W. L.

2000-01-01

143

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.  

PubMed

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field plot experiment. Results showed that treatments with CC, SS and FS decreased Cd uptake by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat by 23-95% compared with the unamended control. Among the three amendments, FS was the most efficient at suppressing Cd uptake by the plants, probably due to its higher content of available silicon (Si). The concentrations of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and Cd in the shoots of vetiver grass were 42-67%, 500-1200% and 120-260% higher in contaminated plots than in control, respectively. Cadmium accumulation by vetiver shoots was 218 g Cd/ha at a soil Cd concentration of 0.33 mg Cd/kg. It is suggested that heavy metal-contaminated soil could be remediated with a combination of chemical treatments and plants. PMID:10819205

Chen, H M; Zheng, C R; Tu, C; Shen, Z G

2000-07-01

144

Chemical, biochemical, and environmental applications of fibers  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the following topics: Biochemical and biomedical sensors; environmental sensing with optical fibers; optical absorbance-based sensors; fiber optic fluoresensors for sulfur dioxide based on energy transfer and exciplex quenching; novel fibers and techniques for chemical sensing; and evanescent field sensors.

Lieberman, R.A.; Wlodarczyk, M.T.

1988-01-01

145

Potential for portal detection of human chemical and biological contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The walk-through metal-detection portal is a paradigm of non-intrusive passenger screening in aviation security. Modern explosive detection portals based on this paradigm will soon appear in airports. This paper suggests that the airborne trace detection technology developed for that purpose can also be adapted to human chemical and biological contamination. The waste heat of the human body produces a rising

Gary S. Settles; William J. McGann

2001-01-01

146

Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers.  

PubMed Central

Due to the use of a limited number of species and subchronic exposures, current ecological hazard assessment processes can underestimate the chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants resulting in adverse responses of sentinel species. Several incidences where sentinel species have responded to the effects of chronic exposure to ambient levels of environmental contaminants are discussed, including the development of neoplasia in fish, immunosuppression in marine mammals, pseudohermaphrodism in invertebrates, teratogenicity in amphibians, and aberrations in the sexual development of fish and reptiles. Biomarkers of chronic toxicity, including DNA mutations, alterations in specific protein and mRNA levels, and perturbations in metabolism, are presented. The incorporation of appropriate surrogate species and biomarkers of chronic toxicity into standard toxicity characterizations is proposed as a means of significantly refining the ecological hazard assessment process.

LeBlanc, G A; Bain, L J

1997-01-01

147

Environmental contamination of groundwater in the Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental problems of groundwater contamination in the Gaza Strip are summarized in this paper. The Gaza Strip is a very narrow and highly populated area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (360 km2). Human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources in the area, while the unconfined nature of some parts of the coastal main aquifer favors groundwater contamination. Recent investigations show contamination of the aquifer with organic substances from detergents, agrochemicals, sewage (cesspools), and waste degradation. These effects enhance each other because there is no recycling industry, sewage system, or any type of environmental protection management at present. Inorganic contamination results from overpumping, which increases the salinity of the groundwater. Seawater intrusion also increases the salinity of the groundwater that are used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Consequently, at present about 80 percent of the groundwater in the Gaza Strip is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Solutions are very urgently needed for these problems in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases.

Al-Agha, M. R.

1995-03-01

148

Plant sentinels and molecular probes that monitor environmental munitions contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Plants accumulate TNT and similar compounds from soil. Their sessile nature requires that plants adapt to environmental changes by biochemical and molecular means. In principle, it is possible to develop a monitoring capability based on expression of any gene that is activated by specific environmental conditions. The authors have identified plant genes activated upon exposure to TNT. Partial gene sequences allow design of DNA probes that measure TNT-induced gene activity. These will be used to develop sensitive assays that monitor gene expression in plants growing in environments possibly contaminated with explosives.

Jackson, P.J.; DeWitt, J.G.; Hill, K.K.; Kuske, C.R.; Kim, D.Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Genomics and Structural Biology Group

1994-08-01

149

Approaches to detecting immunotoxic effects of environmental contaminants in humans.  

PubMed Central

Experimental animal studies indicate that environmental contaminants can have adverse effects on several organs and tissues of the immune system. Such effects are known to lead to increased host susceptibility to microbial infections and to compromised immunosurveillance mechanisms normally instrumental in the elimination of neoplastic cells and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Evaluation of the potential risk environmental contaminants pose to the human immune system is currently accomplished via extrapolation of experimentally derived animal data to humans. Presently, this process requires that uncertainty factors such as interspecies differences and genetic variability be considered. Naturally, the process of risk assessment would be greatly facilitated if it were based on clinically relevant data derived from studying humans known to be exposed to environmental contaminants. However, the existing human data are scarce and often described as very limited in scope. To generate the much-needed human data we need to identify a set of clinically relevant immunologic end points that, when adequately standardized, can be incorporated easily into the design of prospective epidemiologic studies.

Tryphonas, H

2001-01-01

150

Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); thesemeshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit is eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype sorber device for simultaneous CO2 and trace contarninant removal and its attendant weight and energy savings.

Roychoudhury, S.; Perry, J.

2004-01-01

151

Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the lower Savannah River and on the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, and analyzed them for concentrations of organochlorine chemicals, aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and 13 elemental contaminants: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Residues of DDT (mainly as DDE),trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, Aroclor? 1260, mirex, and petroleum hydrocarbons were common in fish from the lower Savannah River, but concentrations were below those warranting environmental concern. In general, the concentrations of elemental contaminants also were low; however, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium concentrations were elevated in fish from river stations near the city of Savannah, and lead was elevated in samples from the National Wildlife Refuge. Contamination of the lower Savannah River by organic and elemental contaminants, as indicated by concentrations in fishes and fiddler crabs, did not appear to pose a hazard.

Winger, P. V.; Schultz, D. P.; Johnson, W. W.

1990-01-01

152

Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.  

PubMed

Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. PMID:23917738

Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

2013-11-01

153

A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field. PMID:24735943

Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

2014-07-01

154

Cosmetics as a potential source of environmental contamination in the UK.  

PubMed

Chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) are frequently used in cosmetic formulations and can potentially reach the environment at concentrations that may cause harm. A methodology was developed to assess over 120 chemicals assembled from product ingredient listings to identify and validate potential CECs in cosmetics, based on Annex XIII of REACH legislation. Ten potential CECs were identified: polydimethylsiloxane, butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene, triclosan, nano titanium dioxide, nano zinc oxide, butylparaben, diethyl phthalate, octinoxate methoxycinnamate and benzophenone. These chemicals were quantified based on their consumption and concentrations in cosmetics and percentage market penetration. The initial predicted environmental concentrations (PEC initial) were estimated to determine their exposure to the environment. With the exception of BHA, the PEC initial highlighted levels of exposure to the environment that triggered the need for further investigation of the chemicals. These chemicals were linked to cosmetics to highlight products with the potential to cause environmental harm. Skin care products had the highest quantities of CECs, with titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanomaterials being dominant potential contaminants. Further research is required to assess the exposure pathways and fate of these chemicals to determine environmental risks associated with their use and disposal. PMID:22988620

Dhanirama, Danelle; Gronow, Jan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2012-01-01

155

REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY ENHANCED COAGULATION, POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON, CHEMICAL SOFTENING, AND OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

156

Environmental contaminant effects on juvenile striped bass in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA.  

PubMed

The decline of pelagic organisms in the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) (California, USA) is attributed to several factors, including water diversions, invasive species, and exposure to environmental toxicants. The present study evaluated the effects of environmental contaminants on liver vitellogenin, metallothionein, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), and benzyloxyresorufin O-deethylase (BROD) activity in juvenile striped bass (Morone saxitilis) in the SFE. Analysis of juvenile striped bass liver extracts revealed site-specific elevations of vitellogenin, metallothionein, and EROD biomarkers across the estuary. Although some striped bass in the estuary showed EROD activity similar to unhandled hatchery controls, several sites in the estuary showed significantly higher EROD activity that was in the range of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)-injected, positive controls. Overall, EROD activity averaged 283% higher in estuary fish than in hatchery controls. Chemical analyses of extracts from semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) deployed in the estuary for one month showed elevated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. Semipermeable membrane devices extract injections-induced metallothionein and BROD in striped bass livers. These data show that environmental exposures are impacting EROD and other biomarkers in the SFE striped bass population. Previous studies in our laboratory have associated poor larval development with maternal transfer of environmental contaminants. Further studies are needed to monitor contaminant exposures by the use of biomarkers and to integrate them into a more effective pelagic species recovery plan in the SFE. PMID:21038432

Spearow, Jimmy L; Kota, Rama S; Ostrach, David J

2011-02-01

157

Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by alkylphenols.  

PubMed

Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE) are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are used in detergents, paints, herbicides, pesticides, emulsifiers, wetting and dispersing agents, antistatic agents, demulsifiers, and solubilizers. Many studies have reported the occurrence of alkylphenols in different environmental matrices, though none of these studies have yet to establish a comprehensive overview of such compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes APE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from the atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrence of compounds has been assessed for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [WWTP], atmosphere, and the natural environment), data are examined in order to understand the fate of APE in the environment and establish their geographical and historical trends. From this database, it is clear that the environment in Europe is much more contaminated by APE compared to North America and developing countries, although these APE levels have been decreasing in the last decade. APE concentrations in the WWTP effluent of developed countries have decreased by a factor of 100 over the past 30 years. This study is aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes that influence the fate and transport of these contaminants in the environment. In industrial countries, the concentrations observed in waterways now represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution in these countries, whereas sediment analyses conducted in developing countries show an increase in APE content over the last several years. Finally, similar trends have been observed in samples drawn from Europe and North America. PMID:22864754

Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

2012-11-01

158

Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

2012-01-01

159

Direct evaluation of airborne contamination in chemically amplified resist films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne contamination in chemically amplified resist films was evaluated by monitoring deprotection reaction using an IR spectrometer. T-BOC protected (20, 50 and 100 mol%) m- and p-cresol novolak resins and triphenyltriflate were used as a matrix polymer and a photoacid generator (PAG), respectively. Three levels of clean environments whose base contaminant (NH4+) concentrations were 50 - 80, 5 - 10 and less than 1 ppb, were prepared for the experiments. In order to determine the delay effects precisely, other processes including baking, exposure, and storage during process intervals were conducted in a base-free environment. The PEB delay effect as well as radiation sensitivity without delay depended on the t-BOC content, and the best results were obtained at 50% and 25 - 50% t- BOC contents in m-cresol novolak and p-cresol novolak systems, respectively.

Yamashita, Yoshio; Taguchi, Takao; Watanabe, Takeo

1995-06-01

160

Myelodysplasia, chemical exposure, and other environmental factors  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a case-control study of the occupational and environmental exposures of patients with myelodysplasia. The methodology, first described in Canada for solid tumors, estimates lifetime exposures to a number of potential toxic hazards or carcinogens. This pilot study confirms that the methodology, with the use of questionnaires and interviews, can estimate exposures to specific chemicals and shows some significant associations with myelodysplasia, including exposure to petrol or diesel compounds.

Farrow, A.; Jacobs, A.; West, R.R.

1989-01-01

161

Environmental contaminant–mixture effects on CNS development, plasticity, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants within the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon class have been shown to cross the placenta exposing the fetus to the contaminant body burden of the mother. Consequently, a gestational exposure to environmental contaminants may result in increased adverse health outcomes, possibly affecting cognitive performance. Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and 2,3,7,8, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are two prototypical environmental contaminants.

Deanna D Wormley; Aramandla Ramesh; Darryl B Hood

2004-01-01

162

Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

2009-01-01

163

Geostatistics and GIS: tools for characterizing environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Geostatistics is a set of statistical techniques used in the analysis of georeferenced data that can be applied to environmental contamination and remediation studies. In this study, the 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) contamination at a Superfund site in western Maryland is evaluated. Concern about the site and its future clean up has triggered interest within the community because residential development surrounds the area. Spatial statistical methods, of which geostatistics is a subset, are becoming increasingly popular, in part due to the availability of geographic information system (GIS) software in a variety of application packages. In this article, the joint use of ArcGIS software and the R statistical computing environment are demonstrated as an approach for comprehensive geostatistical analyses. The spatial regression method, kriging, is used to provide predictions of DDE levels at unsampled locations both within the site and the surrounding areas where residential development is ongoing. PMID:15366239

Henshaw, Shannon L; Curriero, Frank C; Shields, Timothy M; Glass, Gregory E; Strickland, Paul T; Breysse, Patrick N

2004-08-01

164

Noble metals: a toxicological appraisal of potential new environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The public health benefits expected by reducing known hazardous emissions from mobile sources should not be compromised by increasing levels of other potentially hazardous unregulated emissions. Catalytic converters are going to be used to meet the statutory requirements on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions from light duty motor vehicles. Platinum and palladium metals are the catalytic materials to be used in these emission control devices. Preliminary experimental evidence and analysis of the impact of these control devices on the future use and demand for platinum indicates that this metal may appear at detectable levels in the environment by the end of this decade. At the present time, platinum and palladium are not present in the public environment and represent potentially new environmental contaminants as a consequence of use of this new abatement control technology. There is relatively little information available to adequately assess the potential health hazards that may be associated with exposure to these metals and their compounds. Analysis of the environmental problems and concerns associated with possible new environmental contaminants are discussed. Limited estimates are made on community exposure by use of a meteorological dispersion model. Biodegradation potential and attention is also given to the limited toxicological information available. PMID:50939

Brubaker, P E; Moran, J P; Bridbord, K; Hueter, F G

1975-04-01

165

Noble metals: a toxicological appraisal of potential new environmental contaminants.  

PubMed Central

The public health benefits expected by reducing known hazardous emissions from mobile sources should not be compromised by increasing levels of other potentially hazardous unregulated emissions. Catalytic converters are going to be used to meet the statutory requirements on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions from light duty motor vehicles. Platinum and palladium metals are the catalytic materials to be used in these emission control devices. Preliminary experimental evidence and analysis of the impact of these control devices on the future use and demand for platinum indicates that this metal may appear at detectable levels in the environment by the end of this decade. At the present time, platinum and palladium are not present in the public environment and represent potentially new environmental contaminants as a consequence of use of this new abatement control technology. There is relatively little information available to adequately assess the potential health hazards that may be associated with exposure to these metals and their compounds. Analysis of the environmental problems and concerns associated with possible new environmental contaminants are discussed. Limited estimates are made on community exposure by use of a meteorological dispersion model. Biodegradation potential and attention is also given to the limited toxicological information available.

Brubaker, P E; Moran, J P; Bridbord, K; Hueter, F G

1975-01-01

166

National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals  

MedlinePLUS

... this page: About CDC.gov . National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Fourth Report Home Updated ... 9,479 KB] The Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, September 2013 ...

167

Quantifying sources of environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs.  

PubMed

A rich body of work has reported levels of infection with Toxocara species in definitive hosts, and the frequency of eggs in the environment, in many different regions and situations. These have greatly increased our understanding of the relationship between egg excretion from companion and wild animals and the risk of human infection by inadvertent ingestion of eggs from soil and other environmental reservoirs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to compare studies directly because of vagaries in sampling and laboratory methods, a preponderance of prevalence rather than abundance data, and a lack of studies that systematically sample different sympatric definitive host populations. Such comparisons could be instructive, for example to determine the relative contributions of different definitive host populations and categories to environmental contamination in specified areas, and hence guide priorities for control. In this article we use estimates of host density and infection levels in the city of Bristol, UK, as a case study to evaluate the relative contribution of sympatric cats, dogs and foxes to overall environmental contamination with eggs. Results suggest that dogs, especially those less than 12 weeks of age, dominate total egg output, but that this is modified by degree of access to public areas and removal of faeces, such that foxes could take over as the primary source of eggs. Results and conclusions are likely to differ among specific locations. The general aim is to show how an improved quantitative framework for epidemiological studies of Toxocara spp. egg contamination can help to advance understanding and the effectiveness of control strategies in future. PMID:23333071

Morgan, E R; Azam, D; Pegler, K

2013-04-15

168

Dicofol (Kelthane) as an environmental contaminant: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dicofol is persistent in soil and on plants. No compelling evidence exists that dicofol breaks down or is metabolized to DDTr in nature. Dicofol does not accumulate in birds as rapidly as DDE, and it has reproductive effects that are less harmful than DDE. Fish, birds, and mammals are reproductively sensitive to dicofol products, but levels presently found in wildlife are below levels shown experimentally to cause significant harm. Eggs of fish-eating wild birds from citrus, cotton, and apple-growing areas should be analyzed for dicofol residues. Nest success of fish-eating birds in the most contaminated populations should be studied to evaluate the environmental effects of dicofol.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1990-01-01

169

Levels of Environmental Contaminants in Human Follicular Fluid, Serum, and Seminal Plasma of Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have\\u000a explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore,\\u000a we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending\\u000a an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in

E. V. Younglai; W. G. Foster; E. G. Hughes; K. Trim; J. F. Jarrell

2002-01-01

170

Indirect Detection of Intentional Chemical Contamination in the Distribution System Using Low Cost Turbidity Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid detection of chemical contamination in the distribution system is essential in protecting public health, and using water quality surrogates to signal a contamination event offers the advantage of detecting a large number of chemicals. The concern over using surrogate parameters is whether they offer the ability to detect contaminants at concentrations low enough to prevent serious illness. The best

Seongho Cho; Kenneth Carlson; Kenneth Stutzman

2007-01-01

171

USE OF CHEMICAL MANIPULATIONS TO ALTER CONTAMINANT BIOAVAILABILITY: SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A common method for determining whether contaminants in sediments represent an environmental risk is to perform toxicity tests. Toxicity tests indicate if contaminants in sediments are bioavailable and capable of causing adverse biological effects (e.g., mortality, reduced growt...

172

Dermal absorption of environmental contaminants from soil and sediment: a critical review.  

PubMed

Risk assessment of hazardous wastes sites may require characterization of the dermal availability of chemical contaminants in soil and/or sediment. Current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance for assessment of dermal exposures to contaminants in water and soil was finalized in 2004 as a supplement (Part E) to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). The soil protocol presented in RAGS Part E is less sophisticated than the water protocol and is supported by less empirical data. Investigations of dermal absorption of soil and sediment-borne contaminants that have been conducted to date include in vitro and in vivo experiments using both human and surrogate skin. A review of that literature was conducted with attention to relevant criteria including consideration of layering effects, degree of chemical saturation of soil, appropriateness of particle size distribution employed, soil-chemical contact time, and continuity of soil-skin contact (in in vivo studies). Most studies published to date are deficient by virtue of execution or reporting on one or more of the selected criteria. In addition the lack of methodological standardization evident in the literature hinders systematic evaluation of results. Since additional experimental work is needed, general agreement on acceptable approaches would be useful. Recommendations for good practice are presented. PMID:18830234

Spalt, Elizabeth W; Kissel, John C; Shirai, Jeffry H; Bunge, Annette L

2009-02-01

173

Macromolecular adducts caused by environmental chemicals.  

PubMed

We describe three biomonitoring studies in which hemoglobin (Hb) adducts were used as biochemical markers to assess indirectly the target dose of genotoxic chemicals. We monitored the exposure to 1,3-butadiene in occupationally exposed workers and in two control groups by analyzing the adducts formed by the reaction of the first activation product, butadiene monoepoxide, with the terminal valine of Hb; we also measured hydrolyzable adducts formed by the reaction of metabolically formed nitroso derivatives with Hb from five selected nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (1-nitropyrene; 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthrene, 6-nitrochrysene, and 9-nitrophenanthrene) in coke oven workers of different job categories and control workers of the same geographical area. We detected hydrolyzable adducts from monocyclic nitroarenes in blood from individuals living in a contaminated area where explosives had been produced and from controls. The contaminants considered were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene; 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene; and 1,3-dinitrobenzene. Differences between groups were significant, but interindividual variation was great and back-ground exposures must be considered. PMID:7497641

Neumann, H G; Albrecht, O; van Dorp, C; Zwirner-Baier, I

1995-12-01

174

A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Alvarez, D. A.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W. L.; Gale, R. W.; Rastall, A. C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T. J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E. T.

2004-01-01

175

Impact of Environmental Chemicals on Lung Development  

PubMed Central

Background Disruption of fundamental biologic processes and associated signaling events may result in clinically significant alterations in lung development. Objectives We reviewed evidence on the impact of environmental chemicals on lung development and key signaling events in lung morphogenesis, and the relevance of potential outcomes to public health and regulatory science. Data sources We evaluated the peer-reviewed literature on developmental lung biology and toxicology, mechanistic studies, and supporting epidemiology. Data synthesis Lung function in infancy predicts pulmonary function throughout life. In utero and early postnatal exposures influence both childhood and adult lung structure and function and may predispose individuals to chronic obstructive lung disease and other disorders. The nutritional and endogenous chemical environment affects development of the lung and can result in altered function in the adult. Studies now suggest that similar adverse impacts may occur in animals and humans after exposure to environmentally relevant doses of certain xenobiotics during critical windows in early life. Potential mechanisms include interference with highly conserved factors in developmental processes such as gene regulation, molecular signaling, and growth factors involved in branching morphogenesis and alveolarization. Conclusions Assessment of environmental chemical impacts on the lung requires studies that evaluate specific alterations in structure or function—end points not regularly assessed in standard toxicity tests. Identifying effects on important signaling events may inform protocols of developmental toxicology studies. Such knowledge may enable policies promoting true primary prevention of lung diseases. Evidence of relevant signaling disruption in the absence of adequate developmental toxicology data should influence the size of the uncertainty factors used in risk assessments.

Miller, Mark D.; Marty, Melanie A.

2010-01-01

176

Finite Rate Chemical Analysis of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination Effects on Scramjet Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. A finite rate chemical analysi...

K. F. Cabell K. E. Rock

2003-01-01

177

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental

R. L. Smith; Y. H. Schukken; A. K. Pradhan; J. M. Smith; R. H. Whitlock; J. S. Van Kessel; D. R. Wolfgang; Y. T. Grohn

2011-01-01

178

Clostridium difficile in a children's hospital: Assessment of environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent infectious cause of health care-associated diarrhea. Three cases of CDI, in children age 2, 3, and 14 years, occurred in the hematology/oncology ward of our children's hospital over 48 hours. We aimed to assess environmental contamination with C difficile in the shared areas of this unit, and to determine whether person-to-person transmission occurred. C difficile was recovered from 5 of 18 samples (28%). We compared C difficile isolated from each patient and the environment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and found that none of the patient strains matched any of the others, and that none matched any strains recovered from the environment, suggesting that person-to-person transmission had not occurred. We found that C difficile was prevalent in the environment throughout shared areas of the children's hospital unit. Molecular typing to identify mechanisms of transmission is useful for devising appropriate interventions. PMID:24751141

Warrack, Simone; Duster, Megan; Van Hoof, Sarah; Schmitz, Michelle; Safdar, Nasia

2014-07-01

179

Environmental effects of dredging. Factors influencing bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants by aquatic organisms. Glossary and bibliography. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth technical note in a series of four which outlines and describes the principal factors that determine uptake and retention of chemicals by aquatic organisms. The first three notes in the series describe factors relating to contaminants, sediment and water, and biota. This note contains a glossary of terms and a bibliography of key and recent publications in the scientific literature containing supporting data and discussion on each topic. The information contained herein is intended to assist Corps of Engineers environmental personnel in activities requiring a working knowledge of concepts and terminology in the subject of chemical uptake, retention, and elimination by aquatic organisms exposed to contaminated sediments. Bioaccumulation is the general term used to refer to the uptake and storage of chemicals by organisms from their environment through all routes of entry. Bioaccumulation includes bioconcentration, which is the direct uptake of chemicals from water alone, and is distinguished from biomagnification, which is the increase in chemical residues taken up through two or more levels of a food chain. Assessments of the potential for bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredged sediments are often required in evaluations of permit requests. Thus, familiarity with the fundamental physical, biological, and chemical factors affecting bioaccumulation is necessary for performing evaluations of the ecological impacts of dredging operations. Additionally, a basic understanding of the concepts and terminology of bioaccumulation is increasingly required of environmental personnel who are involved in dredging and disposal operations which may involve contaminated sediments and legal personnel involved with regulation and litigation.

McFarland, V.A.; Lutz, C.H.; Reilly, F.J.

1989-08-01

180

SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first Report on 27 chemicals was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 20...

181

Analytic Considerations for Measuring Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of environmental chemicals in human breast milk is of general concern because of the potential health consequence of these chemicals to the breast-fed infant and the mother. In addition to the mother's exposure, several features determine the presence of environmental chemicals in breast milk and their ability to be determined analytically. These include maternal factors and properties of

Larry L. Needham; Richard Y. Wang

2002-01-01

182

Human health hazards associated with chemical contamination of aquatic environment.  

PubMed Central

Given the finite supply of water available for human use, continued chemical contamination of the aquatic environment may pose a significant human health hazard. Consequently, an effort must be made to develop ambient water quality criteria to protect human health and preserve the integrity of the aquatic environment. In developing water quality criteria based on human health effects, information on sources of exposure, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects must be carefully evaluated. Information on sources of exposure is needed to determine the contribution of exposure from water relative to all other sources. Pharmacokinetic data are used in inter- and intraspecies extrapolation and in characterizing the mode of toxic action. Information on toxic effects includes data on acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. In analyzing such information, a distinction is made between threshold and nonthreshold effects. Currently, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity are considered to be nonthreshold effects. For carcinogens and mutagens, criteria are calculated by postulating an "acceptable" increased level of risk and using extrapolation models to estimate the dose which would result in this increased level of risk. For other chemicals, thresholds are assumed and criteria are calculated by deriving "acceptable daily intakes" for man which would presumably result in no observable adverse effects. Neither process is exact, and attempts must be made to improve and verify risk assessment methodologies.

Stara, J F; Kello, D; Durkin, P

1980-01-01

183

An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor canaries?  

PubMed

Nearly two decades ago, the global biodiversity crisis was catapulted to the front pages of newspapers with the recognition of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, 'canaries in a coal mine', because of apparent high sensitivity to human-mediated environmental change. The most frequently cited causes for high susceptibility include permeable skin, a dual aquatic-terrestrial life cycle and a relatively rudimentary immune system. While some researchers have questioned the basis for the canary assertion, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative to other taxa. Here, we apply a database representing thousands of toxicity tests to compare the responses of amphibians relative to that of other taxonomic groups. The use of standardized methods combined with large numbers of identical challenges enables a particularly powerful test of relative effect size. Overall, we found that amphibians only exhibit moderate relative responses to water-borne toxins. Our findings imply that, as far as chemical contaminants are concerned, amphibians are not particularly sensitive and might more aptly be described as 'miners in a coal mine'. To the extent that amphibian declines have been mediated by chemical contaminants, our findings suggest that population losses and extinctions may have already occurred in a variety of taxa much more sensitive than amphibians. PMID:19845728

Kerby, Jacob L; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Storfer, Andrew; Skelly, David K

2010-01-01

184

Characterization of Chemical waste Site Contamination and Its Extent using Bioassays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioassays were used in a three-phase research project to assess the comparative sensitivity of test organisms to known chemicals, determine if the chemical components in field soil and water samples containing unknown contaminants could be inferred from o...

J. Thomas C. Callahan J. Cline

1984-01-01

185

INCORPORATING BIOLOGICALLY BASED MODELS INTO ASSESSMENTS OF RISK FROM CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. raditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been deriv...

186

Cumulative Index to Chemicals and to Common and Scientific Names of Species Listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) series synthesizes ecotoxicological data of selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998 a total of 34 reviews were published in various Reports series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), herbicides (acrolein, atrazine), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), predacides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol), veterinary chemicals (famphur), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, mining wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced by contaminant and corresponding page numbers. A similar index is shown for chemicals.

Eisler, R.

1999-01-01

187

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area  

SciTech Connect

This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Joya, I.E. (MK-Environmental Services, San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-07-01

188

Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

2011-08-30

189

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is

G. Whelan; F. L. Thompson; S. B. Yabusaki

1983-01-01

190

Regulation of Environmental Contaminants in Drinking Water: State Methods and Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment methodologies form the basis for deriving guidelines for environmental contaminants in drinking water. A state may have to set, on an emergency basis, an interim guideline for a drinking water contaminant for which only limited data are available. Additional national drinking water standards will be useful for state regulatory agencies, because maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) are legally enforceable,

Kirpal S. Sidhu

1992-01-01

191

PROSPECTS FOR IN SITU CHEMICAL TREATMENT FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Treating large volumes of contaminated soil at Superfund sites is costly. he Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have provisions, which regulate the removal treatment, and ultimate disposal of contaminated soi...

192

The effect of terminal cleaning on environmental contamination rates of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.  

PubMed

We evaluated the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii environmental contamination before and after discharge cleaning in rooms of infected/colonized patients. 46.9% of rooms and 15.3% of sites were found contaminated precleaning, and 25% of rooms and 5.5% of sites were found contaminated postcleaning. Cleaning significantly decreased environmental contamination of A baumannii; however, persistent contamination represents a significant risk factor for transmission. Further studies on this and more effective cleaning methods are needed. PMID:23199726

Strassle, Paula; Thom, Kerri A; Johnson, J Kristie; Johnsonm, J Kristie; Leekha, Surbhi; Lissauer, Matthew; Zhu, Jingkun; Harris, Anthony D

2012-12-01

193

Relationship between environmental fungal contamination and the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in haematology patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major opportunistic infection in haematology patients. Spore inhalation is the usual route of Aspergillus infection, suggesting a determining role of environmental contamination by spores in the epidemiology of IA. We prospectively examined the relationship between environmental contamination by Aspergillus and other fungal species and the incidence of invasive nosocomial aspergillosis (INA) in a bone marrow

C. Alberti; A. Bouakline; P. Ribaud; C. Lacroix; P. Rousselot; T. Leblanc; F. Derouin

2001-01-01

194

Effectiveness of an antimicrobial polymer to decrease contamination of environmental surfaces in the clinical setting.  

PubMed

We performed a real-world, controlled intervention to investigate use of an antimicrobial surface polymer, MSDS Poly, on environmental contamination. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 18 (90%) of 20 observations in treated rooms and 19 (83%) of 23 observations in untreated rooms (P = .67). MSDS Poly had no significant effect on environmental contamination. PMID:25026625

Thom, Kerri A; Standiford, Harold C; Johnson, J Kristie; Hanna, Nader; Furuno, Jon P

2014-08-01

195

Treatment of hydrocarbon contamination under flow through conditions by using magnetite catalyzed chemical oxidation.  

PubMed

Soil pollution by hydrocarbons (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a major environmental issue. Various treatments have been used to remove them from contaminated soils. In our previous studies, the ability of magnetite has been successfully explored to catalyze chemical oxidation for hydrocarbon remediation in batch slurry system. In the present laboratory study, column experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of magnetite catalyzed Fenton-like (FL) and activated persulfate (AP) oxidation for hydrocarbon degradation. Flow-through column experiments are intended to provide a better representation of field conditions. Organic extracts isolated from three different soils (an oil-contaminated soil from petrochemical industrial site and two soils polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) originating from coking plant sites) were spiked on sand. After solvent evaporation, spiked sand was packed in column and was subjected to oxidation using magnetite as catalyst. Oxidant solution was injected at a flow rate of 0.1 mL min(-1) under water-saturated conditions. Organic analyses were performed by GC-mass spectrometry, GC-flame ionization detector, and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Significant abatement of both types of hydrocarbons (60-70 %) was achieved after chemical oxidation (FL and AP) of organic extracts. No significant by-products were formed during oxidation experiment, underscoring the complete degradation of hydrocarbons. No selective degradation was observed for FL with almost similar efficiency towards all hydrocarbons. However, AP showed less reactivity towards higher molecular weight PAHs and aromatic oxygenated compounds. Results of this study demonstrated that magnetite-catalyzed chemical oxidation can effectively degrade both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (enhanced available contaminants) under flow-through conditions. PMID:22684901

Usman, M; Faure, P; Lorgeoux, C; Ruby, C; Hanna, K

2013-01-01

196

Adaptations of wild populations of the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus to persistent environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aquatic species, including the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichogs), adapt to local environmental conditions. We conducted studies to evaluate whether highly exposed populations\\u000a of mummichogs adapt to toxic environmental contaminants. These fish populations are indigenous to an urban estuary contaminated\\u000a with persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants (dioxin-like compounds, or DLCs) that are particularly toxic to the early\\u000a development of fish.

D. Nacci; L. Coiro; D. Champlin; S. Jayaraman; R. McKinney; T. R. Gleason; W. R. Munns Jr.; J. L. Specker; K. R. Cooper

1999-01-01

197

Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.  

PubMed

Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. PMID:23998894

Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

2013-12-15

198

Feasibility of relating interferon production by wild voles to types of chemical contamination of their environment : Communication.  

PubMed

In the fall of 1980, a limited field sampling and laboratory analysis profect was undertaken to explore the feasibility of relating immunological responses of field mice (voles) living wild in an area of environmental concern to the level of chemical contamination of that area. The voles were collected in the vicinity of Love Canal by biological sampling teams already there to collect voles for other purposes.The project helped identify those areas of practical uncertainty that must be clarified before the rate of interferon production in voles can be considered as a possible indicator of chemical contamination. Two lines of research are proposed: developing optimumin vitro interferon bioassays systems for vole leukocytes; and characterizing the interferon production responses of voles following controlled exposures to selected carcinogens and other chemicals. PMID:24259144

Khan, A; Duvall, J; Santolucito, J

1984-03-01

199

In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: an experimental study.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of an experimental study testing a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaim arsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from several industrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenic through heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. The mean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soils collected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogical and organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form, distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenic trioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320-341] indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associated with amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slow release against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the most significant effect on its ability to retain arsenic. Based on this observation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatment solutions in an effort to promote the formation of insoluble arsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic. Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were used as the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in three sets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO(4); (2) FeSO(4) and KMnO(4); (3) FeSO(4), KMnO(4) and CaCO(3). The optimum treatment solutions for each soil were identified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching of treated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311 [USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992] toxic characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and EPA Method 1312 [USEPA. Method 1312: synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994] synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP). Both FW and BH soils showed significant decreases in arsenic leachability for all three treatment solutions, compared to untreated soil. While soils treated with solution (3) showed the best results with subsequent TCLP sequential leaching, SPLP sequential leaching of treated soils indicated that lowest arsenic mobility was obtained using treatment solution (1). Treatment solution (1) with only FeSO(4) is considered the best choice for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil because SPLP sequential leaching better simulates natural weathering. Analysis of treated soils produced no evidence of newly-formed arsenic-bearing phases in either soil after treatment. Sequential chemical extractions of treated soils indicate that surface complexation of arsenic on ferric hydroxide is the major mechanism for the fixation process. PMID:17673278

Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J; Redwine, James C

2007-11-15

200

Environmental contaminant exposure data and monitoring priorities for wild terrestrial vertebrates at national parks in coastal and estuarine habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on select species and habitats in the United States. One of the many BEST Project activities entails the development of decision-support tools to assist in the identification of chemical threats to species and lands under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior. Although there are many ecotoxicological monitoring programs that focus on aquatic species and habitats, there are currently no large-scale efforts that are focused on terrestrial vertebrates in the United States. Nonetheless, organochlorine contaminants, metals, and new pollutants continue to pose hazards to terrestrial vertebrates at many spatial scales (ranging from small hazardous-waste-site point sources to entire watersheds). To evaluate and prioritize pollutant hazards for terrestrial vertebrates, a ?Contaminant Exposure and EffectsTerrestrial Vertebrates? (CEE-TV) database (www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online) was developed. The CEE-TV database has been used to conduct simple searches for exposure and biological effects information for a given species or location, identification of temporal contaminant exposure trends, information gap analyses for national wildlife refuge and national park units, and ranking of terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological information needs based on data density and water quality problems. Despite widespread concerns about environmental contamination, during the past decade only about one-half of the coastal National Park units appear to have terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data. Based upon known environmental contaminant hazards, it is recommended that regionalized monitoring programs or efforts focused on lands managed by the Department of the Interior should be undertaken to prevent serious natural resource problems.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.; Eisenreich, K. M.; McKernan, M.A.

2006-01-01

201

Contribution to the problem of environmental contamination with mercury.  

PubMed

Total mercury concentrations determined in the organs (muscle, brain, lungs, pancreas, liver, kidneys) of necropsy patients are evaluated. The mercury concentrations were also determined in the hair and urine of children residing in two different areas employed in a grain dressing paint (exposed and nonexposed to mercury fungicide formulation). The human autopsy study showed that the detected organ mercury concentrations were considerably lower than those reported in the literature: 94% of necropsy tissue samples showed mercury content lower than 100 micrograms . kg-1, irrespective of the type of body organ and the age of necropsy patients. The organ mercury concentrations were rising in the following order of organs: muscle, brain, lungs, pancreas liver and kidneys. No correlation could be demonstrated between the organ mercury concentration and the age of necropsy patient, or the primary cause of death. The highest hair and urine mercury concentrations were detected in workers occupationally exposed to the mercury containing fungicide formation. Increased average hair mercury concentrations corresponded with increased average mercury concentrations in the urine. The average mercury concentrations detected in the hair and urine of children and nonexposed workers were considerably lower than those reported in the literature. The authors provide also the most important data on the reported case of livestock overexposure to mercury, which has primarily stimulated their interest in mercury as an important environmental contaminant. PMID:7320500

Tucek, J; Tucek, M

1981-01-01

202

P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.  

PubMed

Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

2014-04-01

203

Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

First awareness that direct topical application of xenobiotics to bird eggs could be harmful to avian development dates back to the turn of the century. The most widely documented evidence of embryotoxicity following direct exposure comes from petroleum contaminant studies, conducted with at least 10 different avian species. Many petroleum crude oils, refined oils, and waste oils are embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic to different species; LD50s are often less than 5 iL of oil per egg. Toxicity is generally dependent upon the PAH concentration and composition (presence of higher weight PAHs). Five of seven industrial effluents caused significant reduction of embryonic growth in mallards following brief immersion of the eggs. Of the insecticides, organophosphates have been the most widely studied with respect to potential for direct embryotoxicity and teratogenicity following spraying or immersion of eggs. Phenoxy herbicides including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T have been the most widely studied class of herbicides with respect to potential embryotoxicity of spray application. However, more recent evaluations have indicated that this is not the most toxic class of herbicides. Paraquat was found to be highly toxic in at least three species. Herbicides with LC50s that occurred at ten times the field level of application or less for mallard embryos included bromoxynil with MCPA, methyldiclofop, paraquat, prometon, propanil, and trifluralin. Of different gaseous and particulate air pollutants, ozone and particulates rich in PAH content appeared to be potentially embryotoxic, based on laboratory studies. Environmental contaminants in all classes reviewed have been shown to cause physiological and biochemical disturbances in embryos or hatchlings indicative of contaminant exposure, organ damage, or delayed development. Residue studies have shown the presence of DDT, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, decamethrin, petroleum hydrocarbons, and methylmercury after direct exposure of eggs. Ability of xenobiotics to pass across the shell and its membranes as well as embryo uptake appear to be dependent both on the compound and the vehicle. Pesticides in aliphatic (nontoxic oil) vehicle were generally more toxic than ones in aqueous emulsion due to better penetration. Field studies have documented the embryotoxicity of petroleum following transfer from plumage of adult birds to their eggs. Few attempts to measure effects of spraying pesticides near bird nests have been documented. However, application of pesticide mixtures including organophosphate insecticides and fungicides to orchards resulted in embryo ic mortality in mourning dove nests. Future studies are needed to focus on field exposures in multiple species. Comparative laboratory studies are needed taking into consideration shell thickness and porosity to determine whether species such as passerines may be more sensitive. Additive and possibly synergistic effects may occur where xenobiotics may be only slightly to moderately toxic alone. Therefore, further studies examining the effects of pesticides routinely applied in combinations of two or more are needed, as are air pollution studies examining multiple contaminants and species.

Hoffman, D.J.

1990-01-01

204

Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power and computing resources are scarce.

Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

2014-01-01

205

Prospective evaluation of environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile in isolation side rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined prospectively the frequency, persistence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile environmental contamination after detergent-based cleaning in side rooms used to isolate patients with C. difficile diarrhoea. Approximately one-quarter of all environmental sites in side rooms sampled over four-week periods were contaminated with C. difficile. The overall side room prevalence of environmental C. difficile declined from 35% initially, to

P. Verity; M. H. Wilcox; W. Fawley; P. Parnell

2001-01-01

206

SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides an ongoing assessment of the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (First Report) was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 200...

207

Environmental chemical mutagens and genetic risks: Lessons from radiation genetics  

SciTech Connect

The last three decades have witnessed substantial progress in the development and use of a variety of in vitro and in vivo assay systems for the testing of environmental chemicals which may pose a mutagenic hazard to humans. This is also true of basic studies in chemical mutagenesis on mechanisms, DNA repair, molecular dosimetry, structure-activity relationships, etc. However, the field of quantitative evaluation of genetic risks of environmental chemicals to humans is still in it infancy. This commentary addresses the question of how our experience in estimating genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation can be helpful in similar endeavors with environmental chemical mutagens. 24 refs., 3 tabs.

Sankaranarayanan, K. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

208

Environmental mercury contamination in China: sources and impacts.  

PubMed

This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). The first case study indicated that after closure of the acetic acid plant 20 years at Songyuan City (Jilin Province), 16.7% of residents' hair still contained Hg concentration in excess of 1 mg/kg (the reference dosage value, RfD set by USEPA). The second case study indicated that the male residents of Hong Kong who consumed more than four or more meals of fish per week tended to contain higher Hg in their hair, which was linked to their subfertility. There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings. Adverse health effects of residents living in places with a higher background level of Hg, due to long-term exposure to chronic levels of Hg through oral intake should not be overlooked. PMID:16914205

Zhang, L; Wong, M H

2007-01-01

209

Filthy Lucre: The Chemical Detection of Cocaine-Contaminated Currency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem of seizing cocaine-tainted money. Describes an experiment designed to determine what percentage of paper currency is contaminated with cocaine. Considers sampling, the analysis method, contamination, levels of cocaine in money and criminal activity, and the reliability of results. (SAH)

Acheson, Ed

2001-01-01

210

Environmental analysis of the chemical release module. [space shuttle payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental analysis of the Chemical Release Module (a free flying spacecraft deployed from the space shuttle to perform chemical release experiments) is reviewed. Considerations of possible effects of the injectants on human health, ionosphere, weather, ground based optical astronomical observations, and satellite operations are included. It is concluded that no deleterious environmental effects of widespread or long lasting nature are anticipated from chemical releases in the upper atmosphere of the type indicated for the program.

Heppner, J. P.; Dubin, M.

1980-01-01

211

Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

1985-01-01

212

EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

213

Cumulative index to chemicals and to common and scientific names of species listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contaminant Hazard Review (CHR) series--sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center--synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998, 34 reviews were published in various report series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (acrolein, atrazine, carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, famphur, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), mammalian biocides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial and municipal wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls), minin wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This current report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced with contaminant hazard review and corresponding page numbers. A similar index for chemicals is included.

edited by Eisler, Ronald

1999-01-01

214

Effects of compost and of bacterial cells on the decontamination and the chemical and biological properties of an agricultural soil artificially contaminated with phenanthrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly recalcitrant widespread environmental pollutants. Bioremediation, accomplished by the introduction of PAH-degrading microorganisms (bioaugmentation) and\\/or by applying additional nutrients (biostimulation) into a contaminated system is a valuable alternative to traditional chemical and physical treatments for the decontamination of PAH-contaminated soils. We investigated on a laboratory scale the fate of phenanthrene (Phe), selected to represent PAHs,

Rosalia Scelza; Maria Antonietta Rao; Liliana Gianfreda

2007-01-01

215

DNA damage and repair in haemolymph cells of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) exposed to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The development of methodologies for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems is of particular relevance in view of the serious problem of aquatic environmental pollution. The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) was chosen to be tested as a biomonitor organism based on its population data and distribution. L. fortunei individuals were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, and in vivo to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), with the aim of standardizing comet assay and micronucleus test methodologies and evaluating the potential of this organism as a biomonitor. Haemolymph cells immobilized in agarose on slides exposed to UV radiation showed a dose-response relationship with maximum damage at 4.2J/m(2). For the chemical tests, individuals were exposed for 2h for the comet assay and 24 and 48h for the micronucleus test. A dose-response relationship was observed for both chemicals. 3x10(-5)M CuSO(4) induced high genotoxicity, also producing some toxicity after 48h of exposure. PCP induced maximum damage in both assays at 150mug/L. Individuals exposed to PCP showed 100% repair 2h after the exposure period, as assessed by the comet assay. Exposure to an environmental sample over 7 days confirmed the mussel sensitivity to water contaminants, detected both by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The results allow us to suggest the golden mussel as a potential biomonitor organism. PMID:16697250

Villela, Izabel Vianna; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

2006-06-16

216

Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test species toxicity data are available. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Dwyer, F. J.; Mayer, F. L.; Sappington, L. C.; Buckler, D. R.; Bridges, C. M.; Greer, I. E.; Hardesty, D. K.; Henke, C. E.; Ingersoll, C. G.; Kunz, J. L.; Whites, D. W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D. R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G. N.

2005-01-01

217

Biological markers of environmental and ecological contamination: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach, using biomarkers (biological responses) for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment is described. Living organisms integrate exposure to contaminants in their environment and respond in some measurable and predictable way. Responses are observed at several levels of biological organization from the biomolecular level, where pollutants can cause damage to critical cellular macromolecules

Lee R. Shugart; John F. McCarthy; Richard S. Halbrook

1992-01-01

218

Impact of environmental contaminants on machining properties of metalworking fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased attention to metalworking fluid (MWF) management has neglected to assess the effect of continued use on the functionality of contaminated fluids. To address this, experiments have been conducted to evaluate the lubricating, cooling, corrosion inhibition, and surface roughness functionalities of metalworking fluids subjected to both extended industrial use and contamination in a laboratory setting. The results of these experiments

M Greeley; N Rajagopalan

2004-01-01

219

In Vitro Screening of Environmental Chemicals for Targeted Testing Prioritization: The ToxCast Project  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches. Objectives This project aims to evaluate the use of in vitro assays for understanding the types of molecular and pathway perturbations caused by environmental chemicals and to build initial prioritization models of in vivo toxicity. Methods We tested 309 mostly pesticide active chemicals in 467 assays across nine technologies, including high-throughput cell-free assays and cell-based assays, in multiple human primary cells and cell lines plus rat primary hepatocytes. Both individual and composite scores for effects on genes and pathways were analyzed. Results Chemicals displayed a broad spectrum of activity at the molecular and pathway levels. We saw many expected interactions, including endocrine and xenobiotic metabolism enzyme activity. Chemicals ranged in promiscuity across pathways, from no activity to affecting dozens of pathways. We found a statistically significant inverse association between the number of pathways perturbed by a chemical at low in vitro concentrations and the lowest in vivo dose at which a chemical causes toxicity. We also found associations between a small set of in vitro assays and rodent liver lesion formation. Conclusions This approach promises to provide meaningful data on the thousands of untested environmental chemicals and to guide targeted testing of environmental contaminants.

Judson, Richard S.; Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Martin, Matthew T.; Mortensen, Holly M.; Reif, David M.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Shah, Imran; Richard, Ann M.; Dix, David J.

2010-01-01

220

CHEMICAL-SPECIFIC PARAMETERS FOR TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid, base, and neutral hydrolysis rate constants and partition coefficients are given for 44 toxicity characteristic contaminants. Both calculated and laboratory-determined octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) and organic-carbon-normalized partition coefficient (Koc) values...

221

A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management.  

PubMed

A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including "residential land" and "industrial land" environmental guidelines under "strict" and "loose" strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management. PMID:23995555

Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-Ya; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Da-Zhou; Li, Yu

2013-10-15

222

In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20h at 4A?C or 10A?C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

2002-01-01

223

Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

Qafoku, Nikolla

2012-01-01

224

Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due to Environmental Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumental chemical analysis methods are developed and used to chemically fingerprint new and modified External Tank materials made necessary by changing environmental requirements. Chemical fingerprinting can detect and diagnose variations in material composition. To chemically characterize each material, fingerprint methods are selected from an extensive toolbox based on the material's chemistry and the ability of the specific methods to detect the material's critical ingredients. Fingerprint methods have been developed for a variety of materials including Thermal Protection System foams, adhesives, primers, and composites.

Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

225

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment\\/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol–water partition coefficient. Techniques

J. D Petty; C. E Orazio; J. N Huckins; R. W Gale; J. A Lebo; J. C Meadows; K. R Echols; W. L Cranor

2000-01-01

226

Isotope Biomonitoring in Riverine Ecosystems: Tools for Understanding Linkages Between Environmental Contaminants and Basin Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of accumulative environmental contaminants (e.g., metals and organocholoro-pesticides) often exhibit wide temporal variations in riverine systems. Aquatic fauna, however, concentrate these contaminants into their biomass, providing a relatively long-term integrated record of water quality. In order to accurately determine how these contaminants are bioaccumulated within local food webs, it is essential to understand the relative trophic positions of the

C. Kendall; S. D. Wankel; G. Cabana; C. Schmitt

2002-01-01

227

Environmental whole-genome amplification to access microbial populations in contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using 29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils

Carl B. Abulencia; Denise L. Wyborski; Joseph A. Garcia; Mircea Podar; Wenqiong Chen; Sherman H. Chang; Hwai W. Chang; David B Watson; Eoin L. Brodie; Terry C. Hazen; Martin Keller

2006-01-01

228

A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

229

SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

230

CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

231

REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process.

V. Y. E. KHRAPUNOV; R. A. ISAKOVA; B. L. LEVINTOV; P. D. KALB; I. M. KAMBEROV; A. TREBUKHOV

2004-01-01

232

Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill.

Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slavin, P. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerin, D. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

233

Pulmonary toxicity and environmental contamination: radicals, electron transfer, and protection by antioxidants.  

PubMed

The atmosphere is replete with a mixture of toxic substances, both natural and man-made. Inhalation of toxic substances produces a variety of insults to the pulmonary system. Lung poisons include industrial materials, particulates from mining and combustion, agricultural chemicals, cigarette smoke, ozone, and nitrogen oxides, among a large number of other chemicals and environmental contaminants. Many proposals have been advanced to explain the mode of action of pulmonary toxicants. In this review we focus on mechanisms of pulmonary toxicity that involve ET, ROS, and OS. The vast majority of toxicants or their metabolites possess chemical ET functionalities that can undergo redox cycling. Such recycling may generate ROS that can injure various cellular constituents in the lung and in other tissues. ET agents include quinones, metal complexes, aromatic nitro compounds, and conjugated iminium ions. Often, these agents are formed metabolically from parent toxicants. Such metabolic reactions are often catalytic and require only small amounts of the offending material. Oxidative attack is commonly associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidation of DNA, and it may result in strand cleavage and 8-OH-DG production. Toxicity is often accompanied by depletion of natural AOs, which further exacerbates the toxic effect. It is not surprising that the use of AOs, both natural in fruits and vegetables, as well as synthetic, may provide protection from the adverse effects of toxicant exposure. The mechanistic framework described earlier is also applicable to some of the more prominent pulmonary illnesses, such as asthma, COPD, and cancer. PMID:19484588

Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

2009-01-01

234

ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR THE DETERMINATION OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the analytical procedures and quality assurance plan used for the determination of xenobiotic chemical contaminants including select pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls for Phase II of the U.S. EPA National Dioxin Stu...

235

FINAL REPORT. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, act as hormones or anti- hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major components of the research included: 1)a biotechnology based screening system ...

236

Environmental Contaminants in Food. Volume II-Part B: Working Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management;...

1980-01-01

237

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research is to evaluate health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of plutonium dioxide (PuO2)-contaminated sites. These distributions incorporate variability/uncertainty.

Scott, Bobby R.; Hoover, Mark D.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Schollnberger, Helmut

2000-06-01

238

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane ( Grus canadensis pulla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained

Donald H. White; Clifford P. Rice; David J. Hoffman; George F. Gee

1994-01-01

239

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (phoca vitulina) fed environmentally contaminated herring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, mass mortalities among seals and dolphins have been attributed to infections with different morbilliviruses. In all cases, these marine top predators were exposed to high levels of persistent lipophilic environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain. This observation led to the hypothesis that a contaminant?related suppression of the immune system might have contributed to the severity of

R. L. de Swart; P. S. Ross; J. G. Vos; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

1996-01-01

240

CHEMICAL DYNAMICS OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS DURING RESUSPENSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were designed to study the chemical-particle dynamics of toxic hydrophobic organics during resuspension episodes using a particle entrainment simulator (PES). The purpose was to obtain insight into chemical transport mechanisms during resuspension. Informat...

241

Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J. [and others

1995-06-01

242

The induction of alkoxyresorufin metabolism: A potential indicator of environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of biochemical monitoring of individual animals for exposure to environmental contaminants are of great potential use. The hepatic metabolism of various alkoxyresorufins, which are highly specific substrates for certain forms of cytochrome(s) P450, is highly induced by a variety of environmental contaminants. Thus, theO-deal-kylation of pentoxy- or benzyloxyresorufin was induced greater than 20-fold in the rat bya-hexachlorocyclohexane, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, DDT

Ronald A. Lubet; F. Peter Guengerich; Raymond W. Nims

1990-01-01

243

Patient colonization and environmental contamination by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a rehabilitation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trick WE, Temple RS, Chen D, Wright MO, Solomon SL, Peterson LR. Patient colonization and environmental contamination by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a rehabilitation facility. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:899-902. Objectives: To determine the frequency of environmental contamination in patient and common-use rooms and patient colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A 146-bed rehabilitation facility. Participants: Rectal cultures

William E. Trick; Randy S. Temple; David Chen; Marc O. Wright; Steven L. Solomon; Lance R. Peterson

2002-01-01

244

A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*  

PubMed Central

Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply.

Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

1985-01-01

245

PPCPS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large, diverse array of contaminants that can enter the environment from the combined activities, actions, and behaviors of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http:...

246

Mussel watch - measurements of chemical pollutants in bivalves as one indicator of coastal environmental quality  

SciTech Connect

The utility of the bivalve sentinel organism approach to monitoring for some chemicals of environmental concern in coastal and estuarine areas has been evaluated by regional and national programs and by smaller-scale research efforts during the past 15 years. The extent and severity of coastal contamination by chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, trace metals, and plutonium was assessed in several bivalve sentinel organism programs. Advantages and limitations of this approach are presented and discussed briefly within the context of both national and international efforts.

Farrington, J.W.; Davis, A.C.; Tripp, B.W.; Phelps, D.K.; Galloway, W.B.

1987-01-01

247

MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

248

MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

249

MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

250

MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

251

Use of fish farms to assess river contamination: combining biomarker responses, active biomonitoring, and chemical analysis.  

PubMed

Here we addressed the possible effects of trace levels of contaminants on fish by means of a combination of biomarker responses, active biomonitoring (ABM), and chemical analysis. In environmental studies, cytochromes P4501A (Cyp1A) and Cyp3A and related enzyme activities (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD, and benzyloxy-4-[trifluoromethyl]-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase, BFCOD, respectively) are commonly used as biomarkers for evidencing exposure to a variety of contaminants. In a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fish farm that is routinely sampled to obtain references regarding normal levels of such enzyme activities in freshwater fish, we observed a strong and punctual increase in these activities at the end of 2011. In order to shed light on the causes of this induction, we transferred some fish to a fish farm with controlled conditions and examined them using an active biomonitoring (ABM) approach. EROD activity showed a decrease of 80% from the original values after 7 days in the control farm, while BFCOD activity was also reduced after 15 days. Although not significant, a decrease in cyp1A and cyp3A mRNA levels was also observed. To determine the presence of pollutants, water and sediment samples from the river feeding the fish farm were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS). The screening study reflected a weak inflow of pollutants in the monitored area, which is located far from any industrial activity or densely populated cities. Trace levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and personal care products (the polycyclic musk fragrance HHCB, and triclosan) were detected in sediments, at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 38 ng/g dry weight, and in water from 4 to 441 ng/L. The approach followed in this study proved useful as a biomonitoring technique for the early detection of trace contaminants. PMID:23928255

Quesada-García, Alba; Valdehita, Ana; Torrent, Fernando; Villarroel, Morris; Hernando, M Dolores; Navas, José M

2013-09-15

252

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

Not Available

1991-10-01

253

Chemically contaminated casualties: different problems and possible solutions.  

PubMed

The initial response to mass casualty incidents is usually informal as uninjured and injured survivors and passersby assist the injured and take them to medical centers. This creates some problems, for example, most victims go to one or two hospitals and the least injured arrive first; but, on the whole, it works. However, the same response does not work when victims are contaminated, and some of the solutions that work when victims are only injured do not work when victims are contaminated. This article suggests an approach that accepts the reality of what happens-the first receiving hospital becomes contaminated--and suggests how planning can begin with that as a starting point. It stressed that current plans are based on false assumptions and that this can lead to inadequate preparation. PMID:20496642

Scanlon, Joseph

2010-01-01

254

Electromagnetic Radiography (EMR) for the detection of low-level chemical contamination in the ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic Radiography (EMR)TM provides direct, high- resolution images of low-level chemical contamination in the ground at concentration levels in the parts-per-billion range ((mu) g\\/kg). This new sensor system can distinguish between dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and light, non- aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). Ionic chemicals can be distinguished from non-ionic chemicals, and dissolved-phase chemicals in the water table can be

Aka G. Finci; Daniel F. Stanfill

1999-01-01

255

SIMULATION MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MULTIMEDIA ANALYSIS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Multimedia understanding of pollutant behavior in the environment is of particular concern for chemicals that are toxic and are subject to accumulation in the environmental media (air, soil, water, vegetation) where biota and human exposure is significant. Multimedia simulation ...

256

FASTER SCIENCE FOR BETTER DECISIONS: CHARACTERIZING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT RISK FROM HIGH THROUGHPUT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Tens of thousands of chemicals and other man-made contaminants exist in our environment, but only a fraction of these have been characterized for their potential risk to humans and there is widespread interest in closing this data gap in order to better manage contaminant risk. C...

257

Contamination from electrically conductive silicone tubing during aerosol chemical analysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrically conductive silicone tubing is used to minimize losses in sampling lines during the analysis of airborne particle size distributions and number concentrations. We report contamination from this tubing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of filter-collected samples as well as by particle mass spectrometry. Comparison of electrically conductive silicone and stainless steel tubing showed elevated siloxanes only for the silicone tubing. The extent of contamination increased with length of tubing to which the sample was exposed, and decreased with increasing relative humidity.

Yu, Yong; Alexander, M. L.; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily; Johnson, Stan; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2009-06-01

258

Contamination from electrically conductive silicone tubing during aerosol chemical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically conductive silicone tubing is used to minimize losses in sampling lines during the analysis of airborne particle size distributions and number concentrations. We report contamination from this tubing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of filter-collected samples as well as by particle mass spectrometry. Comparison of electrically conductive silicone and stainless steel tubing showed elevated siloxanes only for the silicone tubing. The extent of contamination increased with length of tubing to which the sample was exposed, and decreased with increasing relative humidity.

Yu, Yong; Liz Alexander, M.; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily A.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

259

Nutritional requirements for detoxication of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed

The biological defence systems against oxygen radical toxicity and chemical toxicity, and their component enzymes, are described, and the nutritional requirements for biological defence against chemical and oxygen toxicity, including calories, protein, lipids and lipotropes, vitamins and minerals, are reviewed in the context of their contribution to the mechanisms of detoxication. Modulation of the cytochromes P-450, and hence toxicity, by dietary components are considered; the P450I family, induced by food pyrolysis mutagens, and the P450IIE family, induced by alcohol and fasting, contribute substantially to chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. It is concluded that: (i) the detoxication system of terrestrial fauna has evolved over greater than 300 million years to protect animals from dietary plant toxins; (ii) protection against chemical and oxygen toxicity requires all categories of nutrients; and (iii) the rôle of food and nutrition in detoxication is essential to survival. PMID:1778274

Parke, D V

1991-01-01

260

Chemical contamination of bottom sediments of Pechenga Bay, Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a 1977 survey of contamination levels in bottom sediments from the Pechenega Bay, Barents Sea, are presented. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons (11 PCB congeners, DDT with metabolites, HCB, alpha?HCH, lindane), and trace elements were analyzed in samples from five sites. Levels of trace elements and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were found to be low.

G. G. Matishov; T. N. Savinova; V. M. Savinov; S. Dahle; B. Killie

2000-01-01

261

Microbial and chemical contamination during and after flooding in the Ohio River-Kentucky, 2011.  

PubMed

Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical contaminants. Contaminant concentrations during and after flooding were compared using linear and logistic regression. Surface water samples collected during flooding had higher levels of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, adenovirus, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to surface water samples collected 3-months post-flood (P < 0.05). These results suggest that flooding increases microbial and chemical loads in surface water. These findings reinforce commonly recommended guidelines to limit exposure to flood water and to appropriately sanitize contaminated surfaces and drinking wells after contamination by flood water. PMID:24967556

Yard, Ellen E; Murphy, Matthew W; Schneeberger, Chandra; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hoo, Elizabeth; Freiman, Alexander; Lewis, Lauren S; Hill, Vincent R

2014-09-19

262

Environmental Implications of Changes in the Brominated Chemicals Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In light of the large-scale changes occuring within the bromine-based chemicals industry, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency commissioned a study to investigate the potential for adverse environmental effects that might result from such changes. In ...

L. W. Margler

1982-01-01

263

CHEMICAL INDUCTION MIXER VERIFICATION - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wet-Weather Flow Technologies Pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which is supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and facilitated by NSF International, has recently evaluated the performance of chemical induction mixers used for di...

264

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1600 Sayles*, G.D. Environmental Engineering and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering (Arnold, R.G. (Ed.), Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers) 128 (1):1-2 (2002). EPA/600/J- 02/001. ...

265

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

266

Chemical Contaminants as Stratigraphic Markers for the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thousands and even millions of years from now, widespread anthropogenic contaminants in sediments would likely persist, incorporated into the geological record. They would inadvertently preserve evidence of our present era (informally designated as the Anthropocene Epoch) characterized by large human populations engaged in intensive industrial and agricultural activities. Hypothetical geologists in the distant future would likely find unusually high concentrations of a wide variety of contaminants at stratigraphic levels corresponding to our present time, analogous to the iridium anomaly marking the bolide impact event at the close of the Cretaceous Period. These would include both organic and inorganic substances, such as industrially-derived heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn) and hydrocarbons, both petrogenic (derived directly from petroleum) and pyrogenic (combustion products). While there are natural sources for these materials, such as volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and oil seeps, their co-occurrence would provide a signature characteristic of human activity. Diagnostic assemblages of organic compounds would carry an anthropogenic imprint. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment sample could distinguish between natural and human sources. Stable isotopic signatures would provide additional evidence. Concentrations of contaminants in the sedimentary record would increase exponentially with increasing proximity to urban source areas, where at present billions of people are collectively consuming vast quantities of fossil fuels and generating large amounts of waste. Aolian and marine transport prior to deposition has been seen at present to globally redistribute detectable amounts of contaminants including Hg and PAHs, even at great distances from principal source areas. For organic contaminants, deposition in an anoxic sedimentary environment could insure their preservation, increasing the likelihood of their inclusion in the long-term stratigraphic record, establishing markers of the Anthropocene Epoch for millions of years to come.

Kruge, M. A.

2012-12-01

267

Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants. This research will form the foundation for future experiments into the genetic manipulation of plants to potentially promote greater or more specific symbiotic relationships between plant and Rhizobium allowing this biological phenomenon to be used in a greater number of crop types. Future technology developments could include the genetic engineering of crops suitable for in situ vadose zone 2 bioremediation (via microbes) and phytoremediation (through the crop, itself) in contaminated DOE sites.

McLachlan, John A.

2000-06-01

268

Endocrine Profiling and Prioritization of Environmental Chemicals Using ToxCast Data  

PubMed Central

Background The prioritization of chemicals for toxicity testing is a primary goal of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast™ program. Phase I of ToxCast used a battery of 467 in vitro, high-throughput screening assays to assess 309 environmental chemicals. One important mode of action leading to toxicity is endocrine disruption, and the U.S. EPA’s Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) has been charged with screening pesticide chemicals and environmental contaminants for their potential to affect the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife. Objective The goal of this study was to develop a flexible method to facilitate the rational prioritization of chemicals for further evaluation and demonstrate its application as a candidate decision-support tool for EDSP. Methods Focusing on estrogen, androgen, and thyroid pathways, we defined putative endocrine profiles and derived a relative rank or score for the entire ToxCast library of 309 unique chemicals. Effects on other nuclear receptors and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes were also considered, as were pertinent chemical descriptors and pathways relevant to endocrine-mediated signaling. Results Combining multiple data sources into an overall, weight-of-evidence Toxicological Priority Index (ToxPi) score for prioritizing further chemical testing resulted in more robust conclusions than any single data source taken alone. Conclusions Incorporating data from in vitro assays, chemical descriptors, and biological pathways in this prioritization schema provided a flexible, comprehensive visualization and ranking of each chemical’s potential endocrine activity. Importantly, ToxPi profiles provide a transparent visualization of the relative contribution of all information sources to an overall priority ranking. The method developed here is readily adaptable to diverse chemical prioritization tasks.

Reif, David M.; Martin, Matthew T.; Tan, Shirlee W.; Houck, Keith A.; Judson, Richard S.; Richard, Ann M.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Dix, David J.; Kavlock, Robert J.

2010-01-01

269

Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated

E. D. Boyes; P. L. Gai

1997-01-01

270

A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

271

RAPID SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING CAPACITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemical...

272

Are environmental sentinels signaling?  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing perception that environmental contamination by chemicals no longer poses a significant health threat and that relaxation of environmental regulations is warranted. However, many wildlife populations are showing signs of developmental, behavioral, and reproductive dysfunction due to environmental contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Scientists, regulators, and legislators must mobilize to identify current health threats posed by environmental pollutants, develop testing protocols that will detect such properties of new chemicals, and strengthen legislation designed to protect environmental health.

LeBlanc, G A

1995-01-01

273

Linking Empirical Estimates of Body Burden of Environmental Chemicals and Wellness using NHANES Data  

PubMed Central

Biomonitoring of industrial chemicals in human tissues and fluids has shown that all people carry a “body burden” of synthetic chemicals. Although measurement of an environmental chemical in a person’s tissues/fluids is an indication of exposure, it does not necessarily mean the exposure concentration is sufficient to cause an adverse effect. Since humans are exposed to multiple chemicals, there may be a combination effect (e.g., additive, synergistic) associated with low-level exposures to multiple classes of contaminants, which may impact a variety of organ systems. The objective of this research is to link measures of body burden of environmental chemicals and a “holistic” measure of wellness. The approach is demonstrated using biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Forty-two chemicals were selected for analysis based on their detection levels. Six biological pathway-specific indices were evaluated using groups of chemicals associated with each pathway. Five of the six pathways were negatively associated with wellness. Three non-zero interaction terms were detected which may provide empirical evidence of crosstalk across pathways. The approach identified five of the 42 chemicals from a variety of classes (metals, pesticides, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as accounting for 71% of the weight linking body burden to wellness. Significant interactions were detected indicating the effect of smoking is exacerbated by body burden of environmental chemicals. Use of a holistic index on both sides of the exposure-health equation is a novel and promising empirical “systems biology” approach to risk evaluation of complex environmental exposures.

Gennings, Chris; Ellis, Rhonda; Ritter, Joe

2011-01-01

274

Effects of varying environmental parameters on trace contaminant concentrations in the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is made of the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration trace contaminant production and depletion level effects of CO2, O2, humidity, temperature, and pressure variations, on the basis of a computer model of the Reference Configuration's chemical reactions and physical processes as functions of time. The effects of changes in the initial concentrations of such contaminants as nonmethane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are also examined, and these are found to result in more significant changes in the concentration levels of trace contaminants than pressure and humidity variations. O2 and CO2 changes are found to have negligible effects on trace contaminant concentrations.

Brewer, Dana A.; Hall, John B., Jr.

1986-01-01

275

GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children?s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

276

Down cancer alley: the lived experience of health and environmental suffering in Louisiana's chemical corridor.  

PubMed

With the massive Gulf oil spill of 2010, there has been intensified concern about the impacts of industrial contamination on physical environments, human health, and social well-being. Based on ethnographic research in a primarily African American town in an area of Southern Louisiana colloquially known as the Chemical Corridor because of the large number of local chemical manufacturing plants, this article engages arguments made by Auyero and Swistun concerning the uncertainties and confusions that emerge when official or empowered pronouncements about the health impacts of living near waste-generating factories conflict with the everyday experience of perceived health-related contamination in an impoverished community. The article seeks to address gaps in our understanding of how communities conceive of environmental health risk, what their sources of information and level of knowledge about this issue are, and how they handle potential conflict between access to needed employment and the local presence of industrial polluters. PMID:21834355

Singer, Merrill

2011-06-01

277

Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

278

Mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon. Environmental and occupational aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) contamination of miners, riparian and Indian populations and fish in the Amazon region, due to gold extracting activities, has been studied. Samples of hair, urine, and blood of Indians and prospectors, and hair from riparian fish-eating population and fishes from Madeira river, respectively, were collected and analyzed by Cold Vapor, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) techniques. The results obtained

A. C. Barbosa; A. A. Boischio; G. A. East; I. Ferrari; A. Gonçalves; P. R. M. Silva; T. M. E. da Cruz

1995-01-01

279

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and

T. C. Michot; T. W. Custer; A. J. Nault; C. A. Mitchell

1994-01-01

280

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: Monitoring environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (PMustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from

R. S. Halbrook; J. H. Jenkins; P. B. Bush; N. D. Seabolt

1994-01-01

281

The immunotoxicity of environmental contaminants to marine wildlife: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-associated mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations inhabiting industrialized coastal areas have generated an interest in wildlife immunotoxicology. Despite the isolation of previously uncharacterized viruses from victims, a contribution of immunotoxic contaminants to the severity of the outbreaks could not be ruled out. Fish-eating marine mammals, including seals, occupy high trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and accumulate

Peter S. Ross; Rik L. De Swart; Henk Van Loveren; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus; Joseph G. Vos

1996-01-01

282

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Emerging Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

283

Monitoring of lymphocyte micronuclei among newborns from Kragujevac in Central Serbia before and after environmental contamination.  

PubMed

The air strikes on "Zastava" complex in Kragujevac, in the spring of 1999, caused extensive environmental pollution with damage to soil, water and air. Since the main problem was the leakage of several tones of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as heavy metals Cr and Ni into the environment and groundwater, we decided to evaluate influence of the environmental contamination on eventual changes of genetic constitution of human body cells. The subjects analyzed were 36 phenotypically healthy newborn babies, who were born 12 months (n=22) and 18 months (n=14) after environmental contamination, and 25 newborns in 1998 as a control group. For the assessment of mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants in vivo, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test was employed. The results show significant increase of micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from newborns born 12 months after contamination (9.36 +/- 5.60), in comparison to controls (5.53 +/- 3.02) and newborns born 18 months after contamination (6.14 +/- 3.57). Only 3 newborns (12%) out of 25 controls showed more than 1 MN/1000 binucleated cells in respect to 8/22 after 12 months (36%) and 2/14 after 18 months from contamination (14%). The mean number of binucleated cells with MN significantly varied in function of sex and environmental changes in newborns born 12 months after contamination (as demonstrated by the analysis of covariance F=9.61, p <0.003). After 18 months of contamination, environmental components had no noticeable effects on MN frequency (F=0.5, p >0.48). These results suggest that the exposure to environmental pollutants in utero affects genetic constitution of fetus and increases MN values in their body cells, which is detectable right after birth in peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:15635268

Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera; Grujicic, Darko; Arsenijevic, Slobodan; Marinkovic, Dragoslav

2005-01-01

284

Contamination by Persistent Chemical Pesticides in Livestock Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of persistent organic pesticides represents one of the major environmental problems as reported in several studies\\u000a and reflected in some mandatory actions at the inter-governmental level. In particular, isomers of Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH),\\u000a like many others Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), are of human health and environmental concern due to their persistence\\u000a in the biosphere. In industrialised countries, Lindane (the ?-isomer

Bruno Ronchi; Pier Paolo Danieli

285

Environmental contaminants in caribou in the Northwest Territories, Canada.  

PubMed

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are strict herbivores with a winter diet consisting primarily of lichen. This simple food chain makes caribou a good species for monitoring changes in arctic terrestrial ecosystem contamination. The defined ranges of herds across the Northwest Territories (NWT) also enables examination of spatial trends in contaminant exposure. Caribou were collected from five locations in the first half of a study designed to examine levels of a broad spectrum of organochlorine, heavy metal, and radionuclide contaminants. A wide range of contaminants were detected, with most compounds found at relatively low levels. In general, organochlorine residues were significantly lower in caribou from the mainland Bathurst and Qamanirjuaq (Arviat) and the Southampton Island herds than in caribou from Cape Dorset and Lake Harbour on southern Baffin Island. Moderate levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) were detected at all five study sites. HCB residues ranged from a lipid corrected mean of 32.83 ng/g in fat of Bathurst caribou to 129.41 ng/g in Lake Harbour animals. Alpha-HCH levels ranged from 8.11 ng/g in Bathurst animals to 37.9 ng/g in Cape Dorset caribou. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma PCB) residues ranged from 6.24 ng/g in fat of Arviat caribou to 31.68 ng/g in Cape Dorset animals. Congeners 153 and 138 were the most dominant of the 43 congeners tested. Metal levels were also relatively low with the exception of cadmium, which had community means of 9.68- 33.87 micrograms/g in kidney tissue and 1.96-4.39 micrograms/g in liver tissue. Moderate levels of cesium-137 were detected, with community means of 33.2-184.1 Bq/kg in muscle tissue. Long-range atmospheric transport appears to be the primary source of the contaminants detected in this study. PMID:7892575

Elkin, B T; Bethke, R W

1995-01-15

286

Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

Maria Pallavicini

2001-05-04

287

Groundwater contaminant model of chemical mass loading and discharge in the Great Lakes Basin  

SciTech Connect

With numerous point and non-point groundwater contaminant sources found throughout the Great Lakes Basin, the potential loading and migration of contaminants into the Great Lakes via subsurface pathways represents a serious cause for concern. A regional scale study of contaminant sources and chemical mass loadings with the Greater Toronto area was conducted. This area was chosen because its diverse contaminant sources and range of land use makes it an ideal area to be used as a model for developed areas throughout North America. A 2-D steady state flow model was used to simulate the groundwater flow regime using representative transmissivities and recharge rates. To calibrate the model, simulated heads were compared to over 8,000 static water levels contained in water well records. A reverse particle tracking routine was invoked in the flow model to provide a visual aid in understanding the movement and discharge of contaminants with time. This routine permits particle travel times to be plotted along their groundwater flow paths. In turn, isochrones [lines of equal travel times from surface water discharge points] were constructed for contaminants that range from relatively conservative inorganic ions to chemically retarded organics. The isochrones formed the basis for predicting long-term contaminant loading of selected chemical parameters from point and non-point sources on receiving streams and Lake Ontario.

Livingstone, S.; Howard, K.W.F. (Univ. of Toronto, Scarborough, Ontario (Canada). Groundwater Research Group)

1992-01-01

288

Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.  

PubMed

The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures. PMID:15464626

Malina, Grzegorz

2004-12-15

289

Polymeric Materials for Protection Against Chemical and Biological Contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to attach N-halamine functional groups to various polymeric materials to be used as oxidizing agents to render the materials biocidal and resistant to chemical agents. The biocidal objective was successfully achieved for ...

C. I. Wei J. Lin R. M. Broughton S. D. Worley Y. Li

2002-01-01

290

PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This important outcome results from the way risk is perceived, which in turn is little affected by factual weight-of-evidence. Essentially, drugs in drinking water supplies are considered "out-of-place" chemicals and as such are sometimes looked upon as "chemical weeds" by the co...

291

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Field Procedures for Assessing the Exposure of Fish to Environmental Contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document describes procedures used to collect information, tissues, and fluids for documenting the exposure of fish to environmental contaminants. For the procedures described here, fish are captured (preferably by electrofishing) and held alive until processing (generally <1 h). Fish are weighed, measured, and examined for grossly visible external lesions and pathologies. A blood sample is collected by caudal veinipuncture using a needle and syringe. The fish is subdued and it's abdominal cavity opened. The internal organs are dissected from the fish for examination. The sex of the fish is determined by direct observation of its gonads. The liver is weighed (most species) and cut into small cubes and flash-frozen in cryogenic vials, which are stored and shipped in dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Additional liver cubes plus all grossly visible anomalies are preserved for histopathology. The gonads and spleen are weighed, and samples are preserved for histopathology. The kidneys are examined, and histopathology samples collected. A gill sample is also collected and preserved. All remaining tissues are returned to the carcass, which is wrapped in foil, labeled for chemical analysis, and chilled. Individual fish carcasses are composited by station, species, and gender; frozen; and shipped to the analytical laboratory. Procedures are also described for record keeping; processing blood to obtain serum and plasma; flash-freezing samples; cleaning equipment; and preventing the transport of living organisms among waterways. A list of necessary equipment and supplies is also provided.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gross, Timothy S.; Bryant, Wade L., Jr.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Smith, Stephen B.; Goede, Ronald W.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Kubiak, Timothy J.

1999-01-01

292

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public.

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

293

Transcriptional response of hepatic largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) mRNA upon exposure to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Microarrays enable gene transcript expression changes in near-whole genomes to be assessed in response to environmental stimuli. We utilized oligonucleotide microarrays and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to assess patterns of gene expression changes in male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) hepatic tissues after a 96?h exposure to common environmental contaminants. Fish were exposed to atrazine, cadmium chloride, PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 3.0, 0.00067, 2.5, 50 and 100?µg?g(-1), respectively. This was conducted in an effort to identify potential biomarkers of exposure. The expressions of 4, 126, 118, 137 and 58 mRNA transcripts were significantly (P ? 0.001, fold change ?2×) affected by exposure to atrazine, cadmium chloride, PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene exposures, respectively. GSEA revealed that none, four, five, five and three biological function gene ontology categories were significantly influenced by exposure to these chemicals, respectively. We observed that cadmium chloride elicited ethanol metabolism responses, and along with PCB 126 and phenanthrene affected transcripts associated with protein biosynthesis. PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene also influenced one-carbon compound metabolism while PCB 126 and phenanthrene affected mRNA transcription and mRNA export from the nucleus and may have induced an antiestrogenic response. Atrazine was found to alter the expression of few hepatic transcripts. This work has highlighted several biological processes of interest that may be helpful in the development of gene transcript biomarkers of chemical exposure in fish. PMID:20589742

Sanchez, Brian C; Carter, Barbara; Hammers, Heather R; Sepúlveda, María S

2011-03-01

294

Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.  

PubMed

Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. PMID:23845936

Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

2013-09-01

295

Potential of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for remediation of environmental organic contaminants in water: a review.  

PubMed

Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has the potential to degrade different organic contaminants. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) can reduce the contaminants even more rapidly due to its small size and large specific surface area (SSA), compared to granular ZVI. The main objective of this paper is to assess and compare the potential of NZVI for degradation of different contaminants in water under specific environmental conditions. As a first step, the potential reactive functional groups/bonds associated with different contaminants are identified and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. Thereafter, the reaction efficiencies of different organic contaminants with NZVI are compared. Mass of ZVI and reaction time required to transform a certain amount of contaminated water are calculated based on literature data. Sources of contaminants in the environment and their environmental occurrences are discussed to understand the potential locations where NZVI could be applied for removal of different contaminants. Overall it is observed that azo-compounds are readily transformed in the presence of NZVI particles. Reaction efficiencies of ZVI for reduction of nitro-organic compounds are also reasonably high. However, halogenated compounds with high molecular weights or complex structures (i.e., iodinated contrast media, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) show lower reaction rates with NZVI compared to the widely studied chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e., trichloroethylene). PMID:24135090

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Scheytt, Traugott

2013-01-01

296

Uptake and depuration of organic contaminants by blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In addition, concentration factors in the mussels were calculated separately against the dissolved and particulate phase concentrations and the

R. J. Pruell; J. L. Lake; W. R. Davis; J. G. Quinn

1986-01-01

297

Linking chemical contamination to biological effects in coastal pollution monitoring.  

PubMed

To establish the connection between pollutant levels and their harmful effects on living resources, coastal monitoring programmes have incorporated biological tools, such as the scope for growth (SFG) in marine mussels and benthic macrofauna community indices. Although the relation between oxygen-depleting anthropogenic inputs and the alteration of benthic communities is well described, the effects of chemical pollutants are unknown because they are not expected to favour any particular taxa. In this study, the combined efforts of five research teams involved in the investigative monitoring of marine pollution allowed the generation of a multiyear data set for Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula). Multivariate analysis of these data allowed the identification of the chemical-matrix combinations responsible for most of the variability among sites and the construction of a chemical pollution index (CPI) that significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with biological effects at both the individual and the community levels. We report a consistent reduction in the physiological fitness of local populations of mussels as chemical pollution increases. The energy balance was more sensitive to pollution than individual physiological rates, but the reduction in the SFG was primarily due to significantly decreased clearance rates. We also found a decrease in benthic macrofauna diversity as chemical pollution increases. This diversity reduction resulted not from altered evenness, as the classic paradigm might suggest, but from a loss of species richness. PMID:21805214

Beiras, Ricardo; Durán, Iria; Parra, Santiago; Urrutia, Miren B; Besada, Victoria; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Sánchez-Marín, Paula; González-Quijano, Amelia; Franco, María A; Nieto, Óscar; González, Juan J

2012-01-01

298

Chemical Contaminants in Marine Mammals from Washington State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study were to report the results of recent analyses of environmental toxicants in Washington marine mammals and evaluate the evidence for pollutant-related effects in marine mammals. In the last eight years, samples of close to 100 ...

J. Calambokidis J. Peard G. H. Steiger J. C. Cubbage R. L. DeLong

1984-01-01

299

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

1993-01-01

300

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN KARST TERRANES: OUTLINE AND SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical spills that reach an aquifer in karst terranes do not behave like those in granular or highly fractured aquifers. pills reaching diffuse-flow aquifers display relatively slow transport, are radially dispersive, and can be tracked through the use of monitoring wells. pill...

301

Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

1975-01-01

302

CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED DISSOLUTION AND MOBILIZATION OF RESIDUAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pore-scale micromodels and a computer-controlled imaging system will be used to examine fluid dynamics and phase behavior during chemically-enhanced NAPL dissolution and mobilization. Mechanistic insights gained at this microscopic level will be used to help explain observations...

303

Photoacid Structure Effects on Environmental Stability of 193 nm Chemically Amplified Positive Resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a generated photoacid structure on environmental stability at post-exposure bake (PEB) and during post-exposure delay (PED) were investigated for a 193 nm chemically amplified positive resist composed of an ethoxyethyl-blocked alicyclic copolymer and an iodonium sulfonate photoacid generator (PAG). It was found that the influence of airborne contaminants at PEB was less than that during PED. The relationship between environmental stability and generated photoacid properties such as acid strength, reactivity to amine, acid molecular size, reaction efficiency, and activation energy for the deblocking reaction, are discussed. The environmental stability was greatly dominated by the acid strength of generated photoacid, which contributed to the reactivity of the acid with base contaminants. In addition, a good correlation was obtained between the acid molecular size and the lithographic performance. Weak acid (pKa ˜-7) with moderate size (˜100 Å3) exhibited both high environmental stability and high lithographic performance. The high environmental stability of the resist with weak acid was almost the same as that of the 248 nm acetal-type resist, and it is sufficient for practical use.

Yoshino, Hiroshi; Itani, Toshiro; Takimoto, Michiya; Tanabe, Hiroyoshi

1999-12-01

304

Induction of cytochrome P450 as a biomarker for environmental contamination in aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representing toxicant?induced changes in biological systems, biomarkers can serve as linkers between contamination (cause) and biological effects, and therefore provide unique information on ecosystem health. Hence, they are increasingly used for assessing the exposure of organisms to environmental contamination. Here, application of the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), certainly the best studied biomarker, in field trials with freshwater and marine

Thomas D. Bucheli; Karl Fent

1995-01-01

305

A Look At Endocrine Disruptors: Assessing the threat of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants to birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volume 2, Number 1 (January 2001) of the Ornithological Council's newsletter BIRDNET includes this issue brief on the influence of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants on birds. The issue brief covers the basics of endocrine disruptors, policy issues, a review of the state of our knowledge about endocrine disruptors and birds, and suggested research topics that would be useful in better determining the effects of these contaminants on wild birds.

306

Optimal Environmental Management Strategy and Implementation for Groundwater Contamination Prevention and Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative management strategy is proposed for optimized and integrated environmental management for regional or national\\u000a groundwater contamination prevention and restoration allied with consideration of sustainable development. This management\\u000a strategy accounts for availability of limited resources, human health and ecological risks from groundwater contamination,\\u000a costs for groundwater protection measures, beneficial uses and values from groundwater protection, and sustainable development.\\u000a Six

Mingyu Wang; Robert S. Kerr

2006-01-01

307

Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

2009-05-01

308

Food contaminants  

PubMed Central

With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed the contamination of flour with an epoxy resin hardener; organic mercury poisoning in an Arab country involved more than 6000 people who had eaten bread made from grain treated with a methyl mercury fungicide. The hazard which may arise from heavy metal accumulation in the body is discussed.

Kazantzis, G.

1974-01-01

309

Delineation of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils and Sediments With Environmental Magnetic Methods: Laboratory and Field Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon contamination of soils and sediments is a worldwide environmental problem. The present research focuses on the study of magnetic properties of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments using environmental magnetic methods both on field sites as well as in laboratory batch experiments. The main objectives of this research are i) to determine a possible application of magnetic proxies for the delineation of organic contamination in soils and sediments and ii) to examine the role of bacteria in changing soil magnetic properties after hydrocarbon contamination. A former oil field and a former military site which are heavily contaminated with hydrocarbons were studied. Additionally, three different types of natural clean soils were investigated in laboratory experiments by simulating hydrocarbon contamination in sterile and microbial active setups. Magnetic properties, soil properties, iron bioavailability, iron redox state and hydrocarbon content of samples were measured. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility (MS) was monitored weekly in laboratory batch set-ups during several months. Results from the field sites showed that there is an increase of MS and a good correlation between MS and hydrocarbon content. A weekly monitored MS result from the laboratory study clearly indicated~~10% change (increase as well as decrease) of initial MS of respective soils only in microbial active set-ups with saturation after a few weeks of experimental period. This depicts that there is a change of MS caused by microbial iron mineral transformation in presence of hydrocarbon contamination in soils. The results from the field study demonstrate that magnetic proxies can be used to localize hydrocarbon contamination. However, more field sites with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments need to be investigated by using environmental magnetic methods for better understanding the factors driving such changes in magnetic properties.

Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Kappler, A.; Blaha, U.; Petrovsky, E.

2008-12-01

310

Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

2012-12-01

311

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success--egg hatchability and fry survival--were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1991-08-01

312

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: an epidemiological approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success - egg hatchability and fry survival - were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.

1991-01-01

313

Identification of sentinel health events as indicators of environmental contamination.  

PubMed Central

The consensus process was applied to addressing a public health topic; this was a novel endeavor. The following question was addressed: What role, if any, should sentinel health events play in the decision-making process for identifying the effects of environmental exposure? The panel developed three levels of sentinel health events lists: those that are clearly identifiable, those that are potential signs, and those that are indicators of body burdens. Additionally, the panel developed several salient statements regarding the principles of environmental health surveillance and, especially, recommendations for future research.

Rothwell, C J; Hamilton, C B; Leaverton, P E

1991-01-01

314

Carbon nanomaterials in clean and contaminated soils: environmental implications and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exceptional sorptive ability of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) is driven by their characteristically large reactive surface areas and highly hydrophobic nature. Given these properties, it is possible for CNMs to impact on the persistence, mobility and bioavailability of contaminants within soils, either favourably through sorption and sequestration, hence reducing their bioavailability, or unfavourably through increasing contaminant dispersal. This review considers the complex and dynamic nature of both soil and CNM physicochemical properties to determine their fate and behaviour, together with their interaction with contaminants and the soil micro-flora. It is argued that assessment of CNMs within soil should be conducted on a case-by-case basis, and further work to assess the long-term stability of sorbed contaminants and the toxicity of CNMs is required before their sorptive abilities can be applied to remedy environmental issues.

Riding, M. J.; Martin, F. L.; Jones, K. C.; Semple, K. T.

2014-06-01

315

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T. C.; Custer, T. W.; Nault, A. J.; Mitchell, C. A.

1994-01-01

316

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n = 70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T. C.; Custer, T. W.; Nault, A. J.; Mitchell, C. A.

1994-01-01

317

Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

1994-01-01

318

Core sediment bacteria drive community response to anthropogenic contamination over multiple environmental gradients.  

PubMed

In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate sediment bacterial community response to contaminant disturbance across six estuaries with differing levels of 'modification'. We observed a significant influence of metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in shaping bacterial community composition, structure and diversity, with metals being the more influential contaminant. An abundant and pervasive 'core' set of bacteria found in every sample were largely responsible for mediating community response to contamination. These 13 core operational taxonomic units were mostly comprised of Gamma-, Delta-, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Sediment silt and metals together explained the most variation in bacterial community composition (19.7%). Following this strong contaminant signature, salinity and temperature represented important environmental variables predicting 10.9% of community variation. While overall network connectivity measures supported the idea of an inherently diverse soil microbiome with some degree of functional redundancy, lower values observed in contaminated sediments indicate potential structural perturbations in the community from fracturing or loss of bacterial associations. The large number of unclassified sequences obtained in this study contribute to improving our understanding of environmentally relevant strains in relation to anthropogenic contamination, which have been overlooked in laboratory studies. PMID:23647974

Sun, Melanie Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Brown, Mark V

2013-09-01

319

Effect of Low Temperature Thermal Treatment on Soils Contaminated with Pentachlorophenol and Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals  

PubMed Central

The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs’ and the PCP molecules’ chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 300 °C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2–12 × 1018 spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and linewidth (?Hp-p) of 2.00311 – 2.00323 and 4.190 – 5.472 Gauss, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1–10 × 1018 spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327 – 2.00341, and ?Hp-p of 5.209 – 6.721 Gauss. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 × 1018 spins/g of soil at 100 °C for open heating and 12 × 1018 spins/g at 75 °C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2 – 24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure.

dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Cook, Robert L.; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Dellinger, Barry

2012-01-01

320

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might

Premendu Prakash Mathur; Shereen Cynthia D'Cruz

2011-01-01

321

Modeling groundwater contamination transport for the Hanford Environmental Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary groundwater analyses were performed for the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) to demonstrate compliance With dose limit performance objectives in DOE Order 5820.2A. These analyses were designed to determine peak radionuclide concentrations in a theoretical drinking-water well 100 m downstream from the facility. The resulting peak concentrations can be used to determine inventory limits for the facility.

Finfrock, S.H.

1994-10-01

322

Multi-residue analysis of 80 environmental contaminants in honeys, honeybees and pollens by one extraction procedure followed by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

One of the factors that may explain nowadays honeybees' colonies losses is the increasing presence of chemicals in the environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a global view of the presence of environmental contaminants in beehives and, develop a fast, cheap and sensitive tool to analyze environmental contaminants in apiarian matrices. A multi residue analysis was developed to quantify 80 environmental contaminants, pesticides and veterinary drugs, belonging to different chemical classes, in honeys, honeybees and pollens. It consists in a single extraction, based on a modified "QuEChERS method", followed by gas chromatography coupled with Time of Flight mass spectrometry (GC-ToF) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The "QuEChERS method" combines salting-out liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean up. It was adjusted to honey and especially to honeybee and pollen, by adding a small fraction of hexane in acetonitrile to eliminate lipids that interfere with mass spectrometry analysis. This method, combined with accurate and sensitive detection, allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 10 ng/g, with recoveries between 60 and 120%. Application to more than 100 samples of each matrix was achieved for a global view of pesticide presence in the honeybee environment. Relatively high percentages of honeys, honeybees and pollens were found to be contaminated by pesticides used to combat varroa but also by fungicides like carbendazim and ubiquitous contaminants. PMID:21783197

Wiest, Laure; Buleté, Audrey; Giroud, Barbara; Fratta, Cédric; Amic, Sophie; Lambert, Olivier; Pouliquen, Hervé; Arnaudguilhem, Carine

2011-08-26

323

Chemodynamics: transport and behavior of chemicals in the environment--a problem in environmental health.  

PubMed Central

In the manufacture and use of the several thousand chemicals employed by technological societies, portions of these chemicals escape or are intentionally introduced into the environment. The behavior, fate, and to some extent the effects produced by these chemicals are a result of a complex interaction of the properties of the chemical with the various processes governing transport, degradation, sequestration, and uptake by organisms. In addition, such processes as adsorption, evaporation, partitioning, and degradation are influenced by ambient conditions of temperature, air movement, moisture, presence of other chemicals, and the concentration and properties of the subject chemicals. These influence the level and extent of exposure to these chemicals that man might receive. Study of the physiochemical properties and extent of exposure to these chem;cals that man might receive. Study of the physiochemical properties of compounds in relation to these various processes has provided a basis for better understanding of the quantitative behavior. Such information is useful in development of predictive models on behavior and fate of the chemicals in relation to human exposure. Beyond this, it provides information that could be used to devise procedures of manufacture, use, and disposal that would minimize environmental contamination. Some of the physical principles involved in chemodynamics are presented in this review.

Freed, V H; Chiou, C T; Haque, R

1977-01-01

324

Sr{sup 89} -- An unnecessary contaminant of concern in SRS environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical and time bases used to conclude that the fission product, Sr{sup 89}, should no longer be considered as a contaminant of concern and an analyte in SRS environmental samples. This conclusion is the basis for hard-dollar cost savings suggestions to eliminate its analysis in F/H Areas Seepage Basin monitoring wells and in future soil, sediment and water environmental samples for which the analytical contract is to be awarded prior to October 1, 1993. Environmental Restoration should proactively pursue regulatory approval for the elimination of Sr{sup 89} as an analyte in appropriate environmental samples.

Holcomb, H.P.

1993-07-28

325

Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The subsequent analysis of soils (after 6 and 8 months months) is expected to better demonstrate the influence of soil properties on human bioaccessibility of Pb in contaminated soils. Furthermore, the geochemical forms of Pb will be correlated with bioaccessible Pb to identify those soil-Pb species with higher solubility in the human gastrointestinal system. Key words: Lead, Geochemical species, Bioaccessibility, In-vitro model, Health risk

Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

2006-05-01

326

Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.  

PubMed

Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

2012-12-01

327

Use of life cycle assessments to evaluate the environmental footprint of contaminated sediment remediation.  

PubMed

Ecological and human risks often drive the selection of remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments. Traditional human and ecological risk assessment (HERA) includes assessing risk for benthic organisms and aquatic fauna associated with exposure to contaminated sediments before and after remediation as well as risk for human exposure but does not consider the environmental footprint associated with implementing remedial alternatives. Assessment of environmental effects over the whole life cycle (i.e., Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) could complement HERA and help in selecting the most appropriate sediment management alternative. Even though LCA has been developed and applied in multiple environmental management cases, applications to contaminated sediments and marine ecosystems are in general less frequent. This paper implements LCA methodology for the case of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F)-contaminated Grenland fjord in Norway. LCA was applied to investigate the environmental footprint of different active and passive thin-layer capping alternatives as compared to natural recovery. The results showed that capping was preferable to natural recovery when analysis is limited to effects related to the site contamination. Incorporation of impacts related to the use of resources and energy during the implementation of a thin layer cap increase the environmental footprint by over 1 order of magnitude, making capping inferior to the natural recovery alternative. Use of biomass-derived activated carbon, where carbon dioxide is sequestered during the production process, reduces the overall environmental impact to that of natural recovery. The results from this study show that LCA may be a valuable tool for assessing the environmental footprint of sediment remediation projects and for sustainable sediment management. PMID:21520943

Sparrevik, Magnus; Saloranta, Tuomo; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Breedveld, Gijs D; Linkov, Igor

2011-05-15

328

SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added heat to the containers from ambient conditions during storage especially during the summer months. Treatability tests under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes (wet method) and chemical-gel matrices (dry method) during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial decontamination agents such as RadPro? , Glygel? and ASPIGEL 100?. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. From these wet and dry method treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning and waste disposition process.

Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

2005-10-12

329

Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective.  

PubMed

In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current policy of including only a few streets and houses. PMID:16650884

Lambert, Timothy W; Guyn, Lindsay; Lane, Stephanie E

2006-09-15

330

Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

331

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, we collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 ?g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 ?g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J. M.; Karasov, W. H.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K. L.; Hanbidge, B. A.; Giesy, J. P.; Jones, P. D.; Tillitt, D. E.; Verbrugge, D. A.

1996-01-01

332

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants.  

PubMed

Contamination of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic components such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene (BTEX). In this study, a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter for groundwater treatment inoculated with a microbial consortium degrading MTBE was studied. Individual or mixtures of BTEX compounds were transiently loaded in combination with MTBE. The results indicated that single BTEX compound or BTEX mixtures inhibited MTBE degradation to varying degrees, but none of them completely repressed the metabolic degradation in the biotrickling filter. Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a frequent co-contaminant of MTBE had no inhibitory effect on MTBE degradation. The bacterial consortium was stable and showed promising capabilities to remove TBA, ethylbenzene and toluene, and partially degraded benzene and xylenes without significant lag time. The study suggests that it is feasible to deploy a mixed bacterial consortia to degrade MTBE, BTEX and TBA at the same time. PMID:16733621

Wang, Xiaolin; Deshusses, Marc A

2007-02-01

333

Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. PMID:21724330

Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

2011-09-15

334

A REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. Luminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. Also, examples of rece...

335

DETOXIFICATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER BY PHYSICAL EXTRACTION CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical analyses revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and other organic compounds were present in a perennial freshwater stream that flowed through the abandoned American Creosote Works, designated for Superfund cleanup by the U.S Environmental Protection Agenc...

336

Surface Runoff Contamination by Soil Chemicals: Simulations for Equilibrium and First-Order Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model was developed to predict the potential contamination of overland flow by chemicals removed from soil water by rainfall on sloping soil. The model accounts for transient water infiltration and convective-dispersive solute transport in the soil and also considers rate-limited mass transfer through a laminar boundary layer at the soil surface\\/runoff water interface. Sorption-desorption interactions between soil and chemicals

Rony Wallach; Rina Shabtai

1992-01-01

337

Incorporating biologically based models into assessments of risk from chemical contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. Traditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been derived from the toxic responses observed in animals. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that further information is needed if risks to humans are to be assessed accurately. Biologically based models help clarify the dose-response relationship and reduce uncertainty.

Bull, R. J.; Conolly, R. B.; De Marini, D. M.; MacPhail, R. C.; Ohanian, E. V.; Swenberg, J. A.

1993-01-01

338

AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The processes of aging result in many physiological changes which can lead to alterations in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. uch changes can result in altered sensitivity to chemicals, whether drugs or environmental agents, in the elderly. t is extremely diff...

339

ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

340

An environmental rationale for retention of endangered chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the chemicals being phased out to protect the stratospheric ozone layer offer offsetting benefits such as the potential to reduce global warming. This article discusses these two environmental issues together. Six scenarios were analyzed to assess the chlorine and bromine loading of HCFC-123, raising four major policy issues: using of single measure controls places excessive emphasis on the

D. J. Wuebbles; J. M. Calm

1997-01-01

341

Chemical and environmental isotope study of precipitation in Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waters from a network of rainfall collection covering nine meteorological stations distributed mainly in the western part of Syria have been assayed using chemical and environmental isotope techniques for a period of 5 months from Dec 1989 to Apr 1990. The chemistry of rain waters falling over the mountainous stations shows a low solute concentration (20–105 mg?1\\/L) compared with those

Z. Kattan

1997-01-01

342

ALTERATIONS IN MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS BY ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The theme of the review will be to discuss those environmental assaults that impair alveolar macrophage activities. The paper is not intended to completely review all available data on every chemical tested nor will it provide dose-response data. Instead, it is an attempt to prov...

343

TOXCAST: A PROGRAM FOR PRIORTITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluating the potential of tens of thousands of chemicals for risk to human health and the environment is beyond the resource limits of the Environmental Protection Agency. The EPA's ToxCast program will explore alternative methods comprising computational chemistry, high-throug...

344

Treatability of contaminated ground water and aquifer solids at town gas sites, using photolytic ozonation and chemical in-situ reclamation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The feasbility of cleaning up contaminated ground water and aquifer solids from so-called town gas sites using photolytic ozonation and chemical in situ aquifer reclamation (CISR) techniques was investigated in the laboratory. At the actual site, coal was thermally oxidized to produce methane for municipal distribution. The degradation left a coal tar which, if released into the ground, could contaminate ground water and aquifer solids with a number of organic substances, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at environmentally significant concentrations. A chemical in situ treatment method using persulfate as a source of free radicals destroyed organic contaminants that were adsorbed to the aquifer solids. PAHs were reduced by 34 percent after 12 days of treatment and by 52 percent after 40 days.

Peyton, G.R.; LeFaivre, M.H.; Smith, M.A.

1990-08-01

345

Catchment-scale environmental controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally river sediment associated contaminants, most notably heavy metals, radionuclides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and phosphorous, constitute one the most significant long-term risks to ecosystems and human health. These can impact both urban and rural areas and, because of their prolonged environmental residence times, are major sources of secondary pollution if contaminated soil and sediment are disturbed by human activity or by natural processes such as water or wind erosion. River catchments are also the primary source of sediment-associated contaminants to the coastal zone, and to the ocean, and an understanding of the factors that control contaminated sediment fluxes and delivery in river systems is essential for effective environmental management and protection. In this paper the catchment-scale controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal are reviewed, including climate-related variations in flooding regime, land-use change, channel engineering, restoration and flood defence. Drawing on case studies from metal mining impacted catchments in Bolivia (Río Pilcomayo), Spain (Río Guadiamar), Romania (River Tisa) and the UK (River Swale) some improved methodologies for identifying, tracing, modelling and managing contaminated river sediments are proposed that could have more general application in similarly affected river systems worldwide.

Macklin, Mark

2010-05-01

346

Environmental politics and science: the case of PBB contamination in Michigan.  

PubMed Central

This article examines how politics and science interacted against a background of uncertainty to shape policy in the case of environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in Michigan. In 1973, between 500 and 1,000 pounds of the flame retardant PBB were accidentally shipped and used instead of the dairy feed additive magnesium oxide, resulting in the widespread contamination of animal feeds, animals, and human food products. The contamination was initially perceived as the private trouble of a single farmer. The problem next became a public issue as public and private institutions grappled with questions of illness, safety, and disposal. To gain influence over those institutions, dissatisfied individuals and groups then turned the PBB contamination into a political controversy. The final section of the present article analyzes how science and politics interacted in: the ways bureaucratic organizations defined the three problems of contamination; the role political controversy played in redefining problems and influencing policy; and the political roles of scientists in controversies over environmental contamination.

Reich, M R

1983-01-01

347

Environmental contaminants in tissues, foods, and feces of California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two wild California Condors contained moderate to high levels of DDE in their tissues. The levels found could be high enough to cause reproductive problems in adult condors, if the assumption is made that condors are as susceptible to DDE as many other species of birds of prey. Other organochlorines occurred at low levels and probably were not high enough to cause deleterious effects. Metal residues in tissues of one bird were generally low except for copper in liver and lead in bone. Normal background levels of these metals in cathartids are unknown, making interpretation of the results difficult. Organochlorine residues in biopsy samples from a captive condor were low and probably would not have an adverse effect on reproduction if the bird were used for captive breeding. Organochlorines were not detected in food items used in the supplemental feeding program, and mercury and lead residues in these items were generally low. Information is needed on current contaminant levels in natural condor prey throughout the condor range.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Wilbur, S.R.

1983-01-01

348

Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant  

SciTech Connect

Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most commonly used plasticizing agent for the widely used plastic polyvinylchloride (PVC). Consequently, this compound is found everywhere in the environment of civilization, where it is in frequent contact with every person. Blood storage bags and tubing, food wrappers, and many children's toys contain appreciable amounts of DEHP. Given this frequency of exposure, the toxic potential of the compound has become a major concern. Many workers have demonstrated its exceedingly low acute toxicity, while results from chronic exposure studies have been mixed. However, in 1982 the National Toxicology Program reported a significantly increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats and mice exposed to high doses of DEHP over a period of two years. The significance of these studies remains in question. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is metabolized extensively by mammals, but reports of the direct study of the toxic effects of its metabolites are few. Efficient methods for analysis of biological samples for DEHP are available, but they are complicated by the constant presence of this compound as a contaminant.

Griffiths, W.C.; Camara, P.; Lerner, K.S.

1985-03-01

349

REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD-TREATMENT CHEMICALS (PCP AND CREOSOTE)  

EPA Science Inventory

PCP and creosote PAHs are found in most of the contaminated soils at wood-treatment sites. The treatment methods currently being used for such soils include soil washing, incineration, and biotreatment. Soil washing involves removal of the hazardous chemicals from soils ...

350

Groundwater contamination from an inactive uranium mill tailings pile: 1. Application of a chemical mixing model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-pH process waters contained in a number of inactive and abandoned uranium mill tailings in the United States represent potential sources of radionuclide and trace metal contamination of groundwater. Detailed investigations at a typical site at Riverton, Wyoming, indicate that chemical transport occurs from initial dewatering of the tailings, downward infiltration due to precipitation, and groundwater intrusion into the base

A. F. White; J. M. Delany; T. N. Narasimhan; A. Smith

1984-01-01

351

Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

Not Available

1985-01-01

352

Use of ultrasound in monitoring chemical contamination in water  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been examining the potential for combining sonication with other technologies for monitoring specific classes of organic pollutants in water. Pollutants are decomposed into ions which can be detected using known electrochemical techniques. An increase in concentration of the target ion after sonication indicates the presence of the pollutant. The paper presents additional results on the use of sonochemistry in monitoring carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) in water. Relationships were examined for changes in chloride ion and pH upon sonication versus concentration of the individual organochlorine pollutants. Another issue deals with the effect of various humic acids (at different concentrations) on changes in Cl-pH, and conductivity, as a result of sonicating solutions of the pollutants. Linear relationships with excellent correlation coefficients were found between increases of Cl- (after sonications) and 3-80 ppm concentrations of CCI4, CHCI3 and TCE in water. The pH was found to decrease in all cases, and the relationships were nonlinear. Three different humic acids were examined in concentrations up to 400 ppm for effects on Cl- yield, pH changes, and conductivity changes. There were no differences in Cl- yield relative to control solutions of chlorinated hydrocarbons in deionized water. However, conductivity and pH changes were smaller.

Poziomek, E.J.; Orzechowska, G.E.; Engelmann, W.H.

1995-02-01

353

Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport  

SciTech Connect

This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

1998-08-31

354

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors ( Gymnogyps californianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Ronald M. Jurek; John F. Moore

1986-01-01

355

Environmental contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls in the area of their former manufacture in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidently increased environmental pollution as a consequence of the 25-year manufacture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eastern Slovakia was observed. PCB levels determined in ambient air, soil, surface water, bottom sediment, wildlife (fish and game) samples collected in a potentially contaminated area of about 250km2 (a part of the Michalovce district) were compared with those determined in a control area

Anton Kocan; Jan Petrik; Stanislav Jursa; Jana Chovancova; Beata Drobna

2001-01-01

356

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the great lakes: An epidemiological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush,) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success—egg hatchability and fry survival?were used in the evaluation.

Michael J. Mac; Carol C. Edsall

1991-01-01

357

Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the impact on human health of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic, and identifies the data gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring. The concept of health in indigenous groups of the Arctic includes social, cultural, and spiritual dimensions. The harvesting, sharing and consumption of traditional

J Van Oostdam; A Gilman; E Dewailly; P Usher; B Wheatley; H Kuhnlein; S Neve; J Walker; B Tracy; M Feeley; V Jerome; B Kwavnick

1999-01-01

358

Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. IV. Environmental cocaine contamination and washing effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active cocaine use results in sequestration of parent drug in hair. In addition, hair has unique physicochemical properties that permit absorption of cocaine from the environment. When hair is tested for evidence of cocaine, it is important to consider whether the positive test resulted from active drug use or environmental contamination. In a series of laboratory experiments, it was found

Wen Ling Wang; Edward J. Cone

1995-01-01

359

Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to: assess the impact of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic on human health; identify the data and knowledge gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring; examine how these issues have changed since our first assessment [Van Oostdam, J., Gilman, A., Dewailly, É.,

J. Van Oostdam; S. G. Donaldson; M. Feeley; D. Arnold; P. Ayotte; G. Bondy; L. Chan; É. Dewaily; C. M. Furgal; H. Kuhnlein; E. Loring; G. Muckle; E. Myles; O. Receveur; B. Tracy; U. Gill; S. Kalhok

2005-01-01

360

Environmental contamination from trace elements in coal preparation wastes: a literature review and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review of the literature is to collect and evaluate the available information on the chemistry and behavior of trace elements in coal processing wastes, and to utilize this information to assess the potential for environmental contamination from the trace elements in these wastes. Only limited attention has been given previously to the chemistry of trace elements

E. M. Wewerka; J. M. Williams; P. L. Wanek; J. D. Olsen

1976-01-01

361

Assessing potential environmental contamination from compound 1080 (sodium monofluoroacetate) in bait dust during possum control operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of environmental contamination by 1080 from bait dust during possum control operations was assessed after three such operations. This research was prompted by the lack of data on the potential risk of poisoning invertebrates in leaf litter by 1080 from bait dust. Cereal baits containing 0.15% 1080 were aerially applied and samples of bait dust (from application of

G. R. G. Wright; L. H. Booth; G. A. Morriss; M. D. Potts; L. Brown; C. T. Eason

2002-01-01

362

Environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. Eggs in a rural settlement in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In order to study the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural community from the Pontal do Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, soil samples from 31 out of 121 plots were collected in eight different places on each house. The samples were submitted to flotation technique in sodium nitrate (d = 1.20g\\/cm 3 ). Eggs of

Vamilton Alvares Santarém; Elisabeth da Cunha Franco; Fernanda Torres Kozuki; Danila Fini; Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro

2008-01-01

363

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

364

IN VITRO METABOLISM AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION FROM THE MUTAGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT 2-NITROFLURORANTHENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The metabolism and DNA adduct formation by the mutagenic environmental contaminant 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFA) was studied. ncubation under aerobic conditions with liver microsomes of rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene yielded 2-NFA tran-7.8-dihydrodiol, 2-NFA tran-9,10-di...

365

USING GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS TO DIAGNOSE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Advances in molecular biology allow the use of cutting-edge genomic and proteomic tools to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic organisms. Techniques are available to measure changes in expression of single genes (quantitative real-time PCR) or to measure g...

366

Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may

R. L. Hothem; S. G. Zador

1995-01-01

367

Electron-capture negative-ion mass spectrometry: a technique for environmental contaminant identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (ECNIMS) is a method used to generate negative ions in a mass spectrometer by electron-molecule reactions. This technique facilitates the sensitive and selective detection of many toxic contaminants in environmental samples. Applications of this technique have been hindered by the limited understanding of instrumental parameters, by the questionable reproducibility of negative ion mass spectra,

Stemmler

1986-01-01

368

IDENTIFICATION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR SELECTION OF WATERBORNE ORGANISMS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENY'S CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the revisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to identify contaminants which may have an adverse health effects for inclusion on a Contaminant Candidate List. Contaminants from this list are further reviewed to de...

369

Pharmaceutical Contaminants in Urban Water Cycles: A Discussion of Novel Concepts for Environmental Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Urban water cycles are threatened in many ways by human activities, including the discharge of chemicals by industrial and\\u000a household effluents. Since more than a decade it has been recognised that the active ingredients of human pharmaceuticals\\u000a contribute to the chemical contamination of urban surface waters and may pose a serious risk to the environment. Pharmaceuticals\\u000a reach the aquatic environment

Stefan Scholz; Kristin Schirmer; Rolf Altenburger

370

Environmental Contamination by Dog's Faeces: A Public Health Problem?  

PubMed Central

The risk to public health from the large number of dog stools present on streets of urban areas is cause for concern. Dog faeces may be a serious hazard because they may contain microorganisms that are both pathogenic to humans and resistant to several classes of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for zoonotic infections and for the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in canine faeces which contaminates the urban environment. A total of 418 canine faecal samples were collected from streets in seven areas of Bari, Southern Italy. We have isolated multi-drug resistant Enterococci and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from these dog faecal samples. The presence of the resistant bacteria in an urban environment may represent a public health hazard which requires control measures by competent authorities. No Salmonella, Yersinia or Campylobacter species were isolated. Giardia cysts were detected in 1.9% of the samples. The predominant Enterococcus species were E.faecium (61.6%), E. gallinarum (23.3%) and E. casseliflavus (5.5%). Other species, including E. faecalis were also isolated. These strains were resistant to clindamycin (86.3%), tetracycline (65.7%), erythromycin (60.27%) and ampicillin (47.9%). High-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) was found in 65.7% of enterococci. Resistance to three or more antibiotics and six or more antibiotics were observed in 67.12% and 38.4% of Enterococcus spp., respectively. Resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin was not detected in any of the Enterococcus spp. isolated. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 0.7% of the faecal samples. Canine faeces left on the streets may represent a risk factor for transmission of microorganisms and a reservoir of multidrug- resistant bacteria thus contributing to the spread of resistance genes into an urban area.

Cinquepalmi, Vittoria; Monno, Rosa; Fumarola, Luciana; Ventrella, Gianpiero; Calia, Carla; Greco, Maria Fiorella; de Vito, Danila; Soleo, Leonardo

2012-01-01

371

XPS chemical analysis of tholins: the oxygen contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Titan's atmosphere, solid organic aerosols are initiated in the upper atmosphere by the photo-dissociation and photo-ionization of N2 and CH4. In order to simulate this complex chemistry several experimental setups have been built, among them plasma experiments. The aerosol analogues produced in such plasma discharges contain oxygen, as a few percents of the elemental composition, despite the absence of oxygen source in the reactive medium [1]. The present study aims at studying the origin of such systematic oxygen incorporation in tholins. A low pressure (0.9mbar) RF CCP discharge is used described in [2]. Gas mixtures of N2 and CH4 (from 1 to 10% of CH4) are injected continuously. The plasma discharge leads to the production of analogues of Titan's atmospheric aerosols: both as grains in the volume [1] and as thin films on the surface of the reactor [3]. SiO2 substrates of 1cm diameter and 1mm thickness are placed on the grounded electrode of the discharge. Organic films are deposited during 2 hours in order to have films thickness less than 1?m. After the two hours, samples are recovered at ambient air for ex-situ analysis. Two complementary analyses are performed to analyse the thin film chemical composition: XPS and SIMS, in order to probe both the surface and depth profile. References [1] Sciamma-O'brien E., Carrasco N., Szopa C., Buch A., Cernogora G. Icarus 209, 2 (2010) 704-714 [2] Alcouffe G., Cavarroc M., Cernogora G., Ouni F., Jolly A., Boufendi L., Szopa C. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 19, 1 (2010) 015008 (11pp) [3] Mahjoub A., Carrasco N., Dahoo P.-R., Gautier T., Szopa C., Cernogora G. Icarus 221, 2 (2012) 670-677.

Carrasco, N.; Jomard, F.; Vigneron, J.; Cernogora, G.

2013-12-01

372

Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

1995-11-01

373

CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL WASTE SITE CONTAMINATION AND DETERMINATION OF ITS EXTENT USING BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of using bioassays to evaluate soils, soil elutriates, and surface and subsurface water from hazardous chemical waste sites is to provide a more direct, integrated estimate of environmental toxicity. Based on bioassay data, chemical waste sites can be ranked according...

374

Characterization of chemical-waste-site contamination and determination of its extent using bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of using bioassays to evaluate soils, soil elutriates, and surface and subsurface water from hazardous chemical waste sites is to provide a more-direct, integrated estimate of environmental toxicity. Based on bioassay data, chemical waste sites can be ranked according to their toxic potential or mapped for cleanup operations. The objectives of the study were to (a) assess the

J. M. Thomas; J. R. Skalski; J. F. Cline; M. C. McShane; W. E. Miller; S. A. Peterson; C. A. Callahan; J. C. Greene

1986-01-01

375

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated

Swart de R. L; P. S. Ross; J. G. Vos; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

1996-01-01

376

Bacteriological screening of environmental sources of contamination in an abattoir and the meat shops in Mumbai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriological screening of environmental sources of contamination was carried out in Deonar abattoir and traditional meat shops in Mumbai. A total of 54 swab samples from different environmental contaminants were collected and analyzed from the abattoir, while 81 swab samples were analyzed from three meat shops. These samples were processed for total viable count (TVC) and differential counts. The average

Sudhakar G. Bhandare; A. M. Paturkar; V. S. Waskar; R. J. Zende

377

Environmental contamination by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production  

PubMed Central

Background Vancomycin resistant enterococci are a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and their presence among farm animals is unwanted. Using media supplemented with vancomycin an increase in the proportion of samples from Swedish broilers positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci has been detected. The situation at farm level is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline knowledge about environmental contamination with vancomycin resistant enterococci in Swedish broiler production and the association between environmental contamination and colonisation of birds. Methods Environmental samples were taken before, during and after a batch of broilers at three farms. Samples were cultured both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. In addition, caecal content from birds in the batch following at each farm was cultured qualitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. Results The number of samples positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Also the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the positive samples and the proportion of caecal samples containing vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Still, the temporal changes in environmental contamination followed a similar pattern in all farms. Conclusion Vancomycin resistant enterococci persist in the compartments even after cleaning and the temporal changes in environmental contamination were similar among farms. There were however differences among farms regarding both degree of contamination and proportion of birds colonized with vancomycin resistant enterococci. The proportion of colonized birds and the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the compartments seems to be associated. If the factor(s) causing the differences among farms could be identified, it might be possible to reduce both the risk for colonisation by vancomycin resistant enterococci of the subsequent flock and the risk for spread of vancomycin resistant enterococci via the food chain to humans.

2009-01-01

378

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods

M. E. Honeycutt; A. S. Jarvis; V. A. McFarland

1995-01-01

379

Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitat types in addition to estuaries, and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional or national environmental quality assessments.

Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

2003-01-01

380

Sampling and chemical characterization of workplace atmospheres contaminated with airborne diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of workplace atmospheres contaminated with diesel exhaust appear to be exceedingly complex. Building to building differences occur even though the fuel source for vehicles operating in such a facility are identical. There appear to be substantial differences between the particle size distributions of workplace atmospheres and that of those sources which contaminate them. Long duration sampling tends to alter the apparent composition of the collected particle phase, and composite samples of shorter duration may enhance compositional accuracy. Diluted idling large vehicle engine exhaust is probably not a compositionally accurate surrogate for workplace atmospheres for inhalation toxicology studies.

Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Tomkins, B.A.; Ilgner, R.H.; Higgins, C.E.; Gayle, T.M.

1988-01-01

381

A physical chemical screening model for anticipating widespread contamination of community water supply wells by gasoline constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuing modifications of fuels like gasoline should include evaluations of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as subsurface water supplies. Consequently, we developed a screening model to estimate well water concentrations and transport times for gasoline components migrating from underground fuel tank (UFT) releases to typical at-risk community water supply wells. Representative fuel release volumes and hydrogeologic characteristics were used to parameterize the transport calculation. Subsurface degradation processes were neglected in the model in order to make risk-conservative assessments. The model was tailored to individual compounds based on their abundances in gasoline, gasoline-water partition coefficients ( Kgw), and organic matter-water partition coefficients ( Kom). Transport calculations were conducted for 20 polar and 4 nonpolar compounds found in gasoline, including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other ether oxygenates, ethanol, methanol, and some aromatic hydrocarbons. With no calibration, the screening model successfully captured the reported magnitude of MTBE contamination of at-risk community supply wells. Such screening indicates that other oxygenates would cause similar widespread problems unless they were biodegradable. Stochastic analysis of field parameter variability concluded that community supply well contamination estimates had order-of-magnitude reliability. This indicated that such pre-manufacturing analyses may reasonably anticipate widespread environmental problems and/or inspire focused investigations into chemical properties (e.g., biodegradability) before industrial adoption of new fuel formulations.

Arey, J. Samuel; Gschwend, Philip M.

2005-01-01

382

Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

2012-01-01

383

Detoxification of pentachlorophenol and creosote contaminated groundwater by physical extraction: chemical and biological assessment.  

PubMed

Chemical analyses revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic compounds were present in a perennial freshwater stream that flowed through the abandoned American Creosote Works and into Pensacola Bay, Florida. Moreover, groundwater pumped from a well depth of 21 m at a location adjacent to the site was heavily contaminated with PAHs and other organics. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of ultrafiltration for removal of organics from groundwater at this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Super Fund site. Ultrafiltration reduced the concentration of total identified organics from 210.0 mg/L in groundwater to 1.5 mg/L in the post-filtration permeate. Tests for toxicity/teratogenicity in embryonic inland silversides, Menidia beryllina; and Microtox 15 min EC50's were conducted with: 1) streamwater, 2) untreated groundwater, 3) feedwater used in the ultrafiltration system and 4) permeate water that passed through the ultrafiltration system. A concentration of 100% streamwater caused significant (alpha less than or equal to 0.05) teratogenic responses in fish embryos and larvae; the Microtox EC50 was 3.7% streamwater. Groundwater and feedwater caused significant embryo toxic or teratogenic responses at concentrations of 100, 10, and 1%; the Microtox EC50's were 0.85 and 0.48%, respectively. In contrast, only 100% permeate water caused significant increases in terata, compared to the control response; at 10 and 1% concentrations greater than 90% of hatched larvae appeared normal. The Microtox EC50 was 30% permeate water. PMID:1958078

Middaugh, D P; Mueller, J G; Thomas, R L; Lantz, S E; Hemmer, M H; Brooks, G T; Chapman, P J

1991-08-01

384

Fiber contamination of vermiculites: a potential occupational and environmental health hazard.  

PubMed

Vermiculite ores from Montana, Virginia, and South Africa have been analyzed for the presence of amphibole contamination. Fibrous actinolite was found in unexpanded Montana vermiculite ore at a maximum concentration of 2.0%. The fibers persisted in the expanded ore at a maximum concentration of 0.6%. Actinolite was also found in the Virginia vermiculite ore but at a lower concentration and mostly as cleavage fragments with low length-to-width ratios. South African ore contained rare anthophyllite fibers also with low length-to-width ratios. Vermiculite ores have the potential for amphibole contamination and can represent potential health hazards without proper occupational and environmental control measures. PMID:3019658

Moatamed, F; Lockey, J E; Parry, W T

1986-10-01

385

Environmental contaminants and the management of bat populations in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food-chain residues of organochlorine pesticides probably have been involved in declines of some U.S. bat populations; examples include free-tailed bats at Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, and the endangered gray bat at sites in Missouri and Alabama. If a long-lived contaminant has not been dispersed in large amounts over large areas, its impact may be controlled by administrative action that stops its use or other environmental discharge, or that results in physical isolation of localized contamination so that it no longer enters food chains

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1988-01-01

386

The Chemical Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory: Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Technology Division is one of the largest technical divisions at Argonne National Laboratory, a leading center for research and development related to energy and environmental issues. Since its inception in 1948, the Division has pioneered in developing separations processes for the nuclear industry. The current scope of activities includes R&D on methods for disposing of radioactive and hazardous wastes and on energy conversion processes with improved efficiencies, lower costs, and reduced environmental impact. Many of the technologies developed by CMT can be applied to solve manufacturing as well as environmental problems of industry.

NONE

1995-06-01

387

Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

Costain, D. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-07-01

388

Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of precaution and sustainability require more consideration in the assessment of environmental risks posed\\u000a by chemicals and genetically modified organisms. Instead of applying risk reduction measures when there are serious indications\\u000a for damage, full scientific certainty is often waited for before taking action. The precautionary principle particularly should\\u000a be applied in those cases in which the extent and

Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

2001-01-01

389

Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  

PubMed

Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

2014-06-25

390

Gene expression profiling and environmental contaminant assessment of migrating Pacific salmon in the Fraser River watershed of British Columbia.  

PubMed

The health and physiological condition of anadromous salmon is of concern as their upriver migration requires navigation of human-impacted waterways and metabolism of stored energy reserves containing anthropogenic contaminants. Such factors may affect reproductive success of fish stocks. This study investigates chemical contaminant burdens and select gene expression profiles in Pacific Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon which traverse the Fraser River watershed during their spawning migration. Chemical analyses of muscle tissue and eggs of salmon collected from the lower Fraser River (pre-migration) and from upstream spawning grounds (post-migration) during the 2007 migration revealed the presence of numerous chemical contaminants, including PCBs, dioxins/furans, pesticides, and heavy metals. However, muscle tissue residue concentrations were well below human health consumption guidelines and 2,3,7,8 TCDD toxic equivalents (SigmaTEQs) in salmon eggs, calculated using WHO toxic equivalency factors (WHO-TEFs) for fish health, did not exceed the 0.3pgg(-1) wet weight toxicological threshold level previously associated with 30% egg mortality in salmon populations. Quantitative real-time PCR probes were generated and used to assess differences in abundance of key mRNA transcripts encoding nine gene products associated with reproduction, stress, metal toxicity, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Gene expression profiles were characterized in liver and muscle tissue of pre- and post-migration Sockeye and Chinook salmon. The results of stock-matched animals indicate that dynamic changes in mRNA levels occur for a number of genes in both species during migration and suggest that Sockeye salmon exhibit a greater level of biological stress compared to the Chinook salmon population. Using a male-specific genotypic marker, we found that out of the 154 animals examined, one Sockeye was genotypically male but phenotypically female. This individual's gene expression profile in liver and muscle was reminiscent of, but not identical to, the female expression profile. These studies provide the first glimpse of the dynamic yet common nature of changes in the transcriptome that are shared between species during in-migration and highlight differences that may relate to population success. Continued longitudinal assessment will further define the association between contaminant burden, physiological stress, and modulation of gene expression in migrating Pacific salmon. PMID:19811841

Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Dubetz, Cory; Macpherson, Nancy; Sampson, Tracy; Kelly, Barry C; Helbing, Caren C

2010-05-01

391

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01

392

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

SciTech Connect

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 {micro}g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 {micro}g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p < 0.05) than at Lake Winnipegosis (70%), and the prevalence of hatchlings with deformed bills was greater (p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J.M.; Karasov, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI (United States); Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Giesy, J.P.; Jones, P.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Verbrugge, D.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hanbidge, B.A.

1996-04-01

393

Federal environmental legislation in the U.S. for protection of wildlife and regulation of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The U.S. has a long history of legislation to protect wildlife, beginning with the Lacey Act of 1900. There are now over 170 Federal laws that regulate environmental activities which may affect wildlife. Two important laws are the Pittman-Robertson Act enacted in 1937 that authorizes a tax for wildlife management and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act passed in 1958 whose primary purpose is conservation of fish and wildlife, both of which continue to provide significant funding for wildlife management. Modern environmental regulations began by passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, followed by the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and other laws to regulate pesticides and toxics and clean up contaminated sites. International conventions regulate sale, use and disposal of toxics and ocean dumping. These laws and conventions should protect wildlife from unintended consequences of global industrialization. PMID:19562483

Fairbrother, Anne

2009-10-01

394

Visualising the equilibrium distribution and mobility of organic contaminants in soil using the chemical partitioning space.  

PubMed

Assessing the behaviour of organic chemicals in soil is a complex task as it is governed by the physical chemical properties of the chemicals, the characteristics of the soil as well as the ambient conditions of the environment. The chemical partitioning space, defined by the air-water partition coefficient (K(AW)) and the soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (K(OC)), was employed to visualize the equilibrium distribution of organic contaminants between the air-filled pores, the pore water and the solid phases of the bulk soil and the relative importance of the three transport processes removing contaminants from soil (evaporation, leaching and particle erosion). The partitioning properties of twenty neutral organic chemicals (i.e. herbicides, pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls and volatile chemicals) were estimated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships and superimposed onto these maps. This allows instantaneous estimation of the equilibrium phase distribution and mobility of neutral organic chemicals in soil. Although there is a link between the major phase and the dominant transport process, such that chemicals found in air-filled pore space are subject to evaporation, those in water-filled pore space undergo leaching and those in the sorbed phase are associated with particle erosion, the partitioning coefficient thresholds for distribution and mobility can often deviate by many orders of magnitude. In particular, even a small fraction of chemical in pore water or pore air allows for evaporation and leaching to dominate over solid phase transport. Multiple maps that represent soils that differ in the amount and type of soil organic matter, water saturation, temperature, depth of surface soil horizon, and mineral matters were evaluated. PMID:21637880

Wong, Fiona; Wania, Frank

2011-06-01

395

What environmental fate processes have the strongest influence on a completely persistent organic chemical's accumulation in the Arctic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fate and transport models can be used to identify and classify chemicals that have the potential to undergo long-range transport and to accumulate in remote environments. For example, the Arctic contamination potential (ACP), calculated with the help of the zonally averaged global transport model Globo-POP, is a numerical indicator of an organic chemical's potential to be transported to polar latitudes and to accumulate in the Arctic ecosystem. It is important to evaluate how robust such model predictions are and in particular to appreciate to what extent they may depend on a specific choice of environmental model input parameters. Here, we employ a recently developed graphical method based on partitioning maps to comprehensively explore the sensitivity of ACP estimates to variations in environmental parameters. Specifically, the changes in the ACP of persistent organic contaminants to changes in each environmental input parameter are plotted as a function of the two-dimensional hypothetical "chemical space" defined by two of the three equilibrium partition coefficients between air, water and octanol. Based on the patterns obtained, this chemical space is then segmented into areas of similar parameter sensitivities and superimposed with areas of high default ACP and elevated environmental bioaccumulation potential within the Arctic. Sea ice cover, latitudinal temperature gradient, and macro-diffusive atmospheric transport coefficients, and to a lesser extent precipitation rate, display the largest influence on ACP-values for persistent organic contaminants, including those that may bioaccumulate within the polar marine ecosystems. These environmental characteristics are expected to be significantly impacted by global climate change processes, highlighting the need to explore more explicitly how climate change may affect the long-range transport and accumulation behavior of persistent organic pollutants.

Meyer, Torsten; Wania, Frank

396

Prediction of contaminant persistence in aqueous phase: a quantum chemical approach.  

PubMed

At contaminated field sites where active remediation measures are not feasible, monitored natural attenuation is sometimes the only alternative for surface water or groundwater decontamination. However, due to slow degradation rates of some contaminants under natural conditions, attenuation processes and their performance assessment can take several years to decades to complete. Here, we apply quantum chemical calculations to predict contaminant persistence in the aqueous phase. For the test compound hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA), P-N bond hydrolysis is the only thermodynamically favorable reaction that may lead to its degradation under reducing conditions. Through calculation of aqueous Gibbs free energies of activation for all potential reaction mechanisms, it is predicted that HMPA hydrolyzes via an acid-catalyzed mechanism at pH < 8.2, and an uncatalyzed mechanism at pH 8.2-8.5. The estimated half-lives of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years over the groundwater-typical pH range of 6.0 to 8.5 indicate that HMPA will be persistent in the absence of suitable oxidants. At pH 0, where the hydrolysis reaction is rapid enough to enable measurement, the experimentally determined rate constant and half-life are in excellent agreement with the predicted values. Since the quantum chemical methodology described herein can be applied to virtually any contaminant or reaction of interest, it is especially valuable for the prediction of persistence when slow reaction rates impede experimental investigations and appropriate QSARs are unavailable. PMID:21332222

Blotevogel, Jens; Mayeno, Arthur N; Sale, Tom C; Borch, Thomas

2011-03-15

397

Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

398

Sediment toxicity in the Hudson-Raritan estuary: Distribution and correlations with chemical contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hudson-Raritan Estuary is one of several United States coastal areas where chemical data have suggested a potential for\\u000a contaminant-related biological effects, and multiyear intensive bioeffects surveys have been conducted by the National Oceanic\\u000a and Atmospheric Administration. The severity and spatial patterns in sediment toxicity were determined in an estuary-wide\\u000a survey during spring 1991 using amphipods, bivalve larvae, and luminescent

Douglas A. Wolfe; Edward R. Long; Glen B. Thursby

1996-01-01

399

Bioassessment of contaminant transport and distribution in aquatic ecosystems by chemical analysis of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burrowing mayfly nymphs (Ephemeroptera) inhabit and ingest fine-grained sediments and detritus that may be enriched with metals and persistent organic compounds. The burrowing nymphs can externally adsorb and internally assimilate these contaminants, providing a link for the food chain transfer of potentially toxic substances from sediments to organisms in higher trophic levels. The emergent adults are short-lived and do not feed, thus their gut contents do not contribute greatly to their total contaminant burden. These characteristics make Hexagenia spp. And certain other burrowing mayflies useful for assessing ecosystem contamination. General protocols are presented for the collection, processing and analysis of emergent mayflies to assess the spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Two essential components of this bioassessment approach are a network of on-site volunteers with the materials and instructions needed to correctly collect and store samples and quality assurance procedures to estimate the accuracy of chemical analyses. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with an example of its application to the Upper Mississippi River (USA). Determination of cadmium, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent Hexagenia bilineata from a 1250 km reach of this river revealed (1) several source areas of contaminants and (2) distinct patterns in the bioaccumulation (and apparent sediment-associated transport) of each residue on both small and large spatial scales.

Steingraeber, M. T.; Wiener, J. G.

1995-01-01

400

Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.  

PubMed

Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20?000 ?g L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process. The chemical composition of the inflow samples showed a very heterogenic composition and strongly varied, reflecting that large scale industrial synthesis is carried out in batches. The outflow contained mainly unspecific chlorinated educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses as well as compounds which are known as typical constituents of municipal wastewaters. PMID:24840322

Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; Al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

2014-06-25

401

Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.  

PubMed

To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application. PMID:24092007

Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

2014-03-01

402

Using a site visit to a contaminated location as a focus for environmental health education for academic and public health nurses.  

PubMed

We describe a conference initiative that is distinguished by the use of a "community case study" to increase the knowledge and skills of nursing faculty and public health nurses in environmental health and to provide networking support to facilitate infusion of environmental health into nursing curricula and public health nursing practice. The Institute of Medicine's (1995) general environmental health competencies for nurses provided the conference framework. Woburn, Massachusetts, a Superfund site, served as the community case study to illustrate a complex environmental health problem. Over an extended period of time, Woburn was contaminated with multiple chemicals that eventually contaminated the drinking water supply; a cluster of childhood leukemia cases was linked subsequently to the Superfund site contaminants. A 6-hr interpreted walking and bus tour of the Superfund site enabled us to visit the premises of responsible parties, the vapor extraction fields, the capped Well H in the wooded wetlands, and to tour the affected neighborhood. This intensive, hands-on approach to learning environmental health content and skills that incorporated multiple learning strategies serves as a model for developing future conferences for public health nurses and nursing faculty. PMID:16961561

Backus, Ann S N; Hewitt, Jeanne Beauchamp; Chalupka, Stephanie M

2006-01-01

403

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

1999-05-07

404

REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.  

SciTech Connect

Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

2004-09-25

405

RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Third Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on July 7, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

Reigel, M.

2011-10-20

406

RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 12, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

Bannochie, C.

2012-01-31

407

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg\\/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05–9.2 mg\\/kg) was recorded in urban

H. Taylor; J. d. Appletonsupasu; R. Lister; B. Smith; D. Chitamweba; O. Mkumbo; J. F. Machiwa; A. L. Tesha; C. Beinhoff

2005-01-01

408

Environmental contaminants and biochemical responses in flatfish from the Hvaler Archipelago in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of several environmental contaminants, including selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organochlorines (DDT\\/DDE, hexachlorobenzene), 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF\\/PCDD), and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, and As) were analyzed in muscle and liver of three different flatfish species (dab,Limanda limanda; flounder,Platichthys flesus; plaice,Pleuronectes platessa) caught by gill netting at different sites in the Hvaler

Anders Goksøyr; Astrid-Mette Husøy; Hfivard E. Larsen; Jarle Klungsøyr; Svein Wilhelmsen; Amund Maage; Einar M. Brevik; Tommy Andersson; Malin Celander; Maija Pesonen; Lars Förlin

1991-01-01

409

Biotransformation, genotoxic, and histopathological effects of environmental contaminants in European eel ( Anguilla anguilla L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prolonged toxicity study was carried out in young European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants, namely, two individual standard compounds, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), and a complex mixture, bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (BKPME). Fish were exposed to BaP (0.22, 0.45, and 0.9?M) and BKPME (3.12%, 6.25%, and 12.5% (v\\/v)) for 3,

Mário Pacheco; Maria Ana Santos

2002-01-01

410

Biosupported Bimetallic Pd-Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd\\/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichlorethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent

S. De Corte; T. Hennebel; J. P. Fitts; T. Sabbe; V. Bliznuk; S. Verschuere; D. van der Lelie; W. Verstraete; N. Boon

2011-01-01

411

Environmental contamination of amorphous Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the environmental contamination of amorphous YBa2Cu3O7-d fibers has been undertaken in order to determine the best method to handle these materials during the fabrication of superconducting wire. The fibers often need to be handled in organic solvents as part of the cleaning and manipulating process. In organics that are free of water, the fibers retain their mechanical

K. R. Jacobs; T. A. Miller; A. I. Goldman; D. K. Finnemore; R. A. Gleixner; J. Righi; D. Zeigler

1991-01-01

412

Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. Thirty of 37 employees (81 percent) had blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 ..mu..g\\/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels greater than 60 ..mu..g\\/100 ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells;

R. J. Levine; R. M. Jr. Moore; G. D. LcLaren; W. F. Barthel; P. J. Landrigan

1976-01-01

413

Public health response to 2,3,7,8TCDD environmental contamination in Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1971, waste oil containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was sprayed for dust control on a number of residential, recreational, and work areas in Missouri. In several of them, the level and extent of environmental contamination were not known until late 1982 or 1983. Extrapolation from existing toxicological data indicated the potential for substantial adverse health effects in highly exposed populations. As

P. A. Stehr; D. Forney; G. Stein; H. D. Donnell; H. Falk; R. Hotchkiss; W. A. Spratlin; E. Sampson; S. J. Smith

1985-01-01

414

[Aerospace use of nuclear energy and current biological problems of environmental contamination].  

PubMed

An examination of the danger to man which could result from accidents caused by the use of nuclear energy for space purposes leads to the presentation of parameters establishing levels of environmental contamination by radionucleids from the stratotroposphere. The factors affecting the transport of radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere are indicated and the importance of their deposition and absorption by man through the alimentary canal is emphasised. PMID:7099463

La Verde, R; Conte, L

1982-08-25

415

Evaluation of the role of environmental contamination in the microbial degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to determine the effect of environmental contamination upon the potential for degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by the microbial populations in freshwater sediments. Naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and benzo(a)pyrene(BP) were employed as substrates for PAH biodegradation. Biodegradation was assessed by mineralization of the ¹⁴C-PAH substrates incubated in sediment slurries. Mineralization rate constants and substrate turnover times were

Sherrill

1982-01-01

416

An investigation into possible sources of phthalate contamination in the environmental analytical laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of common laboratory equipment and components was performed in order to identify sources of contamination of phthalates prior to testing environmental samples for such compounds. A screening study revealed significant leaching from laboratory consumables, such as plastic syringes, pipette tips released maximum leachings of 0.36?µg?cm diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and 0.86?µg?cm diisononyl phthalate (DINP), plastic filter holders produced maximum

Antoinette M. Reid; Concepta A. Brougham; Andrew M. Fogarty; James J. Roche

2007-01-01

417

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Not Available

1991-10-01

418

Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

Boyce, J. I.

2009-05-01

419

Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants.

Albers, P.H.; Sileo, L.; Mulhern, B.M.

1986-01-01

420

Environmental chemical exposures and disturbances of heme synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Porphyrias are relatively uncommon inherited or acquired disorders in which clinical manifestations are attributable to a disturbance of heme synthesis (porphyrin metabolism), usually in association with endogenous or exogenous stressors. Porphyrias are characterized by elevations of heme precursors in blood, urine, and/or stool. A number of chemicals, particularly metals and halogenated hydrocarbons, induce disturbances of heme synthesis in experimental animals. Certain chemicals have also been linked to porphyria or porphyrinuria in humans, generally involving chronic industrial exposures or environmental exposures much higher than those usually encountered. A noteworthy example is the Turkish epidemic of porphyria cutanea tarda produced by accidental ingestion of wheat treated with the fungicide hexachlorobenzene. Measurements of excreted heme precursors have the potential to serve as biological markers for harmful but preclinical effects of certain chemical exposures; this potential warrants further research and applied field studies. It has been hypothesized that several otherwise unexplained chemical-associated illnesses, such as multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, may represent mild chronic cases of porphyria or other acquired abnormalities in heme synthesis. This review concludes that, although it is reasonable to consider such hypotheses, there is currently no convincing evidence that these illnesses are mediated by a disturbance of heme synthesis; it is premature or unfounded to base clinical management on such explanations unless laboratory data are diagnostic for porphyria. This review discusses the limitations of laboratory measures of heme synthesis, and diagnostic guidelines are provided to assist in evaluating the symptomatic individual suspected of having a porphyria.

Daniell, W E; Stockbridge, H L; Labbe, R F; Woods, J S; Anderson, K E; Bissell, D M; Bloomer, J R; Ellefson, R D; Moore, M R; Pierach, C A; Schreiber, W E; Tefferi, A; Franklin, G M

1997-01-01

421

Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Soled Phase Microextraction: Janusz Pawliszyn's Legacy in the Environmental Arena  

EPA Science Inventory

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has revolutionized the way samples are extracted, enabling rapid, automated, and solventless extraction of many different sample types, including air, water, soil, and biological samples. As such, SPME is widely used for environmental, food, fo...

422

Influence of environmental factors on the biological treatment of organic compounds in contaminated lagoon sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Scope  Many technologies available to remediate soils are not cost-effective when applied to marine and lagoon sediments, due to\\u000a the physico-chemical characteristics of these matrices (high percentages of small particle size material, high moisture and\\u000a organic matter content, many different types of inorganic and organic contamination). For these types of waste, slurry phase\\u000a bioreactors can provide versatile processes, with

Sabrina Saponaro; Luca Bonomo

2003-01-01

423

Environmental contaminants and children's health: Cause for concern, time for action  

PubMed Central

The present paper provides an outline of the developmental and behavioural characteristics that make children, especially the fetus and young child, more vulnerable to contaminants than adults. The major categories of contaminants are briefly described. The evidence for their possible effects on neurobehavioural development; immune, endocrine and respiratory systems; childhood cancer based on research studies with animals; children exposed to catastrophic ‘accidents’ involving overdose exposures; and pregnant women and children from communities with high ‘background’ levels of contamination who participated in studies is reviewed. While the data are worrisome, especially for children living in northern and certain urban communities, much remains to be learned about possible subtle effects and the potential for long term effects of the current background contamination experienced by the majority of Canadian children before its significance to their health can be fully evaluated. The present regulatory processes, which are based on risk assessment, are so cumbersome and costly that the great majority of chemicals in use have not been fully evaluated, and the ingenuity of new chemical production continually exceeds the capacity to test the new chemicals. Moreover, despite past insistence on scientific proof of adverse effects and safety, unanticipated effects have occurred that will threaten the sustainability of human life unless more effective control measures are taken to limit the release of toxic substances and persistent chemicals into the environment. Therefore, the shortcomings of risk assessment are discussed, and the precautionary principle, which is used in some countries and is proposed for use internationally as an alternative measure that may offer improved control for the future, is outlined. Finally, opportunities for physician action are suggested.

Chance, Graham W

2001-01-01

424

Bioconcentration potential of organic environmental chemicals in humans  

SciTech Connect

A list of environmental chemicals detectable in adipose tissue and/or milk of non-occupationally exposed humans is presented. Besides their physiochemical properties (n-octanol/water partition coefficient and water solubility), their acceptable daily intake (ADI) values, production figures, fate in the environment, concentrations in human adipose tissue, and data from total diet studies from market basket investigations are given. Average bioconcentration factors (BCF) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) in human adipose tissue are calculated. The bioconcentration factors (wet wt basis) of these compounds are between 3 and 47 times higher in humans than in rats. The environmental chemicals are divided into three groups in respect to their bioconcentration factors in human adipose tissue: group I, high BCF (greater than 100); group II, medium BCF (10-100); and group III, low BCF (less than 10). The bioconcentration factors are useful for hazard assessment of chemicals to humans.

Geyer, H.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

1986-12-01

425

Fundulus heteroclitus: ovarian reproductive physiology and the impact of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Fundulus heteroclitus, the mummichog or Atlantic killifish, is the dominant small-bodied fish species of the east coast estuaries and salt marshes of Canada and the USA, where it is present as two subspecies, the northern F. h. macrolepidotus and the southern F. h. heteroclitus. Recently identified as the premier teleost model in environmental biology, the species has long been of value in understanding evolved tolerance to toxicants and more lately in adding to our knowledge about reproductive effects of environmental endocrine disruptors. The body of literature on F. heteroclitus ovarian physiology and reproduction, from both field and laboratory studies, provides the foundation for present work focused on understanding the reproductive effects and modes of action of environmental toxicants. In this paper, we review the environmental and endocrine factors controlling ovarian and reproductive cycling in F. heteroclitus, noting specifics related to field and laboratory studies on the two subspecies as well as key research gaps compared to other fish species. We also summarize recent development of methodologies to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrine signalling and egg production in F. heteroclitus. Continued efforts to progress both our fundamental understanding of reproductive physiology in mummichog, coupled with studies focused on the modes of action of environmental contaminants, have high potential to further develop this teleost model. While the model may presently lag behind those based on other species of fish, the unique biochemical and physiological adaptations which allow F. heteroclitus to adapt to changing environmental and toxic conditions provide a valuable experimental system for comparative physiologists, ecotoxicologists and evolutionary biologists. PMID:21771666

Lister, Andrea L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Rutherford, Robert; MacLatchy, Deborah

2011-11-01

426

What every chemical engineer should know about environmental health hazards  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the text of a lecture given to an audience composed, for the most part, of students of chemical engineering at a major university. The objective of the paper is to inform such a young, intelligent, and highly technical audience of the basic facts and perceptions--scientific, technical, societal, regulatory, and legal--concerning environmental health hazards. Topics such as toxicity, hazard, and risk--and ways in which risk has been approached and perceived--are discussed as are various public and private efforts to reduce the risks of environmental health hazards. The great uncertainties encountered in this field and seriousness with which it must be taken--including a brief description of possible personal legal liabilities an engineer can face--are stressed. Despite all difficulties, progress has been made in bringing order to a chaotic field and more progress is both needed and possible.

Deisler, P.F. Jr.

1984-12-01

427

Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

Bengelsdorf, I.

1988-01-01

428