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1

Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

2

National Status and Trends Program for Marine Environmental Quality Chemical Contaminants in the Coral Porites astreoides  

E-print Network

National Status and Trends Program for Marine Environmental Quality Chemical Contaminants. R. Whitall, S. I. Hartwell, A. L. Mason, and J. D. Christensen. 2009. Chemical Contaminants/NOS/NCCOS/Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment. 32pp. #12;Chemical Contaminants in the Coral Porites astreoides from

3

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.

Custer, T.W.

2000-01-01

4

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

2001-01-01

5

Epidemiologic Evidence of Relationships Between Reproductive and Child Health Outcomes and Environmental Chemical Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and\\/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures.

Donald T. Wigle; Tye E. Arbuckle; Michelle C. Turner; Annie Bérubé; Qiuying Yang; Shiliang Liu; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

6

Environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies. PMID:22332111

2011-01-01

7

Estrogen-like activity of seafood related to environmental chemical contaminants  

PubMed Central

Background A wide variety of environmental pollutants occur in surface waters, including estuarine and marine waters. Many of these contaminants are recognised as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which can adversely affect the male and female reproductive system by binding the estrogen receptor and exhibiting hormone-like activities. In this study the estrogenic activity of extracts of edible marine organisms for human consumption from the Mediterranean Sea was assayed. Methods Marine organisms were collected in two different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The estrogenic activity of tissues was assessed using an in vitro yeast reporter gene assay (S. cerevisiae RMY 326 ER-ERE). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) in fish tissue was also evaluated. Results Thirty-eight percent of extracts showed a hormone-like activity higher than 10% of the activity elicited by 10 nM 17b-estradiol (E2) used as control. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 0.002 up to 1.785 ng/g wet weight. Chemical analyses detected different levels of contamination among the species collected in the two areas, with the ones collected in the Adriatic Sea showing concentrations significantly higher than those collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea (p < 0.01). Conclusion The more frequent combination of chemicals in the samples that showed higher estrogenic activity was PCB 28, PCB 101, PCB 153, PCB 180. The content of PCBs and estrogenic activity did not reveal any significant correlation. PMID:16573822

Garritano, Sonia; Pinto, Barbara; Calderisi, Marco; Cirillo, Teresa; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata; Reali, Daniela

2006-01-01

8

[Chemical food contaminants].  

PubMed

Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. PMID:15378171

Schrenk, D

2004-09-01

9

Chemical contamination remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground mobile laser test bed system was assembled to assess the feasibility of detection of various types of chemical contamination using Differential Scattering (DISC) and Differential Absorption (DIAL) Lidar techniques. Field experiments with the test bed system using chemical simulants were performed. Topographic reflection and range resolved DIAL detection of vapors as well as DISC detection of aerosols and surface contamination were achieved. Review of detection principles, design of the test bed system, and results of the experiments are discussed.

Carrico, J. P.; Phelps, K. R.; Webb, E. N.; Mackay, R. A.; Murray, E. R.

1986-01-01

10

Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPAR? activation.  

PubMed

Eleven environmental relevant chemicals were investigated for their ability to affect adipogenesis in vitro, biomarker release from adipocytes and PPAR? and ? activation. We found that butylparaben stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased release of leptin, adiponectin and resistin from the cells. Butylparaben activated PPAR? as well, which may be a mediator of the adipogenic effect. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)153 also stimulate adipogenesis and biomarker release, but did not affect PPARs. The data indicates that PPAR? activating chemicals often stimulate adipocyte differentiation although PPAR? activation is neither a requirement nor a guarantee for stimulation. Four out of the eleven chemicals (bisphenol A, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, butylparaben, PCB 153) caused increased adipogenesis. The release of adipocyte-secreted hormones was sometimes but not always correlated with the effect on adipocyte differentiation. Eight chemicals were able to cause increased leptin release. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that chemicals can interfere with pathways related to obesity development. PMID:22526026

Taxvig, Camilla; Dreisig, Karin; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine; Schelde, Ane Blicher; Pedersen, Dorthe; Boergesen, Michael; Mandrup, Susanne; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

2012-09-25

11

Environmental contaminants in human milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants can be stored in the mother's body or can be transiently present from current diet, occupational exposures or personal habits. These chemicals can be transferred prenatally to the developing fetus or postnatally from breast milk to the nursing infant. Exposures through breast milk can be substantial, especially when the mother has significant ongoing exposures or has accumulated an

HENRY A ANDERSON; MARY S WOLFF

2000-01-01

12

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

1 23 Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology ISSN 0090-4341 Arch Environ Contam the value of examining weathering and aging of chemicals for the best determination of environmental impact to minimize environmental impacts (Williams et al. 2005; Quist et al. 2003). One training activity includes

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

13

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: selected methods for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effects in aquatic ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document describes the suite of biological methods of the U.S. Geological Survey- Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends program for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effects on fish. The methods, which were selected by panels of experts, are being field-tested in rivers of the Mississippi River, Columbia River, and Rio Grande basins. General health biomarkers include a health assessment index based on gross observation; histopathological examination of selected organs and tissues; condition factor; and the heptosomatic and splenosomatic indices. Immune system indicators are plasma lysozyme activity and measures of splenic macrophage aggregates. Reproductive biomarkers include plasma concentrations of sex steroid hormones (17b-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) and vitellogenin, gonadal histopathology (including reproductive stage and, in females, gonadal atresia), and the gonadosomatic index. Indicators of exposure to polycyclic aromatic and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons are the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay (performed on solvent extracts of composite fish samples) and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios are used to assess the trophic position of the fish and their exposure to sewage and other animal wastes. For each indicator we describe endpoint(s) and methods, and discuss the indicator?s value and limitations for contaminant monitoring and assessment.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dethloff, Gail M.

2000-01-01

14

Chemical contaminants in human milk: an overview.  

PubMed Central

This review contains a succinct overview of the nature and extent of the problem of contamination of human milk with environmental and occupational chemicals, excluding drugs. Factors influencing the levels of contaminants in breast milk are discussed. Also, data on major chemicals of concern with potential health risk(s) to the general population and risk-benefit considerations are dealt with briefly. Based on the available data on the subject, research needs have been identified and policy recommendations are suggested. PMID:8549474

Sonawane, B R

1995-01-01

15

In vivo and in vitro absorption and binding to powdered stratum corneum as methods to evaluate skin absorption of environmental chemical contaminants from ground and surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to compare methods to determine the binding and absorption of water contaminants to skin, to examine linearity of response, and to determine whether skin was an environmental route for water contaminants to enter the body. The three chemical examined were (¹⁴C)-p-nitroaniline (10.1 mCi\\/mM), (¹⁴C)benzene (56 mCi\\/mM, and ¹⁴C-labeled 54% PCB (32 mCi\\/mM). The chemical

Ronald C. Wester; Mohammad Mobayen; Howard I. Maibach

1987-01-01

16

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: bees, honey and pollen as sentinels for environmental chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

Three beehive matrices, sampled in six different apiaries from West France, were analyzed for the presence of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4: benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and chrysene). Samples were collected during four different periods in both 2008 and 2009. Honey samples showed the lowest levels of PAH4 contamination (min=0.03 ?g kg(-1); max=5.80 ?g kg(-1); mean=0.82 ?g kg(-1); Sd=1.17). Bee samples exhibited higher levels of PAH4 contamination (min=0.32 ?g kg(-1); max=73.83 ?g kg(-1); mean=7.03 ?g kg(-1); Sd=17.83) with a great dispersion of the concentrations due to four main events of high concentrations. Pollen samples showed only one major episode with the highest PAH4 concentration found (min=0.33 ?g kg(-1); max=129.41 ?g kg(-1); mean=7.10 ?g kg(-1); Sd=22.28). The PAH4 concentrations found were significantly influenced by the landscape context for all beehive samples. PMID:22051346

Lambert, Olivier; Veyrand, Bruno; Durand, Sophie; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Piroux, Mélanie; Puyo, Sophie; Thorin, Chantal; Delbac, Frédéric; Pouliquen, Hervé

2012-01-01

17

Pet dogs as sentinels for environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of environmental contaminants in air, water and food may pose significant health risks to the exposed human population. However, problems associated with assessing chronic exposure to low doses of environmental chemicals, multiple exposure routes, diseases with long latency periods, and non-specific health outcomes make it difficult to conduct the appropriate human epidemiologic studies. It may be useful to

Lorraine C Backer; Carol B Grindem; Wayne T Corbett; Laura Cullins; J. Lee Hunter

2001-01-01

18

Karst hydrology and chemical contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-water flow in karst aquifers is very different from flow in granular or fractured aquifers. Chemical contamination may be fed directly to a karst aquifer via overland flow to a sinkhole with little or no attenuation and may contaminate downgradient wells, springs, and sinkholes within a few hours or a few days. Contaminants may also become temporarily stored in the

Malcolm S. Field

1993-01-01

19

2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

20

Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites  

SciTech Connect

Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

Melinda Christine Wiles [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health

2004-08-15

21

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

22

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer

S. S. Talmage; B. T. Walton

1991-01-01

23

Data-Mining and Informatics Approaches for Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

New and emerging environmental contaminants are chemicals that have not been previously detected or that are being detected at levels significantly different from those expected in both biological and ecological arenas (that is, human, wildlife, and environment). Many chemicals c...

24

The effect of misunderstanding the chemical properties of environmental contaminants on exposure beliefs: a case involving dioxins.  

PubMed

Chemical properties of contaminants lead them to behave in particular ways in the environment and hence have specific pathways to human exposure. If residents of affected communities lack awareness of these properties, however, they could make incorrect assumptions about where and how exposure occurs. We conducted a mailed survey of 904 residents of Midland and Saginaw counties in Michigan, USA to assess to what degree residents of a community with known dioxin contamination appear to understand the hydrophobic nature of dioxins and the implications of that fact on different potential exposure pathways. Participants assessed whether various statements about dioxins were true, including multiple statements assessing beliefs about dioxins in different types of water. Participants also stated whether they believed different exposure pathways were currently significant sources of dioxin exposure in this community. A majority of residents believed that dioxins can be found in river water that has been filtered to completely remove all particulates, well water, and even city tap water, beliefs which are incongruous with the hydrophobic nature of dioxins. Mistrust of government and personal concern about dioxins predicted greater beliefs about dioxins in water. In turn, holding more beliefs about dioxins in water predicted beliefs that drinking and touching water are currently significant exposure pathways for dioxins. Ensuring that community residents' mental models accurately reflect the chemical properties of different contaminants can be important to helping them to adjust their risk perceptions and potentially their risk mitigation behaviors accordingly. PMID:23391895

Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Turkelson, Angela; Franzblau, Alfred; Diebol, Julia K; Allerton, Lindsay A; Parker, Edith A

2013-03-01

25

Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Covers the complex issue of how to evaluate contaminants in wildlife. This comprehensive resource deals with the question: 'How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?' Features: Authoritative and sound advice is provided on many environmental contaminants, including what the contaminants are and how to interpret the data on them. Each chapter includes a review of the literature on a specific chemical, followed by a clear technical summary that provides research guidance. Direction is given on how to interpret data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient. Data are presented in easy to use tables. Primary attention is given to toxic concentrations of contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, and fluorides.

1996-01-01

26

REVIEW OF INFORMATION ON THE OCCURRENCE OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS  

E-print Network

#12;REVIEW OF INFORMATION ON THE OCCURRENCE OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS AND CONDITIONS of contaminants in the Fraser River Basin. Future effort in this regard should be greatly simplified of contaminant and environmental quality data for the aquatic environment within the Fraser Basin was developed

27

Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species\\u000a varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across\\u000a Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). ?PCB\\u000a and ?DDT followed by ?CHL were most

Birgit M. Braune; David G. Noble

2009-01-01

28

NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION STUDIES OF HUMAN AND FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasm...

29

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between contaminant exposure and trophic level emerged. Insectivores (shrews) had the highest levels of contaminants, followed by omnivores (cricetid mice) with intermediate levels, and herbivores (voles) with the lowest levels. A substantial number of these biomonitoring studies using small mammals collectively point to the importance of food habits and habitat of small mammals, and their availability and abundance as factors that should influence species selection for monitoring studies. The type of contaminants under consideration as well as the appropriateness of the endpoints selected are important factors to consider when deciding whether or not to include small mammals in biomonitoring studies. PMID:1992495

Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

1991-01-01

30

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

31

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

2005-11-29

32

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

1998-01-01

33

Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

Banwell, John G.

1979-01-01

34

Environmental contaminants in California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five wild Califorinia condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumably of cyanide (CN) poisoning, and 1 nestling of handling shock. Organochlorine concentrations were low in 4 condors that were analyzed for these contaminants. Blood samples from 14 wild and 14 captive condors were analyzed primarily for Pb. Five of 14 wild condors sampled had elevated (> 0.70 ppm) concentrations of Pb in blood whereas Pb concentrations in all captive condors were low. Lead levels in individual birds often fluctuated over time. Lead exposure, especially poisoning, was a major factor affecting the wild California condor population during 1982-86. The probable source of Pb was bullet fragments in carrion on which condors were feeding.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Scott, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.; Bloom, P.H.; Stafford, C.J.

1988-01-01

35

Chemical contamination of water supplies.  

PubMed Central

Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists. PMID:4085442

Shy, C M

1985-01-01

36

FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDIES OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND ENVIRONMENTALLY RELATED DISEASES IN FISH AND MOLLUSCS OF NEW ENGLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of PCBS, PAHS, insecticides and metals in some aquatic ecosystems have reached high levels placing identified populations at risk to chemical, physical and biological agents in estuarine and open coastal areas of the United States. n the last three decades scien...

37

Environmental Contamination by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE. PMID:23115260

Lerner, A.; Adler, A.; Abu-Hanna, J.; Meitus, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.

2013-01-01

38

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment PI of promptly. Work surfaces are free of contamination. Heavy objects are stored on lower shelves. Glassware are available and in use. Chemical Fume Hoods / Exhaust Points # Compliance Items: Category Item Comments

39

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

1 23 Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology ISSN 0090-4341 Volume 61 Number 3 Arch metal and organic contaminant concentrations at three areas in the lower Cape Fear River system, North considered safe for human consumption by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the North

Mallin, Michael

40

CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to more accurately assess children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Children have unstructured eating behaviors which cause excess exposures as a result of their activities. Determining total dietary intak...

41

A new multimedia contaminant fate model for China: how important are environmental parameters in influencing chemical persistence and long-range transport potential?  

PubMed

We present a new multimedia chemical fate model (SESAMe) which was developed to assess chemical fate and behaviour across China. We apply the model to quantify the influence of environmental parameters on chemical overall persistence (POV) and long-range transport potential (LRTP) in China, which has extreme diversity in environmental conditions. Sobol sensitivity analysis was used to identify the relative importance of input parameters. Physicochemical properties were identified as more influential than environmental parameters on model output. Interactive effects of environmental parameters on POV and LRTP occur mainly in combination with chemical properties. Hypothetical chemicals and emission data were used to model POV and LRTP for neutral and acidic chemicals with different KOW/DOW, vapour pressure and pKa under different precipitation, wind speed, temperature and soil organic carbon contents (fOC). Generally for POV, precipitation was more influential than the other environmental parameters, whilst temperature and wind speed did not contribute significantly to POV variation; for LRTP, wind speed was more influential than the other environmental parameters, whilst the effects of other environmental parameters relied on specific chemical properties. fOC had a slight effect on POV and LRTP, and higher fOC always increased POV and decreased LRTP. Example case studies were performed on real test chemicals using SESAMe to explore the spatial variability of model output and how environmental properties affect POV and LRTP. Dibenzofuran released to multiple media had higher POV in northwest of Xinjiang, part of Gansu, northeast of Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and Jilin. Benzo[a]pyrene released to the air had higher LRTP in south Xinjiang and west Inner Mongolia, whilst acenaphthene had higher LRTP in Tibet and west Inner Mongolia. TCS released into water had higher LRTP in Yellow River and Yangtze River catchments. The initial case studies demonstrated that SESAMe performed well on comparing POV and LRTP of chemicals in different regions across China in order to potentially identify the most sensitive regions. This model should not only be used to estimate POV and LRTP for screening and risk assessments of chemicals, but could potentially be used to help design chemical monitoring programmes across China in the future. PMID:24791706

Zhu, Ying; Price, Oliver R; Tao, Shu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andy J

2014-08-01

42

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

43

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

44

Release of Chemicals from Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

At sites that contain contaminated soils, there can be questions about the magnitude of risk posed by the chemicals in the soils and about the cleanup levels that should be achieved. Knowledge about the rate of release of chemicals is important to answers to such questions. This article: (1) describes a laboratory protocol to obtain rate of release information for

Derek G. Williamson; Raymond C. Loehr; Yosuke Kimura

1998-01-01

45

Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

1987-01-01

46

BIOASSAY-DIRECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology 'bioassay directed chemical analysis' to best describe this marriage of analy...

47

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,  

E-print Network

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist of environmental chemicals can interfere with thyroid function or, perhaps of greater concern, with TH action cognitive deficits (7). An important implication of these studies is that environmental chemicals

Zoeller, R. Thomas

48

Intentional and Inadvertent Chemical Contamination of Food, Water, and Medication.  

PubMed

Numerous examples of chemical contamination of food, water, or medication have led to steps by regulatory agencies to maintain the safety of this critical social infrastructure and supply chain. Identification of contaminant site is important. Environmental testing and biomonitoring can define the nature and extent of the event and are useful for providing objective information, but may be unavailable in time for clinical care. Clinical diagnosis should be based on toxidrome recognition and assessment of public health implications. There are several resources available to assist and these can be accessed through regional poison control centers or local/state public health departments. PMID:25455667

MCKay, Charles; Scharman, Elizabeth J

2015-02-01

49

Chemical fixation of arsenic in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic-contaminated soils have been successfully treated using fixation methods whereby chemicals are added to prevent As mobilization. However, the chemistry of the fixation process used in the field is poorly understood. We have examined one process which succeeded in immobilizing 0. I to 0.2 weight % As in soil at a 69 a old dump site through the addition of

Remy J.-C. Hennet; S. L. Brantley

1996-01-01

50

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths  

PubMed Central

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

2014-01-01

51

Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

52

Definitions of contaminants Chemical: Disposable items contaminated with residual amounts of  

E-print Network

Definitions of contaminants · Chemical: Disposable items contaminated with residual amounts of non note that Ethidium bromide-contaminated waste must be deactivated or collected as chemical waste by EHS/s Nucleic Acid Chemical into RMW bin TRASH Biohazard · Biohazard: Contains or potentially contaminated

Pawlowski, Wojtek

53

Environmental contaminants in raccoons in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants are a continuing source of concern. In an effort to monitor the presence of these substances and assess the threats they present to wildlife, a joint study was conducted in 1985 between the Kansas Fish and Game Commission and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) were selected as the study animal because this species

William G. Layher; Lloyd B. Fox; Russell Broxterman

1987-01-01

54

Effect of environmental contaminants on male reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of evidence has accumulated in recent years that consistently indicate various adverse effects of environmental contaminants on human health. Decreasing trend of male fertility in terms of sperm counts and sperm quality, along with other changes in male reproductive health, including congenital malformations and testicular cancer in humans, and similar problems in wildlife has been correlated to

B. Saradha; P. P. Mathur

2006-01-01

55

DERMAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb in ground water, dioxins...

56

CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

57

Using model-based screening to help discover unknown environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use, only a small fraction have been analyzed in environmental samples. To effectively identify environmental contaminants, methods to prioritize chemicals for analytical method development are required. We used a high-throughput model of chemical emissions, fate, and bioaccumulation to identify chemicals likely to have high concentrations in specific environmental media, and we prioritized these for target analysis. This model-based screening was applied to 215 organosilicon chemicals culled from industrial chemical production statistics. The model-based screening prioritized several recognized organosilicon contaminants and generated hypotheses leading to the selection of three chemicals that have not previously been identified as potential environmental contaminants for target analysis. Trace analytical methods were developed, and the chemicals were analyzed in air, sewage sludge, and sediment. All three substances were found to be environmental contaminants. Phenyl-tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane was present in all samples analyzed, with concentrations of ?50 pg m(-3) in Stockholm air and ?0.5 ng g(-1) dw in sediment from the Stockholm archipelago. Tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethyl-cyclotrisiloxane and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane were found in sediments from Lake Mjøsa at ?1 ng g(-1) dw. The discovery of three novel environmental contaminants shows that models can be useful for prioritizing chemicals for exploratory assessment. PMID:24869768

McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Radke, Michael; Sobek, Anna; Malmvärn, Anna; Alsberg, Tomas; Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; Xu, Shihe

2014-07-01

58

Biodegradation of environmental contaminants using white rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi are a common, naturally-occurring class of wood-degrading fungi that evolved to degrade lignin. Extensive research conducted since the early 1980s has shown that many of the same mechanisms used by the fungi for lignin degradation also promote the degradation of several carbon-based environmental contaminants. These contaminants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, wood preservatives, chlorinated solvents, PCBs, explosives, cyanide, dyes and others. The fungi use an extra-cellular, free-radical, nonspecific mode of degradation, which allows them to degrade both soluble and insoluble contaminants, whether they are absorbed or in solution. The extra-cellular substances secreted by the fungi include several enzymes (which catalyze the initial oxidation of contaminant molecules), hydrogen ions (to maintain a slightly acidic pH), electrons (to maintain a charge balance and to reduce contaminant through the breaking of chemical bonds), and the fungi secrete veratryl alcohol (a free-radical mediator that catalyzes reductions) and oxalate (an organic acid that is a highly effective reductant). Application of white rot fungi for the remediation of contaminated soils involves mixing fungal-inoculated substrates with the soil. The materials are moistened during mixing to provide an environment that is conducive to fungal growth. The soil/substrate mixture is then placed in a biocell and aerated to promote contaminant degradation. Case histories of bench-scale tests and field applications are presented.

White, R.B.; Aust, S.D. (Utah State Univ., Midvale, UT (United States))

1994-08-01

59

Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits. PMID:20587072

2010-01-01

60

Reconnaissance survey of chemical contamination and biological effects in southern Puget Sound  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the results of a field survey south of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in southern Puget Sound. Environmental conditions were evaluated in two urban embayments, eight nonurban embayments and three areas of the main channel in the southern Sound. Stations were located in depositional areas where chemical contaminants would be expected to accumulate in the sediments. All stations were located away from known contaminant sources in order to provide integrative assessments of contamination over relatively large areas. Chemical contamination of the south Sound was evaluated by measuring chemical concentrations in subtidal bottom sediments. Bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants was evaluated by measuring chemical concentrations in flatfish muscle tissues and littleneck clam meats. Chemical-related biological effects were evaluated by conducting amphipod sediment bioassays and histopathological analyses on livers of English sole.

Not Available

1991-04-01

61

Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.  

PubMed Central

For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimulate an immune response, are associated with the occurrence of these diseases. We reviewed the epidemiologic data that addressed whether environmental contaminants might cause type 1 or type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, higher intake of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, as well as higher serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with increased risk. Overall, however, the data were limited or inconsistent. With respect to type 2 diabetes, data on arsenic and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin relative to risk were suggestive of a direct association but were inconclusive. The occupational data suggested that more data on exposure to N-nitroso compounds, arsenic, dioxins, talc, and straight oil machining fluids in relation to diabetes would be useful. Although environmental factors other than contaminants may account for the majority of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the etiologic role of several contaminants and occupational exposures deserves further study. PMID:11744505

Longnecker, M P; Daniels, J L

2001-01-01

62

Trace chemical contaminant generation rates for spacecraft contamination control system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft presents a unique design challenge with respect to providing a comfortable environment in which people can live and work. All aspects of the spacecraft environmental design including the size of the habitable volume, its temperature, relative humidity, and composition must be considered to ensure the comfort and health of the occupants. The crew members and the materials selected for outfitting the spacecraft play an integral part in designing a habitable spacecraft because material offgassing and human metabolism are the primary sources for continuous trace chemical contaminant generation onboard a spacecraft. Since these contamination sources cannot be completely eliminated, active control processes must be designed and deployed onboard the spacecraft to ensure an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Knowledge of the expected rates at which contaminants are generated is very important to the design of these processes. Data from past spacecraft missions and human contaminant production studies have been analyzed to provide this knowledge. The resulting compilation of contaminants and generation rates serve as a firm basis for past, present, and future contamination control system designs for space and aeronautics applications.

Perry, J. L.

1995-01-01

63

The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead,

R. L. Calderon

2000-01-01

64

Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability.  

PubMed Central

Research on environmentally related chemical contaminants in breast milk spans several decades and dozens of countries. The ability to use this research as an environmental indicator is limited because of a lack of consistent protocols. Data on xenobiotics in breast milk are influenced by choices in sample selection, sample pooling, analysis, and reporting. In addition, most studies have focused only on a small panel of persistent organic pollutants, despite indications that a wide range of additional chemical contaminants may also enter breast milk. Despite these limitations, however, it is possible to draw some generalizations. In this paper we review available data on levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), metals, and solvents in breast milk. Examples drawn from around the world illustrate the available data and the patterns that have appeared in various areas over time. Over the past few decades, levels of the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins have declined in breast milk in countries where these chemicals have been banned or otherwise regulated. In contrast, the levels of PBDEs are rising. Regional differences in levels of xenobiotics in breast milk are related to historical and current local use patterns. Diet is a major factor that influences breast milk levels of persistent organic pollutants, with patterns in fish consumption playing a particularly significant role. Improved global breast milk monitoring programs would allow for more consistent data on trends over time, detection of new xenobiotics in breast milk, and identification of disproportionately exposed populations. PMID:12055065

Solomon, Gina M; Weiss, Pilar M

2002-01-01

65

Dermal absorption of environmental contaminants from soil and sediment: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment of hazardous wastes sites may require characterization of the dermal availability of chemical contaminants in soil and\\/or sediment. Current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance for assessment of dermal exposures to contaminants in water and soil was finalized in 2004 as a supplement (Part E) to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). The soil protocol presented in RAGS

Elizabeth W Spalt; John C Kissel; Jeffry H Shirai; Annette L Bunge

2009-01-01

66

Methods for Estimating Economic Damages from Environmental Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

While significant attention has been given to the decrease in property values associated with environmental contamination (i.e., stigma effects), little attention has been given to the stigma impacts on the local community as a whole. In addition, most estimates of stigma damages have been performed within a community, using distance from contamination or comparing contamination and non contamination areas in

David W. Shideler; Michael R. Dicks

2011-01-01

67

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

68

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

Ware, G. (ed.)

2007-07-01

69

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

These are the first and second volumes under the new Editor of the series that is a continuation of Residue Reviews. The nine reviews in them are as follows: Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils; Maleic hydrazide residues in tobacco and their toxicological implications; Fate and persistence of aquatic herbicides; Organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables; Biological half-lives of chemicals in fishes; Propylene chlorohydrins; toxicology, metabolism and environmental fate; The pyrolysis of cannabinoids; Pesticide fate from vine to wine; Transport and transformation of organic chemicals in the soil-air-water ecosystem.

Ware, G.W. (ed.)

1987-01-01

70

Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

71

Assessment of environmental contamination associated with a mammalian cell transformation assay.  

PubMed

To estimate worker exposures to, and environmental contamination from, test chemicals and organic solvents used in an in vitro assay to assess the carcinogenic potential of chemicals, sodium fluorescein, a noncarcinogenic fluorescent material, was dissolved in tissue culture medium used to maintain early passage hamster embryo cells. Personal an environmental samples were taken over a 14-d period. The assay was performed according to standard procedures in a ventilated glove box or laminar flow safety cabinet. Considerably more than 99% of the chemical contamination found was recovered from the interiors of the glove box and hood and from disposable equipment. Contamination outside the containment units (less than 1 microgram) resulted from intralaboratory transport of chemicals, treated cultures, and contaminated equipment. We conclude that the standard operating particles and procedures provided adequate safeguards for personnel and the environment. PMID:7298058

Sansone, E B; Losikoff, A M; Lebherz, W B; Poiley, J A

1981-09-01

72

Mapping Environmental Contaminants at Ray Mine, AZ  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data was collected over Ray Mine as part of a demonstration project for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through the Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI). The overall goal of AMI is to accelerate adoption and application of advanced measurement technologies for cost effective environmental monitoring. The site was selected to demonstrate the benefit to EPA in using advanced remote sensing technologies for the detection of environmental contaminants due to the mineral extraction industry. The role of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in this pilot study is to provide data as well as performing calibration, data analysis, and validation of the AVIRIS results. EPA is also interested in developing protocols that use commercial software to perform such work on other high priority EPA sites. Reflectance retrieval was performed using outputs generated by the MODTRAN radiative transfer model and field spectra collected for the purpose of calibration. We are presenting advanced applications of the ENVI software package using n-Dimensional Partial Unmixing to identify image-derived endmembers that best match target materials reference spectra from multiple spectral libraries. Upon identification of the image endmembers the Mixture Tuned Match Filter algorithm was applied to map the endmembers within each scene. Using this technique it was possible to map four different mineral classes that are associated with mine generated acid waste.

McCubbin, Ian; Lang, Harold

2000-01-01

73

Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.  

PubMed

Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports. PMID:22002748

Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

2011-11-01

74

Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to neurodevelopment, there is less information regarding the consequences of modest degrees of thyroid. The impact of low level TH disruptions induced by environmental contaminants has not been defined. This paper is a synopsis from four invited speakers who presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association meeting held in Xi'an, China during the summer of 2011. An overview of the role of TH in brain development and a review of human and animal data on the neurological sequelae of disruption of the thyroid axis in the pre- and early post-natal periods were presented by Mary Gilbert and Joanne Rovet. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of TH insufficiency and mental retardation in many countries, including China, was addressed by Zupei Chen. In this presentation the current incidence of iodine deficiency and neurological outcome in China and the efficacy of recently implemented iodinization programs to eliminate this cause of mental retardation were reviewed. Joanne Rovet described the impact of TH disruption during pregnancy and under conditions of congenital hypothyroidism. Children born with normal thyroid function, but who experienced TH insufficiency in the womb, display subtle cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain imaging. Despite early detection and treatment, deficiencies also exist in children born with thyroid disorders. Different patterns of cognitive effects result from prenatal versus postnatal TH insufficiency. Mary Gilbert reported on the effects of environmental contaminants with thyroid disrupting action on brain development in animals. Results of neurophysiological, behavioral, structural and molecular alterations that accompany modest perturbations of the thyroid axis were reviewed. Noriyuki Koibuchi described molecular targets of TH-mediated signalling accompanying exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are prevalent environmental contaminants that disrupt TH signalling at the receptor level. This action by these chemical classes could contribute to the negative impact of these chemicals on brain function. In summary, epidemiological, preclinical and animal research has clearly identified the critical role of TH in brain development. Additional work is required to understand the impact of low level perturbations of the thyroid axis to evaluate the risk associated with environmental contaminants with thyroid action. PMID:22138353

Gilbert, Mary E; Rovet, Joanne; Chen, Zupei; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

2012-08-01

75

Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

Moody, R P; Chu, I

1995-01-01

76

Nanomaterials in Environmental Contamination, Their Nanotoxicological Peculiarities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-nanothreat arises from a lack of knowledge about new states of matter (spheroidal molecules of carbon, nanostructures, nanoparticles and nanophases). Newly discovered nanomaterials are likely to have different behavior and properties than their predecessors. New approaches for creating nanotechnologies are developed by using nanomaterials. Nanotechnology is considered as a panacea for resolving global problems that may affect the duration and quality of life. However, progress in technology historically leads to positive and negative consequences, thus the same can be expected from nanotechnology. Several un-researched threats may arise from uncontrolled development of nanotechnology. Some scientists foresee nanotechnological and nanodemocratic threats connected to possible undesirable self-replication of different nanosystems, and uncontrolled application of cheap ubiquitous personal nanosensors for permanent surveillance of individuals. In addition, little research is aimed to study how nanomaterials may attribute to environmental contamination. Finally, the influence of nanoparticles and nanostructures on the human organism may also be threatening in certain circumstances.

Kharlamova, G.; Kirillova, N.

77

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues, 2008 Review  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2006-2007. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2008 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

78

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

79

Advancing passive sampling of contaminants in environmental science  

E-print Network

Advancing passive sampling of contaminants in environmental science Philipp Mayer,a Frank Waniab of legacy contaminants. Most of the presented methods were operated in the kinetic uptake regime contaminants including POCIS, Chemcatcher and o- DGT. The understanding of uptake kinetics and sorption

Mosegaard, Klaus

80

Civil and Environmental Engineering CSU Center for Contaminant Hydrology  

E-print Network

Civil and Environmental Engineering CSU ­ Center for Contaminant Hydrology Coordinator The Center for Contaminant Hydrology (CCH) ( HYPERLINK "http://www.engr.colostate.edu/CCH/" www.engr.colostate.edu/CCH/) in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Colorado State University (CSU) has an opening

81

Congenital Malformations and Birthweight in Areas with Potential Environmental Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern exists about the potential for reproductive damage that may result from exposures to environmental contaminants. Therefore, the authors sought to determine if there was an association between a child's congenital malformation or a child's lowered weight at birth and his or her mother's residence in a census tract where a site of environmental contamination had been documented. Exposure

Gary M. Shaw; Jane Schulman; Jonathan D. Frisch; Susan K. Cummins; John A. Harris

1992-01-01

82

Congenital malformations and birthweight in areas with potential environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern exists about the potential for reproductive damage that may result from exposures to environmental contaminants. Therefore, the authors sought to determine if there was an association between a child's congenital malformation or a child's lowered weight at birth and his or her mother's residence in a census tract where a site of environmental contamination had been documented. Exposure

G. M. Shaw; J. Schulman; J. D. Frisch; J. A. Harris; S. K. Cummins

2009-01-01

83

Effect of environmental contaminants on Beta cell function.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern that chemicals in the environment are contributing to the global rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is limited evidence for direct effects of these chemicals on beta cell function. Therefore, the goals of this study were (1) to test the hypothesis that environmental contaminants can directly affect beta cell function and (2) examine mechanistic pathways by which these contaminants could affect beta cell function. Using mouse beta TC-6 cells, we examined the acute effects of 6 substances (benzo[a]pyrene, bisphenol A [BPA], propylparaben, methylparaben, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctyl sulfone) on insulin secretion. Only BPA treatment directly affected insulin secretion. Furthermore, chronic exposure to BPA altered the expression of key proteins in the cellular and endoplasmic reticulum stress response. These data suggest that long-term BPA exposure may be detrimental to beta cell function and ultimately be an important contributor to the etiology of T2D. PMID:21705745

Makaji, Emilija; Raha, Sandeep; Wade, Michael G; Holloway, Alison C

2011-08-01

84

Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils.  

PubMed

Estonia is currently one of the leading producers of shale oils in the world. Increased production, transportation and use of shale oils entail risks of environmental contamination. This paper studies the behaviour of two shale fuel oils (SFOs)--'VKG D' and 'VKG sweet'--in different soil matrices under natural climatic conditions. Dynamics of SFOs' hydrocarbons (C10-C40), 16 PAHs, and a number of soil heterotrophic bacteria in oil-spiked soils was investigated during the long-term (1 year) outdoor experiment. In parallel, toxicity of aqueous leachates of oil-spiked soils to aquatic organisms (crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri) and terrestrial plants (Sinapis alba and Hordeum vulgare) was evaluated. Our data showed that in temperate climate conditions, the degradation of SFOs in the oil-contaminated soils was very slow: after 1 year of treatment, the decrease of total hydrocarbons' content in the soil did not exceed 25 %. In spite of the comparable chemical composition of the two studied SFOs, the VKG sweet posed higher hazard to the environment than the heavier fraction (VKG D) due to its higher mobility in the soil as well as higher toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species. Our study demonstrated that the correlation between chemical parameters (such as total hydrocarbons or total PAHs) widely used for the evaluation of the soil pollution levels and corresponding toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms was weak. PMID:24865504

Kanarbik, Liina; Blinova, Irina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

2014-10-01

85

Appendix G. Chemicals Annual Site Environmental Report  

E-print Network

Appendix G. Chemicals #12;Annual Site Environmental Report Appendix G. Chemicals G-3 Appendix G. Chemicals This appendix presents basic facts about chemicals. The information is intended to be a basis Reservation (ORR), not a comprehensive discussion of chemicals and their effects on the environment

Pennycook, Steve

86

Environmental Response Team Standard Operating Procedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations  

E-print Network

Environmental Response Team Standard Operating Procedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations Environmental Response Team Standard OperatingEnvironmental Response Team Standard Operating Procedures for Contaminated Water Diving OperationsProcedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations AAUS March 2010 Meeting

Sura, Philip

87

Characterization of chemical waste site contamination and its extent using bioassays  

SciTech Connect

Bioassays were used in a three-phase research project to assess the comparative sensitivity of test organisms to known chemicals, determine if the chemical components in field soil and water samples containing unknown contaminants could be inferred from our laboratory studies using known chemicals, and to investigate kriging (a relatively new statistical mapping technique) and bioassays as methods to define the areal extent of chemical contamination. The algal assay generally was most sensitive to samples of pure chemicals, soil elutriates and water from eight sites with known chemical contamination. Bioassays of nine samples of unknown chemical composition from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) site showed that a lettuce seed soil contact phytoassay was most sensitive. In general, our bioassays can be used to broadly identify toxic components of contaminated soil. Nearly pure compounds of insecticides and herbicides were less toxic in the sensitive bioassays than were the counterpart commercial formulations. This finding indicates that chemical analysis alone may fail to correctly rate the severity of environmental toxicity. Finally, we used the lettuce seed phytoassay and kriging techniques in a field study at RMA to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping contamination to aid in cleanup decisions. 25 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

Thomas, J.M.; Callahan, C.A.; Cline, J.F.; Greene, J.C.; McShane, M.C.; Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

1984-12-01

88

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

89

LEVELS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a compilation of information on chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution and found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents. Listed in tabular form for each of approximately 100 elements or compounds are: the tissue the compound was found in;...

90

Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for young coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel). The report provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian subacute dietary toxicity tests and is primarily intended for use in ranking toxicities by a standard method that has a reasonable degree of environmental relevance. Findings are presented in two parts: Part I is a critique of selected drugs that includes discussion of subacute toxicity in relation to chemical class and structure, pesticide formulation, and age of animals; Part II is a summary of toxicologic findings for each test substance and provides a statistically basis for comparing toxicities. Data presented include the median lethal concentration (LC50), slope of the probit regression curve (dose-response curve), response chronology, and food consumption. We observed that: 1) fewer than 15% of the compounds were classed 'very' or 'highly' toxic (i.e, LC50 < 200 ppm) and all of these were either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, or organometallics; 2) subacute toxicity may vary widely among structurally similar chemicals and between different formulations of the same chemical; therefore, conclusions about lethal hazard must be made cautiously until the actual formulation of inset has been tested: 3) inclusion of a general standard in each battery of tests is useful for detection of atypical trials and monitoring population changes but should not be used indiscriminantly for adjusting LC50's for intertest differences unless the chemicals of concern and the standard elicit their toxicities through the same action; 4) although other species have been tested effectively under the subacute protocol, coturnix were ideal for the stated purpose of this research because they are inexpensive, well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and yield good intertest reproducibility of response.

Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.

1986-01-01

91

Quantitative determination of emerging contaminants, solvent stabilizers and fullerene nanomaterials, in biological and environmental systems.  

E-print Network

??To determine the impact of emerging environmental contaminants on human and environmental health, quantitative analytical methods are required. Analysis of emerging contaminants is hampered by… (more)

Isaacson, Carl W.

2007-01-01

92

Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site.

Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

1995-07-01

93

HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS. Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA. Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

94

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

2000-01-01

95

CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews the manner in which chemical contaminants found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents enter the environment and subsequently human tissue. Approximately 100 contaminants are treated. Sources of literature used in the survey covered a 30-year period, the b...

96

Chemical contaminants in the Wadden Sea: Sources, transport, fate and effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wadden Sea receives contaminants from various sources and via various transport routes. The contaminants described in this overview are various metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) and various organic contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane, ?-HCH)). In addition, information is presented about other and emerging contaminants such as antifouling biocides (e.g. TBT and Irgarol), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). Special attention is given to biogeochemical processes that contribute to the mobilization of contaminants in the surface sediments of the Wadden Sea. Finally, the effects on organisms of contaminants are reviewed and discussed. The main source of contaminants in the Wadden Sea are the rivers Rhine (via de Dutch coastal zone), Elbe and Weser. The Wadden Sea is not a sink for contaminants and adsorbed contaminants are transported from east to west. The surface sediments of the Wadden Sea are an important source for contaminants to the water above. The input and concentration of most contaminants have significantly decreased in water, sediments, organisms (e.g., mussel, flounder and bird eggs) in various parts of the Wadden Sea in the last three decades. Remarkably, the Cd concentration in mussels is increasing the last decades. In recent decades, the effects of contaminants on organisms (e.g., flounder, seal) have fallen markedly. Most of the affected populations have recovered, except for TBT induced effects in snails. Little is known about the concentration and effects of most emerging contaminants and the complex environmental mixtures of contaminants. It is recommended to install an international coordinated monitoring programme for contaminants and their effects in the whole Wadden Sea and to identify the chemical contaminants that really cause the effect.

Laane, R. W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. D.; Gandrass, J.; Vorkamp, K.; Köhler, A.; Larsen, M. M.; Strand, J.

2013-09-01

97

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

98

High Throughput Screening For Hazard and Risk of Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

High throughput toxicity testing provides detailed mechanistic information on the concentration response of environmental contaminants in numerous potential toxicity pathways. High throughput screening (HTS) has several key advantages: (1) expense orders of magnitude less than an...

99

Project Overview: PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The human health and ecological assessment issues related to environmental contamination by perchlorate are complex and continue to emerge. Perchlorate, ClO4-, is an anion that originates as a contaminant from the solid salts of ammonium, potassium or sodium perchlorate. These ...

100

THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING NEUROTOXIC RISK FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

101

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the

Jill M. Larson; William H. Karasov; Louis Sileo; Kenneth L. Stromborg; J. P. Giesy; P. D. Jones; D. E. Tillitt; D. A. Verbrugge; B. A. Hanbidge

1996-01-01

102

Robotic automation of the environmental chemical laboratory  

SciTech Connect

To date, automation of the environmental chemical laboratory has been a slow and tedious affair. In many, of our domestic analytical laboratories, automation consists of no more than analytical instrumentation coupled to an autosampling device. When we look into the future environmental needs of our nation, and indeed the world, it is apparent that we will not be able to keep up with the drastically increasing sample load without automated analyses. Stricter regulatory requirements on the horizon will potentially mandate staggering changes in sampling and characterization requirements. The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program was initiated in 1990 by the US government`s Department of Energy (DOE) to address these issues. By application of a new robotics paradigm, based on an integrated production chemistry foundation applied to analytical chemistry, the CAA will use standardized modular instruments called Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to provide flexible and standardized automation systems. By promoting the commercialization of this technology, CAA will provide the integrated robotics systems necessary to meet the coming remediation demands. This multilaboratory program is within the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) of the Office of Technology Development (OTD).

Hollen, R.M.; Erkkila, T.H.

1994-04-01

103

Uptake of chemicals through the skin could be significant for some of the contaminants listed under the Air Toxics \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermal absorption will generally provide less exposure to airborne toxicants than inhalation exposure or eating or drinking substances that have been contaminated by airborne chemicals. The risk from dermal exposure in the environmental setting from airborne toxicants will be a small fraction of the risk from inhalation exposure or exposure via ingestion of contaminated crops, soil, breast milk and so

104

Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

105

Pesticides, Metals, Chemical Contaminants & Natural Toxins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is maintained by the U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Information in this site includes FDA food consumption warnings and advisories related to the presence of contaminants in various foods. Some information about toxicology is also available in this site.

2007-02-27

106

Thyroid disruption in walleye ( Sander vitreus) exposed to environmental contaminants: Cloning and use of iodothyronine deiodinases as molecular biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormones play a role in the initiation of ovarian maturation in fish. Thus, reports of delayed sexual maturation in female walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to contaminants in the Ottawa River suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of environmental contaminants in the Ottawa River on thyroid hormones of immature

Michelle Picard-Aitken; Henri Fournier; Richard Pariseau; David J. Marcogliese; Daniel G. Cyr

2007-01-01

107

Bacteria and Emerging Chemical Contaminants in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Since the enactment of the Clean Water Act in 1972, awareness of the quality of the Nation's water has continued to improve. Despite improvements to wastewater-treatment systems and increased regulation on waste discharge, bacterial and chemical contamination is still a problem for many rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Pathogenic microorganism and newly recognized chemical contaminants have been found in waters that are used for drinking water and recreation (Rose and Grimes, 2001; Kolpin and others, 2002). This summary of bacteria and emerging-chemical-contaminant monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin (fig. 1) was initiated by the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (LSCRMP) in 2003, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Counties of Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Fogarty, Lisa R.

2007-01-01

108

Environmental Contaminants and Human Infertility: Hypothesis or Cause for Concern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the crude human birth rate (live births per 1000 population) declined, indicating reduced fertility and suggesting a potential decline in fecundity (the potential to conceive). Detection of environmental contaminants in human tissues, together with reports of a global decline in semen quality, further fueled speculation that human infertility rates are increasing and environmental toxicants are

Warren G. Foster; Michael S. Neal; Myoung-Soek Han; Miguel M. Dominguez

2008-01-01

109

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial Review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 20102011. Analytical Chemistry?s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Ev...

110

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells. Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:21706039

Mathur, Premendu Prakash; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia

2011-01-01

111

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function.  

PubMed

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells. Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:21706039

Mathur, Premendu Prakash; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia

2011-07-01

112

Assimilation efficiencies of chemical contaminants in aquatic invertebrates: A synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Assimilation efficiencies of contaminants from ingested food are critical for understanding chemical accumulation and trophic transfer in aquatic invertebrates. Assimilation efficiency is a first-order physiological parameter that can be used to systematically compare the bioavailability of different contaminants from different foods. The various techniques used to measure contaminant assimilation efficiencies are reviewed. Pulse-chase feeding techniques and the application of gamma-emitting radiotracers have been invaluable in measuring metal assimilation efficiencies in aquatic animals. Uniform radiolabeling of food is required to measure assimilation, but this can be difficult when sediments are the food source. Biological factors that influence contaminant assimilation include food quantity and quality, partitioning of contaminants in the food particles, and digestive physiology of the animals. Other factors influencing assimilation include the behavior of the chemical within the animal's gut and its associations with different geochemical fractions of food particles. Assimilation efficiency is a critical parameter to determine (and to make predictions of) bioaccumulation of chemicals from dietary exposure. Robust estimates of assimilation efficiency coupled with estimates of aqueous uptake can be used to determine the relative importance of aqueous and dietary exposures. For bioaccumulation of metals from sediments, additional studies are required to test whether metals bound to the acid-volatile sulfide fraction of sediments can be available to benthic deposit-feeding inverterbrates. Most assimilation efficiency studies have focused on chemical transfer in organisms at the bottom of the food chain; additional studies are required to examine chemical transfer at higher trophic levels.

Wang, W.X.; Fisher, N.S.

1999-09-01

113

Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.  

PubMed

Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

2011-01-01

114

Long Island Sound: Distributions, trends, and effects of chemical contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metals and organic contaminants concentrations are monitored annually in surface sediments, blue mussel tissue, and\\u000a winter flounder livers at multiple sites in Long Island Sound by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National\\u000a Status and Trends (NS&T) program for Marine Environmental Quality. The NS&T program is also conducting various studies on\\u000a the bioeffects of contaminants in the sound. Three years

Donna D. Turgeon; Thomas P. O’Connor

1991-01-01

115

Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents  

DOEpatents

A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

1999-01-01

116

Remote sensing of atmospheric chemical contamination  

SciTech Connect

Use of lidar sensor systems for atmospheric characterization is becoming an established technology. At ARL/PSU, the authors have developed and demonstrated several systems capable of measuring water vapor profiles, aerosol distribution and temperature profiles from ground level up through the troposphere. The authors are currently developing a prototype system which will go aboard a Navy ship to undergo sea tests during the next year, prior to full scale deployment This system will be used to predict radar system performance by providing real time computation of RF refractivity from profiles of temperature and water vapor for modeling of RF ducting conditions. They have examined the potential use of Raman scattering measurements to detect the spectra of several atmospheric pollution species and various chemical agents. A previous approach demonstrated for lidar measurements of atmospheric pollutants and chemical agents involved the use the SPR-DIAL technique with about sixty of the CO{sub 2} laser lines in the 10 {micro}m region of the spectrum. An evaluation of the current techniques available for remote sensing of chemical agents has been prepared. The active lidar combined with passive optical remote sensing techniques hold great promise as the basis of a mobile sensor system for measurement of pollution episodes and for remote detection of covert manufacture and employment of chemical warfare agents.

Philbrick, C.R.; Kurtz, P.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Applied Research Lab.

1995-12-31

117

Chemical disinfection of virus?contaminated surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical disinfection is widely practiced as a means of controlling and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although disinfection of bacteria has been widely studied, much less attention has been paid to the virucidal potential of commonly used disinfectants in spite of the low infective dose of many human pathogenic viruses. This review considers what is known about the disinfection

V. Susan Springthorpe M. Sc

1990-01-01

118

Assessment of environmental contaminant-induced lymphocyte dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Although it has been established that environmental contaminants can alter immune function, the mechanisms of action have yet to be determined. This paper reviews the effects of hydrocarbon environmental contaminants on lymphocyte function and presents an approach which may serve to delineate the mechanisms of action. The approach is based on the use of the developmental phases of an immune response and assays which can be used for their functional assessment. Possible interactions between environmental contaminants and lymphocyte function and factors which must be considered in the evaluation of immune status are discussed. In addition, a study on the influence of the chronic exposure to two polyhalogenated hydrocarbons, PCB and HCB, on several parameters of lymphocyte function in mice is presented. PMID:7016518

Silkworth, J B; Loose, L D

1981-01-01

119

The sea of environmental risk assessment: A navigational guide for hydrocarbon contamination  

SciTech Connect

Federal and many state regulations governing hydrocarbon-contaminated site remediation and closure require environmental risk assessment activities for developing remediation systems. and site closure strategies protective of human and ecological populations. Environmental risk assessment activities are normally foreign to many petroleum industry professionals. This paper is intended to provide those professionals with sufficient knowledge to achieve environmental risk assessment success. Classic environmental risk assessment process consists of data collection and evaluation, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment and risk characterization. These steps ultimately result in identifying what contaminants were released, evaluating which contaminants pose a threat to humans and ecosystems and quantifying how harmful each of the contaminants are to certain human and ecological populations. The physicochemical nature of hydrocarbons relevant to remediation is relevant to risk assessment. The facts that most hydrocarbons are not easily miscible in water, volatilize in the presence of air, readily sorb to clays and are actively bioremediated in the subsurface enable one to avoid risk assessment barriers often encountered with inorganic chemicals. The very unique way hydrocarbons behave in the environment should be used by the petroleum professional turned risk assessment/site closure manager to eliminate chemical exposure scenarios based on little more than organic chemistry. This technique allows petroleum industry professionals to use their realm of expertise to familiarize otherwise unknown waters.

Hippensteel, D.L. [Department of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-12-31

120

The sea of environmental risk assessment: A navigational guide for hydrocarbon contamination  

SciTech Connect

Federal and many state regulations governing hydrocarbon-contaminated site remediation and closure require environmental risk assessment activities for developing remediation systems. and site closure strategies protective of human and ecological populations. Environmental risk assessment activities are normally foreign to many petroleum industry professionals. This paper is intended to provide those professionals with sufficient knowledge to achieve environmental risk assessment success. Classic environmental risk assessment process consists of data collection and evaluation, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment and risk characterization. These steps ultimately result in identifying what contaminants were released, evaluating which contaminants pose a threat to humans and ecosystems and quantifying how harmful each of the contaminants are to certain human and ecological populations. The physicochemical nature of hydrocarbons relevant to remediation is relevant to risk assessment. The facts that most hydrocarbons are not easily miscible in water, volatilize in the presence of air, readily sorb to clays and are actively bioremediated in the subsurface enable one to avoid risk assessment barriers often encountered with inorganic chemicals. The very unique way hydrocarbons behave in the environment should be used by the petroleum professional turned risk assessment/site closure manager to eliminate chemical exposure scenarios based on little more than organic chemistry. This technique allows petroleum industry professionals to use their realm of expertise to familiarize otherwise unknown waters.

Hippensteel, D.L. (Department of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States))

1996-01-01

121

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bald Eagle eggs (1968-84) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury. DDE declined in WI, ME and the Chesapeake Bay. DDE was most closely related to shell thickness and reproduction at sampled breeding areas. Sixteen ppm DDE (wet weight) was associated with 15% shell thinning. Reproduction was normal when eggs at sampled breeding areas contained <3.6 ppm DDE; success was nearly halved between 3.6 and 6.3 ppm and halved again when concentrations exceeded 6.3 ppm. Other contaminants were associated with poor reproduction and eggshell thinning; however, their impact appeared secondary to that of DDE.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Bunck, C.M.; Stafford, C.J.

1991-01-01

122

Exposure of zebrafish to brominated environmental chemicals.  

E-print Network

??Fish reproduction and embryonic development may be sensitive to environmental chemicals. This thesis investigated effects of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) on… (more)

Norman Haldén, Anna

2010-01-01

123

HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2011-01-01

124

The toll of toxics: Investigating environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On Earth Day of this year, the British Petroleum-operated Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, 41 miles off the Louisiana coast. The blast killed 11 workers, injured 17, launched a massive oil spill, and triggered an environmental catastrophe—the full impact of which may not be realized for years.

Sparling, Donald W.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Barclay, John S.

2010-01-01

125

Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was evaluated in (i) artificially spiked sand with HCH isomers (?, ?, ? and ?) and (ii) contaminated soil sampled from a former gravel pit backfilled with wastes of lindane (?-HCH). Following oxidation treatments were employed: hydrogen peroxide alone (HP), hydrogen peroxide with soluble Fe(II) (Fenton-F), sodium persulfate alone (PS), Fe(II) activated persulfate (AP) and permanganate (PM). GC-MS results revealed a significant degradation of all isomers in spiked soil in the order: F>PS>AP>HP>PM. Soluble Fe(II) enhanced the efficiency of H2O2 but decreased the reactivity of persulfate. Similar trend was observed in contaminated soil, but with less degradation probably caused by scavenging effect of organic matter and soil minerals and/or pollutant unavailability. No significant increase in oxidation efficiency was observed after using availability-enhancement agents in contaminated soil. Other limitation factors (oxidant dose, pH, catalyst type etc.) were also addressed. Among all the isomers tested, ?-HCH was the most recalcitrant one which could be explained by higher metabolic and chemical stability. No by-products were observed by GC-MS regardless of the oxidant used. For being the premier study reporting chemical oxidation of HCH isomers in contaminated soils, it will serve as a base for in-situ treatments of sites contaminated by HCH isomers and other persistent organic pollutants. PMID:24486498

Usman, M; Tascone, O; Faure, P; Hanna, K

2014-04-01

126

Which coastal and marine environmental contaminants are truly emerging?  

PubMed

To better understand the past and present impact of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal and marine ecosystems, archived samples were analyzed for a broad suite of analytes, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), flame retardants (including PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and current-use pesticides. Surface sediment, mussels (Mytilus spp.) and sediment core samples collected from the California (USA) coast were obtained from environmental specimen banks. Selected CECs were detected in recent surface sediments, with nonylphenol (4-NP), its mono- and di-ethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO), triclocarban, and pyrethroid insecticides in the greatest abundance. Alkylphenols, triclocarban, and triclosan were present in sediment core segments from the 1970s, as well as in Mytilus tissue collected during the 1990s. Increasing concentrations of some CECs (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) were observed in the surface layers (ca. 2007) of a sediment core, in contrast to peak concentrations of 4-NP and triclocarban corresponding to input during the 1970s, and an apparent peak input for PBDEs during the 1990s. These results suggest that chemicals sometimes referred to as "emerging" (e.g., alkylphenols, triclocarban) have been present in the aquatic environment for several decades and are decreasing in concentration, whereas others (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) are increasing. PMID:24743956

Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Tang, Chi-Li; Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David

2014-04-18

127

Environmental contaminant studies by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of the effects of environmental contaminants on wildlife is geared to interpreting events in the field, especially population effects, and both field and laboratory studies are planned for this purpose; procedures are adapted to specific problems and therefore do not include strict protocols or routine testing. Field evaluations include measurements of cholinesterase inhibition in brain or blood, search for dead or disabled animals, study of nesting success of birds, and general ecological observations. Residue analyses are used in evaluating organochlorine chemicals; samples may include whole bodies for determining level of exposure, brains for mortality diagnosis, whole blood for certain special studies, and eggs to help in evaluation of possible reproductive effects. Bird counts, singing-male census counts, small mamrnal trapping, and cage-in-field tests have proven to be ineffective or misleading and are not considered suitable for field evaluations under most circumstances. Usefulness of simulated field trials is limited to very special situations. Experimental studies that help predict and interpret field effects include determinations of lethal diagnostic levels, comparative lethal dietary toxicity tests, tests of secondary poisoning measurement of residue loss rates, measurement of blood enzymes, tests of behavioral effects, and studies of reproductive effects.

Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.

1979-01-01

128

USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.

Dr. William D. Bostick

2003-05-01

129

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

Grande, which also had lower levels of DDE (Mora et al. 2006). The use of industrial flame retardants manufactured as flame retardants for use in such products as upholstery, circuit boards, foams, and rubber%, respectively, of industrial production (Darnerud 2003). These flame retardant chemicals are known to accumulate

Mora, Miguel A.

130

Multi-residue analysis of 80 environmental contaminants in honeys, honeybees and pollens by one extraction procedure followed by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the factors that may explain nowadays honeybees’ colonies losses is the increasing presence of chemicals in the environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a global view of the presence of environmental contaminants in beehives and, develop a fast, cheap and sensitive tool to analyze environmental contaminants in apiarian matrices. A multi residue analysis was developed

Laure Wiest; Audrey Buleté; Barbara Giroud; Cédric Fratta; Sophie Amic; Olivier Lambert; Hervé Pouliquen; Carine Arnaudguilhem

2011-01-01

131

In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically

Gregory G. Miller; Leonard I. Sweet; Jean V. Adams; Geneva M. Omann; Dora R. Passino-Reader; Peter G. Meier

2002-01-01

132

Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

2012-01-01

133

Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-04-01

134

Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE`s Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

135

Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. ?15N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by 1‰ during metamorphosis, while ?13C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David; Wesner, Jeff S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Zuellig, Robert E.

2014-01-01

136

Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs.  

PubMed

Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. ?(15)N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by ? 1‰ during metamorphosis, while ?(13)C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to ? 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to ? 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages. PMID:25136925

Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wesner, Jeff S; Stricker, Craig A; Schmidt, Travis S; Zuellig, Robert E

2014-09-16

137

Long Island Sound: Distributions, trends, and effects of chemical contamination  

SciTech Connect

Trace metals and organic contaminants concentrations are monitored annually in surface sediments, blue mussel tissue, and winter flounder livers at multiple sites in Long Island Sound by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends (NS and T) program for Marine Environmental Quality. The NS and T program is also conducting various studies on the bioeffects of contaminants in the sound. Three years of monitoring results indicate organic and elemental contaminants concentrations in sediments and biota at sites in the western portion of the sound are high on a national scale. Possible decreasing trends in cadmium and chlordane in the second are suggested by the 1986-1988 data for their concentrations in mussels. A comparison between NS and T Mussel Watch results and those of the Environmental Protection Agency's Mussel Watch, conducted from 1976 through 1978, indicated a decadal increase in copper concentrations and a decrease in lead in the sound. Bioeffects studies in the sound have revealed responses in contamination only in localized zones where contaminant levels are very high.

Turgeon, D.D.; O'Connor, T.P. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD (United States))

1991-09-01

138

Environmental Contamination, Public Hygiene, and Human Health Concerns in the Third WorldThe Case Of Nigerian Environmentalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination is directly related to high morbidity and mortality rates in the Third World. This paper addresses environmental contamination exacerbated by environmental imperialism and international dumping of hazardous wastes in the Third World, specifically in Nigeria. Environmental hygiene, human health problems, and establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and its policy frameworks hitherto are presented. Furthermore, theoretical

Francis O. Adeola

1996-01-01

139

Chemical decontamination of NORM-contaminated processing equipment  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the application of chemical decontamination processes to the treatment of processing equipment from the oil and gas production industry, to reduce the activity of the equipment for the purpose of service, repair, or dramatically reduced disposal costs. The author discusses examples of lead 210 and polonium 210 contamination, as well as Radium 226 or 228 contamination, which can be found in greases and hydrocarbons, scales and oxides, is often in inaccessible areas, mixed with other corrosion products as well as the metal surface, and occurs in a variety of chemical forms. Using chemical blends which are registered, often non-toxic and non-corrosive, the author presents examples of decontamination activities which can often be brought off within equipment down times without disrupting other activities.

Zietlow, T.C. [CORPEX Technologies, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-12-31

140

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants  

E-print Network

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic, a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter for groundwater treatment inoculated with a microbial consortium

141

FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT DATA: A FORENSIC TOOL FOR EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have been conducted on behalf of the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify detection monitoring parameters for specific industries.1,2,3,4,5 One outcome of these studies was the evolution of an empirical multi-variant contaminant fingerprinting p...

142

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

143

Bioassay-directed chemical analysis in environmental research  

SciTech Connect

The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology bioassay directed chemical analysis to best describe this marriage of analytical chemistry and biology. The objective of this methodology is to identify key compounds in various types of air-pollutant samples. Once that task is completed, studies on metabolism, sources, environmental exposure and atmospheric chemistry can be undertaken. The principles and methodologies for bioassay directed chemical analysis are presented and illustrated in this paper. Most of this work has been directed toward the characterization of ambient air and diesel particulates, which are used as examples in this report to illustrate the analytical logic used for identifying the bio-active components of complex mixtures.

Schuetzle, D.; Lewtas, J.

1986-01-01

144

Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous type...

145

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, Len

1992-01-01

146

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Gale, R.W.; Lebo, J.A.; Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Cranor, W.L.

2000-01-01

147

DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING AN ELECTROSPRAY INTERFACE COMBINED WITH AN ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development, was interested in determining environmental contaminants using a commercial electrospray which is interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) to analyze contaminants of concern. ptimi...

148

A database for environmental contaminants in traditional foods in northern and arctic Canada: Development and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential health effects of environmental contaminants in traditional food has become a concern among northern communities because of the presence of environmental contaminants in the Arctic ecosystem. Exposure assessments are needed but they require comprehensive dietary information and contaminant data. Over the last 10 years, there has been considerable effort to monitor the level of contaminants in fish and

Hing Man Chan

1998-01-01

149

An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (?6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (?6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants. PMID:22692364

Lampa, Erik; Lind, Lars; Hermansson, Anna Bornefalk; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P Monica

2012-09-01

150

Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers.  

PubMed Central

Due to the use of a limited number of species and subchronic exposures, current ecological hazard assessment processes can underestimate the chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants resulting in adverse responses of sentinel species. Several incidences where sentinel species have responded to the effects of chronic exposure to ambient levels of environmental contaminants are discussed, including the development of neoplasia in fish, immunosuppression in marine mammals, pseudohermaphrodism in invertebrates, teratogenicity in amphibians, and aberrations in the sexual development of fish and reptiles. Biomarkers of chronic toxicity, including DNA mutations, alterations in specific protein and mRNA levels, and perturbations in metabolism, are presented. The incorporation of appropriate surrogate species and biomarkers of chronic toxicity into standard toxicity characterizations is proposed as a means of significantly refining the ecological hazard assessment process. PMID:9114278

LeBlanc, G A; Bain, L J

1997-01-01

151

Biological markers of environmental and ecological contamination: an overview  

SciTech Connect

An approach, using biomarkers (biological responses) for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment is described. Living organisms integrate exposure to contaminants in their environment and respond in some measurable and predictable way. Responses are observed at several levels of biological organization from the biomolecular level, where pollutants can cause damage to critical cellular macromolecules and elicit defensive strategies such as detoxication and repair mechanisms, to the organismal level, where severe disturbances are manifested as impairment in growth, reproduction, developmental abnormalities, or decreased survival. Biomarkers can provide not only evidence of exposure to a broad spectrum of anthropogenic chemicals, but also a temporally integrated measure of bioavailable contaminant levels. A suite of biomarkers are evaluated over time to determine the magnitude of the problem and possible consequences. Relationships between biomarker response and adverse ecological effects are determined from estimates of animal health and population structure.19 references.

Shugart, L.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S. (Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

1992-09-01

152

Environmental contamination of groundwater in the Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental problems of groundwater contamination in the Gaza Strip are summarized in this paper. The Gaza Strip is a very narrow and highly populated area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (360 km2). Human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources in the area, while the unconfined nature of some parts of the coastal main aquifer favors groundwater contamination. Recent investigations show contamination of the aquifer with organic substances from detergents, agrochemicals, sewage (cesspools), and waste degradation. These effects enhance each other because there is no recycling industry, sewage system, or any type of environmental protection management at present. Inorganic contamination results from overpumping, which increases the salinity of the groundwater. Seawater intrusion also increases the salinity of the groundwater that are used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Consequently, at present about 80 percent of the groundwater in the Gaza Strip is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Solutions are very urgently needed for these problems in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases.

Al-Agha, M. R.

1995-03-01

153

Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5 Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-09-18

154

Plant sentinels and molecular probes that monitor environmental munitions contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Plants accumulate TNT and similar compounds from soil. Their sessile nature requires that plants adapt to environmental changes by biochemical and molecular means. In principle, it is possible to develop a monitoring capability based on expression of any gene that is activated by specific environmental conditions. The authors have identified plant genes activated upon exposure to TNT. Partial gene sequences allow design of DNA probes that measure TNT-induced gene activity. These will be used to develop sensitive assays that monitor gene expression in plants growing in environments possibly contaminated with explosives.

Jackson, P.J.; DeWitt, J.G.; Hill, K.K.; Kuske, C.R.; Kim, D.Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Genomics and Structural Biology Group

1994-08-01

155

Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the lower Savannah River and on the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, and analyzed them for concentrations of organochlorine chemicals, aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and 13 elemental contaminants: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Residues of DDT (mainly as DDE),trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, Aroclor? 1260, mirex, and petroleum hydrocarbons were common in fish from the lower Savannah River, but concentrations were below those warranting environmental concern. In general, the concentrations of elemental contaminants also were low; however, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium concentrations were elevated in fish from river stations near the city of Savannah, and lead was elevated in samples from the National Wildlife Refuge. Contamination of the lower Savannah River by organic and elemental contaminants, as indicated by concentrations in fishes and fiddler crabs, did not appear to pose a hazard.

Winger, P.V.; Schultz, D.P.; Johnson, W.W.

1990-01-01

156

Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina.  

PubMed

Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the lower Savannah River and on the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, and analyzed them for concentrations of organochlorine chemicals, aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and 13 elemental contaminants: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Residues of DDT (mainly as DDE), trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, Aroclor 1260, mirex, and petroleum hydrocarbons were common in fish from the lower Savannah River, but concentrations were below those warranting environmental concern. In general, the concentrations of elemental contaminants also were low; however, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium concentrations were elevated in fish from river stations near the city of Savannah, and lead was elevated in samples from the National Wildlife Refuge. Contamination of the lower Savannah River by organic and elemental contaminants, as indicated by concentrations in fishes and fiddler crabs, did not appear to pose a hazard. PMID:2331144

Winger, P V; Schultz, D P; Johnson, W W

1990-01-01

157

Approaches to detecting immunotoxic effects of environmental contaminants in humans.  

PubMed Central

Experimental animal studies indicate that environmental contaminants can have adverse effects on several organs and tissues of the immune system. Such effects are known to lead to increased host susceptibility to microbial infections and to compromised immunosurveillance mechanisms normally instrumental in the elimination of neoplastic cells and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Evaluation of the potential risk environmental contaminants pose to the human immune system is currently accomplished via extrapolation of experimentally derived animal data to humans. Presently, this process requires that uncertainty factors such as interspecies differences and genetic variability be considered. Naturally, the process of risk assessment would be greatly facilitated if it were based on clinically relevant data derived from studying humans known to be exposed to environmental contaminants. However, the existing human data are scarce and often described as very limited in scope. To generate the much-needed human data we need to identify a set of clinically relevant immunologic end points that, when adequately standardized, can be incorporated easily into the design of prospective epidemiologic studies. PMID:11744506

Tryphonas, H

2001-01-01

158

Observations on environmental contamination in a microbiological laboratory.  

PubMed Central

Contamination of a laboratory environment with pathogenic or non-pathogenic micro-organisms may be relevant to safety of technicians and quality of technical performance. Two widely separated incidents in 1968 and 1974 initiated a study of aspects of the laboratory environment. Water-baths, water of syneresis and portions of salmonella cultures spurting out of the sterilizing flame were examined. The water of water-baths was shown to be contaminated from the fluid cultures incubated in them. This raised questions of potential cross-contamination and reporting of false positives. Water of syneresis was sometimes contaminated with salmonellas. A few quantitative counts were made. The range of counts varied between 16 salmonellas per ml. and 13,000,000 salmonellas per ml. Five hundred portions of salmonella cultures and 571 portions of Shigella sonnei cultures which had spurted from the sterilizing flame were examined. All these samples failed to grow salmonellas or shigellas. Precautions necessary to avoid environmental contamination are briefly discussed. PMID:1107415

Harvey, R. W.; Price, T. H.; Joynson, D. H.

1976-01-01

159

Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); thesemeshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit is eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype sorber device for simultaneous CO2 and trace contarninant removal and its attendant weight and energy savings.

Roychoudhury, S.; Perry, J.

2004-01-01

160

Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

1994-12-31

161

A multi-route exposure assessment of chemically contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

This report provides an example of how a single source of contamination could potentially contribute to all routes of exposure. A modeling approach was used to estimate multiple exposure routes in an attempt to assess the health significance of gasoline-contaminated drinking water supplies. This model consisted of a two-compartment, indoor air quality equation that calculates the contribution made by ambient and indoor air contaminated by a pollutant volatilized from drinking water to that pollutant's inhalation burden. In addition, the model uses the traditional equations for assessing a pollutant's oral and dermal burdens. Benzene, toluene and xylene were used as surrogates for gasoline contamination to determine the contribution of contaminated water to adult and child body burdens from indoor air, oral (drinking water and food) and dermal exposure routes. The contribution thus calculated for each chemical was compared to the EPA's Office of Drinking Water Health Advisories. In terms of acute exposure, the use of chemically contaminated water for showering purposes may generate vapor in the confined area of the bathroom at levels sufficient to cause or contribute to mucous tissue irritation, as commonly reported in affected homes. High temperatures and humidity may also contribute to these effects, especially in the bathroom. In terms of chronic exposure, the use of chemically contaminated water at EPA-recommended guideline amounts in an affected home may result in inhalation, oral and dermal exposures leading to cumulative doses exceeding adult and child total daily body burdens based on EPA's Health Advisories. Thus, this model indicates that the traditional standard/guidelines derivation processes should be reevaluated to consider the pollutant contribution from multiple routes of exposure. The New Jersey Departments of Health and Environmental Protection conducted a study in which concentrations of several pollutants including benzene in the breathing zone were measured during a 15-minute shower in homes with contaminated water. The findings suggest that the air quality model used in the present study may satisfactorily predict the airborne concentrations of pollutants in, at least, the bathroom after showering with contaminated water (Pearson rank correlation coefficient of 0.773 with p = 0.0012 for n = 14). The findings of the present study support the use of an adjustment factor for all exposure durations to account for exposures to other sources of the contaminant, i.e., urban, occupational, and food. A value of 20% seems appropriate based on the study's findings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3843508

Shehata, A T

1985-12-01

162

REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY ENHANCED COAGULATION, POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON, CHEMICAL SOFTENING, AND OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

163

Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

2014-04-01

164

A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

2013-11-01

165

Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed. PMID:23012541

Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

2012-01-01

166

NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is a new publication that will provide an ongoing assessment of the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. For this Report, an environmental chemical means a chemical compound or ...

167

REPORTING NEEDS FOR STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN HUMAN MILK  

E-print Network

REPORTING NEEDS FOR STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN HUMAN MILK Michael N. Bates School, USA Studies of environmental chemicals in human milk have been carried out in many coun- tries trends in exposure to chemicals, for research into the determinants of environmental chemicals in milk

California at Berkeley, University of

168

Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

169

Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

2009-01-01

170

Environmental contaminant–mixture effects on CNS development, plasticity, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants within the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon class have been shown to cross the placenta exposing the fetus to the contaminant body burden of the mother. Consequently, a gestational exposure to environmental contaminants may result in increased adverse health outcomes, possibly affecting cognitive performance. Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and 2,3,7,8, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are two prototypical environmental contaminants.

Deanna D Wormley; Aramandla Ramesh; Darryl B Hood

2004-01-01

171

Bioluminescent bacteria as indicators of chemical contamination of coastal waters.  

PubMed

The ratio of bioluminescent to total bacteria (bioluminescent ratio, BLR) as an indicator of a variety of types of anthropogenic contamination of estuarine ecosystems was evaluated through a series of laboratory and field studies. Laboratory studies indicated that the BLR of natural bacterioplankton communities was proportionally reduced in the presence of a number of contaminants including diesel fuel and saltmarsh sediments co-contaminated with mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Bioluminescent ratio inhibition was observed after short-term exposure to a contaminant suggesting a physiological rather than a population response of native microbial communities. Simulated eutrophication did not suppress the BLR. Field observations of the BLR were conducted weekly for a 2-yr period in the Skidaway River estuary, Georgia, USA. These observations revealed considerable seasonal variability associated with the BLR. Bioluminescent ratios were highest during the summer (25 +/- 15%), lower in the fall (6 +/- 5%) and spring (3 +/- 2%), and near zero during the winter. Although the BLR was not significantly correlated to salinity at a single site (Skidaway River estuary), the BLR was significantly correlated with salinity when sites within the same estuary system were compared (r2 = 0.93). Variation in BLR was not correlated to standard bacteriological indicators of water quality including total and fecal coliform bacteria. Comparison of the BLR from impacted and pristine estuarine sites during the fall suggested that anthropogenically impacted sites exhibited lower BLR than predicted from salinity versus BLR relationships developed in pristine systems. These observations suggest that the BLR could be used as a simple and reliable initial indicator of chemical contamination of estuarine systems resulting from human activity. PMID:15998855

Frischer, M E; Danforth, J M; Foy, T F; Juraske, R

2005-01-01

172

Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10% R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50% R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) cleaners chemical composition. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

Biegert, L. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.

2001-01-01

173

Levels of Environmental Contaminants in Human Follicular Fluid, Serum, and Seminal Plasma of Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have\\u000a explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore,\\u000a we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending\\u000a an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in

E. V. Younglai; W. G. Foster; E. G. Hughes; K. Trim; J. F. Jarrell

2002-01-01

174

Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

Hall, R.J.

1980-01-01

175

Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

2007-01-01

176

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ON FETAL TESTES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Fetal Testes Testosterone Production Lambright, CS , Wilson, VS , Furr, J, Wolf, CJ, Noriega, N, Gray, LE, Jr. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC Exposure of pregnant rodents to certain environmental chemicals during criti...

177

Non-breast milk feeding in developing countries: challenge from microbial and chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

Complementary foods based on cow's milk or gruels consumed by children in developing countries are often contaminated by bacteria during preparation, and ambient temperature rapidly increases microbial load. Thus infant formula or other weaning foods may cause diarrhea in young infants accounting for 25-33% of all deaths <5 years globally. Environmental chemicals such as metals (As, Pb, Cu) and nitrates can cause vomiting/diarrhea. Polychlorinated biphenyls derived from plastics, present in formula and/or breast milk, are endocrine disruptors (the potential threats are not fully quantifiable). The prevailing view is that benefits from breastfeeding outweigh potential risks. PMID:22699772

Weisstaub, Gerardo; Uauy, Ricardo

2012-01-01

178

Environmental Research 105 (2007) 156174 Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants in  

E-print Network

Environmental Research 105 (2007) 156­174 Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants, and levels of contamination covary with other environmental factors, such as freshwater inflow or sediment Concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary exist at levels that have been

179

Alterations in macrophage functions by environmental chemicals.  

PubMed Central

The establishment of infectious diseases is rarely entirely attributed to a single entity, but instead is the result of a primary stress and one or more secondary factors that interfere with homeostasis and the ability of the host to cope with the primary etiologic assault. Any environmental chemical that can suppress the normal functioning of the host's body defenses would be expected to increase the risk of the host to such diseases. Within the lung, the alveolar macrophages are the crucial elements responsible for defending the body against such airborne viable agents. The effects of inhaled gases and particulates on these defense cells are a major concern of the environmental health scientist since such chemicals have the capability of adversely affecting the integrity and functioning of these pulmonary defense cells. The objective of this report is to provide an overview that will improve our understanding of how a variety of environmental chemicals can alter the biochemical, physiological and immunological functioning of these cells. PMID:6376106

Gardner, D E

1984-01-01

180

Allergic contact sensitizing chemicals as environmental carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

Chemicals that were bioassayed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and that also produce allergic dermatitis (ACD) in humans were evaluated for their tumorigenic characteristics. The impetus for the study was that most contact sensitizers, i.e., those that produce ACD, and genotoxic carcinogens are chemically similar in that they are electrophilic, thereby producing adducts on macromolecules including protein and DNA. This similarity in chemical behavior suggests that many contact sensitizers might be environmental carcinogens. All of the published NTP bioassays by early 1996 that had both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies were included in this analysis. The NTP chemicals had been chosen for bioassay without regard to their ability to produce ACD. Of the 209 chemicals that were bioassayed, there were 36 (17%) that were known to be human contact sensitizers; about half of these were positive on tumor bioassays. The contact sensitizers differed from the NTP sample as a whole by having a proportionately larger number of nongenotoxic chemicals by the Ames Salmonella assay, presumably because more of them were selected on the basis of widespread usage rather than structural resemblance to known carcinogens. Compared to the nongenotoxic chemicals, the genotoxics were stronger carcinogens in that they had a higher incidence of positive tumor bioassays, with twice the number of organs in which tumors were induced. The nongenotoxic chemicals had a preference for tumor induction in parenchymal tissues in contrast to epithelial tissues. The contact sensitizers showed essentially the same characteristics as the whole NTP sample when stratified according to genotoxicity. Judging by the chemicals that were chosen primarily for their widespread use rather than for their structural resemblance to carcinogens, the addition of a test for contact sensitization to the Ames test as a screening tool would increase the tumorigenic detection efficiency by about 40% because of the nongenotoxic tumorigens. A ballpark estimate suggests that there could be several thousand contact sensitizers for humans in commercial use that are rodent tumorigens. Images Figure 1. PMID:9300923

Albert, R E

1997-01-01

181

USE OF CHEMICAL MANIPULATIONS TO ALTER CONTAMINANT BIOAVAILABILITY: SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A common method for determining whether contaminants in sediments represent an environmental risk is to perform toxicity tests. Toxicity tests indicate if contaminants in sediments are bioavailable and capable of causing adverse biological effects (e.g., mortality, reduced growt...

182

Dicofol (Kelthane) as an environmental contaminant: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dicofol is persistent in soil and on plants. No compelling evidence exists that dicofol breaks down or is metabolized to DDTr in nature. Dicofol does not accumulate in birds as rapidly as DDE, and it has reproductive effects that are less harmful than DDE. Fish, birds, and mammals are reproductively sensitive to dicofol products, but levels presently found in wildlife are below levels shown experimentally to cause significant harm. Eggs of fish-eating wild birds from citrus, cotton, and apple-growing areas should be analyzed for dicofol residues. Nest success of fish-eating birds in the most contaminated populations should be studied to evaluate the environmental effects of dicofol.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1990-01-01

183

Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10 % R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50 % R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on the chemical composition of TCA (1,1,1 trichloroethane) replacement solvents. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene-containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

Evans, K.; Biegert, L.; Olsen, B.; Weber, B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

184

A fugacity based multimedia environmental fate model of organic contaminants in Massachusetts Bay  

SciTech Connect

A new sewage outfall is being constructed in Massachusetts Bay as part of the pollution abatement program in Boston Harbor. Previous models of potential environmental impact from the new sewage outfall in Massachusetts Bay have either relied upon hydrodynamic transport models that assume conservative behavior of the contaminants or on non-quantitative conceptual models of non-conservative behavior. The authors have found that a more quantitative mass balance model is necessary to better predict contaminant exposure resulting from effluent discharge through the new outfall. Hence, the authors have developed a time-variant, multimedia environmental model of organic contaminants in the air, water, and sediment phases of Massachusetts Bay. This model is based on the fugacity approach developed by Donald Mackay and is a level 4 unsteady-state model that includes flows through the system. Advection, reaction, and intermedia transport processes are incorporated into the model as first order rate processes and parameters for the model include environmental parameters, physical-chemical properties, contaminant loading estimates from major sources, and transport parameters. The model was applied to several organic contaminants found in Massachusetts Bay water and sediment: naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, dieldrin, 4,4{prime}-DDT, and the polychlorinated biphenyl C16(153). Model output includes a steady-state bay-wide average of water and sediment concentrations, relative distribution of mass after one month at steady state, time to reach steady-state, and residence times. The calculated steady-state concentrations were compared to recent observed values. In addition, sensitivity analysis of the model was performed to indicate which model parameters are most sensitive to perturbation.

Keys, D.; Shea, D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1995-12-31

185

Alterations in steroidogenesis in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) exposed naturally and experimentally to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed Central

Many environmental contaminants alter the reproduction of animals by altering the development and function of the endocrine system. The ability of environmental contaminants to alter the endocrine system of alligators was studied both in a descriptive study in which juvenile alligators from a historically contaminated lake were compared to animals from a control lake and in an experimental study in which hatchling control alligators were exposed in ovo to several endocrine-disrupting standards and two modern-use herbicides. Endocrine status was assessed by examining plasma hormone concentrations, gonadal-adrenal mesonephros (GAM) aromatase activity, and gonadal histopathology. In the descriptive study, juvenile alligators from the contaminated lake had significantly lower plasma testosterone concentrations (29.2 pg/ml compared to 51.3 pg/ml), whereas plasma 17 beta-estradiol concentrations did not vary when compared to controls. GAM aromatase activity was significantly decreased n the alligators from the contaminated lake (7.6 pmol/g/hr compared to 11.4 pmol/g/hr). In the experimental study, the endocrine-disrupting standards had the expected effects. 17 beta-Estradiol and tamoxifen caused sex reversal from male to female, with a corresponding increase in aromatase activity. Vinclozolin had no apparent effect on male or female alligators. Among the herbicides tested, atrazine induced GAM aromatase activity in male hatchling alligators that was neither characteristic of males nor females, although testicular differentiation was not altered. Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid had no effect on the endocrine parameters that were measured. Together, these studies show that exposure to some environmental chemicals (such as atrazine) can alter steroidogenesis in alligators, but the endocrine alterations previously noted for Lake Apopka, Florida, alligators can not be fully explained by this mechanism. Images Figure 1. PMID:9222139

Crain, D A; Guillette, L J; Rooney, A A; Pickford, D B

1997-01-01

186

A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Furlong, E.T.

2004-01-01

187

Potential for portal detection of human chemical and biological contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The walk-through metal-detection portal is a paradigm of non-intrusive passenger screening in aviation security. Modern explosive detection portals based on this paradigm will soon appear in airports. This paper suggests that the airborne trace detection technology developed for that purpose can also be adapted to human chemical and biological contamination. The waste heat of the human body produces a rising warm-air sheath of 50-80 liters/sec known as the human thermal plume. Contained within this plume are hundreds of bioeffluents from perspiration and breath, and millions of skin flakes. Since early medicine, the airborne human scent was used in the diagnosis of disease. Recent examples also include toxicity and substance abuse, but this approach has never been quantified. The appearance of new bioeffluents or subtle changes in the steady-state may signal the onset of a chemical/biological attack. Portal sampling of the human thermal plume is suggested, followed by a pre-concentration step and the detection of the attacking agent or the early human response. The ability to detect nanogram levels of explosive trace contamination this way was already demonstrated. Key advantages of the portal approach are its rapidity and non-intrusiveness, and the advantage that it does not require the traditional bodily fluid or tissue sampling.

Settles, Gary S.; McGann, William J.

2001-08-01

188

Environmental Science and Pollution Research Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.  

E-print Network

by phthalates. --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript Number: Full Title: Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates. Article Type: Review Article Keywords: phthalates; DEHP; review; state-of-the-art Corresponding, Ph.D Regis Moilleron, Ph.D Order of Authors Secondary Information: Abstract: Introduction: Phthalate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

NONE

1996-10-01

190

Contaminant exposures in various environmental media: How can toxicity comparisons be made?  

SciTech Connect

Environmental protection is usually based upon guidelines or standards expressed as chemical values in environmental media such as air, sediment, soil, and water. The basis for such guidelines is laboratory toxicity test data, often time-dependent LC50 values (e.g., 96-h LC50s), where toxicity is expressed in terms of the concentration of chemical contaminant in the exposure medium. This preoccupation with exposure-based estimates of toxic dose has led to many difficulties when attempting to compare the relative toxicity of compounds between species and under various modifying conditions in the same medium. Furthermore, viable comparisons of toxic potencies between organisms inhabiting different environmental media has been all but impossible. This paper exploits the relationship between body residues and adverse biological effects to compare the effects of certain modifying factors (e.g., temperature) on expressed toxicity and toxic potency both within and between different species in one medium. As well, this approach is used to make comparisons of toxic potency between different species in different environmental media. Such comparisons are made by standardizing toxic responses to time-independent toxicity thresholds and using the critical body residue at the chosen biological response endpoint as the dose surrogate rather than the concentration of chemical in the exposure medium. Comparisons of exposure-based and organism residue-based toxicity between fish, and invertebrates in soil (earthworms) and sediment (amphipods) are presented. Recommendations to facilitate such comparisons are reviewed.

Lanno, R.P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology; McCarty, L.S. [L.S. McCarty Scientific Research and Consulting, Oakville, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

191

Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.  

PubMed

Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

2010-10-01

192

Assessment of doses and and environmental contamination from decommissioning of the  

E-print Network

Assessment of doses and and environmental contamination from decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø Assessment of doses and and environmentalAssessment of doses and and environmental contamination from decommissioning of thecontamination from decommissioning of the nuclear facilities

193

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental

R. L. Smith; Y. H. Schukken; A. K. Pradhan; J. M. Smith; R. H. Whitlock; J. S. Van Kessel; D. R. Wolfgang; Y. T. Grohn

2011-01-01

194

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.  

PubMed Central

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Changes in immune function were monitored over a 2 1/2-year period. The seals that were fed contaminated Baltic herring developed significantly higher body burdens of potentially immunotoxic organochlorines and displayed impaired immune responses as demonstrated by suppression of natural killer cell activity and specific T-cell responses. During a 2-week fasting experiment performed at the end of the feeding study, mobilization of organochlorines from the blubber did not lead to a strong increase of contaminant levels in the blood, and no enhancement of the existing immunosuppression was observed. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain affects immune function in harbour seals, whereas short-term fasting periods, which are normal for seals, do not seem to pose an additional risk. The seals of this study were not exposed perinatally to high levels of environmental chemicals, and body burdens of organochlorines measured near the end of the study were lower than those generally observed in free-ranging seals inhabiting many contaminated regions. Therefore, it may be expected that environmental contaminants adversely affect immune function of free-ranging seals inhabiting contaminated regions at least as seriously as observed in these studies. PMID:8880005

de Swart, R L; Ross, P S; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D

1996-01-01

195

Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.  

PubMed

Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed. PMID:16195213

Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

2005-12-01

196

New trends in the analytical determination of emerging contaminants and their transformation products in environmental waters.  

PubMed

Since the so-called emerging contaminants were established as a new group of pollutants of environmental concern, a great effort has been devoted to the knowledge of their distribution, fate and effects in the environment. After more than 20 years of work, a significant improvement in knowledge about these contaminants has been achieved, but there is still a large gap of information on the growing number of new potential contaminants that are appearing and especially of their unpredictable transformation products. Although the environmental problem arising from emerging contaminants must be addressed from an interdisciplinary point of view, it is obvious that analytical chemistry plays an important role as the first step of the study, as it allows establishing the presence of chemicals in the environment, estimate their concentration levels, identify sources and determine their degradation pathways. These tasks involve serious difficulties requiring different analytical solutions adjusted to purpose. Thus, the complexity of the matrices requires highly selective analytical methods; the large number and variety of compounds potentially present in the samples demands the application of wide scope methods; the low concentrations at which these contaminants are present in the samples require a high detection sensitivity, and high demands on the confirmation and high structural information are needed for the characterisation of unknowns. New developments on analytical instrumentation have been applied to solve these difficulties. Furthermore and not less important has been the development of new specific software packages intended for data acquisition and, in particular, for post-run analysis. Thus, the use of sophisticated software tools has allowed successful screening analysis, determining several hundreds of analytes, and assisted in the structural elucidation of unknown compounds in a timely manner. PMID:23456948

Agüera, Ana; Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2013-06-01

197

Chemical aspects of incorporating contaminated soil into cold-mix asphalt  

SciTech Connect

The chemical aspects associated with the incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons- and metals-affected soil has been extensively studied in regards to pavement properties, leaching behavior, sensitivities to moisture-damage and function group analysis. These studies provide information that can be used to evaluate the stability of these constituents in soil that have been incorporated as an ingredient in asphalt. These studies also indicate that cold-mix asphalt incorporating contaminated soil will be highly stable and perform adequately as an end product. Maximum chemical performance is achieved when the asphalt is comprised of high contents of pyridinic, phenolic and ketone groups, which can be achieved by selectively choosing the source material. If the situation requires special stability or redundancy, small amounts of shale oil and lime can be used as additives. Situations and conditions which favor the presence of inorganic sulfur, monovalent salts and high strength solutions in the asphalt should be avoided since these conditions decrease the chemical stability of the asphalt cement by disruption of the functional group-aggregate bonds and by increasing the overall permeability. However, these conditions are not typically expected in the anticipated uses of asphalt cement to stabilize contaminants in soil using Environmentally Processed Asphalt{trademark} (EPA{trademark}) or Asphaltic Metals Stabilization{trademark} (AMS{trademark}) remedial technologies.

Testa, S.M. [Applied Environmental Services, Inc., San Juan Capistrano, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

198

Appendix F. Chemicals Annual Site Environmental Report--2011  

E-print Network

Appendix F. Chemicals #12;#12;Annual Site Environmental Report--2011 Appendix F. Chemicals F-3 Appendix F. Chemicals This appendix presents basic facts about chemicals. The information is intended the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), not a comprehensive discussion of chemicals and their effects

Pennycook, Steve

199

Cumulative Index to Chemicals and to Common and Scientific Names of Species Listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) series synthesizes ecotoxicological data of selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998 a total of 34 reviews were published in various Reports series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), herbicides (acrolein, atrazine), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), predacides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol), veterinary chemicals (famphur), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, mining wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced by contaminant and corresponding page numbers. A similar index is shown for chemicals.

Eisler, R.

1999-01-01

200

Estimating Environmental Exposures to Indoor Contaminants using Residential-Dust Samples.  

E-print Network

??Using data from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) and the Fresno Exposure Study this dissertation shows that concentrations of chemical contaminants in residential-dust… (more)

Whitehead, Todd Patrick

2011-01-01

201

Environmental contaminants: Is male reproductive health at risk?  

PubMed

Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies. PMID:22332111

Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

2011-10-01

202

Chemical and Flowfield Modeling for Enhanced Analysis of Contamination Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of a new Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code, the Molecular Beam Simulator (MBS), which is designed to analyze laboratory scale molecular beam-surface (and crossed-beam) experiments. The MBS is primarily intended to model experiments associated with spacecraft contamination effects, but it can also be used to simulate a variety of surface chemistry and reactive flow measurements. The MBS code is fully three-dimensional, includes a wide-range of chemical processes, and can model one or multiple pulsed (non-steady) sources. As an example application of the MBS code, a fast, pulsed, oxygen atom-surface experiment which examines the chemistry behind erosion of graphite by oxygen atoms is analyzed. Unsteady DSMC simulations show that experimental observations of excited molecular states after the pulse has hit the surface are consistent with two distinct chemical mechanisms: a direct one where the excited molecules are formed on the surface, and a two-step mechanism where ground state molecules formed on the surface are collisionally excited after they leave the surface by trailing oxygen atoms in the pulse. Further DSMC calculations suggest experiments which can distinguish between these mechanisms.

Braunstein, Matthew; Finchum, Andy (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

203

Endocrine disruptor activity of multiple environmental food chain contaminants.  

PubMed

Industrial chemicals, antimicrobials, drugs and personal care products have been reported as global pollutants which enter the food chain. Some of them have also been classified as endocrine disruptors based on results of various studies employing a number of in vitro/vivo tests. The present study employed a mammalian reporter gene assay to assess the effects of known and emerging contaminants on estrogen nuclear receptor transactivation. Out of fifty-nine compounds assessed, estrogen receptor agonistic activity was observed for parabens( n = 3), UV filters (n = 6), phthalates (n = 4) and a metabolite, pyrethroids (n = 9) and their metabolites (n = 3). Two compounds were estrogen receptor antagonists while some of the agonists enhanced 17b-estradiol mediated response.This study reports five new compounds (pyrethroids and their metabolites) possessing estrogen agonist activity and highlights for the first time that pyrethroid metabolites are of particular concern showing much greater estrogenic activity than their parent compounds. PMID:25449125

Wielogórska, E; Elliott, C T; Danaher, M; Connolly, L

2015-02-01

204

SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first Report on 27 chemicals was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 20...

205

Relationships Between Environmental Factors and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination at Campbell Cove Beach  

E-print Network

contaminated with sewage. (Largier & Taggart 2006). filling sample bottles from ankle deep beach water of most animals, and are used to indicate fecal contamination in water and sediment (R T Noble el alRelationships Between Environmental Factors and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination at Campbell

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

206

Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated

P. H. Albers; L. Sileo; B. M. Mulhern

1986-01-01

207

Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental  

E-print Network

Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental effects presented extends these measurements to nonpristine condi- tions, including materials contaminated with sand and water. The relationship between reflectance and area coverage of the contaminant is reported and found

Salvaggio, Carl

208

Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

Wang, J.

2013-12-01

209

Effects of chemical contaminants on genetic diversity in natural populations: implications for biomonitoring and ecotoxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation of genetic diversity has emerged as one of the central issues in conservation biology. Although researchers in the areas of evolutionary biology, population management, and conservation biology routinely investigate genetic variability in natural populations, only a handful of studies have addressed the effects of chemical contamination on population genetics. Chemical contamination can cause population reduction by the effects

John W Bickham; Shabeg Sandhu; Paul D. N Hebert; Lounes Chikhi; Raghbir Athwal

2000-01-01

210

Some scientific judgments in the assessment of the risk of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of risk due to environmental contaminants depends, in part, on scientific data. When such data are incomplete, as is usually the case, assumptions based on scientific judgments are made to analyze the consequences. Specifically, when health related data needed to assess the risk posed by environmental contaminants are missing or incomplete, it becomes necessary to make assumptions using

Cothern

1989-01-01

211

Effectiveness of an antimicrobial polymer to decrease contamination of environmental surfaces in the clinical setting.  

PubMed

We performed a real-world, controlled intervention to investigate use of an antimicrobial surface polymer, MSDS Poly, on environmental contamination. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 18 (90%) of 20 observations in treated rooms and 19 (83%) of 23 observations in untreated rooms (P = .67). MSDS Poly had no significant effect on environmental contamination. PMID:25026625

Thom, Kerri A; Standiford, Harold C; Johnson, J Kristie; Hanna, Nader; Furuno, Jon P

2014-08-01

212

Feasibility of relating interferon production by wild voles to types of chemical contamination of their environment : Communication.  

PubMed

In the fall of 1980, a limited field sampling and laboratory analysis profect was undertaken to explore the feasibility of relating immunological responses of field mice (voles) living wild in an area of environmental concern to the level of chemical contamination of that area. The voles were collected in the vicinity of Love Canal by biological sampling teams already there to collect voles for other purposes.The project helped identify those areas of practical uncertainty that must be clarified before the rate of interferon production in voles can be considered as a possible indicator of chemical contamination. Two lines of research are proposed: developing optimumin vitro interferon bioassays systems for vole leukocytes; and characterizing the interferon production responses of voles following controlled exposures to selected carcinogens and other chemicals. PMID:24259144

Khan, A; Duvall, J; Santolucito, J

1984-03-01

213

Environmental effects of oilfield chemicals on composite  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a feasibility study of the effects of oilfield chemicals on composite materials. In this initial study only hydrochloric acid is considered. Initial attempts were made to test stressed specimens, but results were very poor. Subsequent testing was performed to determine how the composite material constituents reacted to the hydrochloric acid. The initial testing was performed on tubular specimens with axial and essentially hoop wound fibers of different materials with different resins. The specimens were loaded in bending to induce representative strains in the tubing. All specimens failed. The second tests consisted of only an environmental soak to determine the amount of mass uptake as well as the reduction in strength. The strength reduction results will be presented at a later time. Testing was performed on S-2 glass, carbon and Kevlar 49 as well as three different resins.

Sorem, R.M. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-12-31

214

Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.  

PubMed

Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. PMID:23998894

Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

2013-12-15

215

Integrated Proteomic Approaches for Understanding Toxicity of Environmental Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

To apply quantitative proteomic analysis to the evaluation of toxicity of environmental chemicals, we have developed an integrated proteomic technology platform. This platform has been applied to the analysis of the toxic effects and pathways of many important environmental chemi...

216

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

217

Quantitation of airborne chemical contamination of chemically amplified resists using radiochemical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many chemically amplified resists based on acid catalysis exhibit extreme sensitivity to trace quantities of airborne organic contaminants. This sensitivity is manifested as a rapid degradation in lithographic properties upon standing in clean room air. In this work we have studied the absorption of one such airborne contaminant, N-methylpyrollidone (NMP), by thin polymer films. NMP labeled with radioactive 14C was introduced at a concentration of 10 ppb into a stream of purified air, and the film of interest was immersed in that airstream for a predetermined time under controlled conditions. This method provides an ideal means for determining rates of NMP uptake, correlating resist lithographic performance with absorbed NMP content, and for examining the effects of film thickness and composition on rates of absorption.

Hinsberg, William D.; MacDonald, Scott A.; Clecak, Nicholas J.; Snyder, Clinton D.

1992-06-01

218

GEOPHYSICAL DETECTION OF HYDROCARBON AND ORGANIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unambiguous detection of hydrocarbon and organic contamination is the most difficult task for noninvasive geophysical methods at hazardous waste sites. The difficulty is two-fold: 1) the low level of geophysical contrast that these contaminants provide against the background soil and rock, and 2) the low level of contaminant concentration considered to be of regulatory concern. Yet, electrical and electromagnetic methods

Gary R. Olhoeft

219

ERK-dependent induction of TNF? expression by the environmental contaminant benzo(a)pyrene in primary human macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene (BP) are toxic environmental contaminants known to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?. The present study was designed in order to determine whether TNF?, another cytokine acting in inflammation, may also constitute a target for these chemicals. Both TNF? mRNA and TNF? secretion levels were found to be enhanced in human

Valérie Lecureur; Eric Le Ferrec; Monique N’diaye; Marc Le Vee; Claire Gardyn; David Gilot; Olivier Fardel

2005-01-01

220

In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: an experimental study.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of an experimental study testing a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaim arsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from several industrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenic through heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. The mean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soils collected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogical and organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form, distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenic trioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320-341] indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associated with amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slow release against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the most significant effect on its ability to retain arsenic. Based on this observation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatment solutions in an effort to promote the formation of insoluble arsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic. Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were used as the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in three sets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO(4); (2) FeSO(4) and KMnO(4); (3) FeSO(4), KMnO(4) and CaCO(3). The optimum treatment solutions for each soil were identified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching of treated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311 [USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992] toxic characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and EPA Method 1312 [USEPA. Method 1312: synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994] synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP). Both FW and BH soils showed significant decreases in arsenic leachability for all three treatment solutions, compared to untreated soil. While soils treated with solution (3) showed the best results with subsequent TCLP sequential leaching, SPLP sequential leaching of treated soils indicated that lowest arsenic mobility was obtained using treatment solution (1). Treatment solution (1) with only FeSO(4) is considered the best choice for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil because SPLP sequential leaching better simulates natural weathering. Analysis of treated soils produced no evidence of newly-formed arsenic-bearing phases in either soil after treatment. Sequential chemical extractions of treated soils indicate that surface complexation of arsenic on ferric hydroxide is the major mechanism for the fixation process. PMID:17673278

Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J; Redwine, James C

2007-11-15

221

In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: Anexperimental study  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an experimentalstudytesting a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaimarsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from severalindustrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenicthrough heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. Themean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soilscollected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogicaland organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form,distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenictrioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320 341]indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associatedwith amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slowrelease against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphousaluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the mostsignificant effect on its ability to retain arsenic.Based on thisobservation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatmentsolutions in an effort to promote the formation of insolublearsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic.Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were usedas the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in threesets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO4; (2) FeSO4 and KMnO4; (3) FeSO4,KMnO4 and CaCO3. The optimum treatment solutions for each soil wereidentified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching oftreated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311[USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Testmethods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed.Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of SolidWaste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992]toxic characteristicsleaching procedure (TCLP) and EPA Method 1312 [USEPA.Method 1312:synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluatingsolid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office; 1994]synthetic precipitation leaching procedure(SPLP).Both FW and BH soils showed significant decreases in arsenicleachability for all three treatment solutions, compared to untreatedsoil. While soils treated with solution (3) showed the best results withsubsequent TCLP sequential leaching, SPLP sequential leaching of treatedsoils indicated that lowest arsenic mobility was obtained using treatmentsolution (1). Treatment solution (1) with only FeSO4 is considered thebest choice for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil because SPLPsequential leaching better simulates natural weathering. Analysis oftreated soils produced no evidence of newly-formed arsenic-bearing phasesin either soil after treatment. Sequential chemical extractions oftreated soils indicate that surface complexation of arsenic on ferrichydroxide is the major mechanism for the fixation process.

Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J.; Redwine, James C.

2007-03-27

222

Environmental contaminant exposure data and monitoring priorities for wild terrestrial vertebrates at national parks in coastal and estuarine habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on select species and habitats in the United States. One of the many BEST Project activities entails the development of decision-support tools to assist in the identification of chemical threats to species and lands under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior. Although there are many ecotoxicological monitoring programs that focus on aquatic species and habitats, there are currently no large-scale efforts that are focused on terrestrial vertebrates in the United States. Nonetheless, organochlorine contaminants, metals, and new pollutants continue to pose hazards to terrestrial vertebrates at many spatial scales (ranging from small hazardous-waste-site point sources to entire watersheds). To evaluate and prioritize pollutant hazards for terrestrial vertebrates, a ?Contaminant Exposure and EffectsTerrestrial Vertebrates? (CEE-TV) database (www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online) was developed. The CEE-TV database has been used to conduct simple searches for exposure and biological effects information for a given species or location, identification of temporal contaminant exposure trends, information gap analyses for national wildlife refuge and national park units, and ranking of terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological information needs based on data density and water quality problems. Despite widespread concerns about environmental contamination, during the past decade only about one-half of the coastal National Park units appear to have terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data. Based upon known environmental contaminant hazards, it is recommended that regionalized monitoring programs or efforts focused on lands managed by the Department of the Interior should be undertaken to prevent serious natural resource problems.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.; Eisenreich, K.M.; McKernan, M.A.

2006-01-01

223

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

McLachlan, J.

1998-06-01

224

DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDICES FOR GREEN CHEMICAL PRODUCTION AND USE  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical production, use and disposal cause adverse impacts on the environment. Consequently, much research has been conducted to develop methods for estimating the risk of chemicals and to screen them based on environmental impact. Risk assessment may be subdivide...

225

A risk-based methodology for ranking environmental chemical stressors at the regional scale.  

PubMed

A "Risk-based Tool for the Regional Ranking of Environmental Chemical Stressors" has been developed, aimed at supporting decision-makers in the identification of priority environmental contaminants, as well as priority areas, to be further assessed. The tool implements a methodology based on a quantitative Weight-of-Evidence approach, integrating three types of information, identified as "Lines-of-Evidence" (LoE), namely: LoE "Environmental Contamination" (including data on chemical contamination in environmental matrices in the region, thus providing information on potential population exposure), LoE "Intake" (including results from human biomonitoring studies, i.e. concentration of chemicals in human biological matrices, thus providing an integrated estimation of exposure) and LoE "Observed Effects" (including information on the incidence of adverse health outcomes associated with environmental exposure to chemicals). A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology based on fuzzy logic has been developed to support the integration of information related to these three LoEs for each chemical stressor. The tool allows one to rank chemical stressors at different spatial scales, such as at the regional level as well as within each sub-area (e.g., counties). Moreover, it supports the identification of priority sub-areas within the region, where environmental and health data suggest possible adverse health effects and thus more investigation efforts are needed. To evaluate the performance of this newly developed tool, a case-study in the Flemish region (north of Belgium) has been selected. In the case-study, data on soil contamination by metals and organic contaminants were integrated with data on exposure and effect biomarkers measured in adolescents within the framework of the human biomonitoring study performed by the Flemish Centre of Expertise on Environment and Health in the period 2002-2006. The case-study demonstrated the performance of the tool in integrating qualitative and quantitative data with expert judgement for the identification of priority contaminants and areas. The proposed approach proved to be flexible, allowing for the incorporation of individual decision-maker's preferences, and, at the same time, to be transparent since all assumptions and value attributions are traceable. PMID:24440801

Giubilato, Elisa; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Giove, Silvio; Bierkens, Johan; Den Hond, Elly; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-04-01

226

Forms and prevalence of intersexuality and effects of environmental contaminants on sexuality in cricket frogs (Acris crepitans).  

PubMed Central

Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) from several different sites in Illinois were collected to assess the effects of environmental contamination on the prevalence of intersex gonads. Of 341 frogs collected in 1993, 1994, and 1995, 2.7% were intersex individuals. There was no statistically significant relationship between the chemical compounds detected and cricket frog intersexuality. However, there was an association approaching significance (p = 0.07) between the detection of atrazine and intersex individuals. A comparison of reference sites with sites that had point polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) contamination revealed a significant relationship between sex-ratio reversal and contamination with PCBs and PCDFs. The sex ratio of juvenile frogs studied from three sites with PCB and PCDF point contamination favored males over females, which was the opposite of the sex ratio in control ponds (p = 0.0007). The statistically significant correlation between organochlorine contamination and sex-ratio reversal suggests PCBs and PCDFs can influence cricket frog sexual differentiation. The current study suggests that in cricket frogs, sex ratios and the prevalence of intersex gonads are altered by environmental contamination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9647894

Reeder, A L; Foley, G L; Nichols, D K; Hansen, L G; Wikoff, B; Faeh, S; Eisold, J; Wheeler, M B; Warner, R; Murphy, J E; Beasley, V R

1998-01-01

227

Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July 1898 by P. and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which 2106 Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th 8 anniversary of Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this paper is to review several aspect of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including : i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; ii) its main sources and uses; iii) its physico-chemical properties; iv) its main analytical methods; v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion and wound contamination; vii) its dosimetry and viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination.

Ansoborlo, Eric [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Berard, Philippe [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Den Auwer, Christophe [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Menetrier, Florence [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Younes, Ali [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Montavon, Gilles [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Moisy, Phillipe [Atomic Energy Commission (France)

2012-01-01

228

A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted intermittently from February 1992 through May 1992. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL at the request of the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Operations Office and the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program. Results of this investigation indicate that the source of radioactive contamination at the point of the contamination incident is from one of the underground abandoned lines. The contamination in soil is likely the result of residual contamination from years of waste transport and maintenance operations (e.g., replacement of degraded joints, upgrading or replacement of entire pipelines, and associated landscaping activities). However, because (1) there is currently an active LLW line positioned in the same subsurface trench with the abandoned lines and (2) the physical condition of the abandoned lines may be brittle, this inquiry could not determine which abandoned line was responsible for the subsurface contamination. Soil sampling at the location of the contamination incident and along the pipeline route was performed in a manner so as not to damage the active LLW line and abandoned lines. Recommendations for corrective actions are included.

Williams, J.K.; Foley, R.D.; Tiner, P.F.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Uziel, M.S.; Swaja, R.E.

1993-05-01

229

Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (?10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., environmental contaminants. PMID:24038072

Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

2014-03-01

230

Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power and computing resources are scarce.

Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

2014-01-01

231

P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.  

PubMed

Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

2014-04-01

232

Mixed poly-brominated/chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs): widespread food and environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Mixed poly-brominated/chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs) are a new class of emerging contaminants. Their environmental occurrence is confirmed by the reported occurrence in foods and human tissues, and the patterns of occurrence suggest that different sources may be contributing to food occurrence in different parts of the world. Important sources of PXBs are thought to include emissions from the combustion of bromine and chlorine containing waste and consumer products and inadvertent contamination in industrial chemicals. Of specific interest are the dioxin-like-PXBs. These are the 62 non-ortho-substituted PXBs with eight congeners of 3,3',4,4'-substitution type (#77A-H), ten of 3,4,4',5-type (#81A-J), twenty four of 3,4,5,3',4'-type (#126A-Z) and twenty of 3,4,5,3',4',5'-type (#169A-V) and many mono-ortho substituted compounds. The toxicological clarification on these contaminants continues, with reports confirming dioxin-like effects at low concentrations, suggesting a greater toxicological significance than PCBs. PMID:22483842

Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Fernandes, Alwyn R

2012-09-01

233

Contaminant Transport in Groundwater for Environmental Performance Assessment  

E-print Network

L E Y Contaminant Transport in Groundwater for Environmentalcontaminant transport models. The increasing complexity of environmentalenvironmental Reviews of the organization of this report provides a review of the regulatory perspective on contaminant

Rubin, Yoram N

1997-01-01

234

Chemical Disposal The Office of Environmental Health & Safety operates a Chemical Waste Disposal Program  

E-print Network

Chemical Disposal Dec, 2011 Chemicals: The Office of Environmental Health & Safety operates a Chemical Waste Disposal Program where all University chemical waste is picked up and sent out for proper disposal. (There are some chemicals that they will not take because of their extreme hazards

Machel, Hans

235

The importance of evaluating the physicochemical and toxicological properties of a contaminant for remediating environments affected by chemical incidents.  

PubMed

In the event of a major chemical incident or accident, appropriate tools and technical guidance need to be available to ensure that a robust approach can be adopted for developing a remediation strategy. Remediation and restoration strategies implemented in the aftermath of a chemical incident are a particular concern for public health. As a result an innovative methodology has been developed to help design an effective recovery strategy in the aftermath of a chemical incident that has been developed; the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents (UKRHCI). The handbook consists of a six-step decision framework and the use of decision trees specifically designed for three different environments: food production systems, inhabited areas and water environments. It also provides a compendium of evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that should be selected in relation to their efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment. Selection of effective recovery options in this decision framework involves evaluating the physicochemical and toxicological properties of the chemical(s) involved. Thus, the chemical handbook includes a series of tables with relevant physicochemical and toxicological properties that should be assessed in function of the environment affected. It is essential that the physicochemical properties of a chemical are evaluated and interpreted correctly during the development of a remedial plan in the aftermath of a chemical incident to ensure an effective remedial response. This paper presents a general overview of the key physicochemical and toxicological properties of chemicals that should be evaluated when developing a recovery strategy. Information on how physicochemical properties have impacted on previous remedial responses reported in the literature is also discussed and a number of challenges for remediation are highlighted to include the need to develop novel approaches to remediate sites contaminated by mixtures of chemicals as well as methods for interpreting chemical reactions in different environmental matrices to include how climate change may affect the speciation and mobility of chemicals in the environment. PMID:24874001

Wyke, S; Peña-Fernández, A; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

2014-11-01

236

Prospective evaluation of environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile in isolation side rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined prospectively the frequency, persistence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile environmental contamination after detergent-based cleaning in side rooms used to isolate patients with C. difficile diarrhoea. Approximately one-quarter of all environmental sites in side rooms sampled over four-week periods were contaminated with C. difficile. The overall side room prevalence of environmental C. difficile declined from 35% initially, to

P. Verity; M. H. Wilcox; W. Fawley; P. Parnell

2001-01-01

237

Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

First awareness that direct topical application of xenobiotics to bird eggs could be harmful to avian development dates back to the turn of the century. The most widely documented evidence of embryotoxicity following direct exposure comes from petroleum contaminant studies, conducted with at least 10 different avian species. Many petroleum crude oils, refined oils, and waste oils are embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic to different species; LD50s are often less than 5 iL of oil per egg. Toxicity is generally dependent upon the PAH concentration and composition (presence of higher weight PAHs). Five of seven industrial effluents caused significant reduction of embryonic growth in mallards following brief immersion of the eggs. Of the insecticides, organophosphates have been the most widely studied with respect to potential for direct embryotoxicity and teratogenicity following spraying or immersion of eggs. Phenoxy herbicides including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T have been the most widely studied class of herbicides with respect to potential embryotoxicity of spray application. However, more recent evaluations have indicated that this is not the most toxic class of herbicides. Paraquat was found to be highly toxic in at least three species. Herbicides with LC50s that occurred at ten times the field level of application or less for mallard embryos included bromoxynil with MCPA, methyldiclofop, paraquat, prometon, propanil, and trifluralin. Of different gaseous and particulate air pollutants, ozone and particulates rich in PAH content appeared to be potentially embryotoxic, based on laboratory studies. Environmental contaminants in all classes reviewed have been shown to cause physiological and biochemical disturbances in embryos or hatchlings indicative of contaminant exposure, organ damage, or delayed development. Residue studies have shown the presence of DDT, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, decamethrin, petroleum hydrocarbons, and methylmercury after direct exposure of eggs. Ability of xenobiotics to pass across the shell and its membranes as well as embryo uptake appear to be dependent both on the compound and the vehicle. Pesticides in aliphatic (nontoxic oil) vehicle were generally more toxic than ones in aqueous emulsion due to better penetration. Field studies have documented the embryotoxicity of petroleum following transfer from plumage of adult birds to their eggs. Few attempts to measure effects of spraying pesticides near bird nests have been documented. However, application of pesticide mixtures including organophosphate insecticides and fungicides to orchards resulted in embryo ic mortality in mourning dove nests. Future studies are needed to focus on field exposures in multiple species. Comparative laboratory studies are needed taking into consideration shell thickness and porosity to determine whether species such as passerines may be more sensitive. Additive and possibly synergistic effects may occur where xenobiotics may be only slightly to moderately toxic alone. Therefore, further studies examining the effects of pesticides routinely applied in combinations of two or more are needed, as are air pollution studies examining multiple contaminants and species.

Hoffman, D.J.

1990-01-01

238

Vitellogenin as a potential biomarker for environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The authors have recently obtained N-terminal amino acid sequences for the egg protein vitellogenin (Vtg) from phylogenetically diverse teleost fish ranging from rainbow trout to the striped bass. Using the striped bass sequence as a template, the other teleost fish showed at least an 87% identity through the region of amino acids 7--20. The amino acid sequence was not as well conserved for other fishes; white sturgeon (60%) and brook lamprey (47%), the clawed frog Xenopus (47--60%) or the domestic chicken (40%). The authors synthesized a consensus peptide to this highly conserved region and have raised a polygonal antibody from rabbit. This antibody shows wide cross-reactivity to Vtg from many species of teleost fish. The authors have found that serum Vtg levels are elevated in both male and female brown bullheads with liver tumors from an area contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Serum levels of Vtg were also elevated in rainbow trout with liver tumors induced with aflatoxin B-1. The authors also describe an in-vitro system of plated hepatocytes to screen for estrogenic and antiestrogenic xenobiotic chemicals in the environment and using Vtg as a screening tool to establish structure-activity relationships for reproductive failure in female fish.

Denslow, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Molecular Biology; Folmar, L.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Sullivan, C.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1994-12-31

239

SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides an ongoing assessment of the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (First Report) was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 200...

240

REPORTING NEEDS FOR STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN HUMAN MILK  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies of environmental chemicals in human milk have been carried out in many countries, but few have been conducted in the U.S. These studies are useful for monitoring populations trends in exposure to chemiclas, for research in the determinants of environmental chemicals in m...

241

Cumulative index to chemicals and to common and scientific names of species listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contaminant Hazard Review (CHR) series--sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center--synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998, 34 reviews were published in various report series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (acrolein, atrazine, carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, famphur, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), mammalian biocides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial and municipal wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls), minin wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This current report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced with contaminant hazard review and corresponding page numbers. A similar index for chemicals is included.

Eisler, Ronald, (Edited By)

1999-01-01

242

Application of solid phase microextraction to the analysis of chlorinated contaminants in environmental matrices  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of aquatic and terrestrial systems with organic contaminants is an increasing toxicological problem. In both the monitoring of such contamination and the determination of the success of remediation methods, straightforward and inexpensive analytical methodology increases the ease of environmental assessment and facilitates regulatory enforcement. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) technology is a recently developed solvent less extraction system with the potential for application to the analysis of a wide range of compounds. Application of SPME, in combination with gas chromatography and GC-MS, will be described for the analysis of chlorinated environmental contaminants such as pesticides and selected PCBs, dioxins, and furans in soils, sediments, and water.

Webster, G.R.B.; Sarna, L.P.; Anderson, K.L.; Graham, K.N. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

1994-12-31

243

Filthy Lucre: The Chemical Detection of Cocaine-Contaminated Currency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem of seizing cocaine-tainted money. Describes an experiment designed to determine what percentage of paper currency is contaminated with cocaine. Considers sampling, the analysis method, contamination, levels of cocaine in money and criminal activity, and the reliability of results. (SAH)

Acheson, Ed

2001-01-01

244

In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20h at 4A?C or 10A?C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

2002-01-01

245

DNA damage and repair in haemolymph cells of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) exposed to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The development of methodologies for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems is of particular relevance in view of the serious problem of aquatic environmental pollution. The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) was chosen to be tested as a biomonitor organism based on its population data and distribution. L. fortunei individuals were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, and in vivo to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), with the aim of standardizing comet assay and micronucleus test methodologies and evaluating the potential of this organism as a biomonitor. Haemolymph cells immobilized in agarose on slides exposed to UV radiation showed a dose-response relationship with maximum damage at 4.2J/m(2). For the chemical tests, individuals were exposed for 2h for the comet assay and 24 and 48h for the micronucleus test. A dose-response relationship was observed for both chemicals. 3x10(-5)M CuSO(4) induced high genotoxicity, also producing some toxicity after 48h of exposure. PCP induced maximum damage in both assays at 150mug/L. Individuals exposed to PCP showed 100% repair 2h after the exposure period, as assessed by the comet assay. Exposure to an environmental sample over 7 days confirmed the mussel sensitivity to water contaminants, detected both by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The results allow us to suggest the golden mussel as a potential biomonitor organism. PMID:16697250

Villela, Izabel Vianna; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

2006-06-16

246

Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Landrum, P.F. [Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

247

Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

1985-01-01

248

Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed

It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to be heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon polychlorinated (PCB) mixture. The microarray was able to distinguish dolphins by sex, geographic location, and corroborate previously published health irregularities for the Georgia dolphins. Genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, development/differentiation and oncogenic pathways were found to be differentially expressed in GA dolphins. The report bridges the advancements in dolphin genome sequencing to the first step towards providing a cost-effective means to screen for indicators of chemical toxin exposure as well as disease status in top level predators. PMID:25479946

Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

2014-11-17

249

EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

250

Decline in heavy metal contamination in marine sediments in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia due to increasing environmental regulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 210Pb geochronology, heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, and Pb), and stable Pb isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 207Pb) of three sediment cores collected from Jakarta Bay were analyzed to decipher the history of heavy metal contamination in the period 1900-2006. The chemical and isotopic analyses clearly suggest that anthropogenic metal accumulation in the sediments began in the 1920s and increased greatly from the 1970s until the end of the 1990s. From the end of the 1990s to 2006, accumulation rates were constant or decreased for Zn and Pb near the coastal industrialized area. Comparison of economic data and sociological information suggests that the decline in the concentrations of heavy metals could be attributed to the stricter environmental regulations which were enforced at the end of 1990s. However, metal contamination is currently still an important cause of concern in dealing with environmental preservation and protection in Jakarta Bay.

Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Delinom, Robert; Umezawa, Yu; Toyota, Tomoyo; Kaneko, Shinji; Taniguchi, Makoto

2011-04-01

251

Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

Qafoku, Nikolla

2012-01-01

252

Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes.  

PubMed

The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July, 1898 by P. Curie and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which (210)Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th anniversary of the Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this review is to look at the several aspects of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including (i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; (ii) its main sources and uses; (iii) its physicochemical properties; (iv) its main analytical methods; (v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; (vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion, and wound contamination; (vii) its dosimetry; and (viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination. PMID:22530998

Ansoborlo, Eric; Berard, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Leggett, Rich; Menetrier, Florence; Younes, Ali; Montavon, Gilles; Moisy, Philippe

2012-08-20

253

ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR THE DETERMINATION OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the analytical procedures and quality assurance plan used for the determination of xenobiotic chemical contaminants including select pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls for Phase II of the U.S. EPA National Dioxin Stu...

254

Implications of chemical contaminants for aquatic animals in the Canadian Arctic: some review comments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical residue analyses have established beyond doubt that aretic ecosystems are contaminated with low concentrations of several contaminants. The sources of these vary, but for many, the principal source is atmospheric deposition as a result of widespread dispersal by air masses carrying materials from lower latitudes. The principal problem discussed here is how to determine whether there are biological implications

W. Lyle Lockhart

1995-01-01

255

CHEMICAL-SPECIFIC PARAMETERS FOR TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid, base, and neutral hydrolysis rate constants and partition coefficients are given for 44 toxicity characteristic contaminants. Both calculated and laboratory-determined octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) and organic-carbon-normalized partition coefficient (Koc) values...

256

Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing  

MedlinePLUS

... washed yourself, place your clothing inside a plastic bag. Avoid touching contaminated areas of the clothing. If ... rubber gloves or put the clothing in the bag using tongs, tool handles, sticks, or similar objects. ...

257

Association between indoor environmental contamination by Salmonella enterica and contamination of eggs on layer farms.  

PubMed

This study involves longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella carriage and environmental contamination on two commercial cage layer farms positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (flock A age, 32 weeks; flock B age, 34 weeks). Salmonella-positive fecal, egg belt, and dust samples were all unconditionally associated with eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. The odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella were 91.8, 61.5, and 18.2 times higher when fecal, egg belt, and dust samples, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella. The agreement between the culture-based methods and real-time PCR on preenriched broths for detecting Salmonella was almost perfect for eggshell (observed agreement, 99.19%; kappa coefficient, 0.94) and egg belt samples (observed agreement, 95%; kappa coefficient, 0.88), and it was substantial for fecal (observed agreement, 87.14%; kappa coefficient, 0.47) and floor dust samples (observed agreement, 80.61%; kappa coefficient, 0.58). A 1-log increase in the load of Salmonella detected in the fecal, egg belt, and floor dust samples resulted in 35%, 43%, and 45% increases, respectively (P < 0.001), in the odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella. The multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) patterns of the S. Typhimurium strains isolated from flock A were distinct from those of flock B. S. Typhimurium strains detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited an MLVA pattern similar to those of the strains isolated from flocks A and B. PMID:24966362

Gole, Vaibhav C; Torok, Valeria; Sexton, Margaret; Caraguel, Charles G B; Chousalkar, Kapil K

2014-09-01

258

Influence of polymer properties on airborne chemical contamination of chemically amplified resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe here an extensive study of the relation between polymer structure and rates of NMP uptake for a set of polymer films with a very broad range of properties. NMP labeled using radioactive 14C was introduced at a concentration of 12 ppb into a stream of purified air. The film of interest was then immersed in the airstream for a predetermined time under controlled conditions. The radionuclide serves as a tag which allows precise quantitation of NMP absorbed by the polymer film. NMP uptake rates measured using this method are shown to correlate with polymer physical properties in a straightforward manner. The observed trends are in accord with those expected on the basis of the solution diffusion model of polymer permeation. These data provide a basis for the rational design of polymers for chemically amplified resists which are insensitive to airborne contaminants.

Hinsberg, William D.; MacDonald, Scott A.; Clecak, Nicholas J.; Snyder, Clinton D.; Ito, Hiroshi

1993-09-01

259

Studies in Avian Biology No. 26:168176, 2003. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN SURROGATE BIRDS AND  

E-print Network

. SFERRA, AND KIRKE KING Abstract. Several deformed Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii, Empidonax traillii extimus, inorganic elements, insectiv- orous birds, PCBs, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). Environmental contaminants

Mora, Miguel A.

260

FINAL REPORT. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, act as hormones or anti- hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major components of the research included: 1)a biotechnology based screening system ...

261

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL PREPARATION WASTES. A LITERATURE REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of collecting and evaluating available information on the chemistry and behavior of trace elements in coal preparation wastes, and assessing the potential for environmental contamination from the trace elements in these wastes. Only limited attention has ...

262

The Accumulation and Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Snakes: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any ecological risk assessment, afull complement of the relevant members of theecosystems being studied should be considered. Reptiles in general, and snakes in particular, areimportant although often neglected components ofterrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and should beincluded in any study on environmental contamination. By neglecting reptiles, the risks posed by aparticular contaminant cannot be fully assessed. Since all snakes are

Kym Rouse Campbell; Todd S. Campbell

2001-01-01

263

Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental  

E-print Network

Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma Open-File Report 2007-1055 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations

264

A review of environmental contamination during outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) commonly cause outbreaks of gastroenteritis in hospitals and can result in major disruption of services. It is considered that contamination of the environment can be a cause of transmission and prolonged or recurring outbreaks. In order to control outbreaks it is important to establish the role of environmental contamination in transmission and the decontamination measures required to

J. Dalling

2004-01-01

265

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (phoca vitulina) fed environmentally contaminated herring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, mass mortalities among seals and dolphins have been attributed to infections with different morbilliviruses. In all cases, these marine top predators were exposed to high levels of persistent lipophilic environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain. This observation led to the hypothesis that a contaminant?related suppression of the immune system might have contributed to the severity of

R. L. de Swart; P. S. Ross; J. G. Vos; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

1996-01-01

266

Muskrat populations in Virginia's Elizabeth River: Physiological condition and accumulation of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the physiological condition and environmental contaminant concentrations in muskrats inhabiting the contaminated lower region of the Elizabeth River, Virginia, (USA). Muskrats trapped in the lower region of the Elizabeth River weighed less, had lower mean fat indexes, lower relative spleen weights, greater relative adrenal weights, and an increased incidence of disease and parasitism compared to muskrats trapped

Richard S. Halbrook; Roy L. Kirkpatrick; Patrick F. Scanlon; Michael R. Vaughan; Hugo P. Veit

1993-01-01

267

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane ( Grus canadensis pulla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained

Donald H. White; Clifford P. Rice; David J. Hoffman; George F. Gee

1994-01-01

268

EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS OF NON POINT SOURCE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION USING DAIS SENSOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abandoned mining sites cause environmental problems all over the world, in Europe as well. The point source heavy-metal contamination, which later becomes diffuse pollution endangers the envi- ronment in the long term. With the use of hyperspectral remote sensing the spatial distribution of certain contaminants can be determined. Due to the acidification of the environment caused by the pyritic decay\\/

János Tamás; Péter Kardeván; Elemér Kovács; Elza Kovács; Péter Takács

2005-01-01

269

The effect of contamination on selected physical and chemical characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate.  

E-print Network

??Summary Aim: To evaluate the effect of various environmental (clinical) conditions on the physical and chemical characteristics of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Methodology: Initially preparation… (more)

Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein

2011-01-01

270

The induction of alkoxyresorufin metabolism: A potential indicator of environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of biochemical monitoring of individual animals for exposure to environmental contaminants are of great potential use. The hepatic metabolism of various alkoxyresorufins, which are highly specific substrates for certain forms of cytochrome(s) P450, is highly induced by a variety of environmental contaminants. Thus, theO-deal-kylation of pentoxy- or benzyloxyresorufin was induced greater than 20-fold in the rat bya-hexachlorocyclohexane, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, DDT

Ronald A. Lubet; F. Peter Guengerich; Raymond W. Nims

1990-01-01

271

Halogenated environmental contaminants in perch ( Perca fluviatilis) from Latvian coastal areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental contamination situation in coastal areas of the former Soviet Union has up to now been more or less unknown. This study on perch (Perca fluviatilis), collected at three locations along the coast of Latvia during 1994 and 1995, provides concentrations of several ubiquitous environmental contaminants (PCBs, HCB, HCHs, 4,4?-DDT, 4,4?-DDE, 4,4?-DDD, trans-Nonachlor, 2,2?,4,4?-tetrabromodiphenyl ether). The concentrations of total

Anders Olsson; Maris Vitinsh; Maris Plikshs; Åke Bergman

1999-01-01

272

Patient colonization and environmental contamination by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a rehabilitation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trick WE, Temple RS, Chen D, Wright MO, Solomon SL, Peterson LR. Patient colonization and environmental contamination by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a rehabilitation facility. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:899-902. Objectives: To determine the frequency of environmental contamination in patient and common-use rooms and patient colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A 146-bed rehabilitation facility. Participants: Rectal cultures

William E. Trick; Randy S. Temple; David Chen; Marc O. Wright; Steven L. Solomon; Lance R. Peterson

2002-01-01

273

CHEMICAL DYNAMICS OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS DURING RESUSPENSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were designed to study the chemical-particle dynamics of toxic hydrophobic organics during resuspension episodes using a particle entrainment simulator (PES). The purpose was to obtain insight into chemical transport mechanisms during resuspension. Informat...

274

Environmentally stable chemically amplified positive resist containing vinyllactam terpolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report here on lithographic performance of high resolution, environmentally stable and aqueous base developable positive tone resist for DUV lithography. There have been a lot of efforts to prevent the resist from suffering from the deactivation of acid during the delay time between exposure and post exposure bake (PEB). The new design of matrix resin containing amide functional group has advantages over current lithographic techniques. The effects of amide functional group as a basic additive in a chemically amplified resist was investigated. A new class of matrix resin containing amide functional group, poly(hydroxystyrene-co-t- butyl acrylate-co-3-(t-butoxycarbonyl)-1-vinyl-2-caprolactam), was developed. It showed 0.20 micrometer lines/spaces patterns of this resist using KrF excimer stepper (NA 0.55, partial coherence factor 0.55) with an exposure dose of 25 mJ/cm2. This resist showed no change of pattern profile after 2 hours post exposure delay in which ammonia concentration is 5 ppb. 3-(t-butoxycarbonyl)-1-vinyl-2-caprolatam (BCVC) unit as a basic additive can not only solve amine contamination effectively, but also improve the resolution of the resist. BCVC unit reduces the diffusion of acid and it results in sharp contrast at the interface between the exposed and unexposed areas. Therefore, adding BCVC unit in matrix resin leads to the stabilization of the pattern profile and higher resolution.

Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Koh, Cha-Won; Jung, Min-Ho; Baik, Ki-Ho; Kim, Jin-Baek; Cheong, Jong-Ho

1997-07-01

275

Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due to Environmental Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumental chemical analysis methods are developed and used to chemically fingerprint new and modified External Tank materials made necessary by changing environmental requirements. Chemical fingerprinting can detect and diagnose variations in material composition. To chemically characterize each material, fingerprint methods are selected from an extensive toolbox based on the material's chemistry and the ability of the specific methods to detect the material's critical ingredients. Fingerprint methods have been developed for a variety of materials including Thermal Protection System foams, adhesives, primers, and composites.

Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

276

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

Not Available

1992-03-01

277

Chemical and bioassay monitoring of PCB-contaminated soil remediation using solvent extraction technology.  

PubMed

Illegal dumping of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitors was discovered in Kobe, Japan, in 2001, leaving about 68 m(3) (92 tons) of soil contaminated with approximately 6.6 kg of PCBs. Solvent extraction technology carried out in 2002-2003 using isopropyl alcohol remedied the affected soil at the site. Forty-seven batch treatments were conducted during full-scale treatment. On average, 8.4 extraction cycles per batch were needed to achieve the clean-up goal for PCBs (i.e., the Japanese environmental quality standard for soil). Analytical results showed that the average PCB concentration (88 microg g(-1)-dry soil) in untreated soil samples of all the batches was decreased to 1.2 microg g(-1)-dry soil in treated soil samples, yielding a removal efficiency of 98.6%. Dioxin responsive-chemical activated luciferase gene expression assay (DR-CALUX) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) adopting a monoclonal antibody against 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB #118) were used to rapidly screen soil samples before and after solvent extraction. The DR-CALUX and ELISA results were in good agreement with World Health Organization toxicity equivalent values and analytically determined PCB concentrations, respectively. Regular monitoring during the treatment period confirmed that the applied technology met Japanese environmental and control regulations concerning treatment and disposal of contaminated soils and treatment residues. After full-scale treatment, the amount of PCBs recovered from the solvent purification system approximated the estimated amount of PCBs spilled. PMID:18246213

Takigami, Hidetaka; Etoh, Toru; Nishio, Tsukasa; Sakai, Shin-ichi

2008-02-01

278

Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. PMID:23820191

Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

2013-09-30

279

PPCPS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large, diverse array of contaminants that can enter the environment from the combined activities, actions, and behaviors of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http:...

280

Microbial and chemical contamination during and after flooding in the Ohio River-Kentucky, 2011.  

PubMed

Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical contaminants. Contaminant concentrations during and after flooding were compared using linear and logistic regression. Surface water samples collected during flooding had higher levels of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, adenovirus, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to surface water samples collected 3-months post-flood (P < 0.05). These results suggest that flooding increases microbial and chemical loads in surface water. These findings reinforce commonly recommended guidelines to limit exposure to flood water and to appropriately sanitize contaminated surfaces and drinking wells after contamination by flood water. PMID:24967556

Yard, Ellen E; Murphy, Matthew W; Schneeberger, Chandra; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hoo, Elizabeth; Freiman, Alexander; Lewis, Lauren S; Hill, Vincent R

2014-09-19

281

MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

282

MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

283

MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

284

MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

285

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry over the period of 2000-2001. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2002 are also included. The previous Environmental Mass Spectrometry review was very comprehensive, including...

286

Environmental Contaminants in Hospital Settings and Progress in Disinfecting Techniques  

PubMed Central

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36°C/22°C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22°C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

287

Environmental contaminants in hospital settings and progress in disinfecting techniques.  

PubMed

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36°C/22°C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22°C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Messina, Gabriele; Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

288

Contamination from electrically conductive silicone tubing during aerosol chemical analysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrically conductive silicone tubing is used to minimize losses in sampling lines during the analysis of airborne particle size distributions and number concentrations. We report contamination from this tubing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of filter-collected samples as well as by particle mass spectrometry. Comparison of electrically conductive silicone and stainless steel tubing showed elevated siloxanes only for the silicone tubing. The extent of contamination increased with length of tubing to which the sample was exposed, and decreased with increasing relative humidity.

Yu, Yong; Alexander, M. L.; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily; Johnson, Stan; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2009-06-01

289

Contamination from electrically conductive silicone tubing during aerosol chemical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically conductive silicone tubing is used to minimize losses in sampling lines during the analysis of airborne particle size distributions and number concentrations. We report contamination from this tubing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of filter-collected samples as well as by particle mass spectrometry. Comparison of electrically conductive silicone and stainless steel tubing showed elevated siloxanes only for the silicone tubing. The extent of contamination increased with length of tubing to which the sample was exposed, and decreased with increasing relative humidity.

Yu, Yong; Liz Alexander, M.; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily A.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

290

Breeding in a contaminated world: do environmental pollutants promote mistiming of reproduction and limit the breeding success of farmland  

E-print Network

Breeding in a contaminated world: do environmental pollutants promote mistiming of reproduction the dramatic decline of many bird populations remains unknown, but mistiming of reproduction with environmental in European Starlings exposed to `biosolids' has become mismatched with important environmental factors

Guo, Zaoyang

291

Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants. This research will form the foundation for future experiments into the genetic manipulation of plants to potentially promote greater or more specific symbiotic relationships between plant and Rhizobium allowing this biological phenomenon to be used in a greater number of crop types. Future technology developments could include the genetic engineering of crops suitable for in situ vadose zone 2 bioremediation (via microbes) and phytoremediation (through the crop, itself) in contaminated DOE sites.

McLachlan, John A.

2000-06-01

292

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

293

SIMULATION MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MULTIMEDIA ANALYSIS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Multimedia understanding of pollutant behavior in the environment is of particular concern for chemicals that are toxic and are subject to accumulation in the environmental media (air, soil, water, vegetation) where biota and human exposure is significant. Multimedia simulation ...

294

Decision support tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design  

E-print Network

The environment has emerged as an important determinant of the performance of the modern chemical industry. Process engineering in the 21st century needs to evolve to include environmental issues as part of the design ...

Cano Ruiz, José Alejandro, 1969-

1999-01-01

295

DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil†  

PubMed Central

Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as ?(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

296

Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and

Jose Mendoza; James Botsford; Jose Hernandez; Anna Montoya; Roswitha Saenz; Adrian Valles; Alejandro Vazquez; Maria Alvarez

2004-01-01

297

Current methods for evaluating the bioavailability of chemicals from contaminated soils using soil invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated soils are an extremely complex, variable matrix where many modifying factors of toxicity (e.g., particle size, organic matter content) alter the availability of chemicals to biota. Although many methods have been standardized for assessing the toxicity of contaminated soils to invertebrates and plants, few studies have actually addressed the issue of contaminant bioavailability from soils. Since bioavailability is a measure of uptake of contaminants from the soil by living organisms, one approach to determining bioavailability is to measure residues of contaminants in biota. Body residues related to a specific lethal or sublethal toxicity endpoint offer the unique opportunity to relate bioavailability to biological response. This paper will present an overview of the use of body residues in assessing the bioavailability of soil contaminants by earthworms and soil arthropods. The applications of body residues in the development of soil quality guidelines will also be discussed.

Lanno, R.P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1995-12-31

298

UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

299

Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

300

Chemical and microbiological assessment of pendimethalin-contaminated soil after treatment with Fenton's reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed chemical effects and microbial response after Fenton's treatment of pendimethalin contaminated soils. The efficiency of the rapid chemical transformation of pendimethalin varied from 25% to greater than 90%. The highest efficiency was associated with a soil having comparatively low organic matter and low acid neutralizing capacity. This is consistent with the role of organic matter as a

Christopher M. Miller; Richard L. Valentine; Marc E. Roehl; Pedro J. J. Alvarez

1996-01-01

301

The psychological dimensions of health care for patients exposed to radiation and the other invisible environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invisible environmental contaminants are those contaminants that possess environmental and\\/or medical invisibility. Recent studies indicate: (1) that these contaminants can and do have traumatic psychological effects on those individuals who have been exposed to them and (2) that there is a remarkable uniformity to these traumatic affects as they have been found in the various invisible exposures that have been

Henry M. Vyner

1988-01-01

302

Effects of varying environmental parameters on trace contaminant concentrations in the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is made of the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration trace contaminant production and depletion level effects of CO2, O2, humidity, temperature, and pressure variations, on the basis of a computer model of the Reference Configuration's chemical reactions and physical processes as functions of time. The effects of changes in the initial concentrations of such contaminants as nonmethane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are also examined, and these are found to result in more significant changes in the concentration levels of trace contaminants than pressure and humidity variations. O2 and CO2 changes are found to have negligible effects on trace contaminant concentrations.

Brewer, Dana A.; Hall, John B., Jr.

1986-01-01

303

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

SciTech Connect

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Schuler, C.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-01-01

304

Linking Empirical Estimates of Body Burden of Environmental Chemicals and Wellness using NHANES Data  

PubMed Central

Biomonitoring of industrial chemicals in human tissues and fluids has shown that all people carry a “body burden” of synthetic chemicals. Although measurement of an environmental chemical in a person’s tissues/fluids is an indication of exposure, it does not necessarily mean the exposure concentration is sufficient to cause an adverse effect. Since humans are exposed to multiple chemicals, there may be a combination effect (e.g., additive, synergistic) associated with low-level exposures to multiple classes of contaminants, which may impact a variety of organ systems. The objective of this research is to link measures of body burden of environmental chemicals and a “holistic” measure of wellness. The approach is demonstrated using biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Forty-two chemicals were selected for analysis based on their detection levels. Six biological pathway-specific indices were evaluated using groups of chemicals associated with each pathway. Five of the six pathways were negatively associated with wellness. Three non-zero interaction terms were detected which may provide empirical evidence of crosstalk across pathways. The approach identified five of the 42 chemicals from a variety of classes (metals, pesticides, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as accounting for 71% of the weight linking body burden to wellness. Significant interactions were detected indicating the effect of smoking is exacerbated by body burden of environmental chemicals. Use of a holistic index on both sides of the exposure-health equation is a novel and promising empirical “systems biology” approach to risk evaluation of complex environmental exposures. PMID:22208743

Gennings, Chris; Ellis, Rhonda; Ritter, Joe

2011-01-01

305

Economic Costs of Childhood Diseases and Disabilities Attributable to Environmental Contaminants in Washington State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the economic costs associated with childhood diseases and disabilities attributable to environmental contaminants in Washington State, USA, including asthma, cancer, lead exposure, birth defects, and neurobehavioral disorders. The estimates are based on “cost of illness” models that include direct healthcare costs and indirect costs. The estimates are also based on an “environmentally attributable fraction” model which quantifies

Kate Davies

2006-01-01

306

An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor  

E-print Network

LETTER An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, Ã?canaries in a coal mineÃ?, because, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative

Storfer, Andrew

307

Promotion of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss by Chemical Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have underscored the ability of a wide range of chemical agents to potentate noise-induced hearing loss. Given the ubiquitous nature of noise exposure particularly in many work settings, the high rate of noise-induced hearing loss, the limited degree to which auditory function can recover following damage to the inner ear, and the disparate chemical structures that appear capable

Laurence D. Fechter

2004-01-01

308

Robust decision analysis for environmental management of groundwater contamination sites  

E-print Network

In contrast to many other engineering fields, the uncertainties in subsurface processes (e.g., fluid flow and contaminant transport in aquifers) and their parameters are notoriously difficult to observe, measure, and characterize. This causes severe uncertainties that need to be addressed in any decision analysis related to optimal management and remediation of groundwater contamination sites. Furthermore, decision analyses typically rely heavily on complex data analyses and/or model predictions, which are often poorly constrained as well. Recently, we have developed a model-driven decision-support framework (called MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov) for the management and remediation of subsurface contamination sites in which severe uncertainties and complex physics-based models are coupled to perform scientifically defensible decision analyses. The decision analyses are based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT). We demonstrate the MADS capabilities by solving a decision problem related to optimal monitoring ...

Vesselinov, Velimir V; Katzman, Danny

2013-01-01

309

CHEMICAL INDUCTION MIXER VERIFICATION - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wet-Weather Flow Technologies Pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which is supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and facilitated by NSF International, has recently evaluated the performance of chemical induction mixers used for di...

310

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1600 Sayles*, G.D. Environmental Engineering and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering (Arnold, R.G. (Ed.), Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers) 128 (1):1-2 (2002). EPA/600/J- 02/001. ...

311

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF CHANGES IN THE BROMINATED CHEMICALS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In light of the large-scale changes occuring within the bromine-based chemicals industry, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency commissioned a study to investigate the potential for adverse environmental effects that might result from such changes. In particular, EPA was inter...

312

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

313

Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA (United States). Northwest Fisheries Science Center

1995-12-31

314

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

2007-01-01

315

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.  

PubMed

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

2007-09-01

316

Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

Maria Pallavicini

2001-05-04

317

A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceeding)  

EPA Science Inventory

Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

318

A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

319

RAPID SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING CAPACITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemical...

320

Chemical analysis of outgassing contaminants on spacecraft surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for analyzing and characterizing outgassing contaminants from such materials as RTV 501 potting compound and S 13 G paint are presented. Fractional distillation of a gross distillate from RTV 501 rubber was carried out and the distilled fractions examined as to their ultraviolet and infrared spectra by gas liquid chromatography. A sensitive technique for structural analysis and molecular identification was found to consist of a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy system, which was determined to be economically unfeasible at present.

Mcnutt, R. C.

1973-01-01

321

Computational Toxicology: Application in Environmental Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter provides an overview of computational models that describe various aspects of the source-to-health effect continuum. Fate and transport models describe the release, transportation, and transformation of chemicals from sources of emission throughout the general envir...

322

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

323

Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.  

PubMed

The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures. PMID:15464626

Malina, Grzegorz

2004-12-15

324

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and

T. C. Michot; T. W. Custer; A. J. Nault; C. A. Mitchell

1994-01-01

325

The immunotoxicity of environmental contaminants to marine wildlife: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-associated mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations inhabiting industrialized coastal areas have generated an interest in wildlife immunotoxicology. Despite the isolation of previously uncharacterized viruses from victims, a contribution of immunotoxic contaminants to the severity of the outbreaks could not be ruled out. Fish-eating marine mammals, including seals, occupy high trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and accumulate

Peter S. Ross; Rik L. De Swart; Henk Van Loveren; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus; Joseph G. Vos

1996-01-01

326

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: Monitoring environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (PMustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from

R. S. Halbrook; J. H. Jenkins; P. B. Bush; N. D. Seabolt

1994-01-01

327

Environmental factors influencing the microbiological contamination of commercially harvested shellfish.  

PubMed

Filter-feeding bivalve molluscs (such as oysters, clams, mussels and cockles) can concentrate contaminants from the water column. The extent of faecal contamination in shellfish is usually estimated by determining the concentration of faecal coliforms and/or Escherichia coli. Three sample points in each of three geographically separate commercial shellfisheries were selected for analysis for the effect of season, spring/neap and high/low tidal cycles, rainfall and wind direction on the results of routine E. coli monitoring. General linear modelling was used for the analyses. The principle factors affecting the contamination of shellfisheries were season, high/low tidal cycle and rainfall. The effects varied between harvesting areas and between individual sampling points within harvesting areas. Undertaking such analyses for all harvesting areas would contribute to the management of monitoring programmes and assist in the evaluation of potentially contaminating sources, such as sewage discharges. The type of analyses undertaken on E. coli monitoring data would also be pertinent for the analysis of putative viral indicators, such as F+ coliphage, and could be extended to data on bacterial and viral pathogens. PMID:12639007

Lee, R J; Morgan, O C

2003-01-01

328

A comparison of human toxics exposure and environmental contamination by census division  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) data and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) STORET data were used to test for relationships between human exposure and environmental contamination according to census division. Regions were ranked according to the mean concentration of 43 toxic substances (pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, semi-volatiles, and volatiles) in human adipose tissue and environmental media (sediment, fish tissue,

Linda J. Phillips

1992-01-01

329

KINETICS OF CHEMICAL & MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Once treated drinking water enters the distribution system, substantial microbial, chemical, and physical changes can occur. Examples of such changes can nclude loss of disinfectant residual, increases in disinfection byproducts (DBP), growth of microbial diversity and population...

330

A longitudinal study of environmental Salmonella contamination in caged and free-range layer flocks.  

PubMed

The environmental contamination by salmonella was examined over a 12-month period in 74 commercial layer flocks from eight farms in the UK, which previously had been identified as being contaminated with salmonella. Samples of faeces, dust, litter, egg belt spillage and wildlife vectors were taken, plus swabs of cages, feeders, drinkers, floors, egg belts and boots. Some sampling was performed in each month of the year. Numerous serovars were detected but Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was the only persistent serotype found among single-age flocks. There was a significant correlation between qualitative environmental samples and semi-quantitative faeces samples. The level of environmental contamination increased significantly over time. There were significant temperature and seasonal effects upon contamination. Wildlife vectors proved to be sensitive samples for the detection of salmonella. The efficacy of cleaning and disinfection upon residual salmonella contamination, and upon subsequent flock contamination, was highly variable between and within premises. The variability between detected prevalences over time and between flocks indicates a need for regular, sensitive monitoring of flocks for salmonella to permit targeting of control measures aimed at eliminating contamination of the layer environment by salmonella. There is substantial scope for improvement of cleaning and disinfection procedures. PMID:17497330

Wales, Andrew; Breslin, Mark; Carter, Ben; Sayers, Robin; Davies, Robert

2007-06-01

331

Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.  

PubMed

Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. PMID:23845936

Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

2013-09-01

332

Transcriptional response of hepatic largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) mRNA upon exposure to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Microarrays enable gene transcript expression changes in near-whole genomes to be assessed in response to environmental stimuli. We utilized oligonucleotide microarrays and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to assess patterns of gene expression changes in male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) hepatic tissues after a 96?h exposure to common environmental contaminants. Fish were exposed to atrazine, cadmium chloride, PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 3.0, 0.00067, 2.5, 50 and 100?µg?g(-1), respectively. This was conducted in an effort to identify potential biomarkers of exposure. The expressions of 4, 126, 118, 137 and 58 mRNA transcripts were significantly (P ? 0.001, fold change ?2×) affected by exposure to atrazine, cadmium chloride, PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene exposures, respectively. GSEA revealed that none, four, five, five and three biological function gene ontology categories were significantly influenced by exposure to these chemicals, respectively. We observed that cadmium chloride elicited ethanol metabolism responses, and along with PCB 126 and phenanthrene affected transcripts associated with protein biosynthesis. PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene also influenced one-carbon compound metabolism while PCB 126 and phenanthrene affected mRNA transcription and mRNA export from the nucleus and may have induced an antiestrogenic response. Atrazine was found to alter the expression of few hepatic transcripts. This work has highlighted several biological processes of interest that may be helpful in the development of gene transcript biomarkers of chemical exposure in fish. PMID:20589742

Sanchez, Brian C; Carter, Barbara; Hammers, Heather R; Sepúlveda, María S

2011-03-01

333

Multiple classes of environmental chemicals are associated with liver disease: NHANES 2003–2004  

PubMed Central

Biomonitoring studies show that humans carry a body burden of multiple classes of contaminants which are not often studied together. Many of these chemicals may be hepatotoxic. We used the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to evaluate the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and 37 environmental contaminants, comprising heavy metals, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxin-like compounds, using a novel method. Linear regression models were constructed for each chemical separately, then as a class, using quartiles to represent exposure and adjusting for age, sex, race, income, and BMI. We then used an optimization approach to compile a weighted sum of the quartile scores, both within and across chemical classes. Using the optimization approach to construct weighted quartile scores, the dioxin like PCB, the non-dioxin like PCB and metal class-level scores were significantly associated with elevated ALT. A significant interaction was detected between the class-level score for metals, and the score for non-dioxin-like PCBs. When including all chemicals in one model, 3 chemicals accounted for 78 % of the weight (Mercury, PCB 180, 3,3’,4,4’,5-PNCB) with the remaining 22% associated with 4 chemicals (a dioxin and 3 PCBs). Validation with a holdout dataset indicated that the weighted quartile sum estimator efficiently identifies reproducible significant associations. PMID:23491026

Yorita Christensen, Krista L.; Carr, Caroline; Sanyal, Arun J.; Gennings, Chris

2013-01-01

334

Potential of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for remediation of environmental organic contaminants in water: a review.  

PubMed

Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has the potential to degrade different organic contaminants. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) can reduce the contaminants even more rapidly due to its small size and large specific surface area (SSA), compared to granular ZVI. The main objective of this paper is to assess and compare the potential of NZVI for degradation of different contaminants in water under specific environmental conditions. As a first step, the potential reactive functional groups/bonds associated with different contaminants are identified and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. Thereafter, the reaction efficiencies of different organic contaminants with NZVI are compared. Mass of ZVI and reaction time required to transform a certain amount of contaminated water are calculated based on literature data. Sources of contaminants in the environment and their environmental occurrences are discussed to understand the potential locations where NZVI could be applied for removal of different contaminants. Overall it is observed that azo-compounds are readily transformed in the presence of NZVI particles. Reaction efficiencies of ZVI for reduction of nitro-organic compounds are also reasonably high. However, halogenated compounds with high molecular weights or complex structures (i.e., iodinated contrast media, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) show lower reaction rates with NZVI compared to the widely studied chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e., trichloroethylene). PMID:24135090

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Scheytt, Traugott

2013-01-01

335

PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This important outcome results from the way risk is perceived, which in turn is little affected by factual weight-of-evidence. Essentially, drugs in drinking water supplies are considered "out-of-place" chemicals and as such are sometimes looked upon as "chemical weeds" by the co...

336

Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

1993-09-01

337

Sequential chemical extraction for a phosphogypsum environmental impact evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphogypsum (PG) is gypsum generated during phosphoric acid production. PG is stocked in large stacks or accumulated in lakes; it contains heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements. The metal contamination may affect the functionality, sustainability and biodiversity of ecosystems. In this work, PG samples were analyzed by Plasma Spectrometry. Total metal content and in the extractable fraction of chemical elements were determined. For K, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ba, Pb and U, the results obtained are lower than those obtained in a Idaho plant are including and also lower than those found in the soil, indicating this PG sample analyzed probably will not cause any additional metal neither natural radiation contamination.

Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.; Silveira, M. A. G.

2013-05-01

338

Linking chemical contamination to biological effects in coastal pollution monitoring.  

PubMed

To establish the connection between pollutant levels and their harmful effects on living resources, coastal monitoring programmes have incorporated biological tools, such as the scope for growth (SFG) in marine mussels and benthic macrofauna community indices. Although the relation between oxygen-depleting anthropogenic inputs and the alteration of benthic communities is well described, the effects of chemical pollutants are unknown because they are not expected to favour any particular taxa. In this study, the combined efforts of five research teams involved in the investigative monitoring of marine pollution allowed the generation of a multiyear data set for Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula). Multivariate analysis of these data allowed the identification of the chemical-matrix combinations responsible for most of the variability among sites and the construction of a chemical pollution index (CPI) that significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with biological effects at both the individual and the community levels. We report a consistent reduction in the physiological fitness of local populations of mussels as chemical pollution increases. The energy balance was more sensitive to pollution than individual physiological rates, but the reduction in the SFG was primarily due to significantly decreased clearance rates. We also found a decrease in benthic macrofauna diversity as chemical pollution increases. This diversity reduction resulted not from altered evenness, as the classic paradigm might suggest, but from a loss of species richness. PMID:21805214

Beiras, Ricardo; Durán, Iria; Parra, Santiago; Urrutia, Miren B; Besada, Victoria; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Sánchez-Marín, Paula; González-Quijano, Amelia; Franco, María A; Nieto, Óscar; González, Juan J

2012-01-01

339

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses.

R. G. Anthony; M. G. Garrett; C. A. Schuler

1993-01-01

340

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

1993-01-01

341

Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Certain chemicals in the environment are estrogenic. The low potencies of the compounds, when studied singly, suggest that they may have little effect on biological systems. The estrogenic potencies of combinations of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen potencies of combination of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen systems (YES) containing human estrogen receptor (hER). Combinations of two weak environmental estrogens, such as dieldrin, endosulfan, or toxaphene, were 100 times as potent in hER-mediated transactivation as any chemical alone. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls shown previously to synergistically alter sexual development in turtles also synergized in the YES. The synergistic interaction of chemical mixtures with the estrogen receptor may have profound environmental implications. These results may represent a previously uncharacterized level of regulation of estrogen-associated responses. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Arnold, S.F.; Klotz, D.M.; Collins, B.M. [and others

1996-06-07

342

Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will ...

343

Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

344

USE OF ULTRASOUND IN MONITORING CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been examining the potential for combining sonication with other technologies for monitoring specific classes of organic pollutants in water. ollutants are decomposed into ions which can be detected using known electrochemical te...

345

Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.  

PubMed

This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses our ability to understand the implications of such findings. As advances in analytical technologies occur, it is probable that substances previously found to be non-detectable will be detected. However, their presence in environmental media should not be construed to mean that they are necessarily toxic or hazardous. Current-use pesticides are tightly regulated and extensive efforts have been made to analyze for their presence in surface waters from the Great Lakes Basin. The concentrations found in surface waters for many of the pesticides are below current regulatory criteria. However, the concentrations of certain pesticides exceeded current criteria in 6-32% of the samples analyzed. Detectable concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds were present in 34% of the surface water samples. Various prescription and non-prescription drugs were detected, most frequently at locations that were proximate to the point of discharge from wastewater treatment plants or agricultural operations. At present, there are no standards, guidelines, or criteria with which to compare these contaminant concentrations. Concentrations of alkylphenol ethoxylates and their metabolites have been well studied. All surface water nonylphenol concentrations were below US ambient water quality criteria. However, the concentrations reported for some locations exceeded Canadian guidelines for water or sediment. Only limited data were available for a wide variety of organic wastewater contaminants. Measured concentrations in Great Lakes waters were generally low. Where criteria exist for comparison, the concentrations found were generally below the associated regulatory standards. However, exceedences were noted for some classes of compounds, including phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The highest environmental concentrations were reported in biota for a number of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated surfactants). Various stewardship as well as government risk assessment and risk management programs have been imple

Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

2010-01-01

346

Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

2012-12-01

347

Multi-residue analysis of 80 environmental contaminants in honeys, honeybees and pollens by one extraction procedure followed by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

One of the factors that may explain nowadays honeybees' colonies losses is the increasing presence of chemicals in the environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a global view of the presence of environmental contaminants in beehives and, develop a fast, cheap and sensitive tool to analyze environmental contaminants in apiarian matrices. A multi residue analysis was developed to quantify 80 environmental contaminants, pesticides and veterinary drugs, belonging to different chemical classes, in honeys, honeybees and pollens. It consists in a single extraction, based on a modified "QuEChERS method", followed by gas chromatography coupled with Time of Flight mass spectrometry (GC-ToF) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The "QuEChERS method" combines salting-out liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean up. It was adjusted to honey and especially to honeybee and pollen, by adding a small fraction of hexane in acetonitrile to eliminate lipids that interfere with mass spectrometry analysis. This method, combined with accurate and sensitive detection, allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 10 ng/g, with recoveries between 60 and 120%. Application to more than 100 samples of each matrix was achieved for a global view of pesticide presence in the honeybee environment. Relatively high percentages of honeys, honeybees and pollens were found to be contaminated by pesticides used to combat varroa but also by fungicides like carbendazim and ubiquitous contaminants. PMID:21783197

Wiest, Laure; Buleté, Audrey; Giroud, Barbara; Fratta, Cédric; Amic, Sophie; Lambert, Olivier; Pouliquen, Hervé; Arnaudguilhem, Carine

2011-08-26

348

A Look At Endocrine Disruptors: Assessing the threat of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants to birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volume 2, Number 1 (January 2001) of the Ornithological Council's newsletter BIRDNET includes this issue brief on the influence of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants on birds. The issue brief covers the basics of endocrine disruptors, policy issues, a review of the state of our knowledge about endocrine disruptors and birds, and suggested research topics that would be useful in better determining the effects of these contaminants on wild birds.

349

Environmental effects of dredging. Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants; subcellular effects  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the first in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants for causing mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. This technical note describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the subcellular level.

NONE

1995-07-01

350

Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

1975-01-01

351

Phytoremediation: An ecological solution to organic chemical contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is a promising new technology that uses plants to degrade, assimilate, metabolize, or detoxify metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, and chlorinated solvents. In this review, in situ, in vivo and in vitro methods of application are described for remediation of these compounds. Phytoaccumulation, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, phytotransformation, phytovolatilization and rhizodegradation are discussed and the role of enzymes in transforming organic chemicals in

Sridhar Susarla; Victor F. Medina; Steven C. McCutcheon

2002-01-01

352

Chemical concentrations and contamination associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to determine the chemical exposures associated with the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine. Two scenarios were utilized, sampling at actual clandestine laboratories as they were being raided by law enforcement (Scenario 1) and sampling at controlled ''cooks'' conducted in houses to be destroyed (Scenario 2). Sampling during Scenario 1 revealed that most suspected laboratories had significant amounts

John W. Martyny; Shawn L. Arbuckle; Charles S. McCammon; Eric J. Esswein; Nicola Erb; Mike Van Dyke

2007-01-01

353

Active carbon for removal of toxic chemicals from contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coconut charcoals of different grades were studied for assessing the removal efficiency of chemical warfare (CW) agents from aqueous solutions. Oxygen analogue of sulphur mustard and phenol were used as model compounds for CW agents for adsorption studies. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were plotted. Equilibrium constant and maximum adsorption capacity for carbons were computed from the isotherm data. These

Beer Singh; S. Madhusudhanan; Vinita Dubey; Rabinder Nath; N. B. S. N. Rao

1996-01-01

354

Delineation of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils and Sediments With Environmental Magnetic Methods: Laboratory and Field Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon contamination of soils and sediments is a worldwide environmental problem. The present research focuses on the study of magnetic properties of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments using environmental magnetic methods both on field sites as well as in laboratory batch experiments. The main objectives of this research are i) to determine a possible application of magnetic proxies for the delineation of organic contamination in soils and sediments and ii) to examine the role of bacteria in changing soil magnetic properties after hydrocarbon contamination. A former oil field and a former military site which are heavily contaminated with hydrocarbons were studied. Additionally, three different types of natural clean soils were investigated in laboratory experiments by simulating hydrocarbon contamination in sterile and microbial active setups. Magnetic properties, soil properties, iron bioavailability, iron redox state and hydrocarbon content of samples were measured. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility (MS) was monitored weekly in laboratory batch set-ups during several months. Results from the field sites showed that there is an increase of MS and a good correlation between MS and hydrocarbon content. A weekly monitored MS result from the laboratory study clearly indicated~~10% change (increase as well as decrease) of initial MS of respective soils only in microbial active set-ups with saturation after a few weeks of experimental period. This depicts that there is a change of MS caused by microbial iron mineral transformation in presence of hydrocarbon contamination in soils. The results from the field study demonstrate that magnetic proxies can be used to localize hydrocarbon contamination. However, more field sites with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments need to be investigated by using environmental magnetic methods for better understanding the factors driving such changes in magnetic properties.

Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Kappler, A.; Blaha, U.; Petrovsky, E.

2008-12-01

355

Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:25491153

Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

2014-01-01

356

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: an epidemiological approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success - egg hatchability and fry survival - were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.

1991-01-01

357

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success--egg hatchability and fry survival--were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1991-08-01

358

Carbon nanomaterials in clean and contaminated soils: environmental implications and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exceptional sorptive ability of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) is driven by their characteristically large reactive surface areas and highly hydrophobic nature. Given these properties, it is possible for CNMs to impact on the persistence, mobility and bioavailability of contaminants within soils, either favourably through sorption and sequestration, hence reducing their bioavailability, or unfavourably through increasing contaminant dispersal. This review considers the complex and dynamic nature of both soil and CNM physicochemical properties to determine their fate and behaviour, together with their interaction with contaminants and the soil microflora. It is argued that assessment of CNMs within soil should be conducted on a case-by-case basis and further work to assess the long-term stability and toxicity of sorbed contaminants, as well as the toxicity of CNMs themselves, is required before their sorptive abilities can be applied to remedy environmental issues.

Riding, M. J.; Martin, F. L.; Jones, K. C.; Semple, K. T.

2015-01-01

359

Using Nestling Bald Eagles to Assess Spatial and Temporal Trends of Environmental Contaminants, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota.  

E-print Network

??Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are a avian species used to monitor environmental contaminants such as mercury (Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides… (more)

Pittman, Henry

2010-01-01

360

Effect of Low Temperature Thermal Treatment on Soils Contaminated with Pentachlorophenol and Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals  

PubMed Central

The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs’ and the PCP molecules’ chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 300 °C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2–12 × 1018 spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and linewidth (?Hp-p) of 2.00311 – 2.00323 and 4.190 – 5.472 Gauss, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1–10 × 1018 spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327 – 2.00341, and ?Hp-p of 5.209 – 6.721 Gauss. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 × 1018 spins/g of soil at 100 °C for open heating and 12 × 1018 spins/g at 75 °C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2 – 24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure. PMID:22548284

dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Cook, Robert L.; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Dellinger, Barry

2012-01-01

361

Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.  

PubMed

Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity. However, the same techniques discussed could also have application to catastrophes resulting from other incidents, such as natural disasters or industrial accidents. Further, the high sample throughput enabled by the techniques discussed could be employed for conventional environmental studies and compliance monitoring, potentially decreasing costs and/or increasing the quantity of data available to decision-makers. PMID:24568927

Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

2014-11-01

362

Core sediment bacteria drive community response to anthropogenic contamination over multiple environmental gradients.  

PubMed

In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate sediment bacterial community response to contaminant disturbance across six estuaries with differing levels of 'modification'. We observed a significant influence of metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in shaping bacterial community composition, structure and diversity, with metals being the more influential contaminant. An abundant and pervasive 'core' set of bacteria found in every sample were largely responsible for mediating community response to contamination. These 13 core operational taxonomic units were mostly comprised of Gamma-, Delta-, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Sediment silt and metals together explained the most variation in bacterial community composition (19.7%). Following this strong contaminant signature, salinity and temperature represented important environmental variables predicting 10.9% of community variation. While overall network connectivity measures supported the idea of an inherently diverse soil microbiome with some degree of functional redundancy, lower values observed in contaminated sediments indicate potential structural perturbations in the community from fracturing or loss of bacterial associations. The large number of unclassified sequences obtained in this study contribute to improving our understanding of environmentally relevant strains in relation to anthropogenic contamination, which have been overlooked in laboratory studies. PMID:23647974

Sun, Melanie Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Brown, Mark V

2013-09-01

363

Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

1994-01-01

364

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Executive Summary  

E-print Network

2009 Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Executive Summary, an environmental Environmental Chemicals (National Exposure chemical refers to a chemical compound or Report) is a series of ongoing assessments of chemical element present in air, water, food, soil, the U.S. population

365

Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. An alternative screening technology, Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD), could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real time measurements provided by an EMWD system enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies. The system also enhances worker safety and provides the added flexibility of being able to steer a drill bit in or out of hazardous zones.

Bishop, L.B.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

1999-02-22

366

Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

367

Chemodynamics: transport and behavior of chemicals in the environment--a problem in environmental health.  

PubMed Central

In the manufacture and use of the several thousand chemicals employed by technological societies, portions of these chemicals escape or are intentionally introduced into the environment. The behavior, fate, and to some extent the effects produced by these chemicals are a result of a complex interaction of the properties of the chemical with the various processes governing transport, degradation, sequestration, and uptake by organisms. In addition, such processes as adsorption, evaporation, partitioning, and degradation are influenced by ambient conditions of temperature, air movement, moisture, presence of other chemicals, and the concentration and properties of the subject chemicals. These influence the level and extent of exposure to these chemicals that man might receive. Study of the physiochemical properties and extent of exposure to these chem;cals that man might receive. Study of the physiochemical properties of compounds in relation to these various processes has provided a basis for better understanding of the quantitative behavior. Such information is useful in development of predictive models on behavior and fate of the chemicals in relation to human exposure. Beyond this, it provides information that could be used to devise procedures of manufacture, use, and disposal that would minimize environmental contamination. Some of the physical principles involved in chemodynamics are presented in this review. PMID:598352

Freed, V H; Chiou, C T; Haque, R

1977-01-01

368

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05-9.2 mg/kg) was recorded in urban soils and vegetable plot soils where these are impacted by Hg-contaminated water and sediment derived from mineral processing activities. Hg in vegetable and grain samples is mostly below the detection limit of 0.004 mg/kg Hg, apart from 0.007 and 0.092 mg/kg Hg in two yam samples and 0.011 to 0.013 mg/kg Hg in three rice samples. The standardized (i.e., standardized to 10 cm length) Hg concentrations in Clarias spp. increase from about 0.01 mg Hg/kg for the River Malagarasi delta to 0.07, 0.2, and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa 'background', moderately and most contaminated sites. For piscivorous (Lates, Brycinus, and Hydrocynus spp.), insectivorous (Barbus spp.), and planktivorous (Haplochromis spp.) fish species, the 10-cm standardized Hg concentrations increase from about 0.006 mg/kg for the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika area to 0.5 and 3.5 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa moderately and most contaminated sites. The low concentrations of Hg in fish from the Malagarasi River delta and Lake Tanganyika indicate that Hg contamination from the Rwamagasa area does not have a readily discernible impact on the biota of Lake Tanganyika. Many of the fish samples from Rwamagasa exceed guidelines for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg) as well as the WHO recommended limit for vulnerable groups (0.2 mg/kg). Tissue total Hg (THg) of all fish collected from the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika subarea is well below these guidelines. Potential human exposure through consumption of 300 g/day of rice grown on Hg-contaminated soils is 5.5 microg/week. Consumption of 250 g Nile perch (Lates spp.), 500 g tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), and 250 g of catfish (Clarias spp.) each week would result in an intake of 65 microg Hg/week for people consuming only fish from the Mara and Mwanza regions of Lake Victoria and 116 microg Hg/week for people in the Rwamagasa area consuming tilapia and Nile perch from Lake Victoria and catfish from mining-impacted streams. This is lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 300 microg for Hg in the diet set by the WHO and the FAO. Inadvertent ingestion of soil containing 9 mg Hg/kg at a rate of 80 mg/day would give an additional estimated weekly intake of 5 microg THg, whereas the persistent and purposeful consumption of soil (geophagia) at a rate of 26 g soil/day would produce an additional chemical exposure of 230 microg Hg/day. PMID:15862840

Taylor, H; Appleton, J D; Lister, R; Smith, B; Chitamweba, D; Mkumbo, O; Machiwa, J F; Tesha, A L; Beinhoff, C

2005-05-01

369

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

1994-01-01

370

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n = 70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

1994-01-01

371

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might

Premendu Prakash Mathur; Shereen Cynthia D'Cruz

2011-01-01

372

Epidemiological Surveillance on Environmental Contaminants in Poultry Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: A total of 416 environmental samples (litter, water, swabs and air) were collected from commercial poultry farms located in Ismailia and Zagazig Governorates during the period January through July of 2008. These samples were tested by conventional cultural methods and then were confirmed biochemically. The bacterial isolates that were identified included: Citrobacter spp., E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus

S. Essam Soliman; P. G. Reddy; A. A. Mohamed Sobeih; H. Busby; E. Sara Rowe

2009-01-01

373

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2004 REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry over the period of 2002-2003. A few significant references that appeared between January and March 2004 are also included. This review is in keeping with a current approach of Analytical Chemistry to include onl...

374

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry over the period of 2004-2005. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2006 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 100-200 s...

375

Some scientific judgments in the assessment of the risk of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The assessment of risk due to environmental contaminants depends, in part, on scientific data. When such data are incomplete, as is usually the case, assumptions based on scientific judgments are made to analyze the consequences. Specifically, when health related data needed to assess the risk posed by environmental contaminants are missing or incomplete, it becomes necessary to make assumptions using scientific judgment to estimate the risk. Different scientists can and do make different assumptions, and the resulting differences in opinion can result in controversy. The present discussion presents a few of the consensus judgments of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concerning the health effects and risk for such environmental contaminants as 1,2-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane, para-dichlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls, perchloroethylene, and xylene, as well as the implications of the more likely cancer mechanisms, the exposure routes, and pharmacokinetics to the risk assessment process. In some of these examples, the scientific data have been developed to the extent that specific judgments by groups such as the SAB can result in greater confidence that one is correct in the assessment of risk. Because of the uncertainties in current scientific knowledge for many environmental contaminants, judgments differ and there is no right or wrong opinion.

Cothern, C.R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-05-01

376

Treatability of contaminated ground water and aquifer solids at town gas sites, using photolytic ozonation and chemical in-situ reclamation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The feasbility of cleaning up contaminated ground water and aquifer solids from so-called town gas sites using photolytic ozonation and chemical in situ aquifer reclamation (CISR) techniques was investigated in the laboratory. At the actual site, coal was thermally oxidized to produce methane for municipal distribution. The degradation left a coal tar which, if released into the ground, could contaminate ground water and aquifer solids with a number of organic substances, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at environmentally significant concentrations. A chemical in situ treatment method using persulfate as a source of free radicals destroyed organic contaminants that were adsorbed to the aquifer solids. PAHs were reduced by 34 percent after 12 days of treatment and by 52 percent after 40 days.

Peyton, G.R.; LeFaivre, M.H.; Smith, M.A.

1990-08-01

377

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, we collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 ?g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 ?g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J.M.; Karasov, W.H.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K.L.; Hanbidge, B.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Jones, P.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Verbrugge, D.A.

1996-01-01

378

Chemical Genomics Profiling of Environmental Chemical Modulation of Human Nuclear Receptors  

EPA Science Inventory

The large and increasing number of chemicals released into the environment demand more efficient and cost effective approaches for assessing environmental chemical toxicity. The U.S. Tox21 program has responded to this challenge by proposing alternative strategies for toxicity te...

379

DETOXIFICATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER BY PHYSICAL EXTRACTION CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical analyses revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and other organic compounds were present in a perennial freshwater stream that flowed through the abandoned American Creosote Works, designated for Superfund cleanup by the U.S Environmental Protection Agenc...

380

Incorporating biologically based models into assessments of risk from chemical contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. Traditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been derived from the toxic responses observed in animals. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that further information is needed if risks to humans are to be assessed accurately. Biologically based models help clarify the dose-response relationship and reduce uncertainty.

Bull, R. J.; Conolly, R. B.; De Marini, D. M.; MacPhail, R. C.; Ohanian, E. V.; Swenberg, J. A.

1993-01-01

381

A review of models for estimating terrestrial ecological receptor exposure to chemical contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In instances where empirical measurements are not practicable, ecological risk assessments may rely on site-specific exposure models for estimating uptake of chemical contaminants. This paper presents, based on a review of the literature, a compilation of relatively simple quantitative models that can be combined to produce site- and species-specific first-order estimates of uptake of chemicals from abiotic media. These models

Bruce K. Hope

1995-01-01

382

Physical and chemical indicators of intrinsic bioremediation in a solvent-contaminated alluvium  

SciTech Connect

Historical activities at an industrial site resulted in contamination of the site subsurface. Although several contaminants were present, risk-analysis determined that benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzene were the primary compounds of concern. Extensive studies of the physical and chemical characteristics of the site were conducted. Correlations between volatile organic carbon (VOC) concentration and various physical and chemical parameters were as follows: excellent to good direct correlations were noted for conductivity (0.87), salinity (0.84), and ortho-phosphate concentrations (0.60). Colton correlations were excellent to good/moderate and inverse for VOC concentration and dissolved oxygen ({minus}O.67), redox ({minus}0.84), nitrate concentration ({minus}0.77), and sulfate concentration ({minus}0.54). Potential electron-acceptors were removed from the groundwater in the order expected from the physical chemistry of electron-acceptor usage and display geographic separation that is consistent with microbial metabolic activity. Nutrient and metabolite patterns within the aquifer also were consistent with those expected from microbial activity. Ratios of more recalcitrant contaminants to less recalcitrant contaminants across the plume indicated that contaminants are being removed in situ since the less recalcitrant compounds were attenuated at a rate faster than the more recalcitrant tracers. The results of these studies and of accompanying biological studies have led to the conclusion that substantial intrinsic bioremediation of groundwater contaminants is occurring.

Williams, R.; Hooper, S.; Shuttle, K.; Kunkler, J. [Merck and Co., Inc., Elkton, VA (United States). Environmental Projects Lab.

1995-12-31

383

Environmental neurotoxicity of chemicals and radiation  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic and societal concerns continue to stimulate studies in the field of environmental neurotoxicology. Although the role of heavy metals, aluminum, and iron are unclear in the etiology of human neurodegenerative disorders, these toxins have provided fertile ground for in vivo and in vitro experimental studies to elucidate their role in neurotoxic injury. Experimental models of clinical syndromes are discussed with special relevance to developmental neurotoxicology. Cycloleucine, tellurium, and 1,3-dinitrobenzene provide models of subacute combined degeneration, primary peripheral nerve demyelination, and thiamine deficiency-like lesions, respectively. Increasing attention is being given to irradiation neurotoxicity, especially in the developing or young central nervous system. A fuller understanding of the pathogenesis of low-dose irradiation injury allows for a clearer understanding of its neurobiology and also provides a more rational approach to understanding an interventional therapy associated with brain irradiation for childhood neoplasia. 43 refs.

Verity, M.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-06-01

384

Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. PMID:21724330

Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

2011-09-15

385

Environmental contaminants in canvasbacks wintering on San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of 11 trace elements, 21 organochlorines, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 13 aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined in canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering on San Francisco Bay, California during 1988. With the exception of Se, concentrations of potentially toxic elements were low. Similarly, concentrations of most organic compounds were near or below detection limits. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and DDE were common, but at levels lower than those known to be harmful to waterfowl. Innocuous trace elements (Cu, Fe, and Zn), which are often associated with anthropogenic contamination, occurred at high levels. Concentrations of toxic elements were several times lower and those of benign elements were similar or greater than concentrations reported for surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) or greater scaup (Aythya marila) from San Francisco Bay.

Miles, A.K.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

1993-01-01

386

Effect of Chemical Stabilization by Phosphate Amendment on the Desorption of P and Pb From a Contaminated Soil  

E-print Network

Effect of Chemical Stabilization by Phosphate Amendment on the Desorption of P and Pb From a Contaminated Soil E. M. Cooper, D. G. Strawn, J. T. Sims and B. M. Onken The amendment of Pb contaminated soils contaminated soil treated with H3PO4 synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), and HCl + K3PO4 was investigated using

Sparks, Donald L.

387

Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin indus...

388

Prediction of chemical contaminants and food compositions by near infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prediction of Food Adulteration by Infrared Spectroscopy H. Zhuang Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 Food adulteration, including both chemical contamination and composition alternation, has been one of major quality and/or safety c...

389

Chemical analysis of contaminated soil strengthened by the addition of lime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strengthening of contaminated materials using inorganic cementitious agents is becoming more widely used in the UK. The method has particular advantages for bulk fill operations such as highway earthworks. Research has been done into the chemical characteristics of leachates and leached solid samples from a study into the long-term durability of a lime strengthened silt\\/pfa mixture amended with sewage sludge.

J. D Mckinley; H. R Thomas; K. P Williams; J. M Reid

2001-01-01

390

MULTIPLE STRESSORS IN AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES: EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION, BULLFROGS, AND FISH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leading hypothesis of amphibian population declines is that combinations of multiple stressors contribute to declines. We examined the role that chemical contamination, competition, and predation play singly and in combination in aquatic amphibian communities. We exposed larvae of American toads (Bufo americanus), southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala), and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) to overwintered bullfrog tadpoles (R. catesbeiana), bluegill

Michelle D. Boone; Raymond D. Semlitsch; Edward E. Little; Meaghan C. Doyle

2007-01-01

391

Monitoring chemical contamination levels in the Mediterranean based on the use of mussel caging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of the biointegrator network (RINBIO), 92 man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), distributed over 1800 km of the French Mediterranean coast, made it possible to assess chemical contamination by heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, As) and organic compounds (DDT, PCBs, HAP). The caging technique was adopted to compensate for the scarcity of natural

Bruno Andral; Jean Yves Stanisiere; Didier Sauzade; Elodie Damier; Hervé Thebault; François Galgani; Pierre Boissery

2004-01-01

392

Specific ribosomal DNA sequences from diverse environmental settings correlate with experimental contaminants.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones obtained by PCR from uncultured bacteria inhabiting a wide range of environments has increased our knowledge of bacterial diversity. One possible problem in the assessment of bacterial diversity based on sequence information is that PCR is exquisitely sensitive to contaminating 16S rDNA. This raises the possibility that some putative environmental rRNA sequences in fact correspond to contaminant sequences. To document potential contaminants, we cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments obtained at low levels in the absence of added template DNA. 16S rDNA sequences closely related to the genera Duganella (formerly Zoogloea), Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Escherichia, Leptothrix, and Herbaspirillum were identified in contaminant libraries and in clone libraries from diverse, generally low-biomass habitats. The rRNA sequences detected possibly are common contaminants in reagents used to prepare genomic DNA. Consequently, their detection in processed environmental samples may not reflect environmentally relevant organisms. PMID:9687486

Tanner, M A; Goebel, B M; Dojka, M A; Pace, N R

1998-08-01

393

Specific Ribosomal DNA Sequences from Diverse Environmental Settings Correlate with Experimental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones obtained by PCR from uncultured bacteria inhabiting a wide range of environments has increased our knowledge of bacterial diversity. One possible problem in the assessment of bacterial diversity based on sequence information is that PCR is exquisitely sensitive to contaminating 16S rDNA. This raises the possibility that some putative environmental rRNA sequences in fact correspond to contaminant sequences. To document potential contaminants, we cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments obtained at low levels in the absence of added template DNA. 16S rDNA sequences closely related to the genera Duganella (formerly Zoogloea), Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Escherichia, Leptothrix, and Herbaspirillum were identified in contaminant libraries and in clone libraries from diverse, generally low-biomass habitats. The rRNA sequences detected possibly are common contaminants in reagents used to prepare genomic DNA. Consequently, their detection in processed environmental samples may not reflect environmentally relevant organisms. PMID:9687486

Tanner, Michael A.; Goebel, Brett M.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.

1998-01-01

394

Planning dredging services in contaminated sediments for balanced environmental and investment costs.  

PubMed

Dredging of contaminated sediments has shown to be a harmful activity for the environment, because a number of contaminants can be resuspended and become available to the organisms. Furthermore, dredged contaminated sediments may cause significant damages in the dumping site. In order to avoid the drawbacks of this activity, better techniques have to be developed and the present article presents a new procedure for the planning of dredging that reduces the environmental impacts by reducing the amount of dredged sediments and, at the same time, reduces costs. The new technique uses screening of contaminant concentrations in the sediments that are normally part of the environmental impact assessment for dredging activity. A detailed mapping of the contamination, layer by layer is carried out and the areas where the action levels are reached are outlined with polygons, establishing limits within which sediments have to be dredged with safe procedures. In the case presented, construction of a harbor in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the safe procedure is cutter/suction dredging and pumping into a sub-aquatic confined disposal facility (CDF). A detailed evaluation of costs showed that if the whole layers of sediment were to be dumped into the CDF, the cost of the activity would be at least 63.82% more expensive than the proposed procedure, constituting an attractive advantage. Furthermore, as the size of the CDF is significantly smaller, less dredging is necessary, causing smaller environmental impact. PMID:23524396

Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Barros, Sérgio Ricardo; Lima, Gilson Brito Alves

2013-05-30

395

Environmental politics and science: the case of PBB contamination in Michigan.  

PubMed Central

This article examines how politics and science interacted against a background of uncertainty to shape policy in the case of environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in Michigan. In 1973, between 500 and 1,000 pounds of the flame retardant PBB were accidentally shipped and used instead of the dairy feed additive magnesium oxide, resulting in the widespread contamination of animal feeds, animals, and human food products. The contamination was initially perceived as the private trouble of a single farmer. The problem next became a public issue as public and private institutions grappled with questions of illness, safety, and disposal. To gain influence over those institutions, dissatisfied individuals and groups then turned the PBB contamination into a political controversy. The final section of the present article analyzes how science and politics interacted in: the ways bureaucratic organizations defined the three problems of contamination; the role political controversy played in redefining problems and influencing policy; and the political roles of scientists in controversies over environmental contamination. PMID:6297323

Reich, M R

1983-01-01

396

Catchment-scale environmental controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally river sediment associated contaminants, most notably heavy metals, radionuclides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and phosphorous, constitute one the most significant long-term risks to ecosystems and human health. These can impact both urban and rural areas and, because of their prolonged environmental residence times, are major sources of secondary pollution if contaminated soil and sediment are disturbed by human activity or by natural processes such as water or wind erosion. River catchments are also the primary source of sediment-associated contaminants to the coastal zone, and to the ocean, and an understanding of the factors that control contaminated sediment fluxes and delivery in river systems is essential for effective environmental management and protection. In this paper the catchment-scale controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal are reviewed, including climate-related variations in flooding regime, land-use change, channel engineering, restoration and flood defence. Drawing on case studies from metal mining impacted catchments in Bolivia (Río Pilcomayo), Spain (Río Guadiamar), Romania (River Tisa) and the UK (River Swale) some improved methodologies for identifying, tracing, modelling and managing contaminated river sediments are proposed that could have more general application in similarly affected river systems worldwide.

Macklin, Mark

2010-05-01

397

Combined use of environmental data and biomarkers in fish (Liza aurata) inhabiting a eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system - Gills reflect environmental contamination.  

PubMed

An investigative biomonitoring study was carried out in a eutrophic coastal system with a moderate contamination by metals (Obidos lagoon, Portugal), combining the evaluation of exposure concentrations with metals accumulation and oxidative stress responses in gills of the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Two contrasting seasons (winter and summer) were considered at three sites: Barrosa (BB) and Bom-Sucesso (BS) branches; Middle lagoon (ML). Data on the water column pointed to a higher metals and nutrients availability at BB that was reflected in the higher metal concentrations in gills, particularly in winter. Similarly, oxidative stress responses demonstrated a pro-oxidant challenge at BB (winter and summer), which was corroborated by an integrated biomarker response index (IBR). Metal concentrations in gills were higher in summer than winter, reflecting the increased environmental concentrations in combination with elevated metabolic rates. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (GSH(t)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) increases observed in winter at BB were related with metal accumulation, while summer enhancement of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), GST and GSH(t) was associated with other stressors. Inter-site differences on the basis of IBR were more accentuated in winter. Gills can be considered as an important route of entry for contaminants and were demonstrated to reflect water contamination and are therefore useful in the context of environmental assessment. PMID:19783293

Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Mário

2010-03-01

398

Characterization of chemical-waste-site contamination and determination of its extent using bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of using bioassays to evaluate soils, soil elutriates, and surface and subsurface water from hazardous chemical waste sites is to provide a more-direct, integrated estimate of environmental toxicity. Based on bioassay data, chemical waste sites can be ranked according to their toxic potential or mapped for cleanup operations. The objectives of the study were to (a) assess the

J. M. Thomas; J. R. Skalski; J. F. Cline; M. C. McShane; W. E. Miller; S. A. Peterson; C. A. Callahan; J. C. Greene

1986-01-01

399

CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL WASTE SITE CONTAMINATION AND DETERMINATION OF ITS EXTENT USING BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of using bioassays to evaluate soils, soil elutriates, and surface and subsurface water from hazardous chemical waste sites is to provide a more direct, integrated estimate of environmental toxicity. Based on bioassay data, chemical waste sites can be ranked according...

400

Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to: assess the impact of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic on human health; identify the data and knowledge gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring; examine how these issues have changed since our first assessment [Van Oostdam, J., Gilman, A., Dewailly, É.,

J. Van Oostdam; S. G. Donaldson; M. Feeley; D. Arnold; P. Ayotte; G. Bondy; L. Chan; É. Dewaily; C. M. Furgal; H. Kuhnlein; E. Loring; G. Muckle; E. Myles; O. Receveur; B. Tracy; U. Gill; S. Kalhok

2005-01-01

401

Toxicological pathology in laboratory fish: an evaluation with two species and various environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the studies carried out in small laboratory fish species to investigate the usefulness of histopathology as a tool in aquatic toxicology. The studies were performed with medaka (Oryzias latipes) and guppy (Poecilia reticulata) that were exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants for one and three months. Besides the measurement of routine toxicological parameters,

P. W. Wester; J. G. Vos

1994-01-01

402

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the great lakes: An epidemiological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush,) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success—egg hatchability and fry survival?were used in the evaluation.

Michael J. Mac; Carol C. Edsall

1991-01-01

403

Quantifying diminution in value due to detrimental conditions: An application to environmentally contaminated properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying damages in a case involving diminution in value is an involved process, particularly when environmentally contaminated properties are involved. This article reviews the standard categories of detrimental conditions and the various fundamental issues that must be addressed in any assignment involving detrimental conditions. Next, the basic components of measuring diminution in value are introduced in formula form, along with

Randall Bell

1996-01-01

404

Environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. Eggs in a rural settlement in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In order to study the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural community from the Pontal do Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, soil samples from 31 out of 121 plots were collected in eight different places on each house. The samples were submitted to flotation technique in sodium nitrate (d = 1.20g\\/cm 3 ). Eggs of

Vamilton Alvares Santarém; Elisabeth da Cunha Franco; Fernanda Torres Kozuki; Danila Fini; Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro

2008-01-01

405

Nondigestible Oligosaccharides Do Not Increase Accumulation of Lipid Soluble Environmental Contaminants by Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementing diets with nondigestible fibers that are fermented by the gastrointestinal tract bacteria increases the dimension and absorptive capacities of the small intestine; we hypothesized that this would increase the accumulation of environmental contaminants. This was tested by feeding mice for 6 - 8 wk diets with fiber at two levels (0 and 100 g\\/kg) and from different sources (cellulose,

Yasuhiro Kimura; Yasuo Nagata; Carron W. Bryant; Randal K. Buddington

406

D.M. Whitacre (ed) Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 214, 87-124  

E-print Network

D.M. Whitacre (ed) Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 214, 87-124 DOI 10 and Toxicology 214 (2011) p. 87 - p. 124" DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4614-0668-6_5 #12;physiological characteristics the importance of reinforcing the ecological relevance of toxicological studies to improve ecotoxicological risk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

2001-01-01

408

A systems biology approach to understanding impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past decade, our research team at the US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division has employed systems biology approaches to examine and understand impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction. Our systems biology approach is one in which iterations of model cons...

409

DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF VULNERABILITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The susceptibility of the developing nervous system to damage following exposure to environmental contaminants is believed to be based upon the critical nature of the organizational events that occur in both a regionally- and temporally-dependent manner. The age-related susceptib...

410

Recent Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard as Recorded in Lake Sediments – an Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an interdisciplinary project on recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (76°30'N–80°30'N). It describes the rationale and aims of the project and summarises the location, climate, geology, vegetation, and land-use of Svalbard.

H. J. B. Birks; Vivienne J. Jones; N. L. Rose

2004-01-01

411

Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the impact on human health of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic, and identifies the data gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring. The concept of health in indigenous groups of the Arctic includes social, cultural, and spiritual dimensions. The harvesting, sharing and consumption of traditional

J Van Oostdam; A Gilman; E Dewailly; P Usher; B Wheatley; H Kuhnlein; S Neve; J Walker; B Tracy; M Feeley; V Jerome; B Kwavnick

1999-01-01

412

IN VITRO METABOLISM AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION FROM THE MUTAGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT 2-NITROFLURORANTHENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The metabolism and DNA adduct formation by the mutagenic environmental contaminant 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFA) was studied. ncubation under aerobic conditions with liver microsomes of rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene yielded 2-NFA tran-7.8-dihydrodiol, 2-NFA tran-9,10-di...

413

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors ( Gymnogyps californianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Ronald M. Jurek; John F. Moore

1986-01-01

414

USING GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS TO DIAGNOSE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Advances in molecular biology allow the use of cutting-edge genomic and proteomic tools to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic organisms. Techniques are available to measure changes in expression of single genes (quantitative real-time PCR) or to measure g...

415

Pharmaceutical Contaminants in Urban Water Cycles: A Discussion of Novel Concepts for Environmental Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Urban water cycles are threatened in many ways by human activities, including the discharge of chemicals by industrial and\\u000a household effluents. Since more than a decade it has been recognised that the active ingredients of human pharmaceuticals\\u000a contribute to the chemical contamination of urban surface waters and may pose a serious risk to the environment. Pharmaceuticals\\u000a reach the aquatic environment

Stefan Scholz; Kristin Schirmer; Rolf Altenburger

416

The social and psychological impact of the chemical contamination incident in Weston Village, UK: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the literature on community response to the announcement of well-established chemical contamination close to their homes. It describes a study of residents’ views of chemical contamination on a close and long-standing community in the context of impacts on everyday life. This followed the discovery early in 2000 that houses in Weston Village, in the County of

Geoffrey Barnes; Jamie Baxter; Andrea Litva; Brian Staples

2002-01-01

417

Chemical contamination of the East River (Dongjiang) and its implication on sustainable development in the Pearl River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey reveals that water quality and river sediments of Dongjiang (the East River) have been mildly contaminated by heavy metals and organic chemicals, such as copper, lead, PCBs, PAHs and HCHs. According to photogrammetic surveys, the sources of contamination are closely related to human activities, such as domestic and industrial discharges, agricultural chemical applications and soil erosion due

K. C Ho; K. C. C Hui

2001-01-01

418

Impact of Emergent Contaminants in the Environment: Environmental Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human pharmaceuticals enter the environment mainly through regular domestic use. Their presence in\\u000a the aquatic environment has been recorded in the range ng?L?1 to\\u000a ?g?L?1. Knowledge of the risk associated with the use of pharmaceuticals\\u000a involves establishing the ratio between predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) and predicted no effect\\u000a concentration (PNECs). The European Union (EMEA) and USA (FDA) have implemented two-tiered

Julián Blasco; Angel DelValls

419

Potential role of environmental organic contaminants in an endocrine-disrupted condition found in wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) of the San Pedro Shelf.  

E-print Network

?? Flatfishes exhibit a disrupted endocrine system when sampled from contaminated coastal off-shore locations in urban southern California. Organic chemical contaminants found in the environment… (more)

Schafer, Dana Marie

2011-01-01

420

TOXCAST: A PROGRAM FOR PRIORTITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluating the potential of tens of thousands of chemicals for risk to human health and the environment is beyond the resource limits of the Environmental Protection Agency. The EPA's ToxCast program will explore alternative methods comprising computational chemistry, high-throug...

421

Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety  

E-print Network

to Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) prior to using it. EXPOSURE CONTROLS Engineering Controls Always use/Isoflurane.pdf 2. Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Halocarbon http://www.halocarbon.com/halocarbon_media/Isoflurane_288Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety Risk

Machel, Hans

422

Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety  

E-print Network

the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) prior to working with EtBr. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. Where possibleOccupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety RiskG 2V2 Tel: 780.492-6888 Fax: 780.492.7790 1 | P a g e Ethidium Bromide ­ Fact Sheet Ethidium Bromide

Machel, Hans

423

AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The processes of aging result in many physiological changes which can lead to alterations in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. uch changes can result in altered sensitivity to chemicals, whether drugs or environmental agents, in the elderly. t is extremely diff...

424

ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

425

Diminution in property value arising from the stigma of environmental contamination: A phantom injury in search of actual damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

From all appearances, societal attitudes toward environmental contamination have evolved over the past ten years or more to become far more informed and, some would say, more realistic. For those of us who litigate environmental contamination cases, the hysteria of the 1970s and early 1980s has largely (and thankfully) waned, as society has developed a better — and more empirical—understanding

William J. Stack Esq; Terri Jacobsen Esq

1998-01-01

426

Analysis of risk assessment and risk management processes in the derivation of maximum levels for environmental contaminants in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants originate from diverse sources and, owing to their ubiquitous presence in the environment, may appear in foods. Setting standards in food is increasingly important within the European Union and world-wide to protect consumers’ health and to avoid trade barriers. This paper analyses how maximum levels for environmental contaminants in food were derived by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, by

Klaus Schneider; Inga Ollroge; Martin Clauberg; Ulrike Schuhmacher-Wolz

2007-01-01

427

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated

Swart de R. L; P. S. Ross; J. G. Vos; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

1996-01-01

428

Health risk implications from simultaneous exposure to multiple environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Water quality has deteriorated in the upper Olifants River system, South Africa, as a result of land use activities which include mining, agriculture and industries. A health risk assessment was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in the catchment to determine the possible risks local communities face from various pollutants such as microbials, heavy metals and oestrogen in the river water and vegetation. Aluminium and manganese accumulated in plants and vanadium and aluminium concentrations found in selective water samples posed significant health risks when consumed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment revealed that the combined risk of infection ranged from 1 to 26 percent with the Norovirus posing the overall greatest health risk. The anticipated disability adjusted life years resulting from drinking untreated water from these sites are in the order of 10,000 times greater than what is considered acceptable. The oestradiol activity, caused by endocrine disrupting compounds in the water, measured above the trigger value of 0.7ngL(-1). Impoverished communities in the area, who partially depend on river water for potable and domestic use, are exposed to immune-compromising metals that increase their probability of infection from waterborne diseases caused by the excess microbial pathogens in the contaminated surface water. PMID:23669339

Genthe, B; Le Roux, W J; Schachtschneider, K; Oberholster, P J; Aneck-Hahn, N H; Chamier, J

2013-07-01

429

Environmental contaminants in tissues, foods, and feces of California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two wild California Condors contained moderate to high levels of DDE in their tissues. The levels found could be high enough to cause reproductive problems in adult condors, if the assumption is made that condors are as susceptible to DDE as many other species of birds of prey. Other organochlorines occurred at low levels and probably were not high enough to cause deleterious effects. Metal residues in tissues of one bird were generally low except for copper in liver and lead in bone. Normal background levels of these metals in cathartids are unknown, making interpretation of the results difficult. Organochlorine residues in biopsy samples from a captive condor were low and probably would not have an adverse effect on reproduction if the bird were used for captive breeding. Organochlorines were not detected in food items used in the supplemental feeding program, and mercury and lead residues in these items were generally low. Information is needed on current contaminant levels in natural condor prey throughout the condor range.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Wilbur, S.R.

1983-01-01

430

Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences  

SciTech Connect

Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

2010-05-10

431

Hospital ventilation standards and energy conservation: chemical contamination of hospital air. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In an era of increasing energy conservation consciousness, a critical reassessment of the validity of hospital ventilation and thermal standards is made. If current standards are found to be excessively conservative, major energy conservation measures could be undertaken by rebalancing and/or modification of current HVAC systems. To establish whether or not reducing ventilation rates would increase airborne chemical contamination to unacceptable levels, a field survey was conducted to develop an inventory and dosage estimates of hospital generated airborne chemical contaminants to which patients, staff, and visitors are exposed. The results of the study are presented. Emphasis is on patient exposure, but an examination of occupational exposure was also made. An in-depth assessment of the laboratory air environment is documented. Housekeeping products used in survey hospitals, hazardous properties of housekeeping chemicals and probable product composition are discussed in the appendices.

Rainer, D.; Michaelsen, G.S.

1980-03-01

432

Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

Meyers-Schoene, L. (IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-04-01

433

Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the

Parley V. Winger; Donald P. Schultz; W. Waynon Johnson

1990-01-01

434

Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

1995-11-01

435

XPS chemical analysis of tholins: the oxygen contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Titan's atmosphere, solid organic aerosols are initiated in the upper atmosphere by the photo-dissociation and photo-ionization of N2 and CH4. In order to simulate this complex chemistry several experimental setups have been built, among them plasma experiments. The aerosol analogues produced in such plasma discharges contain oxygen, as a few percents of the elemental composition, despite the absence of oxygen source in the reactive medium [1]. The present study aims at studying the origin of such systematic oxygen incorporation in tholins. A low pressure (0.9mbar) RF CCP discharge is used described in [2]. Gas mixtures of N2 and CH4 (from 1 to 10% of CH4) are injected continuously. The plasma discharge leads to the production of analogues of Titan's atmospheric aerosols: both as grains in the volume [1] and as thin films on the surface of the reactor [3]. SiO2 substrates of 1cm diameter and 1mm thickness are placed on the grounded electrode of the discharge. Organic films are deposited during 2 hours in order to have films thickness less than 1?m. After the two hours, samples are recovered at ambient air for ex-situ analysis. Two complementary analyses are performed to analyse the thin film chemical composition: XPS and SIMS, in order to probe both the surface and depth profile. References [1] Sciamma-O'brien E., Carrasco N., Szopa C., Buch A., Cernogora G. Icarus 209, 2 (2010) 704-714 [2] Alcouffe G., Cavarroc M., Cernogora G., Ouni F., Jolly A., Boufendi L., Szopa C. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 19, 1 (2010) 015008 (11pp) [3] Mahjoub A., Carrasco N., Dahoo P.-R., Gautier T., Szopa C., Cernogora G. Icarus 221, 2 (2012) 670-677.

Carrasco, N.; Jomard, F.; Vigneron, J.; Cernogora, G.

2013-12-01

436

Electromagnetic Radiography (EMR) for the detection of low-level chemical contamination in the ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic Radiography (EMR)TM provides direct, high- resolution images of low-level chemical contamination in the ground at concentration levels in the parts-per-billion range ((mu) g/kg). This new sensor system can distinguish between dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and light, non- aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). Ionic chemicals can be distinguished from non-ionic chemicals, and dissolved-phase chemicals in the water table can be distinguished from liquid- phase contaminants in the vadose zone trapped in the pore spaces of the soil. EMRTM is derived from high-performance ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Like its predecessor, EMRTM provides direct images of subsurface geologic structures, including faults, fracture zones, bedrock profiles, bedding planes, clay lenses and infiltration zones. The system employs electromagnetic impulses in the radio- frequency range of 30 MHz to 480 MHz. Specific chemicals have been found to produce unique responses in this frequency domain, leading to the discovery that discrete energy bands are being excited at the molecular level. Much work remains to be done on the characterization of specific chemicals in the radio-frequency (RF) domain. Meanwhile, conventional soil testing can be used to identify the chemicals and 'calibrate' the EMRTM field data. It is now possible to use non- intrusive remote sensing techniques to map the lateral and vertical distribution of specific low-level chemical contaminants on a production basis. The EMRTM system is currently capable of providing 100 percent volumetric inspection of 3 to 5 acres per day to a depth of several meters, including clay.

Finci, Aka G.; Stanfill, Daniel F., III

1999-12-01

437

Environmental effects of dredging. Procedures for examining the relationship between sediment geochemistry and biological impacts of contaminants. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between sediment-bound contaminants and biological uptake of these contaminants is complex because of the many physical, chemical, and biological factors that can affect the relationship (McElroy and Means 1988). Operational and procedural problems encountered in determining how a sediment- associated contaminant affects aquatic organisms cause additional complications. If sediment quality criteria (SQC) are to be used to regulate dredged material disposal, prediction of biological responses based on changes in sediment geochemistry, i.e., sediment physical and chemical properties, and sediment contaminant levels must be possible. Radioactive tracers can be used to evaluate the effects of changing concentrations of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms if the assumption can be made that the contaminant does not degrade during the study. Spiking a sediment with contaminants has generally been accomplished by the addition of organic solvent carriers containing the contaminant to the soil or sediment (Adams, pg1 2.)

Brannon, J.M.; McFarland, V.; Pennington, J.C.; Price, C.B.; Reilley, F.J.

1989-12-01

438

Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitat types in addition to estuaries, and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional or national environmental quality assessments.

Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

2003-01-01

439

Chemical properties and toxicity of soils contaminated by mining activity.  

PubMed

This research is aimed at assessing the total content and soluble forms of metals (zinc, lead and cadmium) and toxicity of soils subjected to strong human pressure associated with mining of zinc and lead ores. The research area lay in the neighbourhood of the Boles?aw Mine and Metallurgical Plant in Bukowno (Poland). The study obtained total cadmium concentration between 0.29 and 51.91 mg, zinc between 7.90 and 3,614 mg, and that of lead between 28.4 and 6844 mg kg(-1) of soil d.m. The solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 was 1-49% for zinc, 5-45% for cadmium, and <1-10% for lead. In 1 mol HCl dm(-3), the solubility of the studied metals was much higher and obtained values depending on the collection site, from 45 to 92% for zinc, from 74 to 99%, and from 79 to 99% for lead. The lower solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 than 1 mol HCl dm(-3) is connected with that, the ammonium nitrate has low extraction power, and it is used in determining the bioavailable (active) form of heavy metals. Toxicity assessment of the soil samples was performed using two tests, Phytotoxkit and Microtox(®). Germination index values were between 22 and 75% for Sinapis alba, between 28 and 100% for Lepidium sativum, and between 10 and 28% for Sorghum saccharatum. Depending on the studied soil sample, Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition was 20-96%. The sensitivity of the test organisms formed the following series: S. saccharatum > S. alba = V. fischeri > L. sativum. Significant positive correlations (p ? 0.05) of the total and soluble contents of the metals with luminescence inhibition in V. fischeri and root growth inhibition in S. saccharatum were found. The general trend observed was an increase in metal toxicity measured by the biotest with increasing available metal contents in soils. All the soil samples were classified into toxicity class III, which means that they are toxic and present severe danger. Biotest are a good complement to chemical analyses in the assessment of quality of soils as well as in properly managing them. PMID:24903806

Agnieszka, Baran; Tomasz, Czech; Jerzy, Wieczorek

2014-09-01

440

Environmental Health and Safety Restricted Purchase Items Equipment and Chemicals Requiring Review by the Chemical and Environmental  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Restricted Purchase Items Equipment and Chemicals Requiring Review time the magnetic flux density in millitesla (mT) may be 60/frequency (in Hz) Equipment which may generate noise at any time in excess of 82 decibels, A weighted scale (dBA) (laboratory or research

441

Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites\\u000a from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges,\\u000a mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical\\u000a contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish

Jo Ellen Hinck; Christopher J. Schmitt; Kimberly A. Chojnacki; Donald E. Tillitt

2009-01-01

442

Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

443

Role of expandable clays in the environmental fate of trinitrotoluene contamination. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A primary goal of the US military cleanup effort is to develop technologies that can expedite the remediation of explosive contaminants in soils. Nitroaromatic explosives are known to be strongly adsorbed by soils, with as much as 20 to 50 percent of radio-labeled explosives not extractable in controlled degradation studies. This suggests that adsorption of explosives and explosives degradation products onto soil components renders them unavailable to conventional extraction methods. The mechanism of sorption to soil components has been investigated in order to properly address the ultimate fate of explosives contamination. Trinitrotoluene undergoes reductive degradation in which nitro groups are animated to produce aminotoluene compounds. The final compound predicted by this reduction scheme is triaminotoluene. This reaction pathway results in intermediate degradation products of trinitrotoluene which act as weak bases. Protonation of these weak bases produces organic cations which are capable of sorption onto soil components. Sorption experiments were performed to determine the behavior of explosives and explosive by-products on pure clay minerals. X-ray diffraction studies measuring the interlamellar distance of expandable clays show an expansion as contaminants are bound to the clay, indicating displacement of interlayer cations. This intercalation of compounds of environmental interest within the interlamellar regions of expandable clays is an important geochemical event with implications toward a number of environmental disciplines including subsurface contaminant transport, risk assessment, contaminant bioavailability, site remediation, and natural attenuation.

Larson, S.L.; Weiss, C.A.; Martino, M.R.; Adams, J.W.

1998-07-01

444

Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

2012-01-01

445

Environmental contaminants and the management of bat populations in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food-chain residues of organochlorine pesticides probably have been involved in declines of some U.S. bat populations; examples include free-tailed bats at Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, and the endangered gray bat at sites in Missouri and Alabama. If a long-lived contaminant has not been dispersed in large amounts over large areas, its impact may be controlled by administrative action that stops its use or other environmental discharge, or that results in physical isolation of localized contamination so that it no longer enters food chains

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1988-01-01

446

Fiber contamination of vermiculites: a potential occupational and environmental health hazard  

SciTech Connect

Vermiculite ores from Montana, Virginia, and South Africa have been analyzed for the presence of amphibole contamination. Fibrous actinolite was found in unexpanded Montana vermiculite ore at a maximum concentration of 0.2%. The fibers persisted in the expanded ore at a maximum concentration of 0.6%. Actinolite was also found in the Virginia vermiculite ore but at a lower concentration and mostly as cleavage fragments with low length-to-width ratios. South African ore contained rare anthophyllite fibers also with low length-to-width ratios. Vermiculite ores have the potential for amphibole contamination and can represent potential health hazards without proper occupational and environmental control measures.

Moatamed, F.; Lockey, J.E.; Parry, W.T.

1986-10-01

447

Fiber contamination of vermiculites: a potential occupational and environmental health hazard.  

PubMed

Vermiculite ores from Montana, Virginia, and South Africa have been analyzed for the presence of amphibole contamination. Fibrous actinolite was found in unexpanded Montana vermiculite ore at a maximum concentration of 2.0%. The fibers persisted in the expanded ore at a maximum concentration of 0.6%. Actinolite was also found in the Virginia vermiculite ore but at a lower concentration and mostly as cleavage fragments with low length-to-width ratios. South African ore contained rare anthophyllite fibers also with low length-to-width ratios. Vermiculite ores have the potential for amphibole contamination and can represent potential health hazards without proper occupational and environmental control measures. PMID:3019658

Moatamed, F; Lockey, J E; Parry, W T

1986-10-01

448

Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

Costain, D. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-07-01

449

Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  

PubMed

Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

2014-07-01

450

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

SciTech Connect

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 {micro}g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 {micro}g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p < 0.05) than at Lake Winnipegosis (70%), and the prevalence of hatchlings with deformed bills was greater (p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J.M.; Karasov, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI (United States); Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Giesy, J.P.; Jones, P.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Verbrugge, D.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hanbidge, B.A.

1996-04-01

451

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant hazards (e.g., Blue Ridge Parkway, George Washington National Forest, Shenandoah National Park) had no recent avian ecotoxicological data. Contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from such efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

2007-01-01

452

The decay of chemical weapons agents under environmental conditions  

SciTech Connect

The rate and mechanism of decay of chemical agents in the environment was studied via live agent field trials at the chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down, UK. The plan was to deposit the agents GD (Soman), VX, and H (sulfur mustard) on separate l-m{sup 2} plots on three successive days; i.e., Tuesday through Thursday. The depositions were to be made so as to give an areal concentration of 10 g/m{sup 2}. Four felt pads of approximately 25 cm{sup 2} each were placed at the corners of each of the test plots. These were subsequently extracted and analyzed by CBDE to determine the actual agent concentration. Samples for LLNL (two different types of soil, disks of silicone rubber gasket material, and short cylinders of concrete were to be contaminated and analyzed. Results are described.

McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.

1993-04-09