Sample records for environmental chemical contaminants

  1. Agricultural chemical application practices to reduce environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bode, L E

    1990-01-01

    Current practices of applying agricultural chemicals play a major role in the environmental health concerns of agriculture. Those who mix, load, and handle the concentrated formulations run the greatest risk of exposure but field hands and others can encounter significant levels of pesticides. Drift can be a major source of contamination to residents, wildlife, and water sources. Improved methods of application and ways of reducing the total amount of pesticide applied can help reduce environmental contamination. Chemigation, direct injection, closed system handling, and fertilizer impregnation are examples of technology that affect the efficiency of applying agricultural chemicals. An area of beneficial research is related to leak and spill technology. Current surveys indicate that point sources such as spills, mixing and loading areas, back-siphoning, and direct routes for surface water movement into the ground are often a major cause of pesticides reaching groundwater. The commercial dealer/applicator provides storage, handling, mixing, and loading for large amounts of chemicals and has received limited guidance regarding the products. Education remains an important element of any rural environmental health strategy. With appropriate information about pesticide risks and groundwater, people will be better equipped to address environmental concerns. By design, agricultural chemicals are biologically active and, in most cases, toxic. Thus, they pose potential risks to humans, wildlife, water, and the environment in general. The magnitude of the risks depends to some degree on the methods and techniques used to apply the chemicals. Pesticides are applied by persons possessing a variety of skills, using equipment ranging from hand-operated systems to aircraft. PMID:2248252

  2. Potential effects of environmental chemical contamination in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Francesca; Chiappa, Enrico; Gargani, Luna; Picano, Eugenio

    2014-04-01

    There is compelling evidence that prenatal exposures to environmental xenobiotics adversely affect human development and childhood. Among all birth defects, congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent of all congenital malformations and remains the leading cause of death. It has been estimated that in most cases the causes of heart defects remain unknown, while a growing number of studies have indicated the potential role of environmental agents as risk factors in CHD occurrence. In particular, maternal exposure to chemicals during the first trimester of pregnancy represents the most critical window of exposure for CHD. Specific classes of xenobiotics (e.g. organochlorine pesticides, organic solvents, air pollutants) have been identified as potential risk factors for CHD. Nonetheless, the knowledge gained is currently still incomplete as a consequence of the frequent heterogeneity of the methods applied and the difficulty in estimating the net effect of environmental pollution on the pregnant mother. The presence of multiple sources of pollution, both indoor and outdoor, together with individual lifestyle factors, may represent a further confounding element for association with the disease. A future new approach for research should probably focus on individual measurements of professional, domestic, and urban exposure to physical and chemical pollutants in order to accurately retrace the environmental exposure of parents of affected offspring during the pre-conceptional and pregnancy periods. PMID:24452958

  3. Epidemiologic Evidence of Relationships Between Reproductive and Child Health Outcomes and Environmental Chemical Contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald T. Wigle; Tye E. Arbuckle; Michelle C. Turner; Annie Bérubé; Qiuying Yang; Shiliang Liu; Daniel Krewski

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and\\/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures.

  4. Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

  5. Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

    1982-01-01

    A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

  6. Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at Superfund sites

    E-print Network

    Wiles, Melinda Christine

    2004-11-15

    Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective...

  7. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS): THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS AS A TARGET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyrotoxicants. Broadly defined, thyrotoxicants are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or tissue conce...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Bees, honey and pollen as sentinels for environmental chemical contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Lambert; Bruno Veyrand; Sophie Durand; Philippe Marchand; Bruno Le Bizec; Mélanie Piroux; Sophie Puyo; Chantal Thorin; Frédéric Delbac; Hervé Pouliquen

    Three beehive matrices, sampled in six different apiaries from West France, were analyzed for the presence of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4: benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and chrysene). Samples were collected during four different periods in both 2008 and 2009. Honey samples showed the lowest levels of PAH4 contamination (min=0.03?gkg?1; max=5.80?gkg?1; mean=0.82?gkg?1; Sd=1.17). Bee samples exhibited higher levels of PAH4 contamination

  9. Chemical contaminants in human milk: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, B R

    1995-01-01

    This review contains a succinct overview of the nature and extent of the problem of contamination of human milk with environmental and occupational chemicals, excluding drugs. Factors influencing the levels of contaminants in breast milk are discussed. Also, data on major chemicals of concern with potential health risk(s) to the general population and risk-benefit considerations are dealt with briefly. Based on the available data on the subject, research needs have been identified and policy recommendations are suggested. PMID:8549474

  10. 2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

  11. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Assess History, Environmental Risks, and Remediation Feasability of Soils Contaminated by Metallurgical Activities. Part A: Chemical and Physical Properties of Metals and Leaching Ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Venditti; S. Durécu; J. Berthelin

    2000-01-01

    .   Three soils contaminated by heavy metals (HMs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons originating from different industrial sources\\u000a were characterized in a multidisciplinary study combining chemical, physical (Part A), and mineralogical (Part B) approaches\\u000a to define history, environmental risks, and remediation feasibility. These were an agricultural soil located nearby a Zn\\/Pb\\u000a smelter and two soils from a steel metallurgical (siderurgy) waste land.

  12. Chemical contamination and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H

    2015-02-01

    Industrial chemical contaminants have a variable impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, this depending both on their class and on confounding factors. Today, mounting evidence is pointing to the role of environmental factors, and specifically EDCs, in the current distressing upsurge in the incidence of thyroid disease. The unease is warranted. These substances, which are nowadays rife in our environments (including in foodstuffs), have been shown to interfere with thyroid hormone action, biosynthesis, and metabolism, resulting in disruption of tissue homeostasis and/or thyroid function. Importantly, based on the concept of the "nonmonotonic dose-response curve", the relationship between dose and effect has often been found to be nonlinear. Thus, small doses can induce unpredictable, adverse effects, one case being polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), of which congener(s) may centrally inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, or dissociate thyroid receptor and selectively affect thyroid hormone signaling and action. This means that PCBs can act as agonists or antagonists at the receptor level, underlining the complexity of the interaction. This review highlights the multifold activity of chemicals demonstrated to cause thyroid disruption. It also represents a call to action among clinicians to undertake systematic monitoring of thyroid function and registering of the classes of EDs and additionally urges broader scientific collaborations to clarify these chemicals' molecular mechanisms of action, substances whose prevalence in our environments is disrupting not only the thyroid but all life on earth. PMID:25294013

  13. Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Melinda Christine Wiles [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health

    2004-08-15

    Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

  14. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern Hemisphere will likely increase the impact of anthropogenic contaminants on Antarctic ecosystems. PMID:18765160

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  16. Data-Mining and Informatics Approaches for Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    New and emerging environmental contaminants are chemicals that have not been previously detected or that are being detected at levels significantly different from those expected in both biological and ecological arenas (that is, human, wildlife, and environment). Many chemicals c...

  17. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Skirrow, Rachel C; Rieberger, Kevin J; van Aggelen, Graham; Meays, Cynthia L; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-10-15

    An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17?-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor ? and ? isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein ?, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in principle, to field-captured Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PMID:24055988

  18. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Morrison; R. R. Spangler

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be

  19. Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wogan, Gerald N; Hecht, Stephen S; Felton, James S; Conney, Allan H; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2004-12-01

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or mutagenic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers, when exposures are related to "life-style" factors such as diet, tobacco use, etc. This chapter summarizes several aspects of environmental chemical carcinogenesis that have been extensively studied and illustrates the power of mechanistic investigation combined with molecular epidemiologic approaches in establishing causative linkages between environmental exposures and increased cancer risks. A causative relationship between exposure to aflatoxin, a strongly carcinogenic mold-produced contaminant of dietary staples in Asia and Africa, and elevated risk for primary liver cancer has been demonstrated through the application of well-validated biomarkers in molecular epidemiology. These studies have also identified a striking synergistic interaction between aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus infection in elevating liver cancer risk. Use of tobacco products provides a clear example of cancer causation by a life-style factor involving carcinogen exposure. Tobacco carcinogens and their DNA adducts are central to cancer induction by tobacco products, and the contribution of specific tobacco carcinogens (e.g. PAH and NNK) to tobacco-induced lung cancer, can be evaluated by a weight of evidence approach. Factors considered include presence in tobacco products, carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, human uptake, metabolism and adduct formation, possible role in causing molecular changes in oncogenes or suppressor genes, and other relevant data. This approach can be applied to evaluation of other environmental carcinogens, and the evaluations would be markedly facilitated by prospective epidemiologic studies incorporating phenotypic carcinogen-specific biomarkers. Heterocyclic amines represent an important class of carcinogens in foods. They are mutagens and carcinogens at numerous organ sites in experimental animals, are produced when meats are heated above 180 degrees C for long periods. Four of these compounds can consistently be identified in well-done meat products from the North American diet, and although a causal linkage has not been established, a majority of epidemiology studies have linked consumption of well-done meat products to cancer of the colon, breast and stomach. Studies employing molecular biomarkers suggest that individuals may differ in their susceptibility to these carcinogens, and genetic polymorphisms may contribute to this variability. Heterocyclic amines, like most other chemical carcinogens, are not carcinogenic per se but must be metabolized by a family of cytochrome P450 enzymes to chemically reactive electrophiles prior to reacting with DNA to initiate a carcinogenic response. These same cytochrome P450 enzymes--as well as enzymes that act on the metabolic products of the cytochromes P450 (e.g. glucuronyl transferase, glutathione S-transferase and others)--also metabolize chemicals by inactivation pathways, and the relative amounts of activation and detoxification will determine whether a chemical is carcinogenic. Because both genetic and environmental factors influence the levels of enzymes that metabolically activate and detoxify chemicals, they can also influence carcinogenic risk. Many of the phenotypes of cancer cells can be the result of mutations, i.e., changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA that accumulate as tumors progress. These can arise as a result of DNA damage or by the incorporation of non-complementary nucleotides during DNA synthetic processes. Based upon the disparity between the infrequency of spontaneous mutations and the large numbers of

  20. NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION STUDIES OF HUMAN AND FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasm...

  1. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between contaminant exposure and trophic level emerged. Insectivores (shrews) had the highest levels of contaminants, followed by omnivores (cricetid mice) with intermediate levels, and herbivores (voles) with the lowest levels. A substantial number of these biomonitoring studies using small mammals collectively point to the importance of food habits and habitat of small mammals, and their availability and abundance as factors that should influence species selection for monitoring studies. The type of contaminants under consideration as well as the appropriateness of the endpoints selected are important factors to consider when deciding whether or not to include small mammals in biomonitoring studies. PMID:1992495

  2. Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

  3. Environmental contaminants in California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, S.N.; Scott, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.; Bloom, P.H.; Stafford, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Five wild Califorinia condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumably of cyanide (CN) poisoning, and 1 nestling of handling shock. Organochlorine concentrations were low in 4 condors that were analyzed for these contaminants. Blood samples from 14 wild and 14 captive condors were analyzed primarily for Pb. Five of 14 wild condors sampled had elevated (> 0.70 ppm) concentrations of Pb in blood whereas Pb concentrations in all captive condors were low. Lead levels in individual birds often fluctuated over time. Lead exposure, especially poisoning, was a major factor affecting the wild California condor population during 1982-86. The probable source of Pb was bullet fragments in carrion on which condors were feeding.

  4. Peering Into the Shadows of Chemical Space. Emerging Contaminants and Environmental Science: Is Either Being Served by the Other?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A decade has passed since the term ?emerging? was first formally used to describe the existence of waterpollutants not previously recognized; a 1998 NRC workshop ("Identifying Future Drinking WaterContaminants") and several 1999 reports by USGS were among the first to feature the...

  5. Chemical contamination of water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    Shy, C M

    1985-01-01

    Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists. PMID:4085442

  6. FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDIES OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND ENVIRONMENTALLY RELATED DISEASES IN FISH AND MOLLUSCS OF NEW ENGLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of PCBS, PAHS, insecticides and metals in some aquatic ecosystems have reached high levels placing identified populations at risk to chemical, physical and biological agents in estuarine and open coastal areas of the United States. n the last three decades scien...

  7. Environmental Contamination by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, A.; Adler, A.; Abu-Hanna, J.; Meitus, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE. PMID:23115260

  8. CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to more accurately assess children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Children have unstructured eating behaviors which cause excess exposures as a result of their activities. Determining total dietary intak...

  9. DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is examining processes for remedial action at Superfund sites, and corrective action at operating disposal sites. ecent legislation emphasizes destruction and detoxification of contaminants, rathe...

  10. USEPA/WSWRD'S TREATABILITY DATABASE & COST MODELING FOR CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  11. A new multimedia contaminant fate model for China: how important are environmental parameters in influencing chemical persistence and long-range transport potential?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Price, Oliver R; Tao, Shu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andy J

    2014-08-01

    We present a new multimedia chemical fate model (SESAMe) which was developed to assess chemical fate and behaviour across China. We apply the model to quantify the influence of environmental parameters on chemical overall persistence (POV) and long-range transport potential (LRTP) in China, which has extreme diversity in environmental conditions. Sobol sensitivity analysis was used to identify the relative importance of input parameters. Physicochemical properties were identified as more influential than environmental parameters on model output. Interactive effects of environmental parameters on POV and LRTP occur mainly in combination with chemical properties. Hypothetical chemicals and emission data were used to model POV and LRTP for neutral and acidic chemicals with different KOW/DOW, vapour pressure and pKa under different precipitation, wind speed, temperature and soil organic carbon contents (fOC). Generally for POV, precipitation was more influential than the other environmental parameters, whilst temperature and wind speed did not contribute significantly to POV variation; for LRTP, wind speed was more influential than the other environmental parameters, whilst the effects of other environmental parameters relied on specific chemical properties. fOC had a slight effect on POV and LRTP, and higher fOC always increased POV and decreased LRTP. Example case studies were performed on real test chemicals using SESAMe to explore the spatial variability of model output and how environmental properties affect POV and LRTP. Dibenzofuran released to multiple media had higher POV in northwest of Xinjiang, part of Gansu, northeast of Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and Jilin. Benzo[a]pyrene released to the air had higher LRTP in south Xinjiang and west Inner Mongolia, whilst acenaphthene had higher LRTP in Tibet and west Inner Mongolia. TCS released into water had higher LRTP in Yellow River and Yangtze River catchments. The initial case studies demonstrated that SESAMe performed well on comparing POV and LRTP of chemicals in different regions across China in order to potentially identify the most sensitive regions. This model should not only be used to estimate POV and LRTP for screening and risk assessments of chemicals, but could potentially be used to help design chemical monitoring programmes across China in the future. PMID:24791706

  12. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  14. Release of Chemicals from Contaminated Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek G. Williamson; Raymond C. Loehr; Yosuke Kimura

    1998-01-01

    At sites that contain contaminated soils, there can be questions about the magnitude of risk posed by the chemicals in the soils and about the cleanup levels that should be achieved. Knowledge about the rate of release of chemicals is important to answers to such questions. This article: (1) describes a laboratory protocol to obtain rate of release information for

  15. Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

  16. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  17. A Framework for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis for Remediation or Restoration of Contaminated Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca A. Efroymson; Joseph P. Nicolette; Glenn W. Suter II

    2004-01-01

    Net environmental benefits are gains in value of environmental services or other ecological properties attained by remediation or ecological restoration minus the value of adverse environmental effects caused by those actions. Net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) is a methodology for comparing and ranking net environmental benefits associated with multiple management alternatives. A NEBA for chemically contaminated sites typically involves comparison

  18. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. Emerging c...

  19. BIOASSAY-DIRECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology 'bioassay directed chemical analysis' to best describe this marriage of analy...

  20. Intentional and inadvertent chemical contamination of food, water, and medication.

    PubMed

    MCKay, Charles; Scharman, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Numerous examples of chemical contamination of food, water, or medication have led to steps by regulatory agencies to maintain the safety of this critical social infrastructure and supply chain. Identification of contaminant site is important. Environmental testing and biomonitoring can define the nature and extent of the event and are useful for providing objective information, but may be unavailable in time for clinical care. Clinical diagnosis should be based on toxidrome recognition and assessment of public health implications. There are several resources available to assist and these can be accessed through regional poison control centers or local/state public health departments. PMID:25455667

  1. Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5299747

  2. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S.R. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on owls has been largely understudied. Research primarily has focused on two species, the eastern screech owl (Otus asio) and barn owl (Tyto alba). Most of this work has been conducted with captive populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, MD. In the wild, work has been, or is currently being, conducted with great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) at a Superfund site in Colorado and in agricultural croplands in Iowa, and barn owls at a Superfund site in Texas and in metal-contaminated regions of the Netherlands. As higher order consumers, owls bioconcentrate many different environmental contaminants through their prey. Owls have proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of toxic compounds, including PCB`s, metals, and fluoride. Endpoints examined include reproductive effects, eggshell thickness, residue analyses, cholinesterase inhibition, and induction of liver MFO`s. Much more work remains to be done using owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination, particularly with captive populations, salvaged individuals, raptor rehabilitation center birds, and with wild populations in areas around hazardous waste sites, smelters, landfills, agricultural croplands, and other major sources of environmental contamination.

  3. Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

  4. DERMAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb in ground water, dioxins...

  5. High Contamination Levels Lead to Environmental Concerns

    E-print Network

    High Contamination Levels Lead to Environmental Concerns High nutrient and bacterial levels Service partnered with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board in 2005 to inform and educate&M AgriLife Extension Service ph. 979.845.1861 e-mail: d-mccorkle@tamu.edu agrilifeextension

  6. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    1 23 Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology ISSN 0090-4341 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol DOI 10.1007/s00244-013-9958-5 Short-Term Effects of Military Fog Oil on the Fountain Darter: "The final publication is available at link.springer.com". #12;Short-Term Effects of Military Fog Oil

  7. MEASUREMENT OF CONTAMINATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of environmental samples and measurement system can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. uring the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specification of appropriate blan...

  8. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Muñoz; Becker, Peter H; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g(-1) wet weight). The highest sumDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g(-1)). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g(-1)), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (sumOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepción Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile. PMID:12860109

  9. Negative chemical ionization studied of human and food chain contamination with xenobiotic chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, R C; Whitaker, M J; Smith, L M; Stalling, D L; Kuehl, D W

    1980-01-01

    Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasma, and human adipose tissue, were cleaned up by one of the following three cleanup procedures: (1) continuous liquid-liquid extraction steam distillation; (2) gel-permeation chromatography; and (3) adsorption on activated carbon followed by elution with toluene. The third procedure was used only for the examination of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples. Using these techniques, we have found evidence for contamination of fish samples with polychloronaphthalenes, polychlorostyrenes, polychlorobiphenyls, polychlorodibenzofurans, and polychlorodibenzodioxins among other chemicals. The polychlorodibenzodioxins appeared only in the spectra of extracts of fish obtained from the Tittabawassee River at Midland Michigan. The polychlorodibenzofuran ions appeared in NCI mass spectra of fish that were significantly contaminated (above 2 ppm) with polychlorobiphenyls. Toxic substances occurring in human seminal plasma included pentachlorophenol, hexachlorobenzene, DDT metabolites, and polychlorobiphenyls. We have investigated toxic substances in human seminal plasma because of the apparent decrease in sperm density in U.S. males over the last 30 years. Results of screening human adipose tissue for contamination with xenobiotic chemicals have been largely coincident with result of the EPA human monitoring program. Polychlorobiphenyls, DDT metabolites, nonachlor, and chlordane have appeared in most samples examined. Detection limits for all of these chemicals were of the order of 1 ppb. PMID:7428739

  10. CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

  11. Chemical contaminants in feedlot wastes: concentrations, effects and attenuation.

    PubMed

    Khan, S J; Roser, D J; Davies, C M; Peters, G M; Stuetz, R M; Tucker, R; Ashbolt, N J

    2008-08-01

    Commercial feedlots for beef cattle finishing are potential sources of a range of trace chemicals which have human health or environmental significance. To ensure adequate protection of human and environmental health from exposure to these chemicals, the application of effective manure and effluent management practices is warranted. The Australian meat and livestock industry has adopted a proactive approach to the identification of best management practices. Accordingly, this review was undertaken to identify key chemical species that may require consideration in the development of guidelines for feedlot manure and effluent management practices in Australia. Important classes of trace chemicals identified include steroidal hormones, antibiotics, ectoparasiticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals and dioxins. These are described in terms of their likely sources, expected concentrations and public health or environmental significance based on international data and research. Androgenic hormones such as testosterone and trenbolone are significantly active in feedlot wastes, but they are poorly understood in terms of fate and environmental implications. The careful management of residues of antibiotics including virginiamycin, tylosin and oxytetracycline appears prudent in terms of minimising the risk of potential public health impacts from resistant strains of bacteria. Good management of ectoparasiticides including synthetic pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones, fluazuron, and amitraz is important for the prevention of potential ecological implications, particularly towards dung beetles. Very few of these individual chemical contaminants have been thoroughly investigated in terms of concentrations, effects and attenuation in Australian feedlot wastes. PMID:18055014

  12. Environmental impact of mining activities in the Lousal area (Portugal): chemical and diatom characterization of metal-contaminated stream sediments and surface water of Corona stream.

    PubMed

    Luís, Ana Teresa; Teixeira, Paula; Almeida, Salomé Fernandes Pinheiro; Matos, João Xavier; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira

    2011-09-15

    Lousal mine is a typical "abandoned mine" with all sorts of problems as consequence of the cessation of the mining activity and lack of infrastructure maintenance. The mine is closed at present, but the heavy metal enriched tailings remain at the surface in oxidizing conditions. Surface water and stream sediments revealed much higher concentrations than the local geochemical background values, which the "Contaminated Sediment Standing Team" classifies as very toxic. High concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cd and Hg occurred within the stream sediments downstream of the tailings sites (up to: 817 mg kg(-1) As, 6.7 mg kg(-1) Cd, 1568 mg kg(-1) Cu, 1059 mg kg(-1) Pb, 82.4 mg kg(-1) Sb, 4373 mg kg(-1) Zn). The AMD waters showed values of pH ranging from 1.9 to 2.9 and concentrations of 9249 to 20,700 mg L(-1) SO(4)(-2), 959 to 4830 mg L(-1) Fe and 136 to 624 mg L(-1) Al. Meanwhile, the acid effluents and mixed stream waters also carried high contents of SO(4)(2-,) Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As, generally exceeding the Fresh Water Aquatic Life Acute Criteria. Negative impacts in the diatom communities growing at different sites along a strong metal pollution gradient were shown through Canonical Correspondence Analysis: in the sites influenced by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), the dominant taxon was Achnanthidium minutissimum. However, Pinnularia acoricola was the dominant species when the environmental conditions were extremely adverse: very low pH and high metal concentrations (sites 2 and 3). Teratological forms of Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki, Brachysira vitrea (Grunow) Ross in Hartley, Fragilaria rumpens (Kützing) G. W. F. Carlson and Nitzschia hantzschiana Rabenhorst were found. A morphometric study of B. vitrea showed that a decrease in size was evident at the most contaminated sites. These results are evidence of metal and acidic pollution. PMID:21802708

  13. Reconnaissance survey of chemical contamination and biological effects in southern Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The report describes the results of a field survey south of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in southern Puget Sound. Environmental conditions were evaluated in two urban embayments, eight nonurban embayments and three areas of the main channel in the southern Sound. Stations were located in depositional areas where chemical contaminants would be expected to accumulate in the sediments. All stations were located away from known contaminant sources in order to provide integrative assessments of contamination over relatively large areas. Chemical contamination of the south Sound was evaluated by measuring chemical concentrations in subtidal bottom sediments. Bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants was evaluated by measuring chemical concentrations in flatfish muscle tissues and littleneck clam meats. Chemical-related biological effects were evaluated by conducting amphipod sediment bioassays and histopathological analyses on livers of English sole.

  14. Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald N. Wogana; Stephen S. Hecht; James S. Felton; Allan H. Conney; Lawrence A. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or muta- genic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to

  15. Trace chemical contaminant generation rates for spacecraft contamination control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    A spacecraft presents a unique design challenge with respect to providing a comfortable environment in which people can live and work. All aspects of the spacecraft environmental design including the size of the habitable volume, its temperature, relative humidity, and composition must be considered to ensure the comfort and health of the occupants. The crew members and the materials selected for outfitting the spacecraft play an integral part in designing a habitable spacecraft because material offgassing and human metabolism are the primary sources for continuous trace chemical contaminant generation onboard a spacecraft. Since these contamination sources cannot be completely eliminated, active control processes must be designed and deployed onboard the spacecraft to ensure an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Knowledge of the expected rates at which contaminants are generated is very important to the design of these processes. Data from past spacecraft missions and human contaminant production studies have been analyzed to provide this knowledge. The resulting compilation of contaminants and generation rates serve as a firm basis for past, present, and future contamination control system designs for space and aeronautics applications.

  16. Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Longnecker, M P; Daniels, J L

    2001-01-01

    For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimulate an immune response, are associated with the occurrence of these diseases. We reviewed the epidemiologic data that addressed whether environmental contaminants might cause type 1 or type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, higher intake of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, as well as higher serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with increased risk. Overall, however, the data were limited or inconsistent. With respect to type 2 diabetes, data on arsenic and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin relative to risk were suggestive of a direct association but were inconclusive. The occupational data suggested that more data on exposure to N-nitroso compounds, arsenic, dioxins, talc, and straight oil machining fluids in relation to diabetes would be useful. Although environmental factors other than contaminants may account for the majority of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the etiologic role of several contaminants and occupational exposures deserves further study. PMID:11744505

  17. Shear strength characteristics and chemical characteristics of leachate-contaminated lateritic soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Sunil; S. Shrihari; Sitaram Nayak

    2009-01-01

    Leachate is a hazardous liquid and is a major cause of concern in landfills. Numerous environmental problems such as soil and groundwater contamination occur in unlined landfills due to free flow of leachate. Large quantities of leachate-contaminated soils result from open dumping in the study area. These dump yards receive large quantities of municipal solid waste which includes chemical and

  18. Combined chemical and biological treatment of oil contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Goi; Niina Kulik; Marina Trapido

    2006-01-01

    Combined chemical (Fenton-like and ozonation) and biological treatment for the remediation of shale oil and transformer oil contaminated soil has been under study. Chemical treatment of shale oil and transformer oil adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants’ removal and required higher addition of chemicals than chemical treatment of contaminants in sand matrix. The acidic pH (3.0) conditions favoured Fenton-like

  19. The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Calderon

    2000-01-01

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead,

  20. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Gina M; Weiss, Pilar M

    2002-01-01

    Research on environmentally related chemical contaminants in breast milk spans several decades and dozens of countries. The ability to use this research as an environmental indicator is limited because of a lack of consistent protocols. Data on xenobiotics in breast milk are influenced by choices in sample selection, sample pooling, analysis, and reporting. In addition, most studies have focused only on a small panel of persistent organic pollutants, despite indications that a wide range of additional chemical contaminants may also enter breast milk. Despite these limitations, however, it is possible to draw some generalizations. In this paper we review available data on levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), metals, and solvents in breast milk. Examples drawn from around the world illustrate the available data and the patterns that have appeared in various areas over time. Over the past few decades, levels of the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins have declined in breast milk in countries where these chemicals have been banned or otherwise regulated. In contrast, the levels of PBDEs are rising. Regional differences in levels of xenobiotics in breast milk are related to historical and current local use patterns. Diet is a major factor that influences breast milk levels of persistent organic pollutants, with patterns in fish consumption playing a particularly significant role. Improved global breast milk monitoring programs would allow for more consistent data on trends over time, detection of new xenobiotics in breast milk, and identification of disproportionately exposed populations. PMID:12055065

  1. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  2. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    PubMed

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-11

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not represented in soil quality assessments based on EPAPAH16 and TPH. The ?O-PACs ranged between contaminated soils contained considerable amount of O-PACs corresponding to between 6 and 18% of the ?EPAPAH16. PMID:25625139

  3. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  4. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, G. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

  5. Environmental benefits of chemical propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Joyce A.; Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Anderson, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies the necessity of chemical propulsion to satellite usage and some of the benefits accrued through monitoring global resources and patterns, including the Global Climate Change Model (GCM). The paper also summarized how the satellite observations are used to affect national and international policies. Chemical propulsion, like all environmentally conscious industries, does provide limited, controlled pollutant sources through its manufacture and usage. However, chemical propulsion is the sole source which enables mankind to launch spacecraft and monitor the Earth. The information provided by remote sensing directly affects national and international policies designed to protect the environment and enhance the overall quality of life on Earth. The resultant of chemical propulsion is the capability to reduce overall pollutant emissions to the benefit of mankind.

  6. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, G.W. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    These are the first and second volumes under the new Editor of the series that is a continuation of Residue Reviews. The nine reviews in them are as follows: Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils; Maleic hydrazide residues in tobacco and their toxicological implications; Fate and persistence of aquatic herbicides; Organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables; Biological half-lives of chemicals in fishes; Propylene chlorohydrins; toxicology, metabolism and environmental fate; The pyrolysis of cannabinoids; Pesticide fate from vine to wine; Transport and transformation of organic chemicals in the soil-air-water ecosystem.

  7. Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

  8. Mapping environmental pollution, contamination, and waste in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Businesses operating facilities with environmental focus dealing with waste, contamination, or pollution are legally required to detail their degree of compliance with environmental rules and regulations, and to report on their activities to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such activities include substances related to air pollution, land or water contamination, waste disposal, and toxic or radioactive materials. Due

  9. Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) as of mid-2005 produced by the California Air Resources Board and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as part of the process of identifying ETS as a toxic air contaminant. Part A of the report includes information about the chemical composition of secondhand smoke and

  10. Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mary E; Rovet, Joanne; Chen, Zupei; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2012-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to neurodevelopment, there is less information regarding the consequences of modest degrees of thyroid. The impact of low level TH disruptions induced by environmental contaminants has not been defined. This paper is a synopsis from four invited speakers who presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association meeting held in Xi'an, China during the summer of 2011. An overview of the role of TH in brain development and a review of human and animal data on the neurological sequelae of disruption of the thyroid axis in the pre- and early post-natal periods were presented by Mary Gilbert and Joanne Rovet. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of TH insufficiency and mental retardation in many countries, including China, was addressed by Zupei Chen. In this presentation the current incidence of iodine deficiency and neurological outcome in China and the efficacy of recently implemented iodinization programs to eliminate this cause of mental retardation were reviewed. Joanne Rovet described the impact of TH disruption during pregnancy and under conditions of congenital hypothyroidism. Children born with normal thyroid function, but who experienced TH insufficiency in the womb, display subtle cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain imaging. Despite early detection and treatment, deficiencies also exist in children born with thyroid disorders. Different patterns of cognitive effects result from prenatal versus postnatal TH insufficiency. Mary Gilbert reported on the effects of environmental contaminants with thyroid disrupting action on brain development in animals. Results of neurophysiological, behavioral, structural and molecular alterations that accompany modest perturbations of the thyroid axis were reviewed. Noriyuki Koibuchi described molecular targets of TH-mediated signalling accompanying exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are prevalent environmental contaminants that disrupt TH signalling at the receptor level. This action by these chemical classes could contribute to the negative impact of these chemicals on brain function. In summary, epidemiological, preclinical and animal research has clearly identified the critical role of TH in brain development. Additional work is required to understand the impact of low level perturbations of the thyroid axis to evaluate the risk associated with environmental contaminants with thyroid action. PMID:22138353

  11. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  12. Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.; Baedecker, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls. Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how applications of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in determining the distribution and concentrations cf. constituents are provided by several studies, including infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers. These studies show that heterogeneity and the dominance of organically controlled reactions greatly increase the complexity of investigations.Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how application of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity is illustrated by studies of infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers.

  13. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    PubMed

    Sessink, Paul Jm; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. PMID:24567041

  14. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

  15. Occurrence and methods of control of chemical contaminants in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Jelinek, C

    1981-01-01

    Contamination of food by chemicals can result from their use on agricultural commodities; accidents or misuse during food handling and processing; nucler weapon testing and operation of nuclear power plants; and disposal of industrial chemicals or by-products with subsequent dispersal into the environment. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as the Federal agency mainly responsible for evaluating the hazards of chemical contaminants and enforcing any established tolerance levels for them in foods, has been monitoring pesticides, industrial chemicals, metals, and radionuclides in foods in its nationwide programs for many years. In addition, FDA searches for potential contaminants among the approximately 50,000 industrial chemicals manufactured in the United States and coordinates its efforts with those of other Federal and state agencies in these investigations. The overall results of the FDA surveillance and compliance programs for chemical contaminants in foods, as well as specific examples illustrating the wide range of incidents and types of occurrences, are presented. PMID:6786871

  16. Effect of environmental contaminants on Mammalian testis.

    PubMed

    Manfo, Faustin P T; Nantia, Edouard A; Mathur, Premendu P

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans and wildlife to pollutants released in the environment is a centre of attention nowadays. Many of these chemicals (generally referred to as environmental pollutants) have been shown to interfere with normal hormonal signalling and biological functions, leading to reproductive disorders or infertility, which has been a matter of concern within the recent decades. The present paper reviews adverse effects of these toxicants on mammalian testes, with emphasis on alteration of steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and histopathological effects. From the publications reviewed, it appears that environmental toxicants, especially heavy metals and organic chemicals of synthetic and microbiological origins, disrupt hormone production and action in the mammalian testes. Endocrine disruption leads to disorders of testicular function and thereby compromises the normal phenotypic development of male sexual characteristics, initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. The toxicants also induce impairment of testicular cells function, testicular histology, and sperm cells function directly. The release of the toxicants in the environment is still ongoing, despite alarming quantities that already exist in the atmosphere. If appropriate measures are not taken, their impact on the male reproductive function and especially on testicular function will be more serious. PMID:25620229

  17. Development of novel biomarkers of fish exposure to environmental contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C Sanchez

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers of contaminant exposure and effect are useful tools in determining the degree to which toxic substances impact fish populations. Their usefulness, however, is often impeded by their lack of a direct association with chemical mode(s) of toxic action and their lack of chemical specificity. Therefore, the need to develop novel, effects-based biomarkers of fish exposure to contaminants exists. The

  18. Characterization of chemical waste site contamination and its extent using bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Callahan, C.A.; Cline, J.F.; Greene, J.C.; McShane, M.C.; Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    Bioassays were used in a three-phase research project to assess the comparative sensitivity of test organisms to known chemicals, determine if the chemical components in field soil and water samples containing unknown contaminants could be inferred from our laboratory studies using known chemicals, and to investigate kriging (a relatively new statistical mapping technique) and bioassays as methods to define the areal extent of chemical contamination. The algal assay generally was most sensitive to samples of pure chemicals, soil elutriates and water from eight sites with known chemical contamination. Bioassays of nine samples of unknown chemical composition from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) site showed that a lettuce seed soil contact phytoassay was most sensitive. In general, our bioassays can be used to broadly identify toxic components of contaminated soil. Nearly pure compounds of insecticides and herbicides were less toxic in the sensitive bioassays than were the counterpart commercial formulations. This finding indicates that chemical analysis alone may fail to correctly rate the severity of environmental toxicity. Finally, we used the lettuce seed phytoassay and kriging techniques in a field study at RMA to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping contamination to aid in cleanup decisions. 25 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils.

    PubMed

    Kanarbik, Liina; Blinova, Irina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Estonia is currently one of the leading producers of shale oils in the world. Increased production, transportation and use of shale oils entail risks of environmental contamination. This paper studies the behaviour of two shale fuel oils (SFOs)--'VKG D' and 'VKG sweet'--in different soil matrices under natural climatic conditions. Dynamics of SFOs' hydrocarbons (C10-C40), 16 PAHs, and a number of soil heterotrophic bacteria in oil-spiked soils was investigated during the long-term (1 year) outdoor experiment. In parallel, toxicity of aqueous leachates of oil-spiked soils to aquatic organisms (crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri) and terrestrial plants (Sinapis alba and Hordeum vulgare) was evaluated. Our data showed that in temperate climate conditions, the degradation of SFOs in the oil-contaminated soils was very slow: after 1 year of treatment, the decrease of total hydrocarbons' content in the soil did not exceed 25 %. In spite of the comparable chemical composition of the two studied SFOs, the VKG sweet posed higher hazard to the environment than the heavier fraction (VKG D) due to its higher mobility in the soil as well as higher toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species. Our study demonstrated that the correlation between chemical parameters (such as total hydrocarbons or total PAHs) widely used for the evaluation of the soil pollution levels and corresponding toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms was weak. PMID:24865504

  20. Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-12-01

    Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

  1. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS. Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA. Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  2. Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site.

  3. CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the manner in which chemical contaminants found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents enter the environment and subsequently human tissue. Approximately 100 contaminants are treated. Sources of literature used in the survey covered a 30-year period, the b...

  4. Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

    2000-01-01

    The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

  6. Chemical contaminants in the Wadden Sea: Sources, transport, fate and effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laane, R. W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. D.; Gandrass, J.; Vorkamp, K.; Köhler, A.; Larsen, M. M.; Strand, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Wadden Sea receives contaminants from various sources and via various transport routes. The contaminants described in this overview are various metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) and various organic contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane, ?-HCH)). In addition, information is presented about other and emerging contaminants such as antifouling biocides (e.g. TBT and Irgarol), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). Special attention is given to biogeochemical processes that contribute to the mobilization of contaminants in the surface sediments of the Wadden Sea. Finally, the effects on organisms of contaminants are reviewed and discussed. The main source of contaminants in the Wadden Sea are the rivers Rhine (via de Dutch coastal zone), Elbe and Weser. The Wadden Sea is not a sink for contaminants and adsorbed contaminants are transported from east to west. The surface sediments of the Wadden Sea are an important source for contaminants to the water above. The input and concentration of most contaminants have significantly decreased in water, sediments, organisms (e.g., mussel, flounder and bird eggs) in various parts of the Wadden Sea in the last three decades. Remarkably, the Cd concentration in mussels is increasing the last decades. In recent decades, the effects of contaminants on organisms (e.g., flounder, seal) have fallen markedly. Most of the affected populations have recovered, except for TBT induced effects in snails. Little is known about the concentration and effects of most emerging contaminants and the complex environmental mixtures of contaminants. It is recommended to install an international coordinated monitoring programme for contaminants and their effects in the whole Wadden Sea and to identify the chemical contaminants that really cause the effect.

  7. THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING NEUROTOXIC RISK FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  8. Combined chemical and biological treatment of oil contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Goi, Anna; Kulik, Niina; Trapido, Marina

    2006-06-01

    Combined chemical (Fenton-like and ozonation) and biological treatment for the remediation of shale oil and transformer oil contaminated soil has been under study. Chemical treatment of shale oil and transformer oil adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants' removal and required higher addition of chemicals than chemical treatment of contaminants in sand matrix. The acidic pH (3.0) conditions favoured Fenton-like oxidation of oil in soil. Nevertheless, it was concluded that remediation of contaminated soil using in situ Fenton-like treatment will be more feasible at natural soil pH. Both investigated chemical processes (Fenton-like and ozonation) allowed improving the subsequent biodegradability of oil. Moderate doses of chemical oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, ozone) should be applied in combination of chemical treatment (both, Fenton-like or ozonation) and biotreatment. For remediation of transformer oil and shale oil contaminated soil Fenton-like pre-treatment followed by biodegradation was found to be the most efficient. PMID:16293288

  9. High Throughput Screening For Hazard and Risk of Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    High throughput toxicity testing provides detailed mechanistic information on the concentration response of environmental contaminants in numerous potential toxicity pathways. High throughput screening (HTS) has several key advantages: (1) expense orders of magnitude less than an...

  10. Project Overview: PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human health and ecological assessment issues related to environmental contamination by perchlorate are complex and continue to emerge. Perchlorate, ClO4-, is an anion that originates as a contaminant from the solid salts of ammonium, potassium or sodium perchlorate. These ...

  11. Environmental contaminants influencing immunefunction in marine bivalve molluscs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard K Pipe; Jackie A. Coles

    1995-01-01

    The increased observation of pollution induced disease conditions in marine organisms has led to a growing interest on the effects of environmental contaminants on the immune system. Most studies on modulation of the immune system in bivalves by pollutants have concentrated on the effects of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The current literature on contaminant effects on specific

  12. Pesticides, Metals, Chemical Contaminants & Natural Toxins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is maintained by the U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Information in this site includes FDA food consumption warnings and advisories related to the presence of contaminants in various foods. Some information about toxicology is also available in this site.

  13. BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Before a chemical can elicit toxicity, the animal must accumulate a dose at a target tissue of sufficient magnitude to produce a response. Bioavailability refers to the degree to which this accumulation occurs relative to the amount of chemical present in the environment, and is ...

  14. Bacteria and Emerging Chemical Contaminants in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Since the enactment of the Clean Water Act in 1972, awareness of the quality of the Nation's water has continued to improve. Despite improvements to wastewater-treatment systems and increased regulation on waste discharge, bacterial and chemical contamination is still a problem for many rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Pathogenic microorganism and newly recognized chemical contaminants have been found in waters that are used for drinking water and recreation (Rose and Grimes, 2001; Kolpin and others, 2002). This summary of bacteria and emerging-chemical-contaminant monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin (fig. 1) was initiated by the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (LSCRMP) in 2003, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Counties of Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  15. Chemical contaminants in swimming pools: Occurrence, implications and control.

    PubMed

    Teo, Tiffany L L; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-03-01

    A range of trace chemical contaminants have been reported to occur in swimming pools. Current disinfection practices and monitoring of swimming pool water quality are aimed at preventing the spread of microbial infections and diseases. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectants used react with organic and inorganic matter in the pool. Additional chemicals may be present in swimming pools originating from anthropogenic sources (bodily excretions, lotions, cosmetics, etc.) or from the source water used where trace chemicals may already be present. DBPs have been the most widely investigated trace chemical contaminants, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), halobenzoquinones (HBQs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), N-nitrosamines, nitrite, nitrates and chloramines. The presence and concentrations of these chemical contaminants are dependent upon several factors including the types of pools, types of disinfectants used, disinfectant dosages, bather loads, temperature and pH of swimming pool waters. Chemical constituents of personal care products (PCPs) such as parabens and ultraviolet (UV) filters from sunscreens have also been reported. By-products from reactions of these chemicals with disinfectants and UV irradiation have been reported and some may be more toxic than their parent compounds. There is evidence to suggest that exposure to some of these chemicals may lead to health risks. This paper provides a detailed review of various chemical contaminants reported in swimming pools. The concentrations of chemicals present in swimming pools may also provide an alternative indicator to swimming pool water quality, providing insights to contamination sources. Alternative treatment methods such as activated carbon filtration and advanced oxidation processes may be beneficial in improving swimming pool water quality. PMID:25497109

  16. Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  17. Assimilation efficiencies of chemical contaminants in aquatic invertebrates: A synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Fisher, N.S.

    1999-09-01

    Assimilation efficiencies of contaminants from ingested food are critical for understanding chemical accumulation and trophic transfer in aquatic invertebrates. Assimilation efficiency is a first-order physiological parameter that can be used to systematically compare the bioavailability of different contaminants from different foods. The various techniques used to measure contaminant assimilation efficiencies are reviewed. Pulse-chase feeding techniques and the application of gamma-emitting radiotracers have been invaluable in measuring metal assimilation efficiencies in aquatic animals. Uniform radiolabeling of food is required to measure assimilation, but this can be difficult when sediments are the food source. Biological factors that influence contaminant assimilation include food quantity and quality, partitioning of contaminants in the food particles, and digestive physiology of the animals. Other factors influencing assimilation include the behavior of the chemical within the animal's gut and its associations with different geochemical fractions of food particles. Assimilation efficiency is a critical parameter to determine (and to make predictions of) bioaccumulation of chemicals from dietary exposure. Robust estimates of assimilation efficiency coupled with estimates of aqueous uptake can be used to determine the relative importance of aqueous and dietary exposures. For bioaccumulation of metals from sediments, additional studies are required to test whether metals bound to the acid-volatile sulfide fraction of sediments can be available to benthic deposit-feeding inverterbrates. Most assimilation efficiency studies have focused on chemical transfer in organisms at the bottom of the food chain; additional studies are required to examine chemical transfer at higher trophic levels.

  18. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial Review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 20102011. Analytical Chemistry?s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Ev...

  19. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES WITH MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging contaminants that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other agencies are currently concerned...

  20. The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Premendu Prakash; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells. Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:21706039

  1. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  2. Chemical disinfection of virus?contaminated surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Susan Springthorpe M. Sc

    1990-01-01

    Chemical disinfection is widely practiced as a means of controlling and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although disinfection of bacteria has been widely studied, much less attention has been paid to the virucidal potential of commonly used disinfectants in spite of the low infective dose of many human pathogenic viruses. This review considers what is known about the disinfection

  3. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    ) tissue analyses showed that concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se in fish and some clams but not in sediments is that these pollutants are biomagnified in the food chain al. 2000; Van Dolah et al. 2008). Such contaminants have also entered food chains, concentrated

  4. Tactical approach to maneuvering within the chemical contamination labyrinth

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, T.W. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the need and accepts the responsibility for understanding the reality and mitigating the consequence of the complex chemical contamination legacy it inherited as well as controlling, reducing, and eliminating extant emissions and effluents. The key to maneuvering through this complicated and multifaceted labyrinth of concerns, from which a meaningful, high quality, and cost-effective restoration/mitigation machine is then set in motions, is the ability to perform accurate, factual, and explicit health and environmental/ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the common denominator for carrying out this essential task is to have access to comprehensive and reliable data of known quality with which to perform those analyses. DOE is committed to identifying the data universe; to technically scrutinize and ensure the quality of that data; to develop efficient and cost-effective means to maximize the handling, utilization, and sharing of that universe; and to undertake those assessments. DOE views this as an effort that can only be accomplished through a merging of the technical excellence that exists within federal and state agencies, academia, and industry. The task at hand is so large that only by integrating that intelligence base can we hope to accomplish the goals of establishing meaningful standards, developing functional and effective solutions, and providing quality guidance at a national scale.

  5. Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2014-11-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  6. Chemical extraction of arsenic from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Alam, G M; Tokunaga, S

    2006-01-01

    A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted using a fortified soil with different extracting solutions such as inorganic acids (hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), perchloric acid (HClO4), or nitric acid (HNO3)), organic acids (acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7)) and alkaline agent (NaOH). Various concentrations were used to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimise the concentration of each extractant. In the present investigation a Kuroboku soil contaminated with arsenite (As(III)) was used as a model soil. Arsenic was extracted most efficiently by 5% H3PO4 with a maximum of more than 99% from the model soil. Sulfuric acid also showed high percentage extraction efficiency. On the other hand, C2H4O2 and oxidizing acids such as HNO3 and HClO4 showed low efficiency of As extraction compared with C6H8O7. Although, NaOH also showed higher extraction efficiencies compared with organic and oxidizing acids but mainly arsenate (As(V)) was found to be the major component. A significant fraction of the As(III) was oxidized to As(V) during mineral acid and alkaline extraction and extraction efficiency also varied with the concentration of the acid and alkali solution. PMID:16779937

  7. Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Usman, M; Tascone, O; Faure, P; Hanna, K

    2014-04-01

    Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was evaluated in (i) artificially spiked sand with HCH isomers (?, ?, ? and ?) and (ii) contaminated soil sampled from a former gravel pit backfilled with wastes of lindane (?-HCH). Following oxidation treatments were employed: hydrogen peroxide alone (HP), hydrogen peroxide with soluble Fe(II) (Fenton-F), sodium persulfate alone (PS), Fe(II) activated persulfate (AP) and permanganate (PM). GC-MS results revealed a significant degradation of all isomers in spiked soil in the order: F>PS>AP>HP>PM. Soluble Fe(II) enhanced the efficiency of H2O2 but decreased the reactivity of persulfate. Similar trend was observed in contaminated soil, but with less degradation probably caused by scavenging effect of organic matter and soil minerals and/or pollutant unavailability. No significant increase in oxidation efficiency was observed after using availability-enhancement agents in contaminated soil. Other limitation factors (oxidant dose, pH, catalyst type etc.) were also addressed. Among all the isomers tested, ?-HCH was the most recalcitrant one which could be explained by higher metabolic and chemical stability. No by-products were observed by GC-MS regardless of the oxidant used. For being the premier study reporting chemical oxidation of HCH isomers in contaminated soils, it will serve as a base for in-situ treatments of sites contaminated by HCH isomers and other persistent organic pollutants. PMID:24486498

  8. Archaeological recording and chemical stratigraphy applied to contaminated land studies.

    PubMed

    Photos-Jones, Effie; Hall, Allan J

    2011-11-15

    The method used by archaeologists for excavation and recording of the stratigraphic evidence, within trenches with or without archaeological remains, can potentially be useful to contaminated land consultants (CLCs). The implementation of archaeological practice in contaminated land assessments (CLAs) is not meant to be an exercise in data overkill; neither should it increase costs. Rather, we suggest, that if the excavation and recording, by a trained archaeologist, of the stratigraphy is followed by in-situ chemical characterisation then it is possible that much uncertainty associated with current field sampling practices, may be removed. This is because built into the chemical stratigraphy is the temporal and spatial relationship between different parts of the site reflecting the logic behind the distribution of contamination. An archaeological recording with chemical stratigraphy approach to sampling may possibly provide 'one method fits all' for potentially contaminated land sites (CLSs), just as archaeological characterisation of the stratigraphic record provides 'one method fits all' for all archaeological sites irrespective of period (prehistoric to modern) or type (rural, urban or industrial). We also suggest that there may be practical and financial benefits to be gained by pulling together expertise and resources stemming from different disciplines, not simply at the assessment phase, but also subsequent phases, in contaminated land improvement. PMID:21962595

  9. QSARs for PBPK modelling of environmental contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Peyret; K. Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are increasingly finding use in risk assessment applications of data-rich compounds. However, it is a challenge to determine the chemical-specific parameters for these models, particularly in time- and resource-limiting situations. In this regard, SARs, QSARs and QPPRs are potentially useful for computing the chemical-specific input parameters of PBPK models. Based on the frequency of occurrence of

  10. USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. William D. Bostick

    2003-05-01

    Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.

  11. Environmental Chemicals and Nervous System Dysfunction 1

    PubMed Central

    Damstra, Terri

    1978-01-01

    Selected examples of associations between nervous system diseases and exposures to occupational and environmental chemicals have been reviewed. Recent outbreaks of human neurotoxicity from both wellknown and previously unknown toxicants reemphasize the need for the medical community to give increased attention to chemical causes of nervous system dysfunction. PMID:87062

  12. Multi-route exposure assessment of chemically contaminated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Shehata, A.T.

    1985-12-01

    This report provides an example of how a single source of contamination could potentially contribute to all routes of exposure. A modeling approach was used to estimate multiple exposure routes in an attempt to assess the health significance of gasoline-contaminated drinking water supplies. This model consisted of a two-compartment, indoor air quality equation that calculates the contribution made by ambient and indoor air contaminated by a pollutant volatilized from drinking water to that pollutant's inhalation burden. In addition, the model uses the traditional equations for assessing a pollutant's oral and dermal burdens. Benzene, toluene and xylene were used as surrogates for gasoline contamination to determine the contribution of contaminated water to adult and child body burdens from indoor air, oral (drinking water and food) and dermal exposure routes. The contribution thus calculated for each chemical was compared to the EPA's Office of Drinking Water Health Advisories. In terms of acute exposure, the use of chemically contaminated water for showering purposes may generate vapor in the confined area of the bathroom at levels sufficient to cause or contribute to mucous tissue irritation, as commonly reported in affected homes. High temperatures and humidity may also contribute to these effects, especially in the bathroom. In terms of chronic exposure, the use of chemically contaminated water at EPA-recommended guideline amounts in an affected home may result in inhalation, oral and dermal exposures leading to cumulative doses exceeding adult and child total daily body burdens based on EPA's Health Advisories. Thus, this model indicates that the traditional standard/guidelines derivation processes should be reevaluated to consider the pollutant contribution from multiple routes of exposure.

  13. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, S.N.; Bunck, C.M.; Stafford, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Bald Eagle eggs (1968-84) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury. DDE declined in WI, ME and the Chesapeake Bay. DDE was most closely related to shell thickness and reproduction at sampled breeding areas. Sixteen ppm DDE (wet weight) was associated with 15% shell thinning. Reproduction was normal when eggs at sampled breeding areas contained <3.6 ppm DDE; success was nearly halved between 3.6 and 6.3 ppm and halved again when concentrations exceeded 6.3 ppm. Other contaminants were associated with poor reproduction and eggshell thinning; however, their impact appeared secondary to that of DDE.

  14. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  15. HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

  16. Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise; for example, potential adverse health effects (e.g., cancer, reproductive and developmental effects, and endocrine disruption), bioaccumulation, an...

  17. Challenges and trends in the determination of selected chemical contaminants and allergens in food.

    PubMed

    Krska, Rudolf; Becalski, Adam; Braekevelt, Eric; Koerner, Terry; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Robert; Godefroy, Samuel; Lau, Ben; Moisey, John; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Scott, Peter M; Wang, Zhongwen; Forsyth, Don

    2012-01-01

    This article covers challenges and trends in the determination of some major food chemical contaminants and allergens, which-among others-are being monitored by Health Canada's Food Directorate and for which background levels in food and human exposure are being analyzed and calculated. Eleven different contaminants/contaminant groups and allergens have been selected for detailed discussion in this paper. They occur in foods as a result of: use as a food additive or ingredient; processing-induced reactions; food packaging migration; deliberate adulteration; and/or presence as a chemical contaminant or natural toxin in the environment. Examples include acrylamide as a food-processing-induced contaminant, bisphenol A as a food packaging-derived chemical, melamine and related compounds as food adulterants and persistent organic pollutants, and perchlorate as an environmental contaminant. Ochratoxin A, fumonisins, and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins are examples of naturally occurring toxins whereas sulfites, peanuts, and milk exemplify common allergenic food additives/ingredients. To deal with the increasing number of sample matrices and analytes of interest, two analytical approaches have become increasingly prevalent. The first has been the development of rapid screening methods for a variety of analytes based on immunochemical techniques, utilizing ELISA or surface plasmon resonance technology. The second is the development of highly sophisticated multi-analyte methods based on liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-stage mass spectrometry for identification and simultaneous quantification of a wide range of contaminants, often with much less requirement for tedious cleanup procedures. Whereas rapid screening methods enable testing of large numbers of samples, the multi analyte mass spectrometric methods enable full quantification with confirmation of the analytes of interest. Both approaches are useful when gathering surveillance data to determine occurrence and background levels of both recognized and newly identified contaminants in foods in order to estimate human daily intake for health risk assessment. PMID:21773735

  18. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  19. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE`s Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  20. Chemical and biological risk assessment of chronic exposure to PAH contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.; McMillin, D.; Kondapi, N. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chronically contaminated sediments represent a long-term source of mixtures of contaminants, exposing aquatic ecosystems to PAH through desorption and bioaccumulation. Chronic toxicity assessments must address potential of these bond contaminants. Environmental impacts and ecological health hazards of sediment-bound normal, alkylated and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are functions of their entry into aquatic food webs and are controlled by both abiotic and biotic factors. Laboratory and field microcosm exposures of fish and invertebrates were conducted followed by assessments of effects using chemical analysis and biomarkers of potential genotoxic effects. Chemical analysis of accumulated residues of 62 individual PAH were conducted in oysters, Crassostrea virginica exposed to PAH contaminated sediments in the field. The rates and equilibrium bioaccumulation constants for each were determined. Fish were exposed to the same contaminated sediments in laboratory and field exposures. Measurements of ethoxy-resorufin-o-deethylase activity induction as well as alterations in the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were performed on exposed fish liver samples. EROD activities were increased significantly relative to unexposed and laboratory/field control sediment-exposed fish, however, the responses of individuals were highly variable. Fundulus grandis or Gambusia affinis, exposed to contaminated sediments in the laboratory, revealed changes in the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The degree to which mutations within the gene occurred was assessed using PCR followed by measurement of single stranded DNA polymorphisms using gel electrophoresis chromatography.

  1. Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wesner, Jeff S; Stricker, Craig A; Schmidt, Travis S; Zuellig, Robert E

    2014-09-16

    Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. ?(15)N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by ? 1‰ during metamorphosis, while ?(13)C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to ? 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to ? 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages. PMID:25136925

  2. Environmental Science and Pollution Research Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Environmental Science and Pollution Research Meta-analysis of environmental contamination evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed of Environmental Engineering , University of Illinois-Chicago krockne@uic.edu Walter Giger giger@eawag.ch Powered

  3. Environmental chemicals and microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding molecules that function as negative regulators to silence or suppress gene expression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been implicated in a several cellular processes and pathogenic pathways of a number of diseases. Evidence is rapidly growing that miRNA regulation of gene expression may be affected by environmental chemicals. These environmental exposures include those that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases, such as heavy metals, air pollution, bisphenol A, and cigarette smoking. In this article, we review the published data on miRNAs in relation to the exposure to several environmental chemicals, and discuss the potential mechanisms that may link environmental chemicals to miRNA alterations. We further discuss the challenges in environmental-miRNA research and possible future directions. The cumulating evidence linking miRNAs to environmental chemicals, coupled with the unique regulatory role of miRNAs in gene expression, makes miRNAs potential biomarkers for better understanding the mechanisms of environmental diseases. PMID:21609724

  4. Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhang; M. H. Wong

    2007-01-01

    This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%,

  5. Birds and environmental contaminants in San Francisco and Chesapeake Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Fleming, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of human activities, including environmental contamination, upon bird populations in San Francisco Bay and Chesapeake Bay are imperfectly understood, and few data are available. that allow a comparison of the contamination levels in birds from these two areas. Certain trace elements and organochlorine compounds have been found at sufficiently high concentrations in bird tissues or their foods to expect adverse effects in these birds, based upon results of field and laboratory studies conducted with other avian species. The decline and recovery of populations of many avian species have been recorded, including some associated with organochlorine contamination. The present paper summarizes available information on the occurrence and potential effects of contaminants upon birds in these two regions.

  6. FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT DATA: A FORENSIC TOOL FOR EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have been conducted on behalf of the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify detection monitoring parameters for specific industries.1,2,3,4,5 One outcome of these studies was the evolution of an empirical multi-variant contaminant fingerprinting p...

  7. Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous type...

  8. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    PubMed

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries. PMID:19117208

  9. Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Petty, J D; Orazio, C E; Huckins, J N; Gale, R W; Lebo, J A; Meadows, J C; Echols, K R; Cranor, W L

    2000-05-19

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. PMID:10870697

  10. Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Gale, R.W.; Lebo, J.A.; Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Cranor, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

  11. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  12. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Muñoz Cifuentes; Peter H. Becker; Ute Sommer; Patricia Pacheco; Roberto Schlatter

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and

  13. DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING AN ELECTROSPRAY INTERFACE COMBINED WITH AN ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development, was interested in determining environmental contaminants using a commercial electrospray which is interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) to analyze contaminants of concern. ptimi...

  14. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5 Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  15. Chemical contaminant reactions and assessment of soil cleanup levels for protection of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Kargbo, D.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    About 70 percent of hazardous waste sites listed in the National Priority List (NPL) have some groundwater contamination that may require remediation. Such remediation is inadequate if the unsaturated soils above will continue to act as a source of groundwater contamination. Consequently, for most of these sites, it becomes necessary to determine what the cleanup levels for contaminants in soils should be so that subsequent contribution of contaminants from these soils to groundwater would not exceed groundwater protection levels. Representation of the dynamics of interactions between contaminants and soils is very complex, requiring among others, a thorough understanding of the chemical processes that influence the behavior of the contaminant once it enters the subsurface. Because of such complexities, environmental professionals frequently utilize methods with very simple assumptions that tend to err on the conservative side. While the public may feel protected, the needless spending of dollars could be avoided if attempts are made to incorporate, where possible, such complexities in the modeling efforts so that the system is represented as accurately as possible. 26 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Chemical contaminant reactions and assessment of soil cleanup levels for protection of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargbo, D. M.

    1994-03-01

    About 70 percent of hazardous waste sites listed in the National Priority List (NPL) have some groundwater contamination that may require remediation. Such remediation is inadequate if the unsaturated soils above will continue to act as a source of groundwater contamination. Consequently, for most of these sites, it becomes necessary to determine what the cleanup levels for contaminants in soils should be so that subsequent contribution of contaminants from these soils to groundwater would not exceed groundwater protection levels. Representation of the dynamics of interactions between contaminants and soils is very complex, requiring among others, a thorough understanding of the chemical processes that influence the behavior of the contaminant once it enters the subsurface. Because of such complexities, environmental professionals frequently utilize methods with very simple assumptions that tend to err on the conservative side. While the public may feel protected, the needless spending of dollars could be avoided if attempts are made to incorporate, where possible, such complexities in the modeling efforts so that the system is represented as accurately as possible.

  17. A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field. PMID:24735943

  18. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY ENHANCED COAGULATION, POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON, CHEMICAL SOFTENING, AND OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  19. NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is a new publication that will provide an ongoing assessment of the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. For this Report, an environmental chemical means a chemical compound or ...

  20. REPORTING NEEDS FOR STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN HUMAN MILK

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    REPORTING NEEDS FOR STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN HUMAN MILK Michael N. Bates School, USA Studies of environmental chemicals in human milk have been carried out in many coun- tries trends in exposure to chemicals, for research into the determinants of environmental chemicals in milk

  1. Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, G A; Bain, L J

    1997-01-01

    Due to the use of a limited number of species and subchronic exposures, current ecological hazard assessment processes can underestimate the chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants resulting in adverse responses of sentinel species. Several incidences where sentinel species have responded to the effects of chronic exposure to ambient levels of environmental contaminants are discussed, including the development of neoplasia in fish, immunosuppression in marine mammals, pseudohermaphrodism in invertebrates, teratogenicity in amphibians, and aberrations in the sexual development of fish and reptiles. Biomarkers of chronic toxicity, including DNA mutations, alterations in specific protein and mRNA levels, and perturbations in metabolism, are presented. The incorporation of appropriate surrogate species and biomarkers of chronic toxicity into standard toxicity characterizations is proposed as a means of significantly refining the ecological hazard assessment process. PMID:9114278

  2. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed. PMID:23012541

  3. Environmental contamination of groundwater in the Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Agha, M. R.

    1995-03-01

    Environmental problems of groundwater contamination in the Gaza Strip are summarized in this paper. The Gaza Strip is a very narrow and highly populated area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (360 km2). Human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources in the area, while the unconfined nature of some parts of the coastal main aquifer favors groundwater contamination. Recent investigations show contamination of the aquifer with organic substances from detergents, agrochemicals, sewage (cesspools), and waste degradation. These effects enhance each other because there is no recycling industry, sewage system, or any type of environmental protection management at present. Inorganic contamination results from overpumping, which increases the salinity of the groundwater. Seawater intrusion also increases the salinity of the groundwater that are used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Consequently, at present about 80 percent of the groundwater in the Gaza Strip is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Solutions are very urgently needed for these problems in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases.

  4. Chemical and toxicological testing of composted explosives-contaminating soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Steward, A.J.; Tyndall, R.L.; Caton, J.E.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Static-pile and mechanically stirred composts of explosives-contaminated soil at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA, Umatilla, OR) in a field composting optimization study were characterized chemically and toxicologically. The concentrations of extractable explosives (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in the composts and their aqueous leachates, the mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from the composts, and the toxicity of compost aqueous leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia all decreased considerably with 20 d of composting. After 44 d or 90 d of composting, the toxicity, mutagenicity, and concentrations of extractable explosives decreased more than 90% in some cases. The composting efficiency was generally inversely proportional to the percentage (v/v) of contaminated soil. Composting in static piles was efficient up to about 20% (v/v) of contaminated soil; composting in the mechanically stirred composters was efficient up to about 25% soil. Mechanical composting was more efficient than composting in static piles. The main conclusion of this study is that composting can effectively remediate explosives contaminated soil and sediment. However, low levels of explosives and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable toxicity to Ceriodaphnia may remain after composting. The sources of residual toxicity and mutagenicity and the ultimate fate of the explosives are unknown.

  5. Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, S.; Perry, J.

    2004-01-01

    The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); thesemeshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit is eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype sorber device for simultaneous CO2 and trace contarninant removal and its attendant weight and energy savings.

  6. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  7. Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures

    PubMed Central

    Matt, G; Quintana, P; Hovell, M; Bernert, J; Song, S; Novianti, N; Juarez, T; Floro, J; Gehrman, C; Garcia, M; Larson, S

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants. Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (2) smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (3) smokers who expose their children to ETS. Setting: Homes of smokers and non-smokers. Participants: Smoking and non-smoking mothers and their infants ? 1 year. Main outcome measures: ETS contamination as measured by nicotine in household dust, indoor air, and household surfaces. ETS exposure as measured by cotinine levels in infant urine. Results: ETS contamination and ETS exposure were 5–7 times higher in households of smokers trying to protect their infants by smoking outdoors than in households of non-smokers. ETS contamination and exposure were 3–8 times higher in households of smokers who exposed their infants to ETS by smoking indoors than in households of smokers trying to protect their children by smoking outdoors. Conclusions: Dust and surfaces in homes of smokers are contaminated with ETS. Infants of smokers are at risk of ETS exposure in their homes through dust, surfaces, and air. Smoking outside the home and away from the infant reduces but does not completely protect a smoker's home from ETS contamination and a smoker's infant from ETS exposure. PMID:14985592

  8. Multimedia environmental chemical partitioning from molecular information.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Izacar; Grifoll, Jordi; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2010-12-15

    The prospect of assessing the environmental distribution of chemicals directly from their molecular information was analyzed. Multimedia chemical partitioning of 455 chemicals, expressed in dimensionless compartmental mass ratios, was predicted by SimpleBox 3, a Level III Fugacity model, together with the propagation of reported uncertainty for key physicochemical and transport properties, and degradation rates. Chemicals, some registered in priority lists, were selected according to the availability of experimental property data to minimize the influence of predicted information in model development. Chemicals were emitted in air or water in a fixed geographical scenario representing the Netherlands and characterized by five compartments (air, water, sediments, soil and vegetation). Quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) models to predict mass ratios in different compartments were developed with support vector regression algorithms. A set of molecular descriptors, including the molecular weight and 38 counts of molecular constituents were adopted to characterize the chemical space. Out of the 455 chemicals, 375 were used for training and testing the QSFR models, while 80 were excluded from model development and were used as an external validation set. Training and test chemicals were selected and the domain of applicability (DOA) of the QSFRs established by means of self-organizing maps according to structural similarity. Best results were obtained with QSFR models developed for chemicals belonging to either the class [C] and [C; O], or the class with at least one heteroatom different than oxygen in the structure. These two class-specific models, with respectively 146 and 229 chemicals, showed a predictive squared coefficient of q(2) ? 0.90 both for air and water, which respectively dropped to q(2)? 0.70 and 0.40 for outlying chemicals. Prediction errors were of the same order of magnitude as the deviations associated to the uncertainty of the physicochemical and transport properties, and degradation rates. PMID:21059471

  9. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

  10. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  11. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

    2013-11-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. PMID:23917738

  12. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ON FETAL TESTES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Fetal Testes Testosterone Production Lambright, CS , Wilson, VS , Furr, J, Wolf, CJ, Noriega, N, Gray, LE, Jr. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC Exposure of pregnant rodents to certain environmental chemicals during criti...

  13. National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, 2009 . This report includes data made available from ...

  14. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by alkylphenols.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

    2012-11-01

    Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE) are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are used in detergents, paints, herbicides, pesticides, emulsifiers, wetting and dispersing agents, antistatic agents, demulsifiers, and solubilizers. Many studies have reported the occurrence of alkylphenols in different environmental matrices, though none of these studies have yet to establish a comprehensive overview of such compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes APE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from the atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrence of compounds has been assessed for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [WWTP], atmosphere, and the natural environment), data are examined in order to understand the fate of APE in the environment and establish their geographical and historical trends. From this database, it is clear that the environment in Europe is much more contaminated by APE compared to North America and developing countries, although these APE levels have been decreasing in the last decade. APE concentrations in the WWTP effluent of developed countries have decreased by a factor of 100 over the past 30 years. This study is aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes that influence the fate and transport of these contaminants in the environment. In industrial countries, the concentrations observed in waterways now represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution in these countries, whereas sediment analyses conducted in developing countries show an increase in APE content over the last several years. Finally, similar trends have been observed in samples drawn from Europe and North America. PMID:22864754

  15. Alterations in macrophage functions by environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D E

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of infectious diseases is rarely entirely attributed to a single entity, but instead is the result of a primary stress and one or more secondary factors that interfere with homeostasis and the ability of the host to cope with the primary etiologic assault. Any environmental chemical that can suppress the normal functioning of the host's body defenses would be expected to increase the risk of the host to such diseases. Within the lung, the alveolar macrophages are the crucial elements responsible for defending the body against such airborne viable agents. The effects of inhaled gases and particulates on these defense cells are a major concern of the environmental health scientist since such chemicals have the capability of adversely affecting the integrity and functioning of these pulmonary defense cells. The objective of this report is to provide an overview that will improve our understanding of how a variety of environmental chemicals can alter the biochemical, physiological and immunological functioning of these cells. PMID:6376106

  16. Potential for portal detection of human chemical and biological contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary S.; McGann, William J.

    2001-08-01

    The walk-through metal-detection portal is a paradigm of non-intrusive passenger screening in aviation security. Modern explosive detection portals based on this paradigm will soon appear in airports. This paper suggests that the airborne trace detection technology developed for that purpose can also be adapted to human chemical and biological contamination. The waste heat of the human body produces a rising warm-air sheath of 50-80 liters/sec known as the human thermal plume. Contained within this plume are hundreds of bioeffluents from perspiration and breath, and millions of skin flakes. Since early medicine, the airborne human scent was used in the diagnosis of disease. Recent examples also include toxicity and substance abuse, but this approach has never been quantified. The appearance of new bioeffluents or subtle changes in the steady-state may signal the onset of a chemical/biological attack. Portal sampling of the human thermal plume is suggested, followed by a pre-concentration step and the detection of the attacking agent or the early human response. The ability to detect nanogram levels of explosive trace contamination this way was already demonstrated. Key advantages of the portal approach are its rapidity and non-intrusiveness, and the advantage that it does not require the traditional bodily fluid or tissue sampling.

  17. Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  18. Noble metals: a toxicological appraisal of potential new environmental contaminants.

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, P E; Moran, J P; Bridbord, K; Hueter, F G

    1975-01-01

    The public health benefits expected by reducing known hazardous emissions from mobile sources should not be compromised by increasing levels of other potentially hazardous unregulated emissions. Catalytic converters are going to be used to meet the statutory requirements on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions from light duty motor vehicles. Platinum and palladium metals are the catalytic materials to be used in these emission control devices. Preliminary experimental evidence and analysis of the impact of these control devices on the future use and demand for platinum indicates that this metal may appear at detectable levels in the environment by the end of this decade. At the present time, platinum and palladium are not present in the public environment and represent potentially new environmental contaminants as a consequence of use of this new abatement control technology. There is relatively little information available to adequately assess the potential health hazards that may be associated with exposure to these metals and their compounds. Analysis of the environmental problems and concerns associated with possible new environmental contaminants are discussed. Limited estimates are made on community exposure by use of a meteorological dispersion model. Biodegradation potential and attention is also given to the limited toxicological information available. PMID:50939

  19. 2-64 GEOLOGICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Chemical Forms of Zinc in a Smelter-

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    , and most likely also in other industrialized countries, zinc concentrations in soils may soon reach levels the soil pH to neutral values. Consequently, the bare soils in the vicinity of a zinc smelter in France2-64 GEOLOGICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Chemical Forms of Zinc in a Smelter- Contaminated Soil A

  20. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  1. Contaminant exposures in various environmental media: How can toxicity comparisons be made?

    SciTech Connect

    Lanno, R.P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology; McCarty, L.S. [L.S. McCarty Scientific Research and Consulting, Oakville, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental protection is usually based upon guidelines or standards expressed as chemical values in environmental media such as air, sediment, soil, and water. The basis for such guidelines is laboratory toxicity test data, often time-dependent LC50 values (e.g., 96-h LC50s), where toxicity is expressed in terms of the concentration of chemical contaminant in the exposure medium. This preoccupation with exposure-based estimates of toxic dose has led to many difficulties when attempting to compare the relative toxicity of compounds between species and under various modifying conditions in the same medium. Furthermore, viable comparisons of toxic potencies between organisms inhabiting different environmental media has been all but impossible. This paper exploits the relationship between body residues and adverse biological effects to compare the effects of certain modifying factors (e.g., temperature) on expressed toxicity and toxic potency both within and between different species in one medium. As well, this approach is used to make comparisons of toxic potency between different species in different environmental media. Such comparisons are made by standardizing toxic responses to time-independent toxicity thresholds and using the critical body residue at the chosen biological response endpoint as the dose surrogate rather than the concentration of chemical in the exposure medium. Comparisons of exposure-based and organism residue-based toxicity between fish, and invertebrates in soil (earthworms) and sediment (amphipods) are presented. Recommendations to facilitate such comparisons are reviewed.

  2. Assessment of myelotoxicity caused by environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G A; Luster, M I; Dean, J H; Campbell, M L

    1982-01-01

    Potential antineoplastic agents must be screened for the delayed toxicity that occurs in many cases of drug-induced bone marrow aplasia. In vitro clonal assays for hematopoietic progenitor cells have been developed to assess the degree of myelotoxicity. This adverse side effect is often the limiting factor in the development of new cancer chemotherapeutics. In addition, many environmental chemicals are cytotoxic to rapidly proliferating cells, but a systematic assessment of their myelotoxicity has not been performed. We have used clonal marrow assays to investigate a panel of chemicals including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, polybrominated biphenyls, diethylstilbestrol, benzo(a)pyrene and indomethacin. All were immunotoxic, some to pleuripotent hemopoetic stem cells and other to granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, and at concentrations below those causing other toxic manifestations. This shows that these bone marrow clonal assays, and hopefully future one for erythroid, B- and T-lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes, will provide the specificity and sensitivity necessary to delineate the myelotoxicity of a broad spectrum of environmental chemicals. PMID:6277616

  3. Human health risks due to consumption of chemically contaminated fishery products.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, F E; Hattis, D; Wolke, R E; Steinman, D

    1993-01-01

    A small proportion of fishery products contaminated with appreciable amounts of potentially hazardous inorganic and organic contaminants from natural and environmental sources seem to pose the greatest potential for toxicity to consumers of fishery products in the United States. Health risks due to chemicals (e.g., modest changes in the overall risk of cancer, subtle deficits of neurological development in fetuses and children) are difficult to measure directly in people exposed to low levels. Immunocompetence may increase cancer risk. Inferences about the potential magnitude of these problems must be based on the levels of specific chemical present, observations of human populations and experimental animals exposed to relatively high doses, and theories about the likely mechanisms of action of specific intoxicants and the population distribution of sensitivity of human exposure. Lognormal distributions were found to provide good descriptions of the pattern of variation of contaminant concentrations among different species and geographic areas; this variability offers a solution for reduction of exposure through restricting harvest of aquatic animals from certain sites and by excluding certain species. Available information suggest that risks are not generally of high magnitude; nevertheless, their control will significantly improve public health.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8143635

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE ASSAY FOR VITELLOGENIN TO MONITOR ESTROGEN-LIKE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmental contaminants have the potential to disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife and humans resulting in impairment of reproductive and other systems. A subset of these contaminants may initiate these effects by binding to the estrogen receptor. In oviparous vertebrate...

  5. Investigation of selected potential environmental contaminants: benzotriazoles. Final technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Davis; J. Santodonato; P. H. Howard; J. Saxena

    1977-01-01

    Benzotriazoles are produced in approximately 5-6 million pounds per year in the United States. The majority are used in anticorrosion applications. Approximately 20-30% are used as UV stabilizers, many of which are 2-substituted benzotriazoles. Small amounts are used for photographic applications. Information on production, use, transport and handling, environmental fate, and toxicity are reviewed. The document contains: Physical and chemical

  6. [Environmental characterization of the National Contaminated Sites in SENTIERI project].

    PubMed

    Musmeci, L; Bellino, M; Falleni, F; Piccardi, A

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "polluted site" was firstly introduced in Italy with the definition of "environmental high risk areas" (Rule 349/86). Later, the decree 471/99 stated that a site is considered polluted if the concentration of even just one index pollutant in anyone of the matrices (soil or subsoil, surface or ground waters) exceeds the allowable threshold limit concentration. The boundaries of Italian polluted sites (IPS) were defined (Decree 152/06) on the basis of health, environmental and social criteria. SENTIERI Project includes 44 out of the 57 sites comprised in the "National environmental remediation program"; they correspond to the largest national industrial agglomerates. For each site, characterization data were collected, classified and arranged in tables. A great part of collected data came also from the environmental remediation programmes planned for the sites. These plans show that characterization and risk assessment activities were mainly undertaken for private industrial areas, as they were considered source of pollution. On the other hand, municipal and/or green and agricultural areas included in IPSs were poorly studied. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the exposure of the populations living inside and/or near the IPSs. The most probable population exposure come from the contamination of ground waters utilized for irrigation, or industrial emissions. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 Supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention devoted to SENTIERI Project. PMID:22166293

  7. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.

    PubMed Central

    de Swart, R L; Ross, P S; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D

    1996-01-01

    Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Changes in immune function were monitored over a 2 1/2-year period. The seals that were fed contaminated Baltic herring developed significantly higher body burdens of potentially immunotoxic organochlorines and displayed impaired immune responses as demonstrated by suppression of natural killer cell activity and specific T-cell responses. During a 2-week fasting experiment performed at the end of the feeding study, mobilization of organochlorines from the blubber did not lead to a strong increase of contaminant levels in the blood, and no enhancement of the existing immunosuppression was observed. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain affects immune function in harbour seals, whereas short-term fasting periods, which are normal for seals, do not seem to pose an additional risk. The seals of this study were not exposed perinatally to high levels of environmental chemicals, and body burdens of organochlorines measured near the end of the study were lower than those generally observed in free-ranging seals inhabiting many contaminated regions. Therefore, it may be expected that environmental contaminants adversely affect immune function of free-ranging seals inhabiting contaminated regions at least as seriously as observed in these studies. PMID:8880005

  8. The toxicology of climate change: environmental contaminants in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Pamela D; McElwee, Matthew K; Miller, Hilary D; Clark, Bryan W; Van Tiem, Lindsey A; Walcott, Kia C; Erwin, Kyle N; Levin, Edward D

    2009-08-01

    Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. This review examines one of the consequences of climate change that has only recently attracted attention: namely, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemical pollutants. A review was undertaken of the scientific literature (original research articles, reviews, government and intergovernmental reports) focusing on the interactions of toxicants with the environmental parameters, temperature, precipitation, and salinity, as altered by climate change. Three broad classes of chemical toxicants of global significance were the focus: air pollutants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including some organochlorine pesticides, and other classes of pesticides. Generally, increases in temperature will enhance the toxicity of contaminants and increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone regionally, but will also likely increase rates of chemical degradation. While further research is needed, climate change coupled with air pollutant exposures may have potentially serious adverse consequences for human health in urban and polluted regions. Climate change producing alterations in: food webs, lipid dynamics, ice and snow melt, and organic carbon cycling could result in increased POP levels in water, soil, and biota. There is also compelling evidence that increasing temperatures could be deleterious to pollutant-exposed wildlife. For example, elevated water temperatures may alter the biotransformation of contaminants to more bioactive metabolites and impair homeostasis. The complex interactions between climate change and pollutants may be particularly problematic for species living at the edge of their physiological tolerance range where acclimation capacity may be limited. In addition to temperature increases, regional precipitation patterns are projected to be altered with climate change. Regions subject to decreases in precipitation may experience enhanced volatilization of POPs and pesticides to the atmosphere. Reduced precipitation will also increase air pollution in urbanized regions resulting in negative health effects, which may be exacerbated by temperature increases. Regions subject to increased precipitation will have lower levels of air pollution, but will likely experience enhanced surface deposition of airborne POPs and increased run-off of pesticides. Moreover, increases in the intensity and frequency of storm events linked to climate change could lead to more severe episodes of chemical contamination of water bodies and surrounding watersheds. Changes in salinity may affect aquatic organisms as an independent stressor as well as by altering the bioavailability and in some instances increasing the toxicity of chemicals. A paramount issue will be to identify species and populations especially vulnerable to climate-pollutant interactions, in the context of the many other physical, chemical, and biological stressors that will be altered with climate change. Moreover, it will be important to predict tipping points that might trigger or accelerate synergistic interactions between climate change and contaminant exposures. PMID:19375165

  9. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying their resources during incidents of lesser significance, for special projects, and for routine surveillance and monitoring as part of ongoing activities of the environmental laboratory community. PMID:24534702

  10. Environmental contamination with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Smith, T L; Iwen, P C; Olson, S B; Rupp, M E

    1998-07-01

    Eleven cancer patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were followed as outpatients. Environmental cultures were obtained from clinic rooms before and after patients care. Environmental contamination occurred in 29% of encounters. Superficial disinfection did not eradicate contamination, although more thorough cleaning did. We conclude that environmental VRE contamination occurs in the outpatient setting. Infection control practices, similar to those used in the inpatient setting, may be necessary for outpatient clinics. PMID:9702578

  11. Cumulative Index to Chemicals and to Common and Scientific Names of Species Listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) series synthesizes ecotoxicological data of selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998 a total of 34 reviews were published in various Reports series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), herbicides (acrolein, atrazine), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), predacides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol), veterinary chemicals (famphur), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, mining wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced by contaminant and corresponding page numbers. A similar index is shown for chemicals.

  12. Use of on-site chemical analyses in the identification of groundwater contamination sources affecting the Rockaway Borough well field

    SciTech Connect

    Manikas, C.S.; Boyer, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Field chemical analyses were applied to an investigation of the Rockaway Borough well field, located in northwestern New Jersey, USA, and the designated sole-source glacial aquifer supplying the well field. The aquifer and the Borough water supply were found to be contaminated with up to 680 ..mu..g/L of tetrachlorethylene (PCE) and 172 ..mu..g/L of trichlorethylene (TCE) in 1980. The sources of the contaminants had not been identified in 1982 when the well field was placed on the United States Environmental Protection Agency National Priorities List of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. A limited site investigation was conducted using on-site chemical analyses of groundwater samples and soil sample headspace gases. The investigation identified optimal monitoring well locations, provided cost-effective time series sampling data, and identified the locations of three potential contaminants sources.

  13. New trends in the analytical determination of emerging contaminants and their transformation products in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Ana; Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2013-06-01

    Since the so-called emerging contaminants were established as a new group of pollutants of environmental concern, a great effort has been devoted to the knowledge of their distribution, fate and effects in the environment. After more than 20 years of work, a significant improvement in knowledge about these contaminants has been achieved, but there is still a large gap of information on the growing number of new potential contaminants that are appearing and especially of their unpredictable transformation products. Although the environmental problem arising from emerging contaminants must be addressed from an interdisciplinary point of view, it is obvious that analytical chemistry plays an important role as the first step of the study, as it allows establishing the presence of chemicals in the environment, estimate their concentration levels, identify sources and determine their degradation pathways. These tasks involve serious difficulties requiring different analytical solutions adjusted to purpose. Thus, the complexity of the matrices requires highly selective analytical methods; the large number and variety of compounds potentially present in the samples demands the application of wide scope methods; the low concentrations at which these contaminants are present in the samples require a high detection sensitivity, and high demands on the confirmation and high structural information are needed for the characterisation of unknowns. New developments on analytical instrumentation have been applied to solve these difficulties. Furthermore and not less important has been the development of new specific software packages intended for data acquisition and, in particular, for post-run analysis. Thus, the use of sophisticated software tools has allowed successful screening analysis, determining several hundreds of analytes, and assisted in the structural elucidation of unknown compounds in a timely manner. PMID:23456948

  14. Understanding Clinical Immunological Testing in Alleged Chemically Induced Environmental Illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Salvaggio

    1996-01-01

    Some believe that an abnormal immunoregulatory response based on environmental damage to T cells is fundamental to the production of symptoms in patients with alleged “multiple chemical sensitivity” and\\/or “environmental illness.” According to this theory stimulation of T cells or T cell phenotypic subsets by environmental chemicals results in release of cytokines that can effect appropriate target cells of multiple

  15. SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first Report on 27 chemicals was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 20...

  16. Pilot-scale evaluation of chemical oxidation for MTBE-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, M.; Schupp, D.A.; Krishnan, E.R.; Tafuri, A.N.; Chen, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has tentatively classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen, thus further emphasizing the importance for study of fate, transport, and environmental effects of MTBE. The treatment of subsurface contaminants (e.g., MTBE) from leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents many complex challenges. Many techniques have been employed for the remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater at LUST sites. Under sponsorship of US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, IT Corporation has conducted evaluations of chemical oxidation of MTBE contaminated soil using Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous sulfate), simulating both ex-situ and in-situ soil remediation. Bench-scale ex-situ tests have shown up to 90% degradation of MTBE within 12 hours. Pilot-scale MTBE oxidation tests were conducted in a stainless paddle-type mixer with a 10 cubic foot mixing volume. The reactor was designed with a heavy duty mixer shaft assembly to homogenize soil and included provisions for contaminant and reagent addition, mixing, and sample acquisition. The tests were performed by placing 400 pounds of a synthetic soil matrix (consisting of a mixture of top soil, sand, gravel and clay) in the reactor, spiking with 20 ppm of MTBE, and mixing thoroughly. The variables evaluated in the pilot-scale tests included reaction time, amount of hydrogen peroxide, and amount of ferrous sulfate. After 8 hours of reaction, using 4 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide and a 10:1 hydrogen peroxide: ferrous iron weight ratio, approximately 60% MTBE degradation was observed. When 10 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide was used (with the same ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ferrous iron), 90% MTBE degradation was observed. When the same test was performed without any ferrous iron addition, 75% MTBE degradation was observed.

  17. Analytic considerations for measuring environmental chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Larry L; Wang, Richard Y

    2002-01-01

    The presence of environmental chemicals in human breast milk is of general concern because of the potential health consequence of these chemicals to the breast-fed infant and the mother. In addition to the mother's exposure, several features determine the presence of environmental chemicals in breast milk and their ability to be determined analytically. These include maternal factors and properties of the environmental chemical--both physical and chemical--such as its lipid solubility, degree of ionization, and molecular weight. Environmental chemicals with high lipid solubility are likely to be found in breast milk; they include polyhalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organochlorine insecticides, and polybrominated diphenylethers. These fat-soluble chemicals are incorporated into the milk as it is synthesized, and they must be measured in accordance with the fat content of the milk to allow for meaningful comparisons within an individual and among populations. Although the analytic approach selected to measure the environmental chemical is predominantly determined by the characteristics of the chemical, the concentration of the chemical in the milk sample and the existence of structurally similar chemicals (e.g., congeners) must be considered as well. In general, the analytic approach for measuring environmental chemicals in breast milk is similar to the approach for measuring the same chemicals in other matrices, except special considerations must be given for the relatively high fat content of milk. The continued efforts of environmental scientists to measure environmental chemicals in breast milk is important for defining the true contribution of these chemicals to public health, especially to the health of the newborn. Work is needed for identifying and quantifying additional environmental chemicals in breast milk from the general population and for developing analytic methods that have increased sensitivity and the ability to speciate various chemicals. PMID:12055062

  18. XAFS determination of the chemical form of lead in smelter-contaminated soils and mine tailings: Importance of adsorption processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUILLAUME MORIN; F. Juillot; P. Ildefonse; G. Calas; J. D. Ostergren; GORDON E. BROWN JR

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated smelter-contaminated soils from Evin-Malmaison, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France, and mine tailings from Leadville, Colorado, U.S.A. Bulk Pb concentrations range from 460 to 1900 ppm in the topsoils at Evin-Malmaison site and from 6000 to 10,000 ppm in the tailings samples from the Leadville site. These concentrations necessarily raise human health and environmental concerns, but bioavailability and chemical lability of

  19. ADAPTIONS OF WILD POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS TO PERSISTENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many aquatic species, including the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichogs), adapt to local environmental conditions. We conducted studies to evaluate whether highly exposed populations of mummichogs adapt to toxic environmental contaminants. These fish populations are ...

  20. Endocrine disruptor activity of multiple environmental food chain contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wielogórska, E; Elliott, C T; Danaher, M; Connolly, L

    2015-02-01

    Industrial chemicals, antimicrobials, drugs and personal care products have been reported as global pollutants which enter the food chain. Some of them have also been classified as endocrine disruptors based on results of various studies employing a number of in vitro/vivo tests. The present study employed a mammalian reporter gene assay to assess the effects of known and emerging contaminants on estrogen nuclear receptor transactivation. Out of fifty-nine compounds assessed, estrogen receptor agonistic activity was observed for parabens( n = 3), UV filters (n = 6), phthalates (n = 4) and a metabolite, pyrethroids (n = 9) and their metabolites (n = 3). Two compounds were estrogen receptor antagonists while some of the agonists enhanced 17b-estradiol mediated response.This study reports five new compounds (pyrethroids and their metabolites) possessing estrogen agonist activity and highlights for the first time that pyrethroid metabolites are of particular concern showing much greater estrogenic activity than their parent compounds. PMID:25449125

  1. Feasibility of relating interferon production by wild voles to types of chemical contamination of their environment : Communication.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Duvall, J; Santolucito, J

    1984-03-01

    In the fall of 1980, a limited field sampling and laboratory analysis profect was undertaken to explore the feasibility of relating immunological responses of field mice (voles) living wild in an area of environmental concern to the level of chemical contamination of that area. The voles were collected in the vicinity of Love Canal by biological sampling teams already there to collect voles for other purposes.The project helped identify those areas of practical uncertainty that must be clarified before the rate of interferon production in voles can be considered as a possible indicator of chemical contamination. Two lines of research are proposed: developing optimumin vitro interferon bioassays systems for vole leukocytes; and characterizing the interferon production responses of voles following controlled exposures to selected carcinogens and other chemicals. PMID:24259144

  2. PROSPECTS FOR IN SITU CHEMICAL TREATMENT FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treating large volumes of contaminated soil at Superfund sites is costly. he Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have provisions, which regulate the removal treatment, and ultimate disposal of contaminated soi...

  3. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

  4. Integrated Proteomic Approaches for Understanding Toxicity of Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    To apply quantitative proteomic analysis to the evaluation of toxicity of environmental chemicals, we have developed an integrated proteomic technology platform. This platform has been applied to the analysis of the toxic effects and pathways of many important environmental chemi...

  5. Environmental effects of oilfield chemicals on composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sorem, R.M. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a feasibility study of the effects of oilfield chemicals on composite materials. In this initial study only hydrochloric acid is considered. Initial attempts were made to test stressed specimens, but results were very poor. Subsequent testing was performed to determine how the composite material constituents reacted to the hydrochloric acid. The initial testing was performed on tubular specimens with axial and essentially hoop wound fibers of different materials with different resins. The specimens were loaded in bending to induce representative strains in the tubing. All specimens failed. The second tests consisted of only an environmental soak to determine the amount of mass uptake as well as the reduction in strength. The strength reduction results will be presented at a later time. Testing was performed on S-2 glass, carbon and Kevlar 49 as well as three different resins.

  6. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    PubMed

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. PMID:23998894

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDICES FOR GREEN CHEMICAL PRODUCTION AND USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical production, use and disposal cause adverse impacts on the environment. Consequently, much research has been conducted to develop methods for estimating the risk of chemicals and to screen them based on environmental impact. Risk assessment may be subdivide...

  8. In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J; Redwine, James C

    2007-11-15

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study testing a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaim arsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from several industrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenic through heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. The mean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soils collected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogical and organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form, distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenic trioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320-341] indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associated with amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slow release against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the most significant effect on its ability to retain arsenic. Based on this observation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatment solutions in an effort to promote the formation of insoluble arsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic. Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were used as the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in three sets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO(4); (2) FeSO(4) and KMnO(4); (3) FeSO(4), KMnO(4) and CaCO(3). The optimum treatment solutions for each soil were identified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching of treated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311 [USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992] toxic characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and EPA Method 1312 [USEPA. Method 1312: synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994] synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP). Both FW and BH soils showed significant decreases in arsenic leachability for all three treatment solutions, compared to untreated soil. While soils treated with solution (3) showed the best results with subsequent TCLP sequential leaching, SPLP sequential leaching of treated soils indicated that lowest arsenic mobility was obtained using treatment solution (1). Treatment solution (1) with only FeSO(4) is considered the best choice for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil because SPLP sequential leaching better simulates natural weathering. Analysis of treated soils produced no evidence of newly-formed arsenic-bearing phases in either soil after treatment. Sequential chemical extractions of treated soils indicate that surface complexation of arsenic on ferric hydroxide is the major mechanism for the fixation process. PMID:17673278

  9. GEOPHYSICAL DETECTION OF HYDROCARBON AND ORGANIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Olhoeft

    Unambiguous detection of hydrocarbon and organic contamination is the most difficult task for noninvasive geophysical methods at hazardous waste sites. The difficulty is two-fold: 1) the low level of geophysical contrast that these contaminants provide against the background soil and rock, and 2) the low level of contaminant concentration considered to be of regulatory concern. Yet, electrical and electromagnetic methods

  10. Environmental Research 105 (2007) 3452 Spatial and temporal variations in silver contamination

    E-print Network

    Environmental Research 105 (2007) 34­52 Spatial and temporal variations in silver contamination, of any estuarine system. Since then others have argued that silver contamination is higher elsewhere (e remobilization of silver from historically contaminated sediments being re-exposed to overlying surface waters

  11. A risk-based methodology for ranking environmental chemical stressors at the regional scale.

    PubMed

    Giubilato, Elisa; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Giove, Silvio; Bierkens, Johan; Den Hond, Elly; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    A "Risk-based Tool for the Regional Ranking of Environmental Chemical Stressors" has been developed, aimed at supporting decision-makers in the identification of priority environmental contaminants, as well as priority areas, to be further assessed. The tool implements a methodology based on a quantitative Weight-of-Evidence approach, integrating three types of information, identified as "Lines-of-Evidence" (LoE), namely: LoE "Environmental Contamination" (including data on chemical contamination in environmental matrices in the region, thus providing information on potential population exposure), LoE "Intake" (including results from human biomonitoring studies, i.e. concentration of chemicals in human biological matrices, thus providing an integrated estimation of exposure) and LoE "Observed Effects" (including information on the incidence of adverse health outcomes associated with environmental exposure to chemicals). A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology based on fuzzy logic has been developed to support the integration of information related to these three LoEs for each chemical stressor. The tool allows one to rank chemical stressors at different spatial scales, such as at the regional level as well as within each sub-area (e.g., counties). Moreover, it supports the identification of priority sub-areas within the region, where environmental and health data suggest possible adverse health effects and thus more investigation efforts are needed. To evaluate the performance of this newly developed tool, a case-study in the Flemish region (north of Belgium) has been selected. In the case-study, data on soil contamination by metals and organic contaminants were integrated with data on exposure and effect biomarkers measured in adolescents within the framework of the human biomonitoring study performed by the Flemish Centre of Expertise on Environment and Health in the period 2002-2006. The case-study demonstrated the performance of the tool in integrating qualitative and quantitative data with expert judgement for the identification of priority contaminants and areas. The proposed approach proved to be flexible, allowing for the incorporation of individual decision-maker's preferences, and, at the same time, to be transparent since all assumptions and value attributions are traceable. PMID:24440801

  12. Environmental effects of dredging: A preliminary evaluation of contaminant release at the point of dredging. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Havis, R.N.; Amande, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to present a preliminary evaluation of the standard elutriate test as a predictor of contaminant release (dissolved form) to the water column at the point of dredging. This note is meant to extend previous notes (Hayes 1987, Havis 1987) which dealt with resuspension of sediments due to dredging and the release of adsorbed chemicals which could enter the water phase at the point of dredging. Data collected under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP) showed that the standard elutriate test (Keeley and Engler 1974, US Environmental Protection Agency and US Army Corps of Engineers 1977, Environmental Effects Laboratory 1976) predicted, within an order of magnitude, dissolved chemical concentrations in water at dredged material disposal sites (Jones and Lee 1978). The potential for contaminant release also exists, however, at the point of dredging. This source of contaminant release during dredging was investigated by McLellan et al. (in preparation) under the Improvement of Operations and Maintenance Techniques (IOMT) program. Because of the success of the standard elutriate test for simulating dissolved contaminant release at the disposal site it was investigated as a tool for predicting contaminant release at the point of dredging.

  13. The Effect of Terminal Cleaning on Environmental Contamination Rates of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Strassle, P.; Thom, K.A.; Johnson, J.K.; Leekha, S.; Lissauer, M.; Zhu, J.; Harris, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii environmental contamination before and after discharge cleaning in rooms of infected/colonized patients. 46.9% of rooms and 15.3% of sites were found contaminated at baseline. 25% of rooms, 5.5% of sites, were found contaminated post cleaning. Cleaning significantly decreased environmental contamination of A. baumannii, however, persistent contamination represents a significant risk factor for transmission. Further studies on this and more effective cleaning methods are needed. PMID:23199726

  14. Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

  15. Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Ansoborlo, Eric [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Berard, Philippe [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Den Auwer, Christophe [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Menetrier, Florence [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Younes, Ali [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Montavon, Gilles [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Moisy, Phillipe [Atomic Energy Commission (France)

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July 1898 by P. and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which 2106 Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th 8 anniversary of Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this paper is to review several aspect of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including : i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; ii) its main sources and uses; iii) its physico-chemical properties; iv) its main analytical methods; v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion and wound contamination; vii) its dosimetry and viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination.

  16. Experimental in situ chemical peroxidation of atrazine in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, Roberta; Di Palma, Luca; Merli, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Lab-scale experiments of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), were performed on soil contaminated with 100 mg kg(-1) of atrazine (CIET). The oxidant used was hydrogen peroxide catalysed by naturally occurring minerals or by soluble Fe(II) sulphate, added in aqueous solution. The oxidation conditions were: CIET:H2O2=1:1100, 2 PV or 3 PV reaction volume, Fe(II):H2O2=0, 1:22, 1:11. Stabilized (with KH2PO4 at a concentration of 16 g l(-1)) or non-stabilized hydrogen peroxide was used. The pH of the reagents was adjusted to pH=1 with sulphuric acid, or was not altered. Results showed that the addition of soluble Fe(II) increased the temperature of the soil slurry and the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide resulted in a lower heat generation. The treatment reduced the COD of the soil of about 40%, pH was lowered and natural organic matter became less hydrophobic. The highest atrazine conversion (89%) was obtained in the conditions: 3 PV, Fe(II):H2O2=1:11 with stabilized hydrogen peroxide added in two steps. The stabilizer only increased H2O2 life-time significantly when soluble Fe(II) was added. Results indicate as preferential degradation pathway of atrazine in soil dechlorination instead of dealkylation. PMID:16083941

  17. A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.K.; Foley, R.D.; Tiner, P.F.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Uziel, M.S.; Swaja, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted intermittently from February 1992 through May 1992. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL at the request of the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Operations Office and the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program. Results of this investigation indicate that the source of radioactive contamination at the point of the contamination incident is from one of the underground abandoned lines. The contamination in soil is likely the result of residual contamination from years of waste transport and maintenance operations (e.g., replacement of degraded joints, upgrading or replacement of entire pipelines, and associated landscaping activities). However, because (1) there is currently an active LLW line positioned in the same subsurface trench with the abandoned lines and (2) the physical condition of the abandoned lines may be brittle, this inquiry could not determine which abandoned line was responsible for the subsurface contamination. Soil sampling at the location of the contamination incident and along the pipeline route was performed in a manner so as not to damage the active LLW line and abandoned lines. Recommendations for corrective actions are included.

  18. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  19. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power and computing resources are scarce.

  20. Chemical contaminants in breast milk and their impacts on children's health: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Mattison, Donald; McCally, Michael; Garg, Anjali

    2002-01-01

    Human milk is the best source of nutrition for infants. Breast milk contains the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins for developing babies, and it provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity, and development. Unfortunately, breast milk is not pristine. Contamination of human milk is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution of the environment by toxic chemicals. The finding of toxic chemicals in breast milk raises important issues for pediatric practice, for the practice of public health, and for the environmental health research community. It also illuminates gaps in current knowledge including a) insufficient information on the nature and levels of contaminants in breast milk; b) lack of consistent protocols for collecting and analyzing breast milk samples; c) lack of toxicokinetic data; and d) lack of data on health outcomes that may be produced in infants by exposure to chemicals in breast milk. These gaps in information impede risk assessment and make difficult the formulation of evidence-based health guidance. To address these issues, there is a need for a carefully planned and conducted national breast milk monitoring effort in the United States. Additionally, to assess health outcomes of toxic exposures via breast milk, it will be necessary to examine children prospectively over many years in longitudinal epidemiologic studies that use standardized examination protocols that specifically assess breast milk exposures. Finally, current risk assessment methods need to be expanded to include consideration of the potential risks posed to infants and children by exposures to chemical residues in breast milk. PMID:12055061

  1. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  2. Environmental contaminant exposure data and monitoring priorities for wild terrestrial vertebrates at national parks in coastal and estuarine habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.; Eisenreich, K.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on select species and habitats in the United States. One of the many BEST Project activities entails the development of decision-support tools to assist in the identification of chemical threats to species and lands under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior. Although there are many ecotoxicological monitoring programs that focus on aquatic species and habitats, there are currently no large-scale efforts that are focused on terrestrial vertebrates in the United States. Nonetheless, organochlorine contaminants, metals, and new pollutants continue to pose hazards to terrestrial vertebrates at many spatial scales (ranging from small hazardous-waste-site point sources to entire watersheds). To evaluate and prioritize pollutant hazards for terrestrial vertebrates, a ?Contaminant Exposure and EffectsTerrestrial Vertebrates? (CEE-TV) database (www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online) was developed. The CEE-TV database has been used to conduct simple searches for exposure and biological effects information for a given species or location, identification of temporal contaminant exposure trends, information gap analyses for national wildlife refuge and national park units, and ranking of terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological information needs based on data density and water quality problems. Despite widespread concerns about environmental contamination, during the past decade only about one-half of the coastal National Park units appear to have terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data. Based upon known environmental contaminant hazards, it is recommended that regionalized monitoring programs or efforts focused on lands managed by the Department of the Interior should be undertaken to prevent serious natural resource problems.

  3. The importance of evaluating the physicochemical and toxicological properties of a contaminant for remediating environments affected by chemical incidents.

    PubMed

    Wyke, S; Peña-Fernández, A; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    In the event of a major chemical incident or accident, appropriate tools and technical guidance need to be available to ensure that a robust approach can be adopted for developing a remediation strategy. Remediation and restoration strategies implemented in the aftermath of a chemical incident are a particular concern for public health. As a result an innovative methodology has been developed to help design an effective recovery strategy in the aftermath of a chemical incident that has been developed; the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents (UKRHCI). The handbook consists of a six-step decision framework and the use of decision trees specifically designed for three different environments: food production systems, inhabited areas and water environments. It also provides a compendium of evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that should be selected in relation to their efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment. Selection of effective recovery options in this decision framework involves evaluating the physicochemical and toxicological properties of the chemical(s) involved. Thus, the chemical handbook includes a series of tables with relevant physicochemical and toxicological properties that should be assessed in function of the environment affected. It is essential that the physicochemical properties of a chemical are evaluated and interpreted correctly during the development of a remedial plan in the aftermath of a chemical incident to ensure an effective remedial response. This paper presents a general overview of the key physicochemical and toxicological properties of chemicals that should be evaluated when developing a recovery strategy. Information on how physicochemical properties have impacted on previous remedial responses reported in the literature is also discussed and a number of challenges for remediation are highlighted to include the need to develop novel approaches to remediate sites contaminated by mixtures of chemicals as well as methods for interpreting chemical reactions in different environmental matrices to include how climate change may affect the speciation and mobility of chemicals in the environment. PMID:24874001

  4. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we address the identification of residual chemical hazards in shellfish collected from the marine environment or in marketed shellfish. Data, assembled on the concentration of contaminants detected, were compared with the appropriate regulatory and food safety standards. Moreover, data on human exposure and body burden levels were evaluated in the context of potential health risks.Shellfish farming is a common industry along European coasts. The primary types of shellfish consumed in France are oysters, mussels, king scallops, winkles,whelks, cockles, clams, and other scallops. Shellfish filter large volumes of water to extract their food and are excellent bioaccumulators. Metals and other pollutants that exist in the marine environment partition into particular organs, according to their individual chemical characteristics. In shellfish, accumulation often occurs in the digestive gland, which plays a role in assimilation, excretion, and detoxification of contaminants. The concentrations of chemical contaminants in bivalve mollusks are known to fluctuate with the seasons.European regulations limit the amount and type of contaminants that can appear in foodstuffs. Current European standards regulate the levels of micro-biological agents, phycotoxins, and some chemical contaminants in food. Since 2006, these regulations have been compiled into the "Hygiene Package." Bivalve mollusks must comply with maximum levels of certain contaminants as follows:lead (1.5 mg kg-1), cadmium (1 mg kg-1), mercury (0.5 mg kg-1), dioxins (4 pg g-1 and dioxins + DL-PCBs 8 pg g-1), and benzo[a]pyrene (10 ?p.g kg-1).In this review, we identify the levels of major contaminants that exist in shellfish(collected from the marine environment and/or in marketed shellfish). The follow-ing contaminants are among those that are profiled: Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Ni, Cr, V,Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, Mg, Mo, radionuclides, benzo[a]pyrene, PCBs, dioxins and furans, PAHs, TBT, HCB, dieldrin, DDT, lindane, triazines, PBDE, and chlorinated paraffins.In France, the results of contaminant monitoring have indicated that Cd, but not lead (< 0.26 mg kg-1) or mercury (< 0.003 mg kg-1), has had some non-compliances. Detections for PCBs and dioxins in shellfish were far below the regulatory thresholds in oysters (< 0.6 pg g-l), mussels (< 0.6 pg g-1), and king scallops (< 0.4 pg g-1). The benzo[a]pyrene concentration in marketed mussels and farmed shellfish does not exceed the regulatory threshold. Some monitoring data are available on shellfish flesh contamination for unregulated organic contaminants.Of about 100 existing organo stannic compounds, residues of the mono-, di-, and tributyltin (MBT, DBT, and TBT) and mono-, di-, and triphenyltin (MPT, DPT,and TPT) compounds are the most frequently detected in fishery products. Octyltins are not found in fishery products. Some bivalve mollusks show arsenic levels up to 15.8 mg kg-1. It seems that the levels of arsenic in the environment derive less from bioaccumulation, than from whether the arsenic is in an organic or an inorganic form. In regard to the other metals, levels of zinc and magnesium are higher in oysters than in mussels.To protect shellfish from chemical contamination, programs have been established to monitor water masses along coastal areas. The French monitoring network(ROCCH) focuses on environmental matrices that accumulate contaminants. These include both biota and sediment. Example contaminants were studied in a French coastal lagoon (Arcachon Bay) and in an estuary (Bay of Seine), and these were used to illustrate the usefulness of the monitoring programs. Twenty-one pesticidal and biocidal active substances were detected in the waters of Arcachon Bay during the summers from 1999 to 2003, at concentrations ranging from a few nanograms per liter to several hundred nanograms per liter. Most of the detected substances were herbicides, including some that are now banned. Organotin compounds have been detected in similarly semi-enclosed waters elsewhere (bays, estuaries, and ha

  5. Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated dioxins and –furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also have been found to have a negative influence on thyroid hormone metabolism. The lower brominated flame retardants are now banned in the EU, however higher brominated decabromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are not yet banned. They too can negatively influence thyroid hormone metabolism. An additional brominated flame retardant that is still in use is tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), which has also been shown to influence thyroid hormone metabolism. Influences of brominated flame retardants, PCDD/F’s and dioxin like-PCBs (dl-PCB’s) on thyroid hormone metabolism in adolescence in the Netherlands will be presented in this study and determined if there are reasons for concern to human health for these toxins. In the period 1987-1991, a cohort of mother-baby pairs was formed in order to detect abnormalities in relation to dioxin levels in the perinatal period. The study demonstrated that PCDD/Fs were found around the time of birth, suggesting a modulation of the setpoint of thyroid hormone metabolism with a higher 3,3’, 5,5’tetrathyroxine (T4) levels and an increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). While the same serum thyroid hormone tests (- TSH and T4) were again normal by 2 years of age and were still normal at 8-12 years, adolescence is a period with extra stress on thyroid hormone metabolism. Therefore we measured serum levels of TSH, T4, 3,3’,5- triiodothyronine (T3), free T4 (FT4), antibodies and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in our adolescent cohort. Methods Vena puncture was performed to obtain samples for the measurement of thyroid hormone metabolism related parameters and the current serum dioxin (PCDD/Fs), PCB and PBDE levels. Results The current levels of T3 were positively correlated to BDE-99. A positive trend with FT4 and BDE-99 was also seen, while a positive correlation with T3 and dl-PCB was also seen. No correlation with TBG was seen for any of the contaminants. Neither the prenatal nor the current PCDD/F levels showed a relationship with the thyroid parameters in this relatively small group. Conclusion Once again the thyroid hormone metabolism (an increase in T3) seems to have been influenced by current background levels of common environmental contaminants: dl-PCBs and BDE-99. T3 is a product of target organs and abnormalities might indicate effects on hormone transporters and could cause pathology. While the influence on T3 levels may have been compensated, because the adolescents functioned normal at the time of the study period, it is questionable if this compensation is enough for all organs depending on thyroid hormones. PMID:22759492

  6. P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.

    PubMed

    Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2014-04-01

    Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

  7. The Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Mating Dynamics and Population Viability in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish

    E-print Network

    Partridge, Charlyn G.

    2010-07-14

    are genetically distinct from coastal populations but moderate levels of gene flow occur among sites, and gene flow between contaminated and non-contaminated population may be influencing how environmental contaminants are impacting genetic diversity...

  8. SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides an ongoing assessment of the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (First Report) was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 200...

  9. REPORTING NEEDS FOR STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN HUMAN MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of environmental chemicals in human milk have been carried out in many countries, but few have been conducted in the U.S. These studies are useful for monitoring populations trends in exposure to chemiclas, for research in the determinants of environmental chemicals in m...

  10. POPTOX: Population-level responses of an amphipod to contaminated marine sediments and other environmental stresses

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H. [Oregon State Univ., Newport, OR (United States); [Battelle PNL Marine Science Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Experimental measurements of population-level responses are useful to environmental management in two ways: (1) to estimate the fitness of populations in an ecological-risk study, and (2) to evaluate the ecological relevance of shorter-term acute and chronic toxicity tests that use the same test species. An experimental system was developed for modeling the population-level responses of the burrowing, estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, to environmental stresses, including chemical contamination. Replicate cohorts of newborn amphipods were exposed to natural and anthropogenic (PAH-contaminated sediment) stresses under static-renewal conditions over periods varying up to their full life-span. The amphipods were periodically removed from the sediment, censused, measured, and returned alive to the exposure chamber; the resulting life-history data were used to develop age-based, matrix-algebraic, population-projection models. Preliminary experiments revealed that an exposure period of 12 weeks with a sampling frequency of 2 weeks was sufficient to model the population dynamics of this amphipod. This experimental system may also be,used to study the interaction between anthropogenic stresses and ecological stresses under controlled and long-term exposures.

  11. Cumulative index to chemicals and to common and scientific names of species listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, Ronald, (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    The Contaminant Hazard Review (CHR) series--sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center--synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998, 34 reviews were published in various report series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (acrolein, atrazine, carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, famphur, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), mammalian biocides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial and municipal wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls), minin wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This current report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced with contaminant hazard review and corresponding page numbers. A similar index for chemicals is included.

  12. Filthy Lucre: The Chemical Detection of Cocaine-Contaminated Currency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Ed

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the problem of seizing cocaine-tainted money. Describes an experiment designed to determine what percentage of paper currency is contaminated with cocaine. Considers sampling, the analysis method, contamination, levels of cocaine in money and criminal activity, and the reliability of results. (SAH)

  13. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    First awareness that direct topical application of xenobiotics to bird eggs could be harmful to avian development dates back to the turn of the century. The most widely documented evidence of embryotoxicity following direct exposure comes from petroleum contaminant studies, conducted with at least 10 different avian species. Many petroleum crude oils, refined oils, and waste oils are embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic to different species; LD50s are often less than 5 iL of oil per egg. Toxicity is generally dependent upon the PAH concentration and composition (presence of higher weight PAHs). Five of seven industrial effluents caused significant reduction of embryonic growth in mallards following brief immersion of the eggs. Of the insecticides, organophosphates have been the most widely studied with respect to potential for direct embryotoxicity and teratogenicity following spraying or immersion of eggs. Phenoxy herbicides including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T have been the most widely studied class of herbicides with respect to potential embryotoxicity of spray application. However, more recent evaluations have indicated that this is not the most toxic class of herbicides. Paraquat was found to be highly toxic in at least three species. Herbicides with LC50s that occurred at ten times the field level of application or less for mallard embryos included bromoxynil with MCPA, methyldiclofop, paraquat, prometon, propanil, and trifluralin. Of different gaseous and particulate air pollutants, ozone and particulates rich in PAH content appeared to be potentially embryotoxic, based on laboratory studies. Environmental contaminants in all classes reviewed have been shown to cause physiological and biochemical disturbances in embryos or hatchlings indicative of contaminant exposure, organ damage, or delayed development. Residue studies have shown the presence of DDT, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, decamethrin, petroleum hydrocarbons, and methylmercury after direct exposure of eggs. Ability of xenobiotics to pass across the shell and its membranes as well as embryo uptake appear to be dependent both on the compound and the vehicle. Pesticides in aliphatic (nontoxic oil) vehicle were generally more toxic than ones in aqueous emulsion due to better penetration. Field studies have documented the embryotoxicity of petroleum following transfer from plumage of adult birds to their eggs. Few attempts to measure effects of spraying pesticides near bird nests have been documented. However, application of pesticide mixtures including organophosphate insecticides and fungicides to orchards resulted in embryo ic mortality in mourning dove nests. Future studies are needed to focus on field exposures in multiple species. Comparative laboratory studies are needed taking into consideration shell thickness and porosity to determine whether species such as passerines may be more sensitive. Additive and possibly synergistic effects may occur where xenobiotics may be only slightly to moderately toxic alone. Therefore, further studies examining the effects of pesticides routinely applied in combinations of two or more are needed, as are air pollution studies examining multiple contaminants and species.

  14. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test species toxicity data are available. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  15. Vitellogenin as a potential biomarker for environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Denslow, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Molecular Biology; Folmar, L.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Sullivan, C.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology

    1994-12-31

    The authors have recently obtained N-terminal amino acid sequences for the egg protein vitellogenin (Vtg) from phylogenetically diverse teleost fish ranging from rainbow trout to the striped bass. Using the striped bass sequence as a template, the other teleost fish showed at least an 87% identity through the region of amino acids 7--20. The amino acid sequence was not as well conserved for other fishes; white sturgeon (60%) and brook lamprey (47%), the clawed frog Xenopus (47--60%) or the domestic chicken (40%). The authors synthesized a consensus peptide to this highly conserved region and have raised a polygonal antibody from rabbit. This antibody shows wide cross-reactivity to Vtg from many species of teleost fish. The authors have found that serum Vtg levels are elevated in both male and female brown bullheads with liver tumors from an area contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Serum levels of Vtg were also elevated in rainbow trout with liver tumors induced with aflatoxin B-1. The authors also describe an in-vitro system of plated hepatocytes to screen for estrogenic and antiestrogenic xenobiotic chemicals in the environment and using Vtg as a screening tool to establish structure-activity relationships for reproductive failure in female fish.

  16. Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants

    E-print Network

    November 2005 Key words: aerobic, biodegradation, BTEX, co-contaminant, MTBE, TBA Abstract Contamination to widespread groundwater contam- inations. The relative high water solubility has resulted in frequent; Fiorenza & Rifai Hanadi 2003). MTBE in groundwater is often found together with other gasoline contaminants

  17. EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

  18. Application of solid phase microextraction to the analysis of chlorinated contaminants in environmental matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, G.R.B.; Sarna, L.P.; Anderson, K.L.; Graham, K.N. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

    1994-12-31

    Contamination of aquatic and terrestrial systems with organic contaminants is an increasing toxicological problem. In both the monitoring of such contamination and the determination of the success of remediation methods, straightforward and inexpensive analytical methodology increases the ease of environmental assessment and facilitates regulatory enforcement. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) technology is a recently developed solvent less extraction system with the potential for application to the analysis of a wide range of compounds. Application of SPME, in combination with gas chromatography and GC-MS, will be described for the analysis of chlorinated environmental contaminants such as pesticides and selected PCBs, dioxins, and furans in soils, sediments, and water.

  19. In Vitro Screening of Environmental Chemicals for Targeted Testing Prioritization: The ToxCast Project

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Richard S.; Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Martin, Matthew T.; Mortensen, Holly M.; Reif, David M.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Shah, Imran; Richard, Ann M.; Dix, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches. Objectives This project aims to evaluate the use of in vitro assays for understanding the types of molecular and pathway perturbations caused by environmental chemicals and to build initial prioritization models of in vivo toxicity. Methods We tested 309 mostly pesticide active chemicals in 467 assays across nine technologies, including high-throughput cell-free assays and cell-based assays, in multiple human primary cells and cell lines plus rat primary hepatocytes. Both individual and composite scores for effects on genes and pathways were analyzed. Results Chemicals displayed a broad spectrum of activity at the molecular and pathway levels. We saw many expected interactions, including endocrine and xenobiotic metabolism enzyme activity. Chemicals ranged in promiscuity across pathways, from no activity to affecting dozens of pathways. We found a statistically significant inverse association between the number of pathways perturbed by a chemical at low in vitro concentrations and the lowest in vivo dose at which a chemical causes toxicity. We also found associations between a small set of in vitro assays and rodent liver lesion formation. Conclusions This approach promises to provide meaningful data on the thousands of untested environmental chemicals and to guide targeted testing of environmental contaminants. PMID:20368123

  20. INCIDENCE OF STRESS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITIES ALONG THE U.S. ATLANTIC AND GULF OF MEXICO COASTS WITHIN DIFFERENT RANGES OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION FROM CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synoptic data on concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and benthic macroinfaunal community structure were collected from 1,389 stations in estuaries along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts as part of the nationwide Environmental Monitoring and Asse...

  1. INCIDENCE OF STRESS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITIES ALONG U.S. ATLANTIC AND GULF OF MEXICO COASTS WITHIN DIFFERENT RANGES OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION FROM CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synoptic data on concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and benthic macroinfaunal community structure were collected from 1,389 stations in estuaries along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts as part of the nationwide Environmental Monitoring and Asse...

  2. Environmental mercury contamination in China: sources and impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wong, M H

    2007-01-01

    This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). The first case study indicated that after closure of the acetic acid plant 20 years at Songyuan City (Jilin Province), 16.7% of residents' hair still contained Hg concentration in excess of 1 mg/kg (the reference dosage value, RfD set by USEPA). The second case study indicated that the male residents of Hong Kong who consumed more than four or more meals of fish per week tended to contain higher Hg in their hair, which was linked to their subfertility. There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings. Adverse health effects of residents living in places with a higher background level of Hg, due to long-term exposure to chronic levels of Hg through oral intake should not be overlooked. PMID:16914205

  3. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20h at 4A?C or 10A?C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  4. Decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mining sites.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gyozo; Abdaal, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    Polluting mine accidents and widespread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe and elsewhere has triggered the improvement of related environmental legislation and of the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background pollution associated with natural mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination located in the three-dimensional sub-surface space, the problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites and abandoned mines in historic regions like Europe. These mining-specific problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the decision support methods that have been developed and applied to mining contamination. In this paper, only those methods that are both efficient decision support tools and provide a 'holistic' approach to the complex problem as well are considered. These tools are (1) landscape ecology, (2) industrial ecology, (3) landscape geochemistry, (4) geo-environmental models, (5) environmental impact assessment, (6) environmental risk assessment, (7) material flow analysis and (8) life cycle assessment. This unique inter-disciplinary study should enable both the researcher and the practitioner to obtain broad view on the state-of-the-art of decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mine sites. Documented examples and abundant references are also provided. PMID:23456223

  5. A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

  6. CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

  7. TRANSPORT OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER: DISTRIBUTION AND FATE OF CHEMICALS IN SAND AND GRAVEL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state-of-knowledge of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that are thought to affect organic contaminants in ground water are reviewed. The discussion is confined to horizontal flow in uniform sand and gravel aquifers. General principles governing contaminant tra...

  8. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  9. CHEMICAL-SPECIFIC PARAMETERS FOR TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid, base, and neutral hydrolysis rate constants and partition coefficients are given for 44 toxicity characteristic contaminants. Both calculated and laboratory-determined octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) and organic-carbon-normalized partition coefficient (Koc) values...

  10. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuanjie Yang; Qixing Zhou; Shuhe Wei; Yahu Hu; Yanyu Bao

    2011-01-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa) and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA.

  11. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to be heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon polychlorinated (PCB) mixture. The microarray was able to distinguish dolphins by sex, geographic location, and corroborate previously published health irregularities for the Georgia dolphins. Genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, development/differentiation and oncogenic pathways were found to be differentially expressed in GA dolphins. The report bridges the advancements in dolphin genome sequencing to the first step towards providing a cost-effective means to screen for indicators of chemical toxin exposure as well as disease status in top level predators. PMID:25479946

  12. Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Landrum, P.F. [Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

  13. Decline in heavy metal contamination in marine sediments in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia due to increasing environmental regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Delinom, Robert; Umezawa, Yu; Toyota, Tomoyo; Kaneko, Shinji; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    The 210Pb geochronology, heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, and Pb), and stable Pb isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 207Pb) of three sediment cores collected from Jakarta Bay were analyzed to decipher the history of heavy metal contamination in the period 1900-2006. The chemical and isotopic analyses clearly suggest that anthropogenic metal accumulation in the sediments began in the 1920s and increased greatly from the 1970s until the end of the 1990s. From the end of the 1990s to 2006, accumulation rates were constant or decreased for Zn and Pb near the coastal industrialized area. Comparison of economic data and sociological information suggests that the decline in the concentrations of heavy metals could be attributed to the stricter environmental regulations which were enforced at the end of 1990s. However, metal contamination is currently still an important cause of concern in dealing with environmental preservation and protection in Jakarta Bay.

  14. Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D Petty; C. E Orazio; J. N Huckins; R. W Gale; J. A Lebo; J. C Meadows; K. R Echols; W. L Cranor

    2000-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment\\/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol–water partition coefficient. Techniques

  15. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due to Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental chemical analysis methods are developed and used to chemically fingerprint new and modified External Tank materials made necessary by changing environmental requirements. Chemical fingerprinting can detect and diagnose variations in material composition. To chemically characterize each material, fingerprint methods are selected from an extensive toolbox based on the material's chemistry and the ability of the specific methods to detect the material's critical ingredients. Fingerprint methods have been developed for a variety of materials including Thermal Protection System foams, adhesives, primers, and composites.

  16. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Public Health Matters What's New A - Z Index Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of ... 文 (Chinese) Français (French) Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may cause you to come ...

  17. CHEMICAL DYNAMICS OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS DURING RESUSPENSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were designed to study the chemical-particle dynamics of toxic hydrophobic organics during resuspension episodes using a particle entrainment simulator (PES). The purpose was to obtain insight into chemical transport mechanisms during resuspension. Informat...

  18. Environmental chemicals, respiratory hypersensitization and international chemical safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Smith

    1996-01-01

    Allergic hypersensitization to a variety of chemicals, natural and synthetic, is a worldwide health problem. Respiratory tract hypersensitization is responsible for significant morbidity and, in some cases, mortality. An important step in managing and controlling health risks, such as allergic hypersensitization, is to identify the chemical hazard, define dose-effect and dose-response relationships, evaluate exposure, and characterize risk. In practical terms,

  19. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.N. [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States); [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning.

  20. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

  1. Environmental antimicrobial contamination from terraccumulation and diffuse pollution pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J Rooklidge

    2004-01-01

    The fate of antimicrobial pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic environment has become an increasing concern for researchers and regulators in the past decade, and recent research has focused on antimicrobial contamination from point sources, such as wastewater treatment facility outfalls. Terraccumulation is the concentration of pollutants in soils from land application of contaminated biosolids generated by agricultural practices and water and

  2. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*

    PubMed Central

    Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

  3. FINAL REPORT. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, act as hormones or anti- hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major components of the research included: 1)a biotechnology based screening system ...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL PREPARATION WASTES. A LITERATURE REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of collecting and evaluating available information on the chemistry and behavior of trace elements in coal preparation wastes, and assessing the potential for environmental contamination from the trace elements in these wastes. Only limited attention has ...

  5. Studies in Avian Biology No. 26:168176, 2003. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN SURROGATE BIRDS AND

    E-print Network

    Mora, Miguel A.

    . SFERRA, AND KIRKE KING Abstract. Several deformed Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii, Empidonax traillii extimus, inorganic elements, insectiv- orous birds, PCBs, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). Environmental contaminants

  6. Association between Indoor Environmental Contamination by Salmonella enterica and Contamination of Eggs on Layer Farms

    PubMed Central

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Torok, Valeria; Sexton, Margaret; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2014-01-01

    This study involves longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella carriage and environmental contamination on two commercial cage layer farms positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (flock A age, 32 weeks; flock B age, 34 weeks). Salmonella-positive fecal, egg belt, and dust samples were all unconditionally associated with eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. The odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella were 91.8, 61.5, and 18.2 times higher when fecal, egg belt, and dust samples, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella. The agreement between the culture-based methods and real-time PCR on preenriched broths for detecting Salmonella was almost perfect for eggshell (observed agreement, 99.19%; kappa coefficient, 0.94) and egg belt samples (observed agreement, 95%; kappa coefficient, 0.88), and it was substantial for fecal (observed agreement, 87.14%; kappa coefficient, 0.47) and floor dust samples (observed agreement, 80.61%; kappa coefficient, 0.58). A 1-log increase in the load of Salmonella detected in the fecal, egg belt, and floor dust samples resulted in 35%, 43%, and 45% increases, respectively (P < 0.001), in the odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella. The multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) patterns of the S. Typhimurium strains isolated from flock A were distinct from those of flock B. S. Typhimurium strains detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited an MLVA pattern similar to those of the strains isolated from flocks A and B. PMID:24966362

  7. Subscriber access provided by University of Delaware | Library Environmental Science & Technology is published by the American Chemical Society.

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Subscriber access provided by University of Delaware | Library Environmental Science & Technology is published by the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036 Article Arsenic amendment effects on As contamination in surrounding soil- water environments. Introduction In the last four

  8. Muskrat populations in Virginia's Elizabeth River: Physiological condition and accumulation of environmental contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. Halbrook; Roy L. Kirkpatrick; Patrick F. Scanlon; Michael R. Vaughan; Hugo P. Veit

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the physiological condition and environmental contaminant concentrations in muskrats inhabiting the contaminated lower region of the Elizabeth River, Virginia, (USA). Muskrats trapped in the lower region of the Elizabeth River weighed less, had lower mean fat indexes, lower relative spleen weights, greater relative adrenal weights, and an increased incidence of disease and parasitism compared to muskrats trapped

  9. Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane ( Grus canadensis pulla )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald H. White; Clifford P. Rice; David J. Hoffman; George F. Gee

    1994-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained

  10. Microbial and chemical contamination during and after flooding in the Ohio River-Kentucky, 2011.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Murphy, Matthew W; Schneeberger, Chandra; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hoo, Elizabeth; Freiman, Alexander; Lewis, Lauren S; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-09-19

    Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical contaminants. Contaminant concentrations during and after flooding were compared using linear and logistic regression. Surface water samples collected during flooding had higher levels of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, adenovirus, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to surface water samples collected 3-months post-flood (P < 0.05). These results suggest that flooding increases microbial and chemical loads in surface water. These findings reinforce commonly recommended guidelines to limit exposure to flood water and to appropriately sanitize contaminated surfaces and drinking wells after contamination by flood water. PMID:24967556

  11. Are environmental sentinels signaling?

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, G A

    1995-01-01

    There is an increasing perception that environmental contamination by chemicals no longer poses a significant health threat and that relaxation of environmental regulations is warranted. However, many wildlife populations are showing signs of developmental, behavioral, and reproductive dysfunction due to environmental contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Scientists, regulators, and legislators must mobilize to identify current health threats posed by environmental pollutants, develop testing protocols that will detect such properties of new chemicals, and strengthen legislation designed to protect environmental health. PMID:8529577

  12. THE TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PRIORITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals...

  13. Decision support tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design

    E-print Network

    Cano Ruiz, José Alejandro, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    The environment has emerged as an important determinant of the performance of the modern chemical industry. Process engineering in the 21st century needs to evolve to include environmental issues as part of the design ...

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  15. FASTER SCIENCE FOR BETTER DECISIONS: CHARACTERIZING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT RISK FROM HIGH THROUGHPUT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tens of thousands of chemicals and other man-made contaminants exist in our environment, but only a fraction of these have been characterized for their potential risk to humans and there is widespread interest in closing this data gap in order to better manage contaminant risk. C...

  16. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slavin, P. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerin, D. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill.

  17. Appendix G. Chemicals Annual Site Environmental Report

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    chemicals. Through the use of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more, soils contain naturally elevated concentrations of metals such as selenium, arsenic, or molybdenum, which may be hazardous to humans or animals. Even some of the foods we eat contain natural toxins

  18. Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Q. Ma; Gade N. Rao

    1997-01-01

    Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in soils. For this reason, determining the chemical form of a metal in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and bioavailability. Sequential extraction was used to fractionate four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn) from nine contaminated soils into six operationally

  19. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

  20. Chemical and Toxicologic Assessment of Organic Contaminants in Surface Water Using Passive Samplers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Alvarez; Walter L. Cranor; Stephanie D. Perkins; Randal C. Clark; Steven B. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers.

  1. Effects of Phosphate Rock on Sequential Chemical Extraction of Lead in Contaminated Soils

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Effects of Phosphate Rock on Sequential Chemical Extraction of Lead in Contaminated Soils Lena Q on human health, especially children. This research evaluated the effects of phosphate rock on chemical fractions.Phosphate rocks effectively converted Pb from the watersoluble, exchangeable, carbonate, Fe

  2. Linking Empirical Estimates of Body Burden of Environmental Chemicals and Wellness using NHANES Data

    PubMed Central

    Gennings, Chris; Ellis, Rhonda; Ritter, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Biomonitoring of industrial chemicals in human tissues and fluids has shown that all people carry a “body burden” of synthetic chemicals. Although measurement of an environmental chemical in a person’s tissues/fluids is an indication of exposure, it does not necessarily mean the exposure concentration is sufficient to cause an adverse effect. Since humans are exposed to multiple chemicals, there may be a combination effect (e.g., additive, synergistic) associated with low-level exposures to multiple classes of contaminants, which may impact a variety of organ systems. The objective of this research is to link measures of body burden of environmental chemicals and a “holistic” measure of wellness. The approach is demonstrated using biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Forty-two chemicals were selected for analysis based on their detection levels. Six biological pathway-specific indices were evaluated using groups of chemicals associated with each pathway. Five of the six pathways were negatively associated with wellness. Three non-zero interaction terms were detected which may provide empirical evidence of crosstalk across pathways. The approach identified five of the 42 chemicals from a variety of classes (metals, pesticides, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as accounting for 71% of the weight linking body burden to wellness. Significant interactions were detected indicating the effect of smoking is exacerbated by body burden of environmental chemicals. Use of a holistic index on both sides of the exposure-health equation is a novel and promising empirical “systems biology” approach to risk evaluation of complex environmental exposures. PMID:22208743

  3. Chemical Contaminants as Stratigraphic Markers for the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruge, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Thousands and even millions of years from now, widespread anthropogenic contaminants in sediments would likely persist, incorporated into the geological record. They would inadvertently preserve evidence of our present era (informally designated as the Anthropocene Epoch) characterized by large human populations engaged in intensive industrial and agricultural activities. Hypothetical geologists in the distant future would likely find unusually high concentrations of a wide variety of contaminants at stratigraphic levels corresponding to our present time, analogous to the iridium anomaly marking the bolide impact event at the close of the Cretaceous Period. These would include both organic and inorganic substances, such as industrially-derived heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn) and hydrocarbons, both petrogenic (derived directly from petroleum) and pyrogenic (combustion products). While there are natural sources for these materials, such as volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and oil seeps, their co-occurrence would provide a signature characteristic of human activity. Diagnostic assemblages of organic compounds would carry an anthropogenic imprint. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment sample could distinguish between natural and human sources. Stable isotopic signatures would provide additional evidence. Concentrations of contaminants in the sedimentary record would increase exponentially with increasing proximity to urban source areas, where at present billions of people are collectively consuming vast quantities of fossil fuels and generating large amounts of waste. Aolian and marine transport prior to deposition has been seen at present to globally redistribute detectable amounts of contaminants including Hg and PAHs, even at great distances from principal source areas. For organic contaminants, deposition in an anoxic sedimentary environment could insure their preservation, increasing the likelihood of their inclusion in the long-term stratigraphic record, establishing markers of the Anthropocene Epoch for millions of years to come.

  4. Modeling environmental loading rates of municipal wastewater contaminants: steroidal estrogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estrogenic compounds in municipal wastewater are of substantial interest because of suspicion that they may cause reproductive disruption in aquatic invertebrates, and because of their potential to contaminate human drinking water sources. Previous work suggests the primary contr...

  5. Contaminant modeling. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, S.L.; Dortch, M.

    1988-03-01

    This note provides initial information on contaminant models that are potentially applicable to situations where the presence of toxic materials in sediments complicates Corps of Engineers (CE) dredging activities.

  6. PPCPS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large, diverse array of contaminants that can enter the environment from the combined activities, actions, and behaviors of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http:...

  7. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  8. MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  9. MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  10. MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

  11. CHEMICAL INDUCTION MIXER VERIFICATION - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wet-Weather Flow Technologies Pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which is supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and facilitated by NSF International, has recently evaluated the performance of chemical induction mixers used for di...

  12. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF CHANGES IN THE BROMINATED CHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In light of the large-scale changes occuring within the bromine-based chemicals industry, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency commissioned a study to investigate the potential for adverse environmental effects that might result from such changes. In particular, EPA was inter...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1600 Sayles*, G.D. Environmental Engineering and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering (Arnold, R.G. (Ed.), Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers) 128 (1):1-2 (2002). EPA/600/J- 02/001. ...

  15. Environmental Contaminants in Hospital Settings and Progress in Disinfecting Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36°C/22°C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22°C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

  16. Down cancer alley: the lived experience of health and environmental suffering in Louisiana's chemical corridor.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill

    2011-06-01

    With the massive Gulf oil spill of 2010, there has been intensified concern about the impacts of industrial contamination on physical environments, human health, and social well-being. Based on ethnographic research in a primarily African American town in an area of Southern Louisiana colloquially known as the Chemical Corridor because of the large number of local chemical manufacturing plants, this article engages arguments made by Auyero and Swistun concerning the uncertainties and confusions that emerge when official or empowered pronouncements about the health impacts of living near waste-generating factories conflict with the everyday experience of perceived health-related contamination in an impoverished community. The article seeks to address gaps in our understanding of how communities conceive of environmental health risk, what their sources of information and level of knowledge about this issue are, and how they handle potential conflict between access to needed employment and the local presence of industrial polluters. PMID:21834355

  17. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-05-04

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

  18. DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil†

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as ?(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

  19. DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu; Kool, Eric T

    2013-08-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as ?(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

  20. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants. This research will form the foundation for future experiments into the genetic manipulation of plants to potentially promote greater or more specific symbiotic relationships between plant and Rhizobium allowing this biological phenomenon to be used in a greater number of crop types. Future technology developments could include the genetic engineering of crops suitable for in situ vadose zone 2 bioremediation (via microbes) and phytoremediation (through the crop, itself) in contaminated DOE sites.

  1. Environmental toxicity of complex chemical mixtures

    E-print Network

    Gillespie, Annika Margaret

    2009-05-15

    ) and polychlorinated aromatics (PCA) using microbial bioassays (Salmonella/microsome assay and the E. coli prophage induction assay), the 32P-postlabeling assay in mice, and in situ measurements of genotoxicity using flow cytometry. Samples of environmental media...

  2. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the indicators in groundwater which was presumed not to be contaminated with the leachate was also considered. The indicators selected from these step were TN/nitrate nitrogen, organic nitrogen/TN, organic nitrogen/Cl and organic nitrogen/Na. In a similar manner, concentrations and peak pattern of amino acids with LC-MSMS as indicators were also selected. One more step added to identify the source of a contaminant release was the consideration of the transport of 20 amino acids in the subsurface which could significantly change the peak pattern among different amino acids. Six group of amino acid as indicators were chosen and they were Isoleucine/Valine, Leucine/Tryptophane, Valine/Tryptophane, Lysine/Leucine, Lysine/Isoleucine and Methionine/Lysine. The use of chemical indicators was attempted in this study to distinguish the sources of contamination by considering both the concentration of contaminants and the unique patterns of contamination.

  3. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  4. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceeding)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  5. Environmental Chemicals and Nervous System Dysfunction'

    E-print Network

    Terri Damstra Ph. D

    1978-01-01

    Selected examples of associations between nervous system diseases and exposures to occupational and environmental chemicals have been reviewed. Recent outbreaks of human neurotoxicity from both wellknown and previously unknown toxicants reemphasize the need for the medical community to give increased attention to chemical causes of nervous system dysfunction.

  6. RAPID SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemical...

  7. Survey of Chemical Contaminants in the Hanalei River, Kaua'i, Hawai'i, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orazio, Carl E.; May, Thomas W.; Gale, Robert W.; Meadows, John C.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Echols, Kathy R.; Steiner, William W.M.; Berg, Carl J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanalei River on the island of Kaua'i in Hawai'i was designated an American Heritage River in 1998, providing special attention to natural resource protection, economic revitalization, and historic and cultural preservation. Agricultural, urban, and tourism-related activities are potential sources of contamination within the Hanalei River watershed. The objective of this study was to measure certain persistent organic chemicals and elements in the Hanalei River. During a relatively low-flow period in December of 2001, samples of native Akupa sleeper fish (Eleotris sandwicensis), freshwater Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), giant mud crab (Scylla serrata), surface water, and stream bed sediment were collected from a lower estuarine reach of the river near its mouth at Hanalei Bay and from an upper reach at the Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge. Samples were analyzed for residues of urban and agricultural chemicals including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and elements (including mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium). Organic contaminants were extracted from the samples with solvent, enriched, and then analyzed by gas chromatographic analysis with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection. Samples were acid-digested for semi-quantitative analysis for elements by inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for quantitative analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in biota, surface water, and bed sediment sampled from the Hanalei River ranged from nondetectable to very low levels. Polychlorinated biphenyls were below detection in all samples. Dieldrin, the only compound detected in the water samples, was present at very low concentrations of 1-2 nanograms per liter. Akupa sleeper fish and giant mud crabs from the lower reach ranged from 1 to 5 nanograms per gram (wet weight) dieldrin and from less than 0.3 to 2.1 nanograms per gram total chlordane. Concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the lower reach bed sediments ranged from less than 1 to 190 nanograms per gram (dry weight). Relative concentrations (patterns) of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in one portion of a sediment sample indicated combustion sources. Concentrations of elements in the surface water, biota, and sediment samples were below toxicity thresholds of ecological concern. In summary, concentrations of the organic contaminants and elements targeted by this study of the Hanalei River in 2001 were below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency probable adverse effects levels for aquatic organisms.

  8. Computational Toxicology: Application in Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of computational models that describe various aspects of the source-to-health effect continuum. Fate and transport models describe the release, transportation, and transformation of chemicals from sources of emission throughout the general envir...

  9. Environmental Health: Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Larson

    Although breast milk is recognized by doctors, public health officials, and scientists as the best first food for an infant, it is not pure. Many synthetic chemicals released into the environment, intentionally or not, can be found in breast milk. Chemicals such as famous “bad actors� like dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as well as less

  10. Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.

    PubMed

    Malina, Grzegorz

    2004-12-15

    The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures. PMID:15464626

  11. Phorbol ester-modulation of estrogenic genomic effects triggered by the environmental contaminant benzanthracene.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Elise; Balaguer, Patrick; Houlbert, Noémie; Fardel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent genomic effects of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be modulated by non-genomic protein kinase C (PKC)-related pathways. The present study was designed to determine whether PKC activation may also impair estrogenic genomic response triggered by PAHs. Treatment by the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was found to markedly and differentially impair the up-regulation of estrogenic markers triggered by the estrogenic PAH benzanthracene (BZA) in cultured human mammary cells; BZA-mediated mRNA up-regulation of pS2 and amphiregulin was thus increased, whereas that of progesterone receptor and CXCL12 was repressed. BZA/PMA cotreatment however failed to alter BZA-mediated increase of activity of a luciferase gene reporter construct driven by an estrogen response element, thus discarding any global effect of PMA toward BZA-triggered estrogen receptor activation. Various chemicals inhibiting PKCs or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as well as the knock-down of PKC? expression counteracted the PMA-mediated increase of pS2 mRNA up-regulation triggered by BZA, demonstrating that it was dependent on PKCs, including PKC? isoform, and ERKs. This non-genomic modulation of estrogenic effects of PAHs by PKC activation may have to be considered when considering the deleterious effects of these environmental contaminants towards the endocrine system. PMID:22643241

  12. KINETICS OF CHEMICAL & MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Once treated drinking water enters the distribution system, substantial microbial, chemical, and physical changes can occur. Examples of such changes can nclude loss of disinfectant residual, increases in disinfection byproducts (DBP), growth of microbial diversity and population...

  13. An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor

    E-print Network

    Storfer, Andrew

    LETTER An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, Ôcanaries in a coal mineÕ, because, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative

  14. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children?s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

  15. Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA (United States). Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

  16. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo Ellen Hinck; Christopher J Schmitt; Kimberly A Chojnacki; Donald E Tillitt

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish

  17. Robust decision analysis for environmental management of groundwater contamination sites

    E-print Network

    Vesselinov, Velimir V; Katzman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to many other engineering fields, the uncertainties in subsurface processes (e.g., fluid flow and contaminant transport in aquifers) and their parameters are notoriously difficult to observe, measure, and characterize. This causes severe uncertainties that need to be addressed in any decision analysis related to optimal management and remediation of groundwater contamination sites. Furthermore, decision analyses typically rely heavily on complex data analyses and/or model predictions, which are often poorly constrained as well. Recently, we have developed a model-driven decision-support framework (called MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov) for the management and remediation of subsurface contamination sites in which severe uncertainties and complex physics-based models are coupled to perform scientifically defensible decision analyses. The decision analyses are based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT). We demonstrate the MADS capabilities by solving a decision problem related to optimal monitoring ...

  18. Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-08-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

  19. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

  20. Sequential chemical extraction for a phosphogypsum environmental impact evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2013-05-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is gypsum generated during phosphoric acid production. PG is stocked in large stacks or accumulated in lakes; it contains heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements. The metal contamination may affect the functionality, sustainability and biodiversity of ecosystems. In this work, PG samples were analyzed by Plasma Spectrometry. Total metal content and in the extractable fraction of chemical elements were determined. For K, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ba, Pb and U, the results obtained are lower than those obtained in a Idaho plant are including and also lower than those found in the soil, indicating this PG sample analyzed probably will not cause any additional metal neither natural radiation contamination.

  1. Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.F.; Klotz, D.M.; Collins, B.M. [and others

    1996-06-07

    Certain chemicals in the environment are estrogenic. The low potencies of the compounds, when studied singly, suggest that they may have little effect on biological systems. The estrogenic potencies of combinations of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen potencies of combination of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen systems (YES) containing human estrogen receptor (hER). Combinations of two weak environmental estrogens, such as dieldrin, endosulfan, or toxaphene, were 100 times as potent in hER-mediated transactivation as any chemical alone. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls shown previously to synergistically alter sexual development in turtles also synergized in the YES. The synergistic interaction of chemical mixtures with the estrogen receptor may have profound environmental implications. These results may represent a previously uncharacterized level of regulation of estrogen-associated responses. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

    2009-05-01

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

  3. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Field Procedures for Assessing the Exposure of Fish to Environmental Contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gross, Timothy S.; Bryant, Wade L.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Smith, Stephen B.; Goede, Ronald W.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Kubiak, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes procedures used to collect information, tissues, and fluids for documenting the exposure of fish to environmental contaminants. For the procedures described here, fish are captured (preferably by electrofishing) and held alive until processing (generally <1 h). Fish are weighed, measured, and examined for grossly visible external lesions and pathologies. A blood sample is collected by caudal veinipuncture using a needle and syringe. The fish is subdued and it's abdominal cavity opened. The internal organs are dissected from the fish for examination. The sex of the fish is determined by direct observation of its gonads. The liver is weighed (most species) and cut into small cubes and flash-frozen in cryogenic vials, which are stored and shipped in dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Additional liver cubes plus all grossly visible anomalies are preserved for histopathology. The gonads and spleen are weighed, and samples are preserved for histopathology. The kidneys are examined, and histopathology samples collected. A gill sample is also collected and preserved. All remaining tissues are returned to the carcass, which is wrapped in foil, labeled for chemical analysis, and chilled. Individual fish carcasses are composited by station, species, and gender; frozen; and shipped to the analytical laboratory. Procedures are also described for record keeping; processing blood to obtain serum and plasma; flash-freezing samples; cleaning equipment; and preventing the transport of living organisms among waterways. A list of necessary equipment and supplies is also provided.

  4. Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: Monitoring environmental contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Halbrook; J. H. Jenkins; P. B. Bush; N. D. Seabolt

    1994-01-01

    Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (PMustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from

  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Emerging Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  6. Bromate Environmental Contamination: Review of Impact and Possible Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAY BUTLER; ANDREW GODLEY; LUCY LYTTON; ELISE CARTMELL

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water with bromate (BrO3 ) at levels ranging from 0.4 to 60 ? g L may be found following ozonation of water containing background bromide (Br). Based on rodent studies, bromate is classified as a “possible human” carcinogen, and drinking water standards of 10–25 ? g L are now implemented in many countries. Bromate is highly soluble,

  7. Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Michot; T. W. Custer; A. J. Nault; C. A. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and

  8. Mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon. Environmental and occupational aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Barbosa; A. A. Boischio; G. A. East; I. Ferrari; A. Gonçalves; P. R. M. Silva; T. M. E. da Cruz

    1995-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of miners, riparian and Indian populations and fish in the Amazon region, due to gold extracting activities, has been studied. Samples of hair, urine, and blood of Indians and prospectors, and hair from riparian fish-eating population and fishes from Madeira river, respectively, were collected and analyzed by Cold Vapor, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) techniques. The results obtained

  9. Advancing passive sampling of contaminants in environmental science

    E-print Network

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    contaminants including POCIS, Chemcatcher and o- DGT. The understanding of uptake kinetics and sorption-density polyethylene (LDPE) samplers. For metals, DGT behavior is an area of active research, in particular of POCIS uptake are warranted. The DGT passive sampling technique is well-established for the analysis

  10. USE OF ULTRASOUND IN MONITORING CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been examining the potential for combining sonication with other technologies for monitoring specific classes of organic pollutants in water. ollutants are decomposed into ions which can be detected using known electrochemical te...

  11. Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

    2012-12-01

    Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

  12. TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN KARST TERRANES: OUTLINE AND SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical spills that reach an aquifer in karst terranes do not behave like those in granular or highly fractured aquifers. pills reaching diffuse-flow aquifers display relatively slow transport, are radially dispersive, and can be tracked through the use of monitoring wells. pill...

  13. Phytoremediation: An ecological solution to organic chemical contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sridhar Susarla; Victor F. Medina; Steven C. McCutcheon

    2002-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising new technology that uses plants to degrade, assimilate, metabolize, or detoxify metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, and chlorinated solvents. In this review, in situ, in vivo and in vitro methods of application are described for remediation of these compounds. Phytoaccumulation, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, phytotransformation, phytovolatilization and rhizodegradation are discussed and the role of enzymes in transforming organic chemicals in

  14. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This important outcome results from the way risk is perceived, which in turn is little affected by factual weight-of-evidence. Essentially, drugs in drinking water supplies are considered "out-of-place" chemicals and as such are sometimes looked upon as "chemical weeds" by the co...

  16. In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Ground Water: Permanganate Reactive Barrier Systems for the Long-Term Treatment of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. David; Schwartz, Frank W.

    2004-03-31

    Oxidation of chlorinated solvents by permanganate has proven to be effective in destroying these compounds in the aqueous phase. A semi-passive, well-based permanganate reactive barrier system (PRBS) was designed in order for the long-term treatment of dissolved contaminant in the ground water. Results from laboratory experiments indicate the PRBS could deliver permanganate at a stable, constant and controllable rate. In this paper, different field designs of the PRBS are discussed. Numerical simulation was conducted to elucidate the parameters that will influence the field implementation of a PRBS. We investigated issues such as permanganate consumption by aquifer materials, variable density flow effect, as well as lateral spreading under different geological settings. Results from this study continue to point to the promise of an in situ chemical oxidation scheme. PRBS provides a potential treatment of the contaminated ground water at relatively low management cost as compared with other alternatives.

  17. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  18. Guidance manual for health risk assessment of chemically contaminated seafood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    The report was written to assist in the evaluation and interpretation of the human health risks associated with chemical contaminate levels in seafood. High concentrations of toxic chemicals have been found in sediments and marine organisms in parts of Puget Sound. Since heavy consumption of contaminated seafood may pose a substantial human health risk, it's important that assessments of the risk associated with seafood consumption be conducted in a consistent, acceptable manner. The report provides an overview of risk assessment, and describes hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Guidance is provided on presentation and interpretation of results.

  19. [The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

    1993-01-01

    There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

  20. Chemodynamics: transport and behavior of chemicals in the environment--a problem in environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, V H; Chiou, C T; Haque, R

    1977-01-01

    In the manufacture and use of the several thousand chemicals employed by technological societies, portions of these chemicals escape or are intentionally introduced into the environment. The behavior, fate, and to some extent the effects produced by these chemicals are a result of a complex interaction of the properties of the chemical with the various processes governing transport, degradation, sequestration, and uptake by organisms. In addition, such processes as adsorption, evaporation, partitioning, and degradation are influenced by ambient conditions of temperature, air movement, moisture, presence of other chemicals, and the concentration and properties of the subject chemicals. These influence the level and extent of exposure to these chemicals that man might receive. Study of the physiochemical properties and extent of exposure to these chem;cals that man might receive. Study of the physiochemical properties of compounds in relation to these various processes has provided a basis for better understanding of the quantitative behavior. Such information is useful in development of predictive models on behavior and fate of the chemicals in relation to human exposure. Beyond this, it provides information that could be used to devise procedures of manufacture, use, and disposal that would minimize environmental contamination. Some of the physical principles involved in chemodynamics are presented in this review. PMID:598352

  1. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, R.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The subsequent analysis of soils (after 6 and 8 months months) is expected to better demonstrate the influence of soil properties on human bioaccessibility of Pb in contaminated soils. Furthermore, the geochemical forms of Pb will be correlated with bioaccessible Pb to identify those soil-Pb species with higher solubility in the human gastrointestinal system. Key words: Lead, Geochemical species, Bioaccessibility, In-vitro model, Health risk

  3. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

  4. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  5. Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will ...

  6. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (?PCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 ?g kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks. PMID:22934994

  7. Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1995-11-01

    The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

  8. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Lockwood; R. A. Normann; L. B. Bishop; R. J. Floran; C. V. Williams

    1995-01-01

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, the analysis of these samples is not only expensive, but can take weeks or months when sent to an off-site laboratory. In contrast, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) screening capability could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas.

  9. A Look At Endocrine Disruptors: Assessing the threat of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants to birds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Volume 2, Number 1 (January 2001) of the Ornithological Council's newsletter BIRDNET includes this issue brief on the influence of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants on birds. The issue brief covers the basics of endocrine disruptors, policy issues, a review of the state of our knowledge about endocrine disruptors and birds, and suggested research topics that would be useful in better determining the effects of these contaminants on wild birds.

  10. Environmental effects of dredging. Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants; subcellular effects

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This technical note is the first in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants for causing mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. This technical note describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the subcellular level.

  11. Chemical Genomics Profiling of Environmental Chemical Modulation of Human Nuclear Receptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The large and increasing number of chemicals released into the environment demand more efficient and cost effective approaches for assessing environmental chemical toxicity. The U.S. Tox21 program has responded to this challenge by proposing alternative strategies for toxicity te...

  12. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:25491153

  13. Treatability of contaminated ground water and aquifer solids at town gas sites, using photolytic ozonation and chemical in-situ reclamation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, G.R.; LeFaivre, M.H.; Smith, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    The feasbility of cleaning up contaminated ground water and aquifer solids from so-called town gas sites using photolytic ozonation and chemical in situ aquifer reclamation (CISR) techniques was investigated in the laboratory. At the actual site, coal was thermally oxidized to produce methane for municipal distribution. The degradation left a coal tar which, if released into the ground, could contaminate ground water and aquifer solids with a number of organic substances, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at environmentally significant concentrations. A chemical in situ treatment method using persulfate as a source of free radicals destroyed organic contaminants that were adsorbed to the aquifer solids. PAHs were reduced by 34 percent after 12 days of treatment and by 52 percent after 40 days.

  14. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity. However, the same techniques discussed could also have application to catastrophes resulting from other incidents, such as natural disasters or industrial accidents. Further, the high sample throughput enabled by the techniques discussed could be employed for conventional environmental studies and compliance monitoring, potentially decreasing costs and/or increasing the quantity of data available to decision-makers. PMID:24568927

  15. Definitions of contaminants Chemical: Disposable items contaminated with residual amounts of

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    toxins, human blood and body fluids, all human and animal cell cultures, or fluids and tissues from away from carcasses, and dispose of the liquid appropriately (e.g., formalin and ethanol as chemical Medical Waste bin Regulated Sharps: Syringes with needles * Scalpel blades Needles Glass blood vials Glass

  16. REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. uminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. lso, examples of recent...

  17. DETOXIFICATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER BY PHYSICAL EXTRACTION CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analyses revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and other organic compounds were present in a perennial freshwater stream that flowed through the abandoned American Creosote Works, designated for Superfund cleanup by the U.S Environmental Protection Agenc...

  18. Surface Runoff Contamination by Soil Chemicals: Simulations for Equilibrium and First-Order Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rony Wallach; Rina Shabtai

    1992-01-01

    A model was developed to predict the potential contamination of overland flow by chemicals removed from soil water by rainfall on sloping soil. The model accounts for transient water infiltration and convective-dispersive solute transport in the soil and also considers rate-limited mass transfer through a laminar boundary layer at the soil surface\\/runoff water interface. Sorption-desorption interactions between soil and chemicals

  19. Incorporating biologically based models into assessments of risk from chemical contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, R. J.; Conolly, R. B.; De Marini, D. M.; MacPhail, R. C.; Ohanian, E. V.; Swenberg, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. Traditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been derived from the toxic responses observed in animals. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that further information is needed if risks to humans are to be assessed accurately. Biologically based models help clarify the dose-response relationship and reduce uncertainty.

  20. ANAEROBIC DEHALOGENATION OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTSOF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTSOF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTSOF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max M. Häggblom; Donna E. Fennell; Young-Beom Ahn; Beth Ravit; Lee J. Kerkhof

    Remediation of sediments contaminated with toxic chemicals is one of the greatest challenges for restoration of estuaries.\\u000a Halogenated organic compounds constitute one of the largest groups of environmental pollutants and their use has resulted\\u000a in widespread dissemination and environmental contamination, with freshwater, estuarine and marine sediments as significant\\u000a sinks.

  1. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

    1994-01-01

    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  2. Core sediment bacteria drive community response to anthropogenic contamination over multiple environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Melanie Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Brown, Mark V

    2013-09-01

    In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate sediment bacterial community response to contaminant disturbance across six estuaries with differing levels of 'modification'. We observed a significant influence of metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in shaping bacterial community composition, structure and diversity, with metals being the more influential contaminant. An abundant and pervasive 'core' set of bacteria found in every sample were largely responsible for mediating community response to contamination. These 13 core operational taxonomic units were mostly comprised of Gamma-, Delta-, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Sediment silt and metals together explained the most variation in bacterial community composition (19.7%). Following this strong contaminant signature, salinity and temperature represented important environmental variables predicting 10.9% of community variation. While overall network connectivity measures supported the idea of an inherently diverse soil microbiome with some degree of functional redundancy, lower values observed in contaminated sediments indicate potential structural perturbations in the community from fracturing or loss of bacterial associations. The large number of unclassified sequences obtained in this study contribute to improving our understanding of environmentally relevant strains in relation to anthropogenic contamination, which have been overlooked in laboratory studies. PMID:23647974

  3. Population trends, reproductive success, and organochlorine chemical contaminants in waterbirds nesting in Galveston Bay, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirke A. King; Alexander J. Krynitsky

    1986-01-01

    The effects of environmental contaminants on the reproductive success of olivaceous cormorants (Phalacrocorax olivaceus), laughing gulls (Larus atricilla), and black skimmers (Rhynchops niger) nesting in Galveston Bay, Texas were investigated from 1980 through 1982. Populations of cormorants and gulls have remained stable in recent years, but skimmer numbers may have declined. Cormorants produced 1.9 to 2.8 young per pair in

  4. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  5. Metal resistant plants and phytoremediation of environmental contamination

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om P.

    2010-04-20

    The present disclosure provides a method of producing transgenic plants which are resistant to at least one metal ion by transforming the plant with a recombinant DNA comprising a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenic reductase under the control of a plant expressible promoter, and a nucleic acid encoding a nucleotide sequence encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme under the control of a plant expressible promoter. The invention also relates a method of phytoremediation of a contaminated site by growing in the site a transgenic plant expressing a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenate reductase and a nucleic acid encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme.

  6. Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H; Appleton, J D; Lister, R; Smith, B; Chitamweba, D; Mkumbo, O; Machiwa, J F; Tesha, A L; Beinhoff, C

    2005-05-01

    This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05-9.2 mg/kg) was recorded in urban soils and vegetable plot soils where these are impacted by Hg-contaminated water and sediment derived from mineral processing activities. Hg in vegetable and grain samples is mostly below the detection limit of 0.004 mg/kg Hg, apart from 0.007 and 0.092 mg/kg Hg in two yam samples and 0.011 to 0.013 mg/kg Hg in three rice samples. The standardized (i.e., standardized to 10 cm length) Hg concentrations in Clarias spp. increase from about 0.01 mg Hg/kg for the River Malagarasi delta to 0.07, 0.2, and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa 'background', moderately and most contaminated sites. For piscivorous (Lates, Brycinus, and Hydrocynus spp.), insectivorous (Barbus spp.), and planktivorous (Haplochromis spp.) fish species, the 10-cm standardized Hg concentrations increase from about 0.006 mg/kg for the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika area to 0.5 and 3.5 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa moderately and most contaminated sites. The low concentrations of Hg in fish from the Malagarasi River delta and Lake Tanganyika indicate that Hg contamination from the Rwamagasa area does not have a readily discernible impact on the biota of Lake Tanganyika. Many of the fish samples from Rwamagasa exceed guidelines for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg) as well as the WHO recommended limit for vulnerable groups (0.2 mg/kg). Tissue total Hg (THg) of all fish collected from the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika subarea is well below these guidelines. Potential human exposure through consumption of 300 g/day of rice grown on Hg-contaminated soils is 5.5 microg/week. Consumption of 250 g Nile perch (Lates spp.), 500 g tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), and 250 g of catfish (Clarias spp.) each week would result in an intake of 65 microg Hg/week for people consuming only fish from the Mara and Mwanza regions of Lake Victoria and 116 microg Hg/week for people in the Rwamagasa area consuming tilapia and Nile perch from Lake Victoria and catfish from mining-impacted streams. This is lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 300 microg for Hg in the diet set by the WHO and the FAO. Inadvertent ingestion of soil containing 9 mg Hg/kg at a rate of 80 mg/day would give an additional estimated weekly intake of 5 microg THg, whereas the persistent and purposeful consumption of soil (geophagia) at a rate of 26 g soil/day would produce an additional chemical exposure of 230 microg Hg/day. PMID:15862840

  7. High throughput heuristics for prioritizing human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wambaugh, John F; Wang, Anran; Dionisio, Kathie L; Frame, Alicia; Egeghy, Peter; Judson, Richard; Setzer, R Woodrow

    2014-11-01

    The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the hazard presented by the chemical and the extent of exposure. However, many chemicals lack estimates of exposure intake, limiting the understanding of health risks. We aim to develop a rapid heuristic method to determine potential human exposure to chemicals for application to the thousands of chemicals with little or no exposure data. We used Bayesian methodology to infer ranges of exposure consistent with biomarkers identified in urine samples from the U.S. population by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We performed linear regression on inferred exposure for demographic subsets of NHANES demarked by age, gender, and weight using chemical descriptors and use information from multiple databases and structure-based calculators. Five descriptors are capable of explaining roughly 50% of the variability in geometric means across 106 NHANES chemicals for all the demographic groups, including children aged 6-11. We use these descriptors to estimate human exposure to 7968 chemicals, the majority of which have no other quantitative exposure prediction. For thousands of chemicals with no other information, this approach allows forecasting of average exposure intake of environmental chemicals. PMID:25343693

  8. Water monitoring system for oil contamination using polymer-coated quartz crystal microbalance chemical sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ueyama; K. Hijikata; J. Hirotsuji

    A water monitoring system with a new chemical sensor for oil contamination was developed. The sensor had an organic polymer film on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The organic film was a hydrocarbon polymer and had high affinities for the organic compounds of petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil and fuel oil. The monitoring system was composed of

  9. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin indus...

  10. Chemical Spill in West Virginia Triggers More Studies to Understand Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-02-01

    Although a major chemical spill that contaminated the water supply for nearly 300,000 people living near the Elk River in and around Charleston, W.Va., took place more than a month ago, experts at a 10 February congressional hearing still were not willing to definitively state that the water is safe to use again.

  11. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD-TREATMENT CHEMICALS (PCP AND CREOSOTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCP and creosote PAHs are found in most of the contaminated soils at wood-treatment sites. The treatment methods currently being used for such soils include soil washing, incineration, and biotreatment. Soil washing involves removal of the hazardous chemicals from soils ...

  12. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Instructors Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's manual presents information for a training course in analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics focus on: (1) pre-course activities, including course logistics, equipment, and facilities; (2) sample agendas; (3) lesson plans for specific…

  13. Chemical modifications of groundwater contaminated by recharge of treated sewage effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avner Vengosh; Rami Keren

    1996-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of the chemical composition of recharge sewage effluent and associated contaminated groundwater from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project shows, after 16 years of recharge operation, the presence of a distinct saline plume (up to 400 mg\\/l Cl), extending 1600 m downgradient in the Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel. The recorded electrolyte composition of groundwater in the vicinity

  14. Prediction of chemical contaminants and food compositions by near infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction of Food Adulteration by Infrared Spectroscopy H. Zhuang Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 Food adulteration, including both chemical contamination and composition alternation, has been one of major quality and/or safety c...

  15. Bioavailability of Sedimentary Contaminants Subject to

    E-print Network

    Jumars, Pete

    assessments of environmental impact. Introduction The bioavailability of contaminants is usually influenced to the solubilization of food, resulting in a variety of environmental conditions in guts chemical attacks on the matrix. These approaches improve correlations between analyses of loading

  16. Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

  17. Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n = 70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

  18. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap and the Long Term Monitoring Sensors and Analytical Methods Workshop, and (2) AMSI operating characteristics and progress in addressing those needs. Topics addressed will include: vadose zone and groundwater tritium monitoring, a wireless moisture monitoring system, Cr(VI) and CCl4 monitoring using a commercially available "universal sensor platform", strontium-90 and technetium-99 monitoring, and area chemical monitoring using an array of multi-chemical sensors.

  19. Impact of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on the collard arthropod community

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-08-01

    Stress effects on a terrestrial arthropod community were evident in a study of collards grown in soil amended with chemically contaminated sewage sludge. Plant growth in the contaminated sludge was significantly reduced compared with growth in plots treated with relatively uncontaminated sludge from two small towns or with mature alone. Population densities of major arthropod taxa tended to be lower in plots of contaminated sludge than they were in uncontaminated sludge and manure plots. Species richness and diversity were also reduced in contaminated-sludge plots compared with those of uncontaminated sludge and manure treatments. In general, few differences were observed in plant growth and arthropod numbers between the uncontaminated-sludge treatment, or uncontaminated sludge treated with cadmium or with the insecticide dieldrin. Because cadmium and dieldrin were applied at dosages of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in the contaminated sludge, results suggested that these two toxins were not responsible for the effects on plants and arthropods observed in the contaminated-sludge treatment. Results of this study indicated the potential for sludge-borne contaminants to suppress growth in crop plants and reduce abundance of their associated arthropods.

  20. Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

    2003-06-01

    Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL WASTE SITE CONTAMINATION AND DETERMINATION OF ITS EXTENT USING BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of using bioassays to evaluate soils, soil elutriates, and surface and subsurface water from hazardous chemical waste sites is to provide a more direct, integrated estimate of environmental toxicity. Based on bioassay data, chemical waste sites can be ranked according...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

  3. The Toxicity Data Landscape for Environmental Chemicals (journal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals are in common use but only a portion of them have undergone significant toxicological evaluation, leading to the need to prioritize the remainder for targeted testing. To address this issue, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and other orga...

  4. Environmental Biotechnology: Challenges and Opportunities for Chemical Engineers

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Environmental Biotechnology: Challenges and Opportunities for Chemical Engineers Wilfred Chen.interscience.wiley.com). Introduction O ver the past few decades enormous quantities of industrial pollutants have been released variety of pollut- ants present in the environment is an increasing number of novel industrial compounds

  5. A course in environmentally conscious chemical process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mark A. Stadtherr

    2000-01-01

    To uniquely equip students with the active knowledge and the ability to implement pollution prevention technology, we have developed a design-oriented senior-level elective course on minimizing the environmental impact of chemical manufacturing processes. The objectives of the course are to educate students on the real costs of operating processes that release pollutants to the environment, to provide them with strategies

  6. AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The processes of aging result in many physiological changes which can lead to alterations in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. uch changes can result in altered sensitivity to chemicals, whether drugs or environmental agents, in the elderly. t is extremely diff...

  7. ALTERATIONS IN MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS BY ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The theme of the review will be to discuss those environmental assaults that impair alveolar macrophage activities. The paper is not intended to completely review all available data on every chemical tested nor will it provide dose-response data. Instead, it is an attempt to prov...

  8. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

  9. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McLachlan

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and

  10. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  11. Environmental contaminants in canvasbacks wintering on San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of 11 trace elements, 21 organochlorines, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 13 aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined in canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering on San Francisco Bay, California during 1988. With the exception of Se, concentrations of potentially toxic elements were low. Similarly, concentrations of most organic compounds were near or below detection limits. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and DDE were common, but at levels lower than those known to be harmful to waterfowl. Innocuous trace elements (Cu, Fe, and Zn), which are often associated with anthropogenic contamination, occurred at high levels. Concentrations of toxic elements were several times lower and those of benign elements were similar or greater than concentrations reported for surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) or greater scaup (Aythya marila) from San Francisco Bay.

  12. Field-Scale Cleanup of Atrazine and Cyanazine Contaminated Soil with a Combined Chemical-Biological Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Waria; S. D. Comfort; S. Onanong; T. Satapanajaru; H. Boparai; C. Harris; D. D. Snow; D. A. Cassada

    2009-01-01

    A former agrichemical dealership in western Nebraska was suspected of having contaminated soil. Our objective was to characterize and remediate the contaminated site by a combined chemical-biological approach. Th is was accomplished by creating contour maps of the on-site contamination, placing the top 60 cm of contaminated soil in windrows and mixing with a mechanical high-speed mixer. Homogenized soil containing

  13. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  14. Environmental politics and science: the case of PBB contamination in Michigan.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, M R

    1983-01-01

    This article examines how politics and science interacted against a background of uncertainty to shape policy in the case of environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in Michigan. In 1973, between 500 and 1,000 pounds of the flame retardant PBB were accidentally shipped and used instead of the dairy feed additive magnesium oxide, resulting in the widespread contamination of animal feeds, animals, and human food products. The contamination was initially perceived as the private trouble of a single farmer. The problem next became a public issue as public and private institutions grappled with questions of illness, safety, and disposal. To gain influence over those institutions, dissatisfied individuals and groups then turned the PBB contamination into a political controversy. The final section of the present article analyzes how science and politics interacted in: the ways bureaucratic organizations defined the three problems of contamination; the role political controversy played in redefining problems and influencing policy; and the political roles of scientists in controversies over environmental contamination. PMID:6297323

  15. XPS chemical analysis of tholins: the oxygen contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, N.; Jomard, F.; Vigneron, J.; Cernogora, G.

    2013-12-01

    In Titan's atmosphere, solid organic aerosols are initiated in the upper atmosphere by the photo-dissociation and photo-ionization of N2 and CH4. In order to simulate this complex chemistry several experimental setups have been built, among them plasma experiments. The aerosol analogues produced in such plasma discharges contain oxygen, as a few percents of the elemental composition, despite the absence of oxygen source in the reactive medium [1]. The present study aims at studying the origin of such systematic oxygen incorporation in tholins. A low pressure (0.9mbar) RF CCP discharge is used described in [2]. Gas mixtures of N2 and CH4 (from 1 to 10% of CH4) are injected continuously. The plasma discharge leads to the production of analogues of Titan's atmospheric aerosols: both as grains in the volume [1] and as thin films on the surface of the reactor [3]. SiO2 substrates of 1cm diameter and 1mm thickness are placed on the grounded electrode of the discharge. Organic films are deposited during 2 hours in order to have films thickness less than 1?m. After the two hours, samples are recovered at ambient air for ex-situ analysis. Two complementary analyses are performed to analyse the thin film chemical composition: XPS and SIMS, in order to probe both the surface and depth profile. References [1] Sciamma-O'brien E., Carrasco N., Szopa C., Buch A., Cernogora G. Icarus 209, 2 (2010) 704-714 [2] Alcouffe G., Cavarroc M., Cernogora G., Ouni F., Jolly A., Boufendi L., Szopa C. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 19, 1 (2010) 015008 (11pp) [3] Mahjoub A., Carrasco N., Dahoo P.-R., Gautier T., Szopa C., Cernogora G. Icarus 221, 2 (2012) 670-677.

  16. Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental effects for several man-made surfaces asphalt, concrete, roofing shingles, and vehicles under varying amounts of sand-principles physics-based simulation model that uses computer-aided design CAD descriptions of natural and man-made ob

  17. A systems biology approach to understanding impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our research team at the US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division has employed systems biology approaches to examine and understand impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction. Our systems biology approach is one in which iterations of model cons...

  18. Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2001-01-01

    Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

  19. Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Hothem; S. G. Zador

    1995-01-01

    A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may

  20. Osprey: Worldwide Sentinel Species for Assessing and Monitoring Environmental Contamination in Rivers, Lakes, Reservoirs, and Estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Grove; Charles J. Henny; James L. Kaiser

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel

  1. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  2. Recent Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard as Recorded in Lake Sediments – an Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. B. Birks; Vivienne J. Jones; N. L. Rose

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines an interdisciplinary project on recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (76°30'N–80°30'N). It describes the rationale and aims of the project and summarises the location, climate, geology, vegetation, and land-use of Svalbard.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  4. Investigation of environmental contamination in lichens of Gökçeada (Imbroz) Island in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kahraman; G. Kaynak; O. Gurler; S. Yalcin; S. Ozturk; O. Gundogdu

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to determine the type of environmental contamination in lichens in Gökçeada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey. We used two different lichen species Cladonia foliacea and Ramalina pollinaria. In the first part of the investigation, the beta activities of lichens have been measured by using a TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector.The

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF VULNERABILITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The susceptibility of the developing nervous system to damage following exposure to environmental contaminants is believed to be based upon the critical nature of the organizational events that occur in both a regionally- and temporally-dependent manner. The age-related susceptib...

  6. Valuing Environmental Quality Changes Using Averting Expenditures: An Application to Groundwater Contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Abdalla; Brian A. Roach; Donald J. Epp

    1992-01-01

    Public decision-makers require information on the benefits and costs of policies for groundwater protection. The averting expenditures method for valuing environmental improvements is examined and used to approximate the economic costs of groundwater degradation to households in a southeastern Pennsylvania community. Results indicate that households' knowledge of contamination, perception of risk, and presence of children determine whether they undertake averting

  7. HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

  8. Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,

    E-print Network

    Zoeller, R. Thomas

    Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist the importance of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development, it is of potential concern that a wide variety) THYROID HORMONE (TH) is essential for normal brain development in both humans (1, 2) and animals (3

  9. USING GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS TO DIAGNOSE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in molecular biology allow the use of cutting-edge genomic and proteomic tools to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic organisms. Techniques are available to measure changes in expression of single genes (quantitative real-time PCR) or to measure g...

  10. Geographically distributed classification of surface water chemical parameters influencing fate and behavior of nanoparticles and colloid facilitated contaminant transport.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Julia; Gallego-Urrea, Julián A; Hassellöv, Martin

    2013-09-15

    The current production and use of nanomaterials in consumer products have increased the concern about the possibility that these enter the rivers during their entire life cycle. Further, many aquatic contaminants undergo partitioning to the ubiquitous aquatic colloids. Here is presented the development of a set of European water types for environmental risk assessment of chemicals transported as nanovectors as is the case of environmental fate of manufactured nanoparticles and colloid-bound contaminants. A compilation of river quality geochemical data with information about multi-element composition for near 800 rivers in Europe was used to perform a principal component analysis (PCA) and define 6 contrasting water classes. With the aid of geographical information system algorithms, it was possible to analyse how the different sampling locations were predominantly represented within each European water framework directive drainage basin. These water classes and their associated Debye-Hückel parameter are determining factors to evaluate the large scale fate and behaviour of nanomaterials and other colloid-transported pollutants in the European aquatic environment. PMID:23863373

  11. Chemical properties and toxicity of soils contaminated by mining activity.

    PubMed

    Agnieszka, Baran; Tomasz, Czech; Jerzy, Wieczorek

    2014-09-01

    This research is aimed at assessing the total content and soluble forms of metals (zinc, lead and cadmium) and toxicity of soils subjected to strong human pressure associated with mining of zinc and lead ores. The research area lay in the neighbourhood of the Boles?aw Mine and Metallurgical Plant in Bukowno (Poland). The study obtained total cadmium concentration between 0.29 and 51.91 mg, zinc between 7.90 and 3,614 mg, and that of lead between 28.4 and 6844 mg kg(-1) of soil d.m. The solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 was 1-49% for zinc, 5-45% for cadmium, and <1-10% for lead. In 1 mol HCl dm(-3), the solubility of the studied metals was much higher and obtained values depending on the collection site, from 45 to 92% for zinc, from 74 to 99%, and from 79 to 99% for lead. The lower solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 than 1 mol HCl dm(-3) is connected with that, the ammonium nitrate has low extraction power, and it is used in determining the bioavailable (active) form of heavy metals. Toxicity assessment of the soil samples was performed using two tests, Phytotoxkit and Microtox(®). Germination index values were between 22 and 75% for Sinapis alba, between 28 and 100% for Lepidium sativum, and between 10 and 28% for Sorghum saccharatum. Depending on the studied soil sample, Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition was 20-96%. The sensitivity of the test organisms formed the following series: S. saccharatum > S. alba = V. fischeri > L. sativum. Significant positive correlations (p ? 0.05) of the total and soluble contents of the metals with luminescence inhibition in V. fischeri and root growth inhibition in S. saccharatum were found. The general trend observed was an increase in metal toxicity measured by the biotest with increasing available metal contents in soils. All the soil samples were classified into toxicity class III, which means that they are toxic and present severe danger. Biotest are a good complement to chemical analyses in the assessment of quality of soils as well as in properly managing them. PMID:24903806

  12. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1). PMID:16849378

  13. Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: monitoring environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Halbrook, R S; Jenkins, J H; Bush, P B; Seabolt, N D

    1994-10-01

    Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in otters from the lower coastal plain (4.42 and 24.25 mg/kg wet wt, respectively) compared to otters from the piedmont (1.48 and 15.24 mg/kg, respectively). Liver tissue from lower coastal plain otters averaged 7.53 mg/kg mercury. Mean fetus brain and muscle mercury concentrations were 1.03 and 1.58 mg/kg wet wt, respectively, and fetal muscle mercury concentrations were correlated (r = 0.92) with maternal muscle mercury concentrations. Comparison of mercury concentrations found in Georgia otters to those associated with adverse effects in otter and mink (Mustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from the lower coastal plain approached or exceeded concentrations demonstrated to be toxic to experimentally dosed otters. PMID:7944553

  14. Environmental health: an analysis of available and proposed remedies for victims of toxic waste contamination.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, W J

    1981-01-01

    Past and present residents of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, New York, fear that they and their homes have been contaminated by toxic wastes seeping out from nearby chemical disposal sites. Hundreds of landfills nationwide are as potentially dangerous as Love Canal. In the absence of a statutory remedy, victims of contamination must rely upon common law theories of lability in order to recover damages for injuries suffered as a result of toxic waste contamination. This Note examines the merits and deficiencies of four common law theories: negligence, strict liability, nuisance and trespass. The Note concludes that none of these remedies is adequate to assure recovery to a person injured by toxic waste disposal, and recommends that legislation be adopted to ensure that victims of toxic waste contamination can be compensated for their injuries. PMID:7258193

  15. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schoene, L. (IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

    2008-07-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities. PMID:18393576

  17. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  18. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    PubMed Central

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive. Methods: Environmental and mathematical methods were used to identify the population potentially exposed to a point source of airborne pollution emanating from a waste incinerator. Soil sampling was undertaken at 83 sites throughout the city and environs. The concentrations of arsenic and copper were measured at each site. Computer software produced smoothed contour plots of the distribution of arsenic and copper in the soil based on the information derived from the sampling sites. The population at risk was also identified using concentric rings of varying radii, with the source of pollution at the centre. Lastly, we used the sites that had previously been selected and measured the frequency of wind direction, speed and distance from the source of pollution at each site. Theoretical contour plots were constructed using the distance from the source of pollution at each site, with and without incorporating wind frequency as a function of direction. Results: Each method identified different populations at risk from airborne pollution. The use of circles was a very imprecise way of identifying exposed populations. Mathematical modelling that incorporated wind direction was better. Soil sampling at many sites was accurate, as the method is direct; but it is very costly and the close proximity of high and low concentrations hindered interpretation. The smoothed contour plots derived from the soil sampling sites identified an exposed population that was similar to that derived from the spot sampling. Conclusions: Using circles as the only means of identifying the exposed population leads to dilution of the potential health effect. The best approach is to use local knowledge about wind direction and speed to estimate the population likely to be at risk; to back up this estimate by judicious use of soil sampling; to use contour mapping to guide the final selection of exposed and non-exposed populations; and finally, to interpret the populations identified as being at risk by incorporating information about other potential sources of pollution (past and present) in the area. PMID:11836461

  19. Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitat types in addition to estuaries, and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional or national environmental quality assessments.

  20. Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Golden, Nancy H; Rattner, Barnett A

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat (Rattner et al. 2001a) were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa, or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the nonmigratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species as excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle, which is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitats in addition to estuaries and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional, or national environmental quality assessments. PMID:12442504

  1. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo Ellen Hinck; Christopher J. Schmitt; Kimberly A. Chojnacki; Donald E. Tillitt

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites\\u000a from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges,\\u000a mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical\\u000a contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish

  2. Sigma Chemical's environmental management system -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Takacs, J.; Olsson, P.

    1999-07-01

    Sigma Chemical Company (Sigma) is a world leader in the production of biochemicals and reagents for life science research. The Environmental Services requirement to be able to handle a wide variety of environmental data is challenging. To meet this task Sigma turned to develop in-house a state-of-the-art environmental management system. Sigma's environmental management system is a custom developed intranet web and PC-based Windows system. The system utilizes the company's intranet to allow individuals in a web application to fill out a request form to alert Environmental Services of material ready for pick-up. Environmental Services personnel collect and contain the material and use portable handheld barcode scanners to record the information. The system is then used to track material in different storage locations as well as to build and print manifests. A costing module also allows processing and disposal charges to be issued back to the various departments from which the materials were collected. The fluid integration of this system into the Environmental Services business practices has allowed this department to streamline their operation and to process and manifest more material than thought was possible. The system is also very dynamic and easily modified to incorporate new modules to help increase efficiency.

  3. The surgical management in war of penetrating wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G J; Ryan, J M; Galbraith, K A

    1994-10-01

    Military surgeons in a future conflict may face the problem of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare (CW) agents. No useful guidelines for this eventuality exist-nor any assessment of the specific CW risk to such casualties or to the surgical teams operating on them. The principal hazard to surgeons is direct contact with contaminated clothing in the wound. Practices are recommended to reduce this threat significantly. Thorough wound excision augmented by lavage with a specific proprietary hypochlorite solution will provide effective wound decontamination without producing unacceptable tissue damage. The vapour hazard at surgery is very low-respirators are unnecessary but goggles or glasses should be worn to prevent conjunctival splashes of potentially contaminated body fluids. PMID:8822062

  4. Environmental Contamination as a Risk Factor for Intra-Household Staphylococcus aureus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Justin; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Miller, Maureen; Hafer, Cory; Vasquez, Glenny; Vavagiakis, Peter; Shi, Qiuhu; Lowy, Franklin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The household is a recognized community reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus. This study investigated potential risk factors for intra-household S. aureus transmission, including the contribution of environmental contamination. Methods We investigated intra-household S. aureus transmission using a sample of multiple member households from a community-based case-control study examining risk factors for CA-MRSA infection conducted in Northern Manhattan. During a home visit, index subjects completed a questionnaire. All consenting household members were swabbed, as were standardized environmental household items. Swabs were cultured for S. aureus. Positive isolates underwent further molecular characterization. Intra-household transmission was defined as having identical strains among two or more household members. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for transmission. Results We enrolled 291 households: 146 index cases, 145 index controls and 687 of their household contacts. The majority of indexes were Hispanic (85%), low income (74%), and female (67%), with a mean age of 31 (range 1–79). The average size of case and control households was 4 people. S. aureus colonized individuals in 62% of households and contaminated the environment in 54% of households. USA300 was the predominant clinical infection, colonizing and environmental strain. Eighty-one households had evidence of intra-household transmission: 55 (38%) case and 26 (18%) control households (P<.01). Environmental contamination with a colonizing or clinical infection strain (aOR: 5.4 [2.9–10.3] P<.01) and the presence of a child under 5 (aOR: 2.3 [1.2–4.5] P?=?.02) were independently associated with transmission. In separate multivariable models, environmental contamination was associated with transmission among case (aOR 3.3, p<.01) and control households (aOR 27.2, p<.01). Conclusions Environmental contamination with a colonizing or clinical infection strain was significantly and independently associated with transmission in a large community-based sample. Environmental contamination should be considered when treating S. aureus infections, particularly among households with multiple infected members. PMID:23152934

  5. Environmental Contamination due to Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii surrounding Colonized or Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Kerri A.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Lee, Mary S.; Harris, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients colonized or infected with MDR-AB at a tertiary-care hospital from October 2008 to January 2009. For each patient, 10 surfaces in the patient room were sampled and evaluated for the presence of A. baumannii. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on all environmental isolates and a clinical isolate if available. RESULTS 50 rooms were sampled; 48% (24/50) were positive at one or more environmental sites. Supply carts (10/50, 20%); floors (8/50, 16%); infusion pumps (7/50, 14%); and ventilator touch pads (5/44, 11.4%) were most commonly contaminated. Patients with a recent history of MDR-AB were no more likely to contaminate their environment than patients with a remote history (51% vs. 36%, p-value = 0.50). In 85% (17/20) of cases the environmental isolate was classified as genetically similar to the patient isolate. CONCLUSIONS For patients with MDR-AB, the surrounding environment is frequently contaminated, even among patients with a remote history of MDR-AB. Surfaces often touched by healthcare workers during routine patient care are commonly contaminated and may be a source of nosocomial spread. PMID:22041290

  6. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    PubMed Central

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

  7. The decay of chemical weapons agents under environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.

    1993-04-09

    The rate and mechanism of decay of chemical agents in the environment was studied via live agent field trials at the chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down, UK. The plan was to deposit the agents GD (Soman), VX, and H (sulfur mustard) on separate l-m{sup 2} plots on three successive days; i.e., Tuesday through Thursday. The depositions were to be made so as to give an areal concentration of 10 g/m{sup 2}. Four felt pads of approximately 25 cm{sup 2} each were placed at the corners of each of the test plots. These were subsequently extracted and analyzed by CBDE to determine the actual agent concentration. Samples for LLNL (two different types of soil, disks of silicone rubber gasket material, and short cylinders of concrete were to be contaminated and analyzed. Results are described.

  8. Gene expression profiling and environmental contaminant assessment of migrating Pacific salmon in the Fraser River watershed of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Dubetz, Cory; Macpherson, Nancy; Sampson, Tracy; Kelly, Barry C; Helbing, Caren C

    2010-05-01

    The health and physiological condition of anadromous salmon is of concern as their upriver migration requires navigation of human-impacted waterways and metabolism of stored energy reserves containing anthropogenic contaminants. Such factors may affect reproductive success of fish stocks. This study investigates chemical contaminant burdens and select gene expression profiles in Pacific Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon which traverse the Fraser River watershed during their spawning migration. Chemical analyses of muscle tissue and eggs of salmon collected from the lower Fraser River (pre-migration) and from upstream spawning grounds (post-migration) during the 2007 migration revealed the presence of numerous chemical contaminants, including PCBs, dioxins/furans, pesticides, and heavy metals. However, muscle tissue residue concentrations were well below human health consumption guidelines and 2,3,7,8 TCDD toxic equivalents (SigmaTEQs) in salmon eggs, calculated using WHO toxic equivalency factors (WHO-TEFs) for fish health, did not exceed the 0.3pgg(-1) wet weight toxicological threshold level previously associated with 30% egg mortality in salmon populations. Quantitative real-time PCR probes were generated and used to assess differences in abundance of key mRNA transcripts encoding nine gene products associated with reproduction, stress, metal toxicity, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Gene expression profiles were characterized in liver and muscle tissue of pre- and post-migration Sockeye and Chinook salmon. The results of stock-matched animals indicate that dynamic changes in mRNA levels occur for a number of genes in both species during migration and suggest that Sockeye salmon exhibit a greater level of biological stress compared to the Chinook salmon population. Using a male-specific genotypic marker, we found that out of the 154 animals examined, one Sockeye was genotypically male but phenotypically female. This individual's gene expression profile in liver and muscle was reminiscent of, but not identical to, the female expression profile. These studies provide the first glimpse of the dynamic yet common nature of changes in the transcriptome that are shared between species during in-migration and highlight differences that may relate to population success. Continued longitudinal assessment will further define the association between contaminant burden, physiological stress, and modulation of gene expression in migrating Pacific salmon. PMID:19811841

  9. Sediment chemical contamination and toxicity associated with a coastal golf course complex.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Foss, S S; Harris, P S; Stanley, R S; Moore, J C

    2001-07-01

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sediments impacted by a coastal golf course complex. Sediment contaminant concentrations were determined at least twice during the two-year study period at 14 sampling stations. In addition, a combination of acute and chronic bioassays were conducted exposing four invertebrate test species to whole sediments and associated pore waters. Overall, the Florida, USA, golf course complex had a measurable impact on sediment chemical quality, particularly in near-field areas. Higher concentrations of several trace metals and organochlorine pesticides were detected in many golf course-associated sediments compared with reference areas; however, concentrations decreased seaward and only a few, primarily chlorinated pesticides, exceeded proposed sediment quality guidelines. Chromium, zinc, and mercury were detected more frequently than other trace metals. The DDT and associated metabolites, dieldrin and chlordane, were the more commonly detected organic contaminants. Acute toxicity was uncommon and occurred consistently for sediment collected from one coastal location. In contrast, chronic toxicity occurred at several study sites based on the response of Mysidopsis bahia. It was concluded that the impact of golf course runoff on sediment quality may be subtle and sensitive biological assessment methods, such as chronic toxicity tests, will be needed to detect adverse effects. PMID:11434280

  10. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.

    PubMed

    French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2014-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated. PMID:24281673

  11. Chemical and Isotopical Patterns of Nitrate Contamination in the Southern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vick, C. F.; Selker, J.

    2004-12-01

    A persistent problem with elevated NO3 concentrations in rural drinking wells in the southern Willamette Valley, Oregon has been documented since the 1930's. We explore the origin of this contaminant. The objective of this study was to use isotopes of NO3 and other ionic chemical indicators to determine the sources of NO3 in drinking water wells in the southern Willamette Valley, OR. Many non-point sources were found to contribute to the elevated levels of NO3 in ground water, including high-density residential and high-intensity agricultural. 466 wells met the criteria to be included in the study: (1) less than 75 feet in depth (2) installed after 1960 (3) domestic use and (4) be located in the southern Willamette Valley. 120 wells were sampled during the summer of 2003. Geologic units, dominant land use and soil types were determined for each well in an attempt to determine vulnerability of wells for NO3 contamination. 20 drinking water wells were selected to undergo isotopic and further chemical analyses. In order to determine the chemical and isotopic fingerprints of the dominant sources of NO3 contamination soil samples were augered from 10 septic drain fields and water samples were collected below 10 agricultural fields. NO3-N concentrations in the study area ranged from below detection (<0.20 mg/L) to 13.70 mg/L, with a mean concentration of 4.81 mg/L. There was a statistically significant trend (i.e. P < 0.05) in NO3-N with well depth, well age, pH and SO4. Findings suggest that geologic setting is an important factor in predicting vulnerability, with land use also being important but less so. Determination of septic and agricultural sources of NO3 contamination were inconclusive, though various chemical indicators were found to suggest the origin of the NO3.

  12. Environmental risks of chemicals and genetically modified organisms: A comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Günter Steinhäuser

    2001-01-01

    The principles of precaution and sustainability require more consideration in the assessment of environmental risks posed\\u000a by chemicals and genetically modified organisms. Instead of applying risk reduction measures when there are serious indications\\u000a for damage, full scientific certainty is often waited for before taking action. The precautionary principle particularly should\\u000a be applied in those cases in which the extent and

  13. Bioassessment of contaminant transport and distribution in aquatic ecosystems by chemical analysis of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Wiener, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Burrowing mayfly nymphs (Ephemeroptera) inhabit and ingest fine-grained sediments and detritus that may be enriched with metals and persistent organic compounds. The burrowing nymphs can externally adsorb and internally assimilate these contaminants, providing a link for the food chain transfer of potentially toxic substances from sediments to organisms in higher trophic levels. The emergent adults are short-lived and do not feed, thus their gut contents do not contribute greatly to their total contaminant burden. These characteristics make Hexagenia spp. And certain other burrowing mayflies useful for assessing ecosystem contamination. General protocols are presented for the collection, processing and analysis of emergent mayflies to assess the spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Two essential components of this bioassessment approach are a network of on-site volunteers with the materials and instructions needed to correctly collect and store samples and quality assurance procedures to estimate the accuracy of chemical analyses. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with an example of its application to the Upper Mississippi River (USA). Determination of cadmium, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent Hexagenia bilineata from a 1250 km reach of this river revealed (1) several source areas of contaminants and (2) distinct patterns in the bioaccumulation (and apparent sediment-associated transport) of each residue on both small and large spatial scales.

  14. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.

    2012-01-31

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 12, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

  15. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2011-10-20

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Third Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on July 7, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

  16. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  17. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

  18. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

  19. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to identify contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although research has focused on remediating ecological impacts of environmental contaminants on the Great Lakes and other aquatic ecosystems, there exists a continuing need for additional biologically-based tools for monitoring success. Profiling of endogenous metabolites (i.e....

  20. Analysis of environmental contaminates in hair using an ion trap mass spectrometer with a filtered noise field waveboard

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Hulsey, S.S.; Frantz, C.E.; Andresen, B.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A variety of methods have been established using mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of chemicals in hair. Much of this past work has been focused on the detection of drugs of abuse. Human hair has been analyzed either directly by probe distillation (DIP) with some preliminary clean-up using HPLC or solid phase extraction (SPE). However, established drug analysis methods do not apply for the detection of some environmental contaminates. In this study, the authors selected 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and malathion as the target compounds. In addition two types of hair samples were analyzed: (1) human hair fortified with either TNT or malathion and (2) hair from mice who ingested the same analytes. The analytical method was DIP-EI-MS/MS with an ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a filtered noise field wave board.

  1. Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Taylor; J. d. Appletonsupasu; R. Lister; B. Smith; D. Chitamweba; O. Mkumbo; J. F. Machiwa; A. L. Tesha; C. Beinhoff

    2005-01-01

    This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg\\/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05–9.2 mg\\/kg) was recorded in urban

  2. Environmental metabolomics: new insights into earthworm ecotoxicity and contaminant bioavailability in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myrna J. Simpson; Jennifer R. McKelvie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics is a growing and emerging sub-discipline of metabolomics. Studies with earthworms have progressed\\u000a from the initial stages of simple contact exposure tests to detailed studies of earthworm responses in soil. Over the past\\u000a decade, a variety of endogenous metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of contaminant exposure. Furthermore,\\u000a metabolomic methods have delineated responses from sub-lethal exposure of

  3. TESTING DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLE COLLECTION METHODS FOR MEASURING PERSONAL DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary ingestion may be a significant pathway of human exposure to many potentially toxic chemicals. The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency-National Human Exposure Laboratory has made the development of methods for measuring persoanl dietary exposures a high priority for its di...

  4. Associating Changes in Endogenous Metabolite Profiles of Field-Deployed Fish with Chemical Contaminants and Other Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing risk from contaminant exposure in the aquatic environment typically begins (and often ends) with identification of ?listed? chemicals in water samples. While providing useful information about potential exposures, this approach to monitoring ? in the absence of site-spe...

  5. Environmental chemical exposures and disturbances of heme synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W E; Stockbridge, H L; Labbe, R F; Woods, J S; Anderson, K E; Bissell, D M; Bloomer, J R; Ellefson, R D; Moore, M R; Pierach, C A; Schreiber, W E; Tefferi, A; Franklin, G M

    1997-01-01

    Porphyrias are relatively uncommon inherited or acquired disorders in which clinical manifestations are attributable to a disturbance of heme synthesis (porphyrin metabolism), usually in association with endogenous or exogenous stressors. Porphyrias are characterized by elevations of heme precursors in blood, urine, and/or stool. A number of chemicals, particularly metals and halogenated hydrocarbons, induce disturbances of heme synthesis in experimental animals. Certain chemicals have also been linked to porphyria or porphyrinuria in humans, generally involving chronic industrial exposures or environmental exposures much higher than those usually encountered. A noteworthy example is the Turkish epidemic of porphyria cutanea tarda produced by accidental ingestion of wheat treated with the fungicide hexachlorobenzene. Measurements of excreted heme precursors have the potential to serve as biological markers for harmful but preclinical effects of certain chemical exposures; this potential warrants further research and applied field studies. It has been hypothesized that several otherwise unexplained chemical-associated illnesses, such as multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, may represent mild chronic cases of porphyria or other acquired abnormalities in heme synthesis. This review concludes that, although it is reasonable to consider such hypotheses, there is currently no convincing evidence that these illnesses are mediated by a disturbance of heme synthesis; it is premature or unfounded to base clinical management on such explanations unless laboratory data are diagnostic for porphyria. This review discusses the limitations of laboratory measures of heme synthesis, and diagnostic guidelines are provided to assist in evaluating the symptomatic individual suspected of having a porphyria. PMID:9114276

  6. Effect of crude oil contamination on the yield and chemical composition of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erute Magdalene; John Ariyo Okhuoya

    2009-01-01

    The effect of crude oil contamination which is a perennial problem in the Niger Delta of Nigeria on the yield and nutrient status of Pleurotus tuber-regium was investigated. In this study, after cultivating P. tuber-regium in crude oil contaminated soils to which sawdust, shredded banana leaf blades, NPK fertilizer and poultry litter were added, the yield and nutrient or chemical

  7. Contaminant and plant-derived changes in soil chemical and microbiological indicators during fuel oil rhizoremediation with Galega orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anu Mikkonen; Elina Kondo; Kaisa Lappi; Kaisa Wallenius; Kristina Lindström; Helinä Hartikainen; Leena Suominen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of vegetation and hydrocarbon (HC) contamination on the development of soil chemical and biological status during rhizoremediation of fuel oil contamination with the legume Galega orientalis. Uncontaminated and unvegetated references monitored in parallel with the rhizoremediation treatment enabled the identification of the partial effects. A 21-week greenhouse experiment simulated one

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  9. Biomarker-based biomonitoring for evaluating health and ecological effects on environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Shugart, L.R.; Jimenez, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a research approach for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment. The approach uses wild animals and introduced caged animals near hazardous waste sites as (1) sentinels of bioavailable contaminants, (2) predictors of adverse ecological effects, and (3) surrogates to estimate the potential exposure and risks to humans living near these sites. Evidence of exposure in animals on the site provides a temporally-integrated measure of bioavailable contaminant levels and is therefore much more relevant to the potential risk to humans than is the analytically measurable concentration of contaminants in the soil, water, or air. The research approach utilizes biomarkers (biochemical, molecular and cellular indicators of exposure) and measures of body burden of persistent compounds (such as polychlorinated biphenyls; PCBs) in wild animals captured on a hazardous waste disposal site and in adjacent uncontaminated reference areas to identify and quantify the potential for exposure to bioavailable contaminants. Unexposed animals confined at sites confirm the potential for environmental exposure. Relationships between biomarker response and adverse ecological effects are determined from measures of animal health and population structure. The potential risk to humans is extrapolated from the animal exposure data using pharmacodynamic models. 76 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, J. I.

    2009-05-01

    The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

  11. Three-dimensional data interpolation for environmental purpose: lead in contaminated soils in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piedade, Tales Campos; Melo, Vander Freitas; Souza, Luiz Cláudio Paula; Dieckow, Jeferson

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring of heavy metal contamination plume in soils can be helpful in establishing strategies to minimize its hazardous impacts to the environment. The objective of this study was to apply a new approach of visualization, based on tridimensional (3D) images, of pseudo-total (extracted with concentrated acids) and exchangeable (extracted with 0.5 mol L(-1) Ca(NO3)2) lead (Pb) concentrations in soils of a mining and metallurgy area to determine the spatial distribution of this pollutant and to estimate the most contaminated soil volumes. Tridimensional images were obtained after interpolation of Pb concentrations of 171 soil samples (57 points × 3 depths) with regularized spline with tension in a 3D function version. The tridimensional visualization showed great potential of use in environmental studies and allowed to determine the spatial 3D distribution of Pb contamination plume in the area and to establish relationships with soil characteristics, landscape, and pollution sources. The most contaminated soil volumes (10,001 to 52,000 mg Pb kg(-1)) occurred near the metallurgy factory. The main contamination sources were attributed to atmospheric emissions of particulate Pb through chimneys. The large soil volume estimated to be removed to industrial landfills or co-processing evidenced the difficulties related to this practice as a remediation strategy. PMID:24865382

  12. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Sileo, L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants.

  13. Environmental contaminants and children’s health: Cause for concern, time for action

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Graham W

    2001-01-01

    The present paper provides an outline of the developmental and behavioural characteristics that make children, especially the fetus and young child, more vulnerable to contaminants than adults. The major categories of contaminants are briefly described. The evidence for their possible effects on neurobehavioural development; immune, endocrine and respiratory systems; childhood cancer based on research studies with animals; children exposed to catastrophic ‘accidents’ involving overdose exposures; and pregnant women and children from communities with high ‘background’ levels of contamination who participated in studies is reviewed. While the data are worrisome, especially for children living in northern and certain urban communities, much remains to be learned about possible subtle effects and the potential for long term effects of the current background contamination experienced by the majority of Canadian children before its significance to their health can be fully evaluated. The present regulatory processes, which are based on risk assessment, are so cumbersome and costly that the great majority of chemicals in use have not been fully evaluated, and the ingenuity of new chemical production continually exceeds the capacity to test the new chemicals. Moreover, despite past insistence on scientific proof of adverse effects and safety, unanticipated effects have occurred that will threaten the sustainability of human life unless more effective control measures are taken to limit the release of toxic substances and persistent chemicals into the environment. Therefore, the shortcomings of risk assessment are discussed, and the precautionary principle, which is used in some countries and is proposed for use internationally as an alternative measure that may offer improved control for the future, is outlined. Finally, opportunities for physician action are suggested. PMID:20084149

  14. Multiple stressors in amphibian communities: Effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.; Little, E.E.; Doyle, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    A leading hypothesis of amphibian population declines is that combinations of multiple stressors contribute to declines. We examined the role that chemical contamination, competition, and predation play singly and in combination in aquatic amphibian communities. We exposed larvae of American toads (Bufo americanus), southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala), and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) to overwintered bullfrog tadpoles (R. catesbeiana), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), the insecticide carbaryl, and ammonium nitrate fertilizer in 1000-L mesocosms. Most significantly, our study demonstrated that the presence of multiple factors reduced survival of B. americanus and A. maculatum and lengthened larval periods of R. sphenocephala. The presence of bluegill had the largest impact on the community; it eliminated B. americanus and A. maculatum and reduced the abundance of R. sphenocephala. Chemical contaminants had the second strongest effect on the community with the insecticide, reducing A. maculatum abundance by 50% and increasing the mass of anurans (frogs and toads) at metamorphosis; the fertilizer positively influenced time and mass at metamorphosis for both anurans and A. maculatum. Presence of overwintered bullfrogs reduced mass and increased time to metamorphosis of anurans. While both bluegill and overwintered bullfrog tadpoles had negative effects on the amphibian community, they performed better in the presence of one another and in contaminated habitats. Our results indicate that predicting deleterious combinations from single-factor effects may not be straightforward. Our research supports the hypothesis that combinations of factors can negatively impact some amphibian species and could contribute to population declines. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content. PMID:25568090

  16. A mixture of environmental organic contaminants in lake sediments affects hatching from Daphnia resting eggs.

    PubMed

    Möst, Markus; Chiaia-Hernandez, Aurea C; Frey, Martin P; Hollender, Juliane; Spaak, Piet

    2015-02-01

    Despite the relevance of resting eggs for ecology and evolution of many aquatic organisms and their exposure to contaminants accumulating in sediments, ecotoxicological studies using resting eggs are vastly underrepresented. The authors established a method to perform exposure assays with resting eggs produced by the Daphnia longispina species complex, key species in large lake ecosystems. A mixture of organic contaminants previously detected in sediments of Lake Greifensee was selected to test the potential effect of organic contaminants present in sediments on the hatching process. Resting eggs were exposed to a mix of 10 chemicals, which included corrosion inhibitors, biocides, pesticides, and personal care products, for a period of 15?d. Using an automated counting software, the authors found a significant increase in hatching success in the exposed resting eggs compared with controls. Such an effect has not yet been reported from ecotoxicological assays with resting eggs. Possible mechanistic explanations as well as the potential implications on the ecology and evolution of aquatic species that rely on a resting egg banks are discussed. Observed increased mortality and developmental abnormalities for hatchlings in the exposure treatments can be explained by toxic contaminant concentrations. The results of the present study highlight the need for additional studies assessing the effects of organic contaminants on resting egg banks and aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25394187

  17. Bioconcentration potential of organic environmental chemicals in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

    1986-12-01

    A list of environmental chemicals detectable in adipose tissue and/or milk of non-occupationally exposed humans is presented. Besides their physiochemical properties (n-octanol/water partition coefficient and water solubility), their acceptable daily intake (ADI) values, production figures, fate in the environment, concentrations in human adipose tissue, and data from total diet studies from market basket investigations are given. Average bioconcentration factors (BCF) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) in human adipose tissue are calculated. The bioconcentration factors (wet wt basis) of these compounds are between 3 and 47 times higher in humans than in rats. The environmental chemicals are divided into three groups in respect to their bioconcentration factors in human adipose tissue: group I, high BCF (greater than 100); group II, medium BCF (10-100); and group III, low BCF (less than 10). The bioconcentration factors are useful for hazard assessment of chemicals to humans.

  18. Characterization of organic chemical contaminants in sediments from Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Pait, Anthony S; Whitall, David R; Dieppa, Angel; Newton, Sarah E; Brune, Lia; Caldow, Chris; Mason, Andrew L; Apeti, Dennis A; Christensen, John D

    2012-08-01

    Jobos Bay, located on the southeastern coast of Puerto Rico, contains a variety of habitats including mangroves, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs. The watershed surrounding the bay includes a number of towns, agricultural areas, and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR). Jobos Bay and the surrounding watershed are part of a Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), involving the Jobos Bay NERR, the US Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess the benefits of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on the terrestrial and marine environments. As part of the Jobos Bay CEAP, NOAA collected sediment samples in May 2008 to characterize over 130 organic chemical contaminants. This paper presents the results of the organic contaminant analysis. The organic contaminants detected in the sediments included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, and the pesticide DDT. PAHs at one site in the inner bay near a boat yard were significantly elevated; however, all organic contaminant classes measured were below NOAA sediment quality guidelines that would have indicated that impacts were likely. The results of this work provide an important baseline assessment of the marine environment that will assist in understanding the benefits of implementing BMPs on water quality in Jobos Bay. PMID:21956337

  19. Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination. PMID:21860854

  20. IMPACT OF HIGH CHEMICAL CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS ON TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state-of-the-art of available methods for predicting the effects of high chemical concentrations on the properties, processes, functions, cycles, and responses of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems was reviewed. Environmental problems associated with high chemical concentrati...

  1. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews (N-I) and Robert Boehlecke (NSO)

    2011-03-03

    The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

  2. Development of KMnO(4)-releasing composites for in situ chemical oxidation of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liang, S H; Chen, K F; Wu, C S; Lin, Y H; Kao, C M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a controlled-oxidant-release technology combining in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concepts to remediate trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater. In this study, a potassium permanganate (KMnO4)-releasing composite (PRC) was designed for KMnO4 release. The components of this PRC included polycaprolactone (PCL), KMnO4, and starch with a weight ratio of 1.14:2:0.96. Approximately 64% (w/w) of the KMnO4 was released from the PRC after 76 days of operation in a batch system. The results indicate that the released KMnO4 could oxidize TCE effectively. The results from a column study show that the KMnO4 released from 200 g of PRC could effectively remediate 101 pore volumes (PV) of TCE-contaminated groundwater (initial TCE concentration = 0.5 mg/L) and achieve up to 95% TCE removal. The effectiveness of the PRC system was verified by the following characteristics of the effluents collected after the PRC columns (barrier): (1) decreased TCE concentrations, (2) increased ORP and pH values, and (3) increased MnO2 and KMnO4 concentrations. The results of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis show that the PCL and starch completely filled up the pore spaces of the PRC, creating a composite with low porosity. Secondary micro-scale capillary permeability causes the KMnO4 release, mainly through a reaction-diffusion mechanism. The PRC developed could be used as an ISCO-based passive barrier system for plume control, and it has the potential to become a cost-effective alternative for the remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater. PMID:24568784

  3. Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Brenner, Nicole C.; Martin, Louise M.; Spencer, Emma; Delima, Jennifer; Singh, Gurmeet; McCann, Frances; Hudson, Carolyn; Johns, Tracy; Giffard, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. Methods The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. Results The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. Conclusions This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible. PMID:25349693

  4. A Finite Rate Chemical Analysis of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination Effects on Scramjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Karen F.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. A finite rate chemical analysis was performed to determine the levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility at conditions corresponding to Mach 6 to 8 flight simulations. Results indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, corroborating previously obtained measurements. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate the effects of nitric oxide on scramjet performance. Results indicate that nitric oxide in the test gas causes a small increase in heat release and thrust performance for the test conditions investigated. However, a rate constant uncertainty analysis suggests that the effect of nitric oxide ranges from no net effect, to an increase of about 10 percent in thrust performance.

  5. Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Soled Phase Microextraction: Janusz Pawliszyn's Legacy in the Environmental Arena

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has revolutionized the way samples are extracted, enabling rapid, automated, and solventless extraction of many different sample types, including air, water, soil, and biological samples. As such, SPME is widely used for environmental, food, fo...

  6. Understanding clinical immunological testing in alleged chemically induced environmental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, J E

    1996-08-01

    Some believe that an abnormal immunoregulatory response based on environmental damage to T cells is fundamental to the production of symptoms in patients with alleged "multiple chemical sensitivity" and/or "environmental illness." According to this theory stimulation of T cells or T cell phenotypic subsets by environmental chemicals results in release of cytokines that can effect appropriate target cells of multiple organ systems, resulting in a wide range of symptoms. This concept is reinforced by frequent media reporting of pollution incidents and environmental disasters plus continued isolated reports of immunologic abnormalities in patients with various forms of alleged environmental illness, multiple chemical sensitivities, or other related syndromes. These include reports of slight perturbations in quantity and function of immunoglobulins, complement and its components, B cells, natural killer cells, T cells, phenotypic T cell subsets, and helper suppressor T cell ratios. There are also reports of increased or decreased interleukin levels including IL-1 and IL-2 or their receptors (IL-2R) in these patients. Such assays are not infrequently performed even though there is no evidence for their diagnostic efficacy in these alleged conditions. It is reasonable, however, to anticipate that with the wide development of assays for many of the interleukins and their receptors, these assays may become important in the future diagnosis of many autoimmune, allergic, neoplastic, and infectious diseases. At this time, however, the induction of environmental illness or multiple chemical sensitivity by exposure to trace levels of environmental "immunotoxins" is unproven and remains a matter of speculation. The reproducibility of immunologic test abnormalities reported under these conditions has not been documented, and the data have often not been analyzed statistically. Appropriate controls also have not usually been employed, nor have control values been provided in many cases. Without consideration of these factors, a patient might be erroneously diagnosed as having some form of "immune dysregulation," "environmental immune dysfunction," or "immunotoxic" syndrome on the basis of only a single panel of cellular immunologic profiles or related immunologic tests illustrating slight deviations from the norm and in the absence of overt disease on physical examination. Consideration must also be given to an understanding of biologic variability and diurnal variations in lymphoid cell numbers in interpreting cellular immunologic profiles. For example, the necessity for age and sex-matched controls, test reproducibility, quantitative versus functional assays, and the significance of major versus minor deviations from the norm must be appreciated. In addition, many other conditions can effect immunologic tests, such as medications, psychologic factors, cigarette smoking, and the presence of concurrent disease, including minor viral infections. All of these variables should be appreciated in test interpretation. Certain clinical indications for analysis of cellular components of the immune system, using flow cytometry, have been provided as guidelines although they are by no means accepted by all groups due to their current incomplete evaluation by the clinical immunology community. These suggested indications are discussed. In this article, attempts are made to outline the various quantitative and functional tests used to assess the immune system, with emphasis on "biomarker" tests to detect possible immune system "damage." Dangers involved in attempting to make clinical evaluations based on results of isolated in vitro assessment of quantity or function of immune system cellular and humoral components without considering the results of a good medical history and physical examination, the many pitfalls involved in the tests, and the many confounding variables that affect the tests are emphasized, as well as the need for proper controls... PMID:8921551

  7. Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the United States: Importance of species traits and environmental factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg concentrations. Concentrations were generally lower than th...

  8. REVIEW IV: SCIENCE LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURES WITH FERTILITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IMPACTS IN THE ADULT FEMALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design: Reviewed articles indexed in PubMed from 1999-2007 addressing environment and puberty, menstrual and ovarian function, fertility, and menopause. Results: The strongest evidence of environmental contaminant exposures interfering with healthy reproductive function in adu...

  9. Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

  10. EFFECTS OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS ON MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY TROPHIC STRUCTURE IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic communities from estuaries throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico were studied to assess the influence of sediment contaminants and natural environmental factors on macrobenthic community trophic structure. Community trophic data were also used to evaluate whether re...

  11. The Environmental Contaminant DDE Fails to Influence the Outcome of Sexual Differentiation in the Marine Turtle Chelonia mydas

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    determines the sex of the offspring. The implication of steroid sex hormones as the proximate trigger for sex differentiated gonads. Kg, words: Chelonia, DDT, endocrine-disrupting contaminant, tempera- ture-dependent sexThe Environmental Contaminant DDE Fails to Influence the Outcome of Sexual Differentiation

  12. Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

  13. Disruption of Androgen Receptor Signaling in Males by Environmental Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Luccio-Camelo, Doug C.; Prins, Gail S

    2011-01-01

    Androgen-disruptors are environmental chemicals in that interfere with the biosynthesis, metabolism or action of endogenous androgens resulting in a deflection from normal male developmental programming and reproductive tract growth and function. Since male sexual differentiation is entirely androgen-dependent, it is highly susceptible to androgen-disruptors. Animal models and epidemiological evidence link exposure to androgen disrupting chemicals with reduced sperm counts, increased infertility, testicular dysgenesis syndrome, and testicular and prostate cancers. Further, there appears to be increased sensitivity to these agents during critical developmental windows when male differentiation is at its peak. A variety of in vitro and in silico approaches have been used to identify broad classes of androgen disrupting molecules that include organochlorinated pesticides, industrial chemicals, and plasticizers with capacity to ligand the androgen receptor. The vast majority of these synthetic molecules act as anti-androgens. This review will highlight the evidence for androgen disrupting chemicals that act through interference with the androgen receptor, discussing specific compounds for which there is documented in vivo evidence for male reproductive tract perturbations. PMID:21515368

  14. Population trends, reproductive success, and organochlorine chemical contaminants in waterbirds nesting in Galveston Bay, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of environmental contaminants on the reproductive success of olivaceous cormorants (Phalacrocorax olivaceus ), Laughing gulls (Larus atricilla ), and black skimmers (Rhynchops niger ) nesting in Galveston Bay, Texas were investigated from 1980 through 1982. Populations of cormorants and gulls have remained stable in recent years, but skimmer numbers may have declined. Cormorants produced 1.9 to 2.8 young per pair in nests that remained active throughout the season. Gull and skimmer reproduction was seriously limited by storms and predation. DDE and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in carcasses and eggs generally were below levels associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems in most species of birds.

  15. Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, I.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

  16. Chemical Treatments for Mobilizing Arsenic from Contaminated Aquifer Solids to Accelerate Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Mailloux, Brian J.; Lacko, Allison; Keimowitz, Alison R.; Stute, Martin; Simpson, H. James; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at US Superfund sites where remediation by pump and treat systems is often complicated by slow desorption of As from Fe and Al (hydr)oxides in aquifer solids. Chemical amendments that either compete with As for sorption sites or dissolve Fe and Al (hydr)oxides can increase As mobility and improve pump and treat remediation efficiency. The goal of this work was to determine optimal amendments for improving pump and treat at As contaminated sites such as the Vineland Chemical Co. Superfund site in southern New Jersey. Extraction and column experiments were performed using As contaminated aquifer solids (81 ± 1 mg/kg), site groundwater, and either phosphate (NaH2PO4·H2O) or oxalic acid (C2H2O4·2H2O). In extraction experiments, phosphate mobilized between 11% and 94% of As from the aquifer solids depending on phosphate concentration and extraction time (1 mM-1 M; 1–24 h) and oxalic acid mobilized between 38 and 102% depending on oxalic acid concentration and extraction time (1–400 mM; 1–24 h). In column experiments, phosphate additions induced more As mobilization in the first few pore volumes but oxalic acid was more effective at mobilizing As overall and at lower amendment concentrations. At the end of the laboratory column experiments, 48% of As had been mobilized from the aquifer sediments with 100 mM phosphate and 88% had been mobilized with 10 mM oxalic acid compared with 5% with ambient groundwater alone. Furthermore, simple extrapolations based on pore volumes suggest that chemical treatments could lower the time necessary for clean up at the Vineland site from 600 a with ambient groundwater alone to potentially as little as 4 a with 10 mM oxalic acid. PMID:21076621

  17. Human health risk screening due to consumption of fish contaminated with chemical warfare agents in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Peter B

    2009-02-15

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts of CWA, roughly 11,000ton, have been dumped in the Baltic Sea east of the island Bornholm following the disarmament of Germany after World War II. This has caused concerns over potential human and environmental health risks, and resulted in restrictions on fishing in the dumpsite area. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential indirect human health risks due to consumption of CWA-contaminated fish from the dumpsite area east of Bornholm. Earlier studies suggest that the fish community may be at risk from CWA exposure in the Bornholm basin. Moreover, elevated frequencies of lesions on fish caught in a CWA dumpsite in the Mediterranean Sea have been observed. The fish at the Mediterranean dumpsite had elevated total arsenic (As) concentrations in their tissue, and elevated total As levels were also observed in the sediment. Elevated total sediment As concentrations have also been recorded in CWA dumpsites in the Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea. Triphenylarsine and sulfur mustard gas (Yperite) are the CWAs with the greatest indirect human health risk potential. There are recognized uncertainties concerning Yperite's and CWA-derived arsenical's fate and speciation in the environment, as well as their inherent toxicity, warranting caution and further site-specific environmental and human health risk assessments of CWAs dumped in the Bornholm basin. PMID:18573611

  18. Chemical Genomics Profiling of Environmental Chemical Modulation of Human Nuclear Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Shinn, Paul; Houck, Keith A.; Dix, David J.; Judson, Richard S.; Witt, Kristine L.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The large and increasing number of chemicals released into the environment demands more efficient and cost-effective approaches for assessing environmental chemical toxicity. The U.S. Tox21 program has responded to this challenge by proposing alternative strategies for toxicity testing, among which the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) paradigm has been adopted as the primary tool for generating data from screening large chemical libraries using a wide spectrum of assays. Objectives: The goal of this study was to develop methods to evaluate the data generated from these assays to guide future assay selection and prioritization for the Tox21 program. Methods: We examined the data from the Tox21 pilot-phase collection of approximately 3,000 environmental chemicals profiled in qHTS format against a panel of 10 human nuclear receptors (AR, ER?, FXR, GR, LXR?, PPAR?, PPAR?, RXR?, TR?, and VDR) for reproducibility, concordance of biological activity profiles with sequence homology of the receptor ligand binding domains, and structure–activity relationships. Results: We determined the assays to be appropriate in terms of biological relevance. We found better concordance for replicate compounds for the agonist-mode than for the antagonist-mode assays, likely due to interference of cytotoxicity in the latter assays. This exercise also enabled us to formulate data-driven strategies for discriminating true signals from artifacts, and to prioritize assays based on data quality. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the feasibility of qHTS to identify the potential for environmentally relevant chemicals to interact with key toxicity pathways related to human disease induction. PMID:21543282

  19. Reactive Fe/Pd Bimetallic Systems-Impregnated Adsorptive Activated Carbon For The Environmental Risk Management Of Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of sediments and groundwater contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons remains a scientific and technical challenge. In order to overcome the short-comings of remediation strategies f...

  20. Treatability studies for uranium and plutonium contaminated soils using physical separation methods. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1992-07-01

    The Nevada Field Office of the Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has stated in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) Site Specific Plan for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that DOE/NV is committed to achieving compliance with all applicable environmental laws, regulations, guidelines, and agreements covering operations at the NTS. The primary DOE/NV objective identified by the Site-Specific Plan is to comply with all laws and regulations aimed at protecting human health and the environment. These include Nevada statutes and regulations which may be applicable, including federally delegated authorities. This environmental assessment discusses limited bench-scale soil treatability testing of physical processes for decontamination of plutonium- and uranium-contaminated soil. The proposed location of these studies would be the Treatability Testing Facility (TTF), Building 3124 at Test Cell ``All in Area 25 of the NTS.

  1. Relationships of environmental contaminants to reproductive success in red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) from Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Reichel, W.L.; Hensler, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    In 1977 and 1978, we studied red-breasted mergansers Mergus serrator nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan to determine whether environmental contaminants were having effects on reproduction. Seventeen contaminants were measured in randomly chosen eggs from 206 nests under study. Using a variety of statistical approaches, we looked for effects of individual contaminants and combinations of contaminants on reproductive measurements such as nest desertion, failure of eggs to hatch, death of newly hatched ducklings, percentage hatching success, number of ducklings leaving the nest and eggshell thickness. We also looked for relationships between the levels of some contaminants in blood samples of 39 incubating females and reproductive success. A small degree of eggshell thinning was attributed to DDE and a few other statistical tests were significant, but no contaminant or combination of contaminants we measured seemed to have a pronounced effect on the aspects of reproduction we followed.

  2. RESULTS FOR THE SECOND QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.

    2011-08-25

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, the DDA (Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment) process, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are listed in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Second Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on April 4, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limit for {sup 59}Ni is above the requested limit from Reference 2 but below the established limit in Reference 3. (3) The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit from Reference 2; however, it is below the established limits in Reference 3. (4) The reported concentration of {sup 242m}Am is above the target in Listed in Attachment 8.4 of the Saltstone WAC. (5) {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (6) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13{sup 5} is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (7) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (8) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  3. Results for the Third Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2012-10-26

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  4. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  5. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-09-04

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  6. Data?derived safety factors for the evaluation of food additives and environmental contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Renwick

    1993-01-01

    A safety factor of 100?fold is commonly applied to animal data to derive the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of food additives; other factors have been used in some cases and higher values are used more frequently for determining the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of environmental chemicals. The 100?fold factor is considered to represent the product of a 10?fold factor to

  7. The toxicology of climate change: Environmental contaminants in a warming world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela D. Noyes; Matthew K. McElwee; Hilary D. Miller; Bryan W. Clark; Lindsey A. Van Tiem; Kia C. Walcott; Kyle N. Erwin; Edward D. Levin

    2009-01-01

    Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. This review examines one of the consequences of climate change that has only recently attracted attention: namely, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemical pollutants. A review was undertaken of the scientific literature (original research articles, reviews, government and intergovernmental

  8. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

  10. Environmental contaminant concentrations in Canada goose (Branta canadensis) muscle: probabilistic risk assessment for human consumers.

    PubMed

    Horak, Katherine; Chipman, Richard; Murphy, Lisa; Johnston, John

    2014-09-01

    The issue of food insecurity affects millions of people in the United States every year. Often these people rely on soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters for proper meals, and these organizations often depend on donations to meet needs. One of the most limited food resources is meat. To help alleviate this problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services donates more than 60 tons of wild game (deer, moose, feral hogs, goats, geese, and ducks) to a variety of charitable organizations each year. Although commercially produced meat routinely undergoes screening for contaminants, potential exposure to environmental contaminants from eating wild game is not well characterized. In this study, the concentration of 17 contaminants of concern in the breast meat of wild geese was examined. These concentrations were then used in a probabilistic model to estimate potential risk associated with consumption of this meat. Based on model predictions, more than 99 % of all adults were below exposure limits for all of the compounds tested. For all consumer age classes modeled, consumption of wild goose meat may expose a small fraction of these populations to levels of lead higher than the recommended exposure limits. Similarly, mercury exposure was predicted to be higher than the recommended limits when the meat was served as steaks. This information about concentrations of contaminants of concern in goose meat and potential exposures associated with meat consumption based on probabilistic models will enable others to make informed decisions about the risks associated with the consumption of wild meat. PMID:25198860

  11. Environmental Contaminants and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Effects on Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2000-01-01

    The desire of resource managers, risk assessors, and the general public to better understand the consequences of environmental contamination has produced a strong and growing need for information on the effects of contaminants on populations and groups of species, and over moderate to large areas of land or water. However, the problems associated with research involving populations and groups of species or large and complex geographic areas, especially in terrestrial environments, are well known within the scientific community. With the previous thoughts in mind, an interactive symposium was held at the University of Maryland in October 1998. The purpose of the symposium was to review and critically evaluate our understanding of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at levels of organization above that of the individual. Invited background and technical presentations provided a common baseline of information for symposium participants. Discussion groups were then asked to critically evaluate the topics of two technical sessions. Several presentations of recent or ongoing research provided participants with examples of current approaches to assessments of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at the population or higher level of organization. The book consists of 10 chapters written by presenters at the symposium and three chapters conveying the reports of discussion group.

  12. Possible environmental contaminant effects in neotropical migrants nesting at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Arenal, C.; Halbrook, R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Forest fragmentation, insularization, and tropical deforestation have been named as significant factors in the decline of many neotropical migrant bird species, however, contamination of breeding grounds also may be of concern. Additionally, neotropical migrants may serve as a route of transport of contaminants from breeding grounds in North America to wintering grounds in the tropics. Accumulation and effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and heavy metal concentrations in avian species were evaluated at a Superfund site (Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois) using the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) as a model. Starlings were monitored at 12 nest boxes constructed at each of 3 study and 2 reference sites. Behavior of adult starlings was observed in the field to assess possible contaminant effects on nest attentiveness and reproductive success was recorded as the number of chicks surviving to 15 days post-hatch. Effects included a significant reduction in nest attentiveness behavior and increased chick mortality between PCB and reference sites. There were no significant differences among study and reference sites in number of eggs laid and percent of eggs hatched. Because Crab Orchard NWR serves as breeding ground for approximately 80 neotropical migrant species, the results suggest that species with feeding habits similar to starlings also may have greater body burdens of metals and PCBs and may suffer similar reductions in nesting success. The potential exists for transport and incorporation of environmental contaminants into the food chain at sites along the migration route.

  13. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  14. A new environmental chamber facility for chemical mechanism and VOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. P. L.; Fitz, D. R.; Sauer, C.; Bumiller, K.; Bufalino, C.; Malkina, I.; Pisano, J.; Smith, M.

    2003-04-01

    Because of chemical mechanism uncertainties, environmental chamber experiments are used for developing and evaluating chemical mechanisms for air quality models for predicting the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NO_x on formation of O_3 and other secondary pollutants. However, the chamber data base used for mechanisms in current models represent NO_x conditions much higher than generally present in current atmospheres, lack measurements of many key species, have either uncontrolled lighting or unrepresentative light spectra, and include no systematic data on temperature effects. Because this can result in uncertainties of model predictions of effects of control strategies on air quality, a new environmental chamber facility is being developed in the U.S. at the University of California at Riverside to address these limitations. This indoor chamber employs a 300 KW filtered Argon arc light source irradiating dual ˜80 m^3 in a temperature controlled "clean room" designed to minimize introduction of background pollutants, and has instrumentation to measure a number of species not monitored in most previous experiments. Tests were conducted using smaller prototype reactors to determine the lower limits for background effects. The construction of the facility has just been completed and characterization experiments are underway. Results to date and plans for ongoing research will be discussed.

  15. Clinical, chemical, and hematological parameters in cattle kept in a cadmium-contaminated area

    SciTech Connect

    Kessels, B.G.F.; Wensing, Th.; Schotman, A.J.H. (Unit for Clinical Toxicology of the Clinic for Large Animal Medicine and Nutrition, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Wentink, G.H. (Animal Health Service Centre, Boxtel (Netherlands))

    1990-02-01

    In cattle exposure to cadmium may effect various clinical abnormalities such as loss of appetite, anemia, poor growth, abortions and teratogenic lesions or may pass without clinical abnormalities. Considerably less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to low levels of cadmium on clinical, chemical and hematological parameters. With respect to the way cattle can ingest cadmium from the environment, a relationship was demonstrated between cadmium content of the organs and soil cadmium content. This demonstration that, raising roughage on cadmium contaminated soil or in fields treated with cadmium containing fertilizers like sewage sludge can lead to accumulation of cadmium in the cattle in question. This study aims to investigate whether a low, chronic exposure to cadmium effects changes in some hematological, clinical and chemical parameters in cattle.

  16. 3D modeling of environments contaminated with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiobedzki, Piotr; Ng, Ho-Kong; Bondy, Michel; McDiarmid, Carl H.

    2008-04-01

    CBRN Crime Scene Modeler (C2SM) is a prototype 3D modeling system for first responders investigating environments contaminated with Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear agents. The prototype operates on board a small robotic platform or a hand-held device. The sensor suite includes stereo and high resolution cameras, a long wave infra red camera, chemical detector, and two gamma detectors (directional and non-directional). C2SM has been recently tested in field trials where it was teleoperated within an indoor environment with gamma radiation sources present. The system has successfully created multi-modal 3D models (geometry, colour, IR and gamma radiation), correctly identified location of radiation sources and provided high resolution images of these sources.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PHOSPHATE-BASED REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGY IN METAL CONTAMINATED URBAN AND MINING AREAS IN A SELECTED MISSOURI SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project provided important data on fundamental processes responsible for health and environmental risk reductions and environmental safety of the phosphate-based treatments in metal, specifically Pb, contaminated soils. By an integrated approach of environmental risk asse...

  18. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  19. Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla).

    PubMed

    White, D H; Rice, C P; Hoffman, D J; Gee, G F

    1994-07-01

    Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants. PMID:24213965

  20. Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

  1. Prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver colony and the resulting environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Monzingo, D L; Hibler, C P

    1987-10-01

    The prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver (Castor canadensis) colony in Colorado was determined by the collection and analysis of fecal samples over a period of 14 mo. Environmental contamination was monitored through the use and analysis of water filter samples. Beaver shed cysts of Giardia sp. in their feces throughout the year with temporal variations in the prevalence, and became infected as kits and remained infected as juveniles and adults. Beaver served as amplification hosts for Giardia sp. and contaminated surface waters downstream from their dams in late spring and early fall. In slow moving waters the cysts of Giardia sp. settled rapidly. Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were the only other species of wildlife shedding cysts of Giardia sp. on the study area. PMID:3682082

  2. Biogeochemistry of persistent bioaccumulative toxicants: processes affecting the transport of contaminants to remote areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Blais

    2005-01-01

    We release a very wide variety of synthetic chemicals to the environment. The persistence, environmental behavior, and toxicity of these chemicals will determine the severity of their impacts on our ecosystems. In some cases, contaminated areas are far from the source of pollution. The study of contaminants in remote environments, however, provides important information about a chemical's environmental behavior. For

  3. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 1: Evaluation of in vitro clotting efficacy in the presence of certain contaminants.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of penetrating, haemorrhaging injuries sustained within a hazardous environment may be complicated by contamination with toxic chemicals. There are currently no specific medical countermeasures for such injuries. Haemostats with an absorbent mechanism of action have the potential to simultaneously stop bleeding and decontaminate wounds. However, a primary requirement of a 'haemostatic decontaminant' is the retention of clotting function in the presence of chemical contaminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy of seven commercially available haemostats in the presence of toxic chemicals (soman, VX, sulphur mustard, petrol, aviation fuel and motor oil). Clot viscosity was assessed ex vivo using thrombelastography following treatment of pig blood with: (i) toxic chemical; (ii) haemostat; or (iii) haemostat in combination with toxic chemical. Several contaminants (VX, petrol and GD) were found to be pro-haemostatic and none had an adverse effect on the rate with which the test products attained haemostasis. However, the total clot strength for blood treated with certain haemostats in the presence of sulphur mustard, soman and petrol was significantly decreased. Three test products failed to demonstrate haemostatic function in this ex vivo (thrombelastography) model; this was tentatively ascribed to the products achieving haemostasis through a tamponade mechanism of action, which can only be replicated using in vivo models. Overall, this study has identified a number of commercial products that may have potential as haemostatic decontaminants and warrant further investigation to establish their decontaminant efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25131713

  4. The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species

    SciTech Connect

    Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.; van Belle, G.; Mottet, N.K.; Polissar, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Bolgiano, D. (Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Coble, K. (Tacoma-Pierce County Health Dept., WA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3,000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 {mu}g/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 {mu}g/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption.

  5. The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species.

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, D A; Hughes, J; van Belle, G; Burbacher, T; Bolgiano, D; Coble, K; Mottet, N K; Polissar, L

    1990-01-01

    Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 microgram/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 micrograms/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant (p less than 0.001) increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced in males (5-fold increase in median sum of species concentration over control group) than in females (2-fold increase in median sum of species concentration over control group) and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption. PMID:2088741

  6. System for the removal of airborne contaminants from aircraft environmental control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. R.; Watts, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    The system comprises a high pressure moisture remover, a conduit interconnecting the moisture remover with the compressor of the turbine engine of the aircraft which provides a source of pressurized air, a high pressure diffuser connected to the outlet of the moisture remover to diffuse the dried pressurized air stream to lower pressure, and an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the diffuser for removing particulate contaminants from the air stream. Alternatively, a low pressure moisture remover may be included downstream of the diffuser. A reactor and absorber may be included in the system to supplement the processes in the removal of chemical contaminants. Vent lines and discharge ports may be connected to the system where convenient, such as to the moisture remover, precipitator and absorber, in order to discharge overboard of the aircraft the liquid effluent and particles removed from the air stream.

  7. Results For The First Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminant Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2012-07-16

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this memorandum: The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted; The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit but below the estimated limit; {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits. However, they are below the limits established; The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from the WAC; The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from WAC; Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples; The values reported in this report are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument, however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50; The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  8. Results For The First Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2013-05-14

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminates unless noted in this section; {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations. However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL; Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50; and, The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  9. In vitro cytogenetic studies of organic chemicals found as contaminants in spacecraft cabin atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, J.

    1986-01-01

    Astronauts can be exposed during spaceflight to organic chemical contaminants in the spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Toxic exposures may cause lesions in the cellular DNA which are subsequently expressed as sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE). Analysis of SCE is a sensitive short-term assay technique to detect and quantitate exposures to DNA-damaging (mutagenic) substances. The increase in SCE incidence over baseline (control) levels is generally proportional to the concentration of the mutagen and to the duration of exposure. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) was chosen for this study since it occurred as an atmospheric contaminant in ten of the first 12 STS flights, and has been reported to have toxic and mutagenic effects in various test systems. Glutaraldehyde was chosen because relatively few data are available on the toxicity or mutagenicity of this common biological fixative, which is carried on STS flights for use in biological experiments. The BHK-21 baby hamster kidney cell line was the in vitro test system used in this study. Neither dichloromethane (10 ppm to 500 ppm) nor glutaraldehyde (1 ppm to 10 ppm) increased SCE levels following 20-hour exposure of BHK-21 cells to the test chemicals.

  10. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-27

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, the DDA (Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment) process, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are listed in the current Saltstone WAC. SRS Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2009 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 2, 2009 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report. This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2009 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (3) The reported detection limits for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 94}Nb are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are each below the limits established in Reference 3. (4) The reported detection limit for isopropanol is greater than the requested limit from Table 4 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limits for {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  11. Comparison of Two Freshwater Turtle Species as Monitors of Environmental Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schone, L.

    1990-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemvs scrinta (Agassiz) (yellow-bellied slider) and Chelvdra sernentina (Linnaeus) (common snapping turtle) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-go, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. Significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and mercury were detected in turtles from White Oak Lake than in turtles from the reference site. In addition, turtles from White Oak Lake contained a significantly greater amount of DNA damage than those from the reference site. Although this suggests greater exposure of White Oak Lake turtles to genotoxic agents, further studies are needed to establish the cause of the enhanced amount of single-stranded breaks. Interspecific comparisons of the turtles from White Oak Lake indicated that diet may play a significant role in the exposure of turtles to certain contaminants. No difference was detected between the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co between the two species.

  12. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  13. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  14. Characterization of organic contaminants in environmental samples associated with mount St. Helens 1980 volcanic eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    Volcanic ash, surface-water, and bottom-material samples obtained in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens after the May 18, 1980, eruption were analyzed for organic contaminants by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer techniques. Classes of compounds identified include n-alkanes, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, aromatic acids and aldehydes, phenols, resin acids, terpenes, and insect juvenile hormones. The most probable source of these compounds is from pyrolysis of plant and soil organic matter during and after the eruption. The toxicity of selected compounds and their environmental significance are discussed.

  15. A low-cost and simple paper-based microfluidic device for simultaneous multiplex determination of different types of chemical contaminants in food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Zuo, Peng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-06-15

    It is difficult to carry out multiple detection of different type of chemicals because of the different chemical microenvironment requirements. Herein, a low-cost and simple paper-based microfluidic device integrated with fluorescence labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) functionalized graphene oxide sensor was developed for the multiplex determination of different types of chemical contaminants in food. In this work, Cy5 labeled corresponding functional ssDNA for different analytes associated with graphene oxide (ssDNA-GO) were employed as core detection sensors to sensitively report the presence of the different type of chemicals as well as enlarge the chemical compatibility, which made it possible to simultaneous detect multiple chemicals under a same chemical microenvironment. Paper microfluidic device can be easily fabricated and paper substrate also facilitated the integration of ssDNA-GO sensors via physical absorption. This device has been successfully applied in multiplex detection of heavy metal mercury (II) ion (Hg(2+)) and silver (I) ion (Ag(+)) and aminoglycoside antibiotics residues in food. It also provided enormous potential for applications of environmental monitoring and clinical diagnosis. PMID:25558869

  16. Andra Environmental Specimen Bank: archiving the environmental chemical quality for long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Elisabeth; d'Arbaumont, Maëlle; Verron, Jean-Patrick; Goldstein, Céline; Cesar, Frédérique; Dewonck, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Andra Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) was established in 2010 as a part of the Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE), ongoing Long-Term Environmental Research Monitoring and Testing System located next to the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Bure, Meuse/Haute-Marne, France. The URL is used to study the deep geological disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste. Andra ESB is designed to archive during at least 100 years samples collected to define the initial state of environmental quality of the local area before the construction of industrial facilities and to ensure the traceability of long-term series of samples collected by the OPE ( http://www.andra.fr/ope ), using safe long-term conservation practices. Samples archived in the bank include some local food chain products (milk, cheese, honey, cereals, grass, cherry plum…) and specimen usually archived internationally to monitor the environmental quality (soil, sediment, water, fish, tree leaves, wild life, etc.). Regarding the different samples and analytical issues, three conservation modalities and facilities were designed: dry conservation under controlled temperature and humidity, cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor phase freezers (-150 °C) and in deep-freezing at -80 °C for temporary storage and raw samples before preparation. Andra ESB is equipped with a sample preparation clean room, certified ISO Class 5, dedicated to cryopreservation. This paper describes this first French experiment of long-term chemical quality monitoring and samples cryopreservation of different ecosystems and environmental compartments. PMID:24809491

  17. The metazoan parasite communities of the shoal flounder ( Syacium gunteri ) as bioindicators of chemical contamination in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Martínez, Víctor; Centeno-Chalé, Oscar A; Torres-Irineo, Edgar; Sánchez-Ávila, Juan; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma

    2014-11-27

    BackgroundBecause agriculture and offshore oil extraction are significant economic activities in the southern Gulf of Mexico, high concentrations of nutrients and hydrocarbons are expected. As parasite communities are sensitive to environmental impacts, these contaminants should have an effect on metrics such as species richness, relative abundance and similarity. Consequently, these community metrics can be used as indicators of aquatic environmental health. Our objectives were to describe the parasite communities of the shoal flounder Syacium gunteri and to determine potential thresholds above which environmental contaminants become major controlling factors of parasite community metrics.MethodsThe study area included 33 sampling sites in the southern Gulf of Mexico, where benthic sediments, water and shoal flounder individuals were collected. Data on ecto- and endo-parasites from flounder and nutrients, contaminants and physicochemical variables from the water and sediments were obtained. The statistical associations of the parasite community metrics at the component and infracommunity levels and the environmental data were analysed using redundancy analysis (RDA).ResultsOverall, 203 shoal flounder were examined for parasites, recovering 13 metazoan parasite species, and 48 physicochemical (e.g. temperature, nutrients) and contaminant (e.g. hydrocarbons, heavy metals) variables were obtained. The larval stages of the cestode Oncomegas wageneri and the nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Hysterothylacium sp. were numerically dominant at the component and infracommunity levels. The parasite community metrics had significant negative statistical associations with both nitrate and total PAHs. With the exception of these two chemicals, which exceeded the threshold effect levels (TELs), no other environmental variable exceeded the range considered safe for marine organisms.ConclusionsThe community metrics chosen generally had robust statistically significant associations with both physicochemical and contaminant variables, which supports the ecological relevance of these parameters as indicators of aquatic environmental health. Within the study area, the shoal flounder and their parasites live in a polluted environment with relatively high levels of hydrocarbons and nitrate. Regarding nitrate, we emphasise that if uncontrolled sewage discharge continues in the southern Gulf of Mexico, hypoxic conditions similar to those caused by the Mississippi river can be expected in the near future. PMID:25428400

  18. Chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments and implications for environmental management, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.T.C.; Fossum, K.D.; Ingersoll, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds - chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene - may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addressed in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds - chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene - may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addressed in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.

  19. PCBs as environmental estrogens: Turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, J.M.; Crews, D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); McLachlan, J.A. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1994-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, low-level environmental pollutants associated with adverse health effects such as immune suppression and teratogenicity. There is increasing evidence that some PCB compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans, particularly during development. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds act to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, whereby the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. Here we demonstrate the estrogenic effect of some PCBs by reversing gonadal sex in a reptile species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.