Sample records for environmental conditions conclusion

  1. Contributions Motivation Models Measures Numerical Examples Conclusions Environmental and Cost Synergy in Supply Chain

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Contributions Motivation Models Measures Numerical Examples Conclusions Environmental and Cost Motivation Models Measures Numerical Examples Conclusions 1 Contributions 2 Motivation 3 Models 4 Measures 5 Numerical Examples 6 Conclusions Env. & Cost Synergy in Supply Chain Network Int. in M&A University

  2. Conditions of environmental accelerated testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Klyatis

    1998-01-01

    Strategical and tactical bases are developed for conditions for environmental accelerated testing of a product using physical simulation of life processes. These conditions permit rapid attainment of accurate information for reliability evaluation and prediction, technological development, cost effectiveness and competitive marketing of the product, etc

  3. Better environmental data may reverse conclusions about niche- and dispersal-based processes in community assembly.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Wan; Zeleny, David; Li, Ching-Feng; Chiu, Shau-Ting; Hsieh, Chang-Fu

    2013-10-01

    Variation partitioning of species composition into components explained by environmental and spatial variables is often used to identify a signature of niche- and dispersal-based processes in community assembly. Such interpretation, however, strongly depends on the quality of the environmental data available. In recent studies conducted in forest dynamics plots, the environment was represented only by readily available topographical variables. Using data from a subtropical broad-leaved dynamics plot in Taiwan, we focus on the question of how would the conclusion about importance of niche- and dispersal-based processes change if soil variables are also included in the analysis. To gain further insight, we introduced multiscale decomposition of a pure spatial component [c] in variation partitioning. Our results indicate that, if only topography is included, dispersal-based processes prevail, while including soil variables reverses this conclusion in favor of niche-based processes. Multiscale decomposition of [c] shows that if only topography was included, broad-scaled spatial variation prevails in [c], indicating that other as yet unmeasured environmental variables can be important. However, after also including soil variables this pattern disappears, increasing importance of meso- and fine-scaled spatial patterns indicative of dispersal processes. PMID:24358699

  4. 43 CFR 46.325 - Conclusion of the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the environmental assessment process. 46.325 Section 46...Secretary of the Interior IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL...the environmental assessment process. Upon review of the environmental...the environmental assessment process concludes with one of...

  5. Conditions for effective biomanipulation; conclusions derived from whole-lake experiments in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jtlrgen Benndorf

    1990-01-01

    Since indirect effects, feedback mechanisms and time lag play an important role in top-down manipulated food webs, conclusions\\u000a regarding the reliability of biomanipulation as a management tool should be derived only from whole-lake studies, the results\\u000a of which were followed for at least three to five years. There are only a few experiments and applications of that type from\\u000a which

  6. 1. Overview 2. Perfect information 3. Imperfect Information 4. Conclusions POMDP modeling for condition based

    E-print Network

    Ding, Yu

    for condition based maintenance -Review of Maillart's work- Eunshin Byon1 1Texas A&M University 1 / 23 #12.e., () = (P)i R() , for i = 1, · · · , m and () = 0 for i = m + 1. ei : M + 1 row vector with a 1 in the ith, ())R() (2) PM(y, ) = cv + V(y, e1) (3) OB(y, ) = co + m i=1 V(y, ei )i (4) 4 / 23 #12;1. Overview 2

  7. NOVELTY DETECTION UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    H. SOHN; K. WORDER; C. R. FARRAR

    2001-04-01

    The primary objective of novelty detection is to examine a system's dynamic response to determine if the system significantly deviates from an initial baseline condition. In reality, the system is often subject to changing environmental and operation conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Such variations include changes in loading, boundary conditions, temperature, and moisture. Most damage diagnosis techniques, however, generally neglect the effects of these changing ambient conditions. Here, a novelty detection technique is developed explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indications of true system changes. Auto-associative neural networks are employed to discriminate system changes of interest such as structural deterioration and damage from the natural variations of the system.

  8. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  9. Flight testing under extreme environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Clendon L.

    1988-06-01

    The major objective of Flight Testing under extreme environmental conditions is to determine to what extent a weapon system, including its essential support equipment and attendant crews can accomplish the design mission in the required climatic extremes, using Technical Order procedures. Such testing has historically often revealed design deficiencies that impact the operational capabilities of the air vehicle involved. This volume in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series discusses the philosophy, purpose and methods for conducting ground and flight tests of weapon systems in extreme environment conditions. The areas considered include testing in a controlled artificial environment, as well as cold arctic, hot desert, tropic, and adverse-weather conditions. Also included are the technical and safety aspects of planning, instrumentation, and data acquisition requirements, types of tests conducted and reporting requirements.

  10. Drawing Conclusions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael P. Klentschy

    2008-04-01

    Drawing conclusions involves comparing initial ideas with new evidence and then deciding whether the ideas fit or need to be changed. It is the key to the investigation, where mental and practical activity comes together. This is how scientists approach i

  11. Experimental Conclusions

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    ) Objective Results Experimental Conclusions 1000°C 600°C 4s 30s A major advantage of Biomass Gasification is that any type of biomass (including low cost feedstocks like agricultural residues, forest waste, etc) can be converted to syngas. Pyrolysis and Char gasification proceed sequentially

  12. Degradation In Relation To Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putters, B.

    One of the parts of the natural attenuation capacity of the soil is its degradation ca- pacity. Usually, the degradation capacity is determined by monitoring contaminant concentrations in the field. However, it is desirable to estimate the degradation ca- pacity of a soil beforehand. For such an estimate, the factors which have the highest influence on the degradation process of a specific contaminant must be known. To find the soil parameters which dominate the degradation behaviour of contaminants in the subsurface, an approach is proposed. The approach consists of 3 steps 1. Derive expected patterns of behaviour under different environmental conditions from litera- ture review. 2. Collect data from published degradation experiments. 3. Explore the dataset by means of statistical techniques. The expected patterns of behaviour are used as guidelines for the exploration of the dataset. Three types of results are derived from dataset exploration: 1. The degree of influence of a variable on the degradation rate is found by application of the analysis- of-variance technique. 2. Factors, summarizing the variables under consideration, can be derived by application of principal components analysis. 3. Relationships can be quantified for the whole dataset or for subsets of the dataset by regression analysis. The approach has been applied to atrazine degradation experiments (see also abstract EGS02-A-01204 for poster presentation). The results will be used as an example and to illustrate problems and solutions during processing. This project is part of a Ph.D. study carried out in the framework of Delft Cluster during the period 1999-2003.

  13. Neighborhood Urban Environmental Quality Conditions Are Likely to Drive Malaria and Diarrhea Mortality in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Fobil, Julius N.; Kraemer, Alexander; Meyer, Christian G.; May, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Background. Urbanization is a process which alters the structure and function of urban environments. The alteration in the quality of urban environmental conditions has significant implications for health. This applies both to the ecology of insect vectors that may transmit diseases and the burden of disease. Study Objectives. To investigate the relationship between malaria and infectious diarrhea mortality and spatially varied neighborhood environmental quality conditions in a low-income economy. Design. A one time point spatial analysis of cluster-level environmental conditions and mortality data using principal component analysis (PCA), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalized linear models (GLMs). Methods. Environmental variables were extracted from the Ghana Census 2000 database while mortality data were obtained from the Ghana Births and Deaths Registry in Accra over the period 1998–2002. Results. Whereas there was a strong evidence of a difference in relative mortality of malaria across urban environmental zones of differing neighborhood environmental conditions, no such evidence of mortality differentials was observed for diarrhea. In addition, whereas bivariate analyses showed a weak to strong evidence of association between the environmental variables and malaria mortality, no evidence of association was found between diarrhea mortality and environmental variables. Conclusion. We conclude that environmental management initiatives intended for infectious disease control might substantially reduce the risk of urban malaria mortality and to a less extent that for urban diarrhea mortality in rapidly urbanizing areas in a low-income setting. PMID:21776438

  14. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress. PMID:26139190

  15. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLIER ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON MINERAL SUPPORTS UNDER NONTRADITIONAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic organic reactions performed under non-traditional conditions are gaining popularity primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a catalyst o...

  16. Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions

    E-print Network

    Maheras, Anastasia Francis

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

  17. Conditional Probability Analysis: A Statistical Tool for Environmental Analysis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use and application of environmental conditional probability analysis (CPA) is relatively recent. The first presentation using CPA was made in 2002 at the New England Association of Environmental Biologists Annual Meeting in Newport. Rhode Island. CPA has been used since the...

  18. Environmental stress cracking of plastics under dynamic conditions 

    E-print Network

    Suresh, Mitta

    1992-01-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING OF PLASTICS UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by MITTA SURESH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING OF PLASTICS UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by MITTA SURESH Approved as to style and content by: Steven W. Gye sly (Chair of Committee) Walter L. B 'adley (Member) Jo e...

  19. The effects of adverse environmental conditions on workload 

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ann Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON WORKLOAD A Thesis by ANN ELIZABETH MARTIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1975... Major Subject: Industrial Engineering THE EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON WORKLOAD A Thesis by ANN ELIZABETH MARTIN Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chairman of Comnsttee Xc' ead of Departme lkI ?r, . ember Me er May 1975...

  20. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie Elise

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  1. Environmental Enteropathy: Critical implications of a poorly understood condition

    PubMed Central

    Korpe, Poonum S.; Petri, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enteropathy (also called tropical enteropathy) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination and resulting in blunting of intestinal villi and intestinal inflammation. Although these histological changes were discovered decades ago, the clinical impact of environmental enteropathy is just starting to be recognized. The failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in the developing world may be attributed to environmental enteropathy, as the intestinal absorptive and immunologic functions are significantly deranged. Here we review the existing literature and examine potential mechanisms of pathogenesis for this poorly understood condition. PMID:22633998

  2. Behavioral and Environmental Conditions associated with Shark Attacks on Humans

    E-print Network

    Worm, Boris

    Behavioral and Environmental Conditions associated with Shark Attacks on Humans By Joshua J AND METHODS 4 2.1 DATABASE 4 2.2 SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF SHARK ATTACKS 9 2.3 VICTIMS OF SHARK ATTACK 10 2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTACKING SHARKS 11 3.0 RESULTS 11 3.1 SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION

  3. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures, Clim. Past Discuss., 10, 1707-1746.

  4. Environmental conditions influence eDNA persistence in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew A; Turner, Cameron R; Jerde, Christopher L; Renshaw, Mark A; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M

    2014-02-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance holds great promise for improving species conservation and management. However, few studies have investigated eDNA dynamics under natural conditions, and interpretations of eDNA surveillance results are clouded by uncertainties about eDNA degradation. We conducted a literature review to assess current understanding of eDNA degradation in aquatic systems and an experiment exploring how environmental conditions can influence eDNA degradation. Previous studies have reported macrobial eDNA persistence ranging from less than 1 day to over 2 weeks, with no attempts to quantify factors affecting degradation. Using a SYBR Green quantitative PCR assay to observe Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) eDNA degradation in laboratory mesocosms, our rate of Common Carp eDNA detection decreased over time. Common Carp eDNA concentration followed a pattern of exponential decay, and observed decay rates exceeded previously published values for aquatic macrobial eDNA. Contrary to our expectations, eDNA degradation rate declined as biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll, and total eDNA (i.e., from any organism) concentration increased. Our results help explain the widely divergent, previously published estimates for eDNA degradation. Measurements of local environmental conditions, consideration of environmental influence on eDNA detection, and quantification of local eDNA degradation rates will help interpret future eDNA surveillance results. PMID:24422450

  5. Environmental Conditions for Space Flight Hardware: A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Lee, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    Interest in generalization of the physical environment experienced by NASA hardware from the natural Earth environment (on the launch pad), man-made environment on Earth (storage acceptance an d qualification testing), the launch environment, and the space environment, is ed to find commonality among our hardware in an effort to reduce cost and complexity. NASA is entering a period of increase in its number of planetary missions and it is important to understand how our qualification requirements will evolve with and track these new environments. Environmental conditions are described for NASA projects in several ways for the different periods of the mission life cycle. At the beginning, the mission manager defines survivability requirements based on the mission length, orbit, launch date, launch vehicle, and other factors . such as the use of reactor engines. Margins are then applied to these values (temperature extremes, vibration extremes, radiation tolerances, etc,) and a new set of conditions is generalized for design requirements. Mission assurance documents will then assign an additional margin for reliability, and a third set of values is provided for during testing. A fourth set of environmental condition values may evolve intermittently from heritage hardware that has been tested to a level beyond the actual mission requirement. These various sets of environment figures can make it quite confusing and difficult to capture common hardware environmental requirements. Environmental requirement information can be found in a wide variety of places. The most obvious is with the individual projects. We can easily get answers to questions about temperature extremes being used and radiation tolerance goals, but it is more difficult to map the answers to the process that created these requirements: for design, for qualification, and for actual environment with no margin applied. Not everyone assigned to a NASA project may have that kind of insight, as many have only the environmental requirement numbers needed to do their jobs but do not necessarily have a programmatic-level understanding of how all of the environmental requirements fit together.

  6. Environmental conditions influence tissue regeneration rates in scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Sabine, Alexis M; Smith, Tyler B; Williams, Dana E; Brandt, Marilyn E

    2015-06-15

    Natural and anthropogenic factors may influence corals' ability to recover from partial mortality. To examine how environmental conditions affect lesion healing, we assessed several water quality parameters and tissue regeneration rates in corals at six reefs around St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. We hypothesized that sites closer to developed areas would have poor water quality due to proximity to anthropogenic stresses, which would impede tissue regeneration. We found that water flow and turbidity most strongly influenced lesion recovery rates. The most impacted site, with high turbidity and low flow, recovered almost three times slower than the least impacted site, with low turbidity, high flow, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results illustrate that in addition to lesion-specific factors known to affect tissue regeneration, environmental conditions can also control corals' healing rates. Resource managers can use this information to protect low-flow, turbid nearshore reefs by minimizing sources of anthropogenic stress. PMID:25982415

  7. Turboprop aircraft performance response to various environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenden, Russell Allen

    1997-10-01

    This study evaluated aircraft and airfoil performance response to various environmental conditions. These conditions included clear air, warm rain, ice only, mixed phase and supercooled drops encountered during 19 separate flights. Supercooled droplets consisting of cloud, drizzle and rain sizes were the main focus of this study. Aircraft response was quantified by rates of change in aircraft rate-of-climb capability, lift and drag coefficients and lift over drag ratio. Airfoil degradation due to simulated ice shapes and drizzle ice roughness was measured in a wind tunnel for comparison. The aircraft performance parameters were compared to environmental hydrometeor parameters quantifying the environmental conditions. Results show that encounters with supercooled drizzle drops, or SCDD, resulted in maximum rates of performance degradation. These high rates of degradation forced the pilot to take evasive action within 5 minutes of entering these hazardous conditions. Encounters with supercooled cloud and rain sized drops resulted in minor to low rates of performance degradation whereas encounters with supercooled drops in low ice particle concentrations resulted in only minor rates of degradation. In addition, aircraft response to high ice particle concentrations and low liquid water, following an SCDD encounter, resulted in rapid performance recovery. The airfoil evaluations show similar results where the drizzle drop ice shape and simulated drizzle ice roughness resulted in the highest performance degradation. These evaluations also show that the most sensitive surface location is on the suction side between 6 and at least 11% of airfoil chord. Ice contaminations in this area are beyond the protective de-icing boots of most aircraft and lead to severe degradations in lift and drag characteristics. The results presented herein show a strong relationship between aircraft response and environmental parameters utilizing the larger drops in the hydrometeor distribution. The results suggest that the most severe icing is actually caused by drizzle sized drops as opposed to freezing rain. Furthermore, these results are similar to many twin-turboprop aircraft typically utilized by the commuter fleet.

  8. Effectiveness of Dry Eye Therapy Under Conditions of Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Louise C.; Simmons, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Dry eye is often characterized by increased tear evaporation due to poor tear film quality, especially of the lipid component of the tear film. Using an environmental chamber to induce environmental stress, this study compared the effect of three lubricant eye drops on various aspects of tear physiology in a crossover design (evaporation was the principal outcome measure). Methods: Three eye drop formulas were tested: 0.5% carmellose sodium (Drop C), 0.5% carmellose sodium with added lipid (Drop C-L) and 1.0% glycerine with added lipid (Drop G-L). Nineteen control and 18?dry eye subjects used each product for 2 weeks, three times per day, in a random order, with a minimum 1-week washout between treatment periods. Tear evaporation, break up time, osmolarity, tear structure (by interferometry) and patient symptoms were assessed with the subjects adapted for 10?min in an environmental chamber controlled at 20% relative humidity and 22?°C. The treatment effects were analyzed using general linear model repeated measures analyses of variance. Results: In dry eye subjects, evaporation, break up time, osmolarity and symptoms improved for all formulas (p?Conclusion: Overall, the eye drop formula containing both carmellose sodium and lipid (C-L) produced a greater treatment effect on tear evaporation than the other formulations containing only one of these ingredients. This study also demonstrates the utility of a controlled environmental chamber in showing the difference in performance between dry eye treatments. PMID:23294168

  9. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. 86...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.161-00 Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The...

  10. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. 86...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.161-00 Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The...

  11. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. 86...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.161-00 Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The...

  12. An experimental performance evaluation of a novel radio-transmitter identification system under diverse environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. H. Tekbas; N. Serinken; O. Ureten

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of environmental conditions on a radio-transmitter identification system are investigated. Transmissions from 10 commercial VHF FM transmitters operating under varying environmental conditions are analyzed using an experimental setup. It is observed that a change in environmental conditions such as battery voltage or ambient temperature causes the feature vectors to spread over the feature space, resulting

  13. Effects of Environmental and Test Conditions on VOC Emissions from "Wet" Coating Materials

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Effects of Environmental and Test Conditions on VOC Emissions from "Wet" Coating Materials X. Yang1, numerical simulations have been conducted to study the effects of key environmental and test conditions (air., Zhang, J.S., and Shaw, C.Y. 2001. "Effects of environmental and test conditions on VOC emissions from

  14. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon. PMID:24789898

  15. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-06-22

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon. PMID:24789898

  16. Environmental conditioning for textile yarn-spinning mill

    SciTech Connect

    Gengler, M. [Pneumafil Corp., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In mid-1993, Parkdale Mills, Inc., entered into a contract with Pneumafil Corporation to design and construct a total environmental conditioning system for their Plant No. 5 Open-End Spinning Room modernization program. This system was put into use in July 1994. Parkdale Mills in Gastonia, N.C. is one of the true innovators in the textile yarn-spinning business. The company presented a challenge to press technology to a new level to meet a number of well-defined goals. These goals were as follows: (1) Room temperature and humidity control -- Very accurate control to enable consistent production of the highest possible quality of yarn; (2) Energy efficiency -- The best achievable to assure the lowest possible production cost to the mill; (3) Dust levels -- The lowest possible within the mill for compliance with OSHA dust standards and for the least impact on yarn quality; and (4) Installed cost -- Not to exceed that of a conventionally designed system.

  17. K, U, and Th behavior in Martian environmental conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. YU.; Krot, T. V.; Moroz, L. V.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of K, U, and Th content determination from orbit and in situ allows consideration of those elements as geochemical indicators in the planetary studies. In the case of Mars the unambiguous interpretations of such data in terms of igneous rocks are remarkably constrained by the widespread rock alteration and the existence of exogenic deposits. Besides, the terrestrial experience indicates that K, U, and Th contents could be used as indicators of environmental geochemical processes. Thus the determination of K, U, and Th contents in the Martian surface materials could provide the indirect data on the conditions of some exogenic geological processes. The speculations on the K, U, and Th behavior in the Martian environments show that aeolian and aqueous processes leads to the preferential accumulation of K, U, and Th in fine dust material. The separation of K, U, and Th on Mars is smaller in scale to that on Earth.

  18. The community conditioning hypothesis and its application to environmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.A.; Landis, W.G.; Matthews, G.B. [Western Washington Univ. Bellingham, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In this paper the authors present the community conditions hypothesis, ecological communities retain information bout events in their history. This hypothesis, which was derived from the concept of nonequilibrium community ecology, was developed as a framework for understanding the persistence of dose-related responses in multispecies toxicity tests. The authors present data from three standardized aquatic microcosm (SAM) toxicity tests using the water-soluble fractions from turbine fuels (Jet-A, JP-4, and JP-8). In all three tests, the toxicants depressed the Daphnia populations for several weeks, which resulted in algal blooms in the dosed microcosms due to lower predation rates. These effects were short-lived, and by the second and third months of the experiments, the Daphnia populations appeared to have recovered. However, multivariate analysis of the data released dose/response differences that reappeared during the later part of the tests, often due to differences in other consumers (rotifers, ostracods, ciliates), or algae that are not normally consumed (filamentous green algae and bluegreen algae). The findings are consistent with ecological theories that describe communities as the unique production of their etiologies. The implications of this to environmental toxicology are that almost all environmental events leave lasting effects, whether or not they have observed them.

  19. Pervaporative irrigation: a flow rate driven by environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todman, L. C.; Mougros, C.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Templeton, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Pervaporative irrigation allows in-situ treatment of low quality water (e.g. saline water) whilst simultaneously distributing water throughout the soil. The system is also low energy, requiring only that a positive head of water is maintained in a supply tank. To irrigate using this method a pervaporative polymer membrane is formed into a pipe, buried in the soil and filled with water. Water is transported across the membrane by the process of pervaporation whilst the transport of contaminants is retarded, thus reducing the risk of soil degradation due to the use of low water quality. Uniquely these systems also inherently provide a feedback mechanism by which crops can affect the irrigation rate. Such a system has significant possibilities to provide an irrigation pipe from which water is only applied when required, hence reducing the volume of water used. However such systems are currently not fully understood and, to be implemented effectively, the behaviour of the membrane in different environmental conditions must be quantified. From experimental results this work has identified the significance of vapour flows in predicting the flux from the irrigation system in dry soils. In a 15cm layer of sand, the presence of a desiccant above the soil doubled the flux from the pipe, but more than 70% of this mass was adsorbed by the desiccant. Experiments also show that the flux into typical top soil was greater than into sand because of the greater capacity of the top soil for water adsorption. This adsorption maintained a lower humidity in the soil, hence providing a larger gradient across the irrigation membrane and inducing a higher flux. Although there is some evidence that seeds can absorb water from vapour flows the possibility that plants also do this has not yet been explored. This technology provides future opportunities to explore the interaction of plants both with vapour flows, and with a system where the irrigation rate is influenced by the crop uptake and the surrounding environmental conditions.

  20. Spectral Characterization of Phobos Analogues Under Simulated Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Glotch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.

    2014-12-01

    The surface of Phobos holds many keys for understanding its formation and evolution as well as the history and dynamics of the Mars-Phobos system. Visible to near infrared (VNIR) observations suggests that Phobos' surface is compositionally heterogeneous with 'redder' and 'bluer' units that both appear to be anhydrous in nature. Lunar highland spectra have been identified as spectral analogues for the 'redder' and 'bluer' units while thermally metamorphosed CI/CM chondrites, lab-heated carbonaceous chondrites and highly space weathered mafic mineral assemblages have been identified as the best analogues for the 'bluer' surface units. Additionally, thermal infrared emissivity spectra indicate that if Phobos' surface is optically mature it may be rich in feldspar, which is consistent with VNIR observations of Phobos' surface being spectrally similar to lunar highland spectra. While remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces, a fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements. However recent lab measurements of carbonaceous chondrites demonstrated that simulated asteroid conditions do not affect the resulting emissivity spectra to the degree observed in lunar soils and is highly dependent on composition. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured and indicate that the near surface environment of all airless bodies do not spectrally behave in similar ways. An initial set of TIR emissivity measurements of Phobos analogue materials will be made in the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber at the University of Oxford. These lab measurements will be characterized in an effort better understand how to interpret current and future TIR observations of Phobos.

  1. [Individual adaptation strategy under extreme environmental conditions in humans].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Aldasheva, A A

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the researches of I.M. Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, A.A. Uchtomskii, the Russian psychophysiological school considers adaptation in connection with the biological and social origin of a man as the integrated, coordinated and self-controlled human organism's reaction to maintain the vital functions in the constantly changing environmental conditions. On the base of well-known systemic-dynamic methodology and scrutinizing the issue of man and environment interaction V.I. Medvedev added to the theory of man's adaptation the activity paradigm that enable to uncover the distinctive features of professional activities in various environment conditions. The theoretical and practical investigations based on the activity methodology gave the opportunity to find out the new principles of interaction between man and environment and on the strategy of adaptive behavior. From this investigations one could see that the main characteristic of interaction "man-environment" is that man represents proactive side, man simulate different adaptation strategies using both genetically-fixed and acquired mechanisms of adaptive behavior. PMID:23393785

  2. CONCLUSIONS, RESEARCH NEEDS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE EXPERT PANEL: TECHNICAL WORKSHOP ON HUMAN MILK SURVEILLANCE AND RESEARCH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proceedings of "The Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research on Environmental Chemicals in the United States" was organized to develop state-of-the-science protocols describing the various aspects of such a program. The 2-day workshop was held at the Mi...

  3. Conclusions and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuler, Paul; Schuetz, Walter; Jany, Eric

    1993-04-01

    Preceding chapters have presented and discussed the objectives related to this large collaborative effort as well as relevant test techniques, modeling details and results in great detail. In 1988 an AGARD report had been published on the results obtained within the Core Program which represents the first of two parts of the AGARD Engine Disc Cooperative Test Program. The major issues treated within the present Supplemental Program were: to expand the initial Ti-6Al-4V data base to other titanium materials such as the Beta-processed IMI 685 and Ti-17 (again load controlled LCF tests were carried out on smooth and notched specimens as well as crack growth tests on compact tension (CT) and corner crack (CC) specimens under constant amplitude loading); to consider variable amplitude and spectrum load sequences that would be typical of compressor disc loading conditions; and to apply and evaluate fatigue crack growth modeling techniques based on the material/load cases of the Cooperative Test Program as mentioned above. Additionally microstructural and fractographic analyses were undertaken in order to relate macro crack growth behavior to microstructural features and intrinsic material properties. In this final chapter, some main aspects and results are summarized. Conclusions and recommendations for future work are given.

  4. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  5. Impact of environmental conditions on the survival of cryptosporidium and giardia on environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alum, Absar; Absar, Isra M; Asaad, Hamas; Rubino, Joseph R; Ijaz, M Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The die-off coefficient rates (K) were calculated using first-order exponential formula. For both parasites, the fastest die-off was recorded on fabric, followed by ceramic, formica, skin, and steel. Die-off rates were directly correlated to the incubation temperatures and surface porosity. The presence of organic matter enhanced the survivability of the resting stages of test parasites. The decay rates calculated in this study can be used in models for public health decision-making process and highlights the mitigation role of hand hygiene agents in their prevention and control. PMID:25045350

  6. Erythropoietin regulations in humans under different environmental and experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gunga, H-C; Kirsch, K A; Roecker, L; Kohlberg, E; Tiedemann, J; Steinach, M; Schobersberger, W

    2007-09-30

    In the adult human, the kidney is the main organ for the production and release of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO is stimulating erythropoiesis by increasing the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of the erythroid precursors. In the last decades, enormous efforts were made in the purification, molecular encoding and description of the EPO gene. This led to an incredible increase in the understanding of the EPO-feedback-regulation loop at a molecular level, especially the oxygen-dependent EPO gene expression, a key function in the regulation loop. However, studies in humans at a systemic level are still very scanty. Therefore, it is the purpose of the present review to report on the main recent investigations on EPO production and release in humans under different environmental and experimental conditions, including: (i) studies on EPO circadian, monthly and even annual variations, (ii) studies in connection with short-, medium- and long-term exercise at sea-level which will be followed (iii) by studies performed at moderate and high altitude. PMID:17467346

  7. Relationships between Traumatic Symptoms and Environmental Damage Conditions among Children 8 Months after the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Masahide; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kodaira, Masaki; Watanabe, Kyota; Aoki, Momoko; Katsumi, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kumi; Makino, Kazunori; Iijima, Sonoko; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Ushijima, Hirokage; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate relationships between traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions among children who survived the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Methods The subjects were 12,524 children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, was distributed to the children and a questionnaire regarding environmental damage conditions affecting the children was distributed to their teachers. Of 12,524 questionnaires distributed, an effective response was obtained from 11,692 (93.3%). Results The PTSSC-15 score was significantly higher in females than in males among 4th to 6th grade students in elementary schools and among junior high school students. In terms of traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions, with the exception of kindergartners, children who had their houses damaged or experienced separation from family members had a significantly higher PTSSC-15 score than children who did not experience environmental damage. Except for kindergartners and 4th- to 6th-grade elementary school students, children who experienced evacuation had a significantly higher PTSSC-15 score. Conclusions This study demonstrated relationships between traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions in children who had suffered from the disaster. Factors examined in studying the relationship between environmental damage conditions and traumatic symptoms were gender, age, house damage, evacuation experience, and bereavement experience. It was critical not only to examine the traumatic symptoms of the children but also to collect accurate information about environmental damage conditions. PMID:23209817

  8. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION IN THREE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological, physical, and chemical data were collected from surficial sediments of Lakes Ontario, Michigan, and Superior to examine benthic macroinvertebrate community structure as an indicator of environmental condition....

  9. Sokolov Effect Conclusions

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    Dysprosium Nathan Leefer #12;Background Sokolov Effect Conclusions Outline 1 Background Neutral Hydrogen Stark Effect Hydrogen Atom Interferometer 2 Sokolov Effect Pamir Broken Theories Summary Dysprosium 3 Sokolov Effect Conclusions Pamir Broken Theories Summary Dysprosium Measurement of Lamb Shift Pamir Nathan

  10. Effects of Environmental Conditions on an Urban Wetland's Methane Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor Azrieli, L.; Morin, T. H.; Bohrer, G.; Schafer, K. V.; Brooker, M.; Mitsch, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from wetlands are the largest natural source of uncertainty in the global methane (CH4) budget. Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems with a large carbon sequestration potential. While wetlands are a net sink for carbon dioxide, they also release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. To effectively develop wetland management techniques, it is important to properly calculate the carbon budget of wetlands by understand the driving factors of methane fluxes. We constructed an eddy flux covariance system in the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, a series of created and restored wetland in Columbus Ohio. Through the use of high frequency open path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) sensors, we have continuously monitored the methane fluxes associated with the wetland since May 2011. To account for the heterogeneous landscape surrounding the tower, a footprint analysis was used to isolate data originating from within the wetland. Continuous measurements of the meteorological and environmental conditions at the wetlands coinciding with the flux measurements allow the interactions between methane fluxes and the climate and ecological forcing to be studied. The wintertime daily cycle of methane peaks around midday indicating a typical diurnal pattern in cold months. In the summer, the peak shifts to earlier in the day and also includes a daily peak occurring at approximately 10 AM. We believe this peak is associated with the onset of photosynthesis in Typha latifolia flushing methane from the plant's air filled tissue. Correlations with methane fluxes include latent heat flux, soil temperature, and incoming radiation. The connection to radiation may be further evidence of plant activity as a driver of methane fluxes. Higher methane fluxes corresponding with higher soil temperature indicates that warmer days stimulate the methanogenic consortium. Further analysis will focus on separating the methane fluxes into emissions from different terrain types within the wetland.

  11. Prediction of glass durability as a function of environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability is applied to natural, ancient, and nuclear waste glasses. The durabilities of over 150 different natural and man-made glasses, including actual ancient Roman and Islamic glasses (Jalame ca. 350 AD, Nishapur 10-11th century AD and Gorgon 9-11th century AD), are compared. Glass durability is a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy, ..delta..G/sub hyd/, which can be calculated from glass composition and solution pH. The durability of the most durable nuclear waste glasses examined was /approximately/10/sup 6/ years. The least durable waste glass formulations were comparable in durability to the most durable simulated medieval window glasses of /approximately/10/sup 3/ years. In this manner, the durability of nuclear waste glasses has been interpolated to be /approximately/10/sup 6/ years and no less than 10/sup 3/ years. Hydration thermodynamics have been shown to be applicable to the dissolution of glass in various natural environments. Groundwater-glass interactions relative to geologic disposal of nuclear waste, hydration rind dating of obsidians, andor other archeological studies can be modeled, e.g., the relative durabilities of six simulated medieval window glasses have been correctly predicted for both laboratory (one month) and burial (5 years) experiments. Effects of solution pH on glass dissolution has been determined experimentally for the 150 different glasses and can be predicted theoretically by hydration thermodynamics. The effects of solution redox on dissolution of glass matrix elements such as SI and B have shown to be minimal. The combined effects of solution pH and Eh have been described and unified by construction of thermodynamically calculated Pourbaix (pH-Eh) diagrams for glass dissolution. The Pourbaix diagrams have been quantified to describe glass dissolution as a function of environmental conditions by use of the data derived from hydration thermodynamics. 56 refs., 7 figs.

  12. The role of an alpha animal in changing environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Riccarda; Pantel, Norbert; Stefanski, Volker; Möstl, Erich; Krueger, Konstanze

    2014-06-22

    The maintenance and development of conservation areas by grazing of large herbivores, such as Przewalski's horses, is common practice. Several nature conservation areas house male bachelor groups of this species. When males are needed for breeding they are removed from the groups, often without considering group compositions and individual social positions. However, alpha animals are needed for ensuring group stability and decision making in potentially dangerous situations in several species. To investigate the role of the alpha male in a bachelor group, we observed the behaviour of five Przewalski's horse males during the enlargement of their enclosure. We analyzed the group's social structure and movement orders, as well as the animals' connectedness, activity budgets, and whether they moved with preferred group members and how factors such as social rank influenced the horses' behaviour. We also investigated the excretion of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) via faeces of the horses while exploring a new area as a parameter of glucocorticoid production. Our results show that the alpha male is important for a bachelor group in changing environmental conditions. The alpha male had the highest level of connectedness within the group. When exploring the new environment, its position in the group changed from previously being the last to being the first. Furthermore the whole group behaviour changed when exploring the new area. The stallions showed reduced resting behavior, increased feeding and did not stay close to each other. We found that the excretion of glucocorticoid metabolites of most horses rose only marginally during the first days on the new area while only the alpha male showed a significant increased amount of glucocorticoid production during the first day of the enclosure enlargement. PMID:24878311

  13. Beginning without a Conclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes a series of activities without conclusions to introduce scientific reasoning in a ninth grade physical science course. Uses popcorn popping to get students to think about the concepts of graphing, histograms, frequency, probability, and scientific methodology. (CW)

  14. Assessing the Relationship between Socioeconomic Conditions and Urban Environmental Quality in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Fobil, Julius; May, Juergen; Kraemer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health inequalities is widely known, but there is still poor understanding of the precise relationship between area-based socioeconomic conditions and neighborhood environmental quality. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic conditions which predict urban neighbourhood environmental quality. The results showed wide variation in levels of association between the socioeconomic variables and environmental conditions, with strong evidence of a real difference in environmental quality across the five socioeconomic classes with respect to total waste generation (p < 0.001), waste collection rate (p < 0.001), sewer disposal rate (p < 0.001), non-sewer disposal (p < 0.003), the proportion of households using public toilets (p = 0.005). Socioeconomic conditions are therefore important drivers of change in environmental quality and urban environmental interventions aimed at infectious disease prevention and control if they should be effective could benefit from simultaneous implementation with other social interventions. PMID:20195437

  15. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN GROWING RABBITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Environmental conditions are important for the welf are of intensively-reared rabbits. The presence inside the cage of a piece of wood represents a for m of environmental enrichment, but also an alternative type of feeding. A trial was carried ou t to study the effect of lighting and type of feedi ng on the productive performance, bone conditions and pla

  16. Diffuse panel studies: Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the evaluation of new candidate materials for flight applications, considerations are given to: optical performance (lambertian, spatially and spectrally uniform, high reflectance); static charge build-up; environmental stability (ruggedness, UV exposure, particle bambardment, etc.); and fabricability. ITO coated Spectralon appears to have produced a conductive material. Many other design issues remain.

  17. Photosynthetic responses of young cashew plants to varying environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz de Queiroz

    The aim of this study was to characterize gas exchange responses of young cashew plants to varying photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), temperature, vapor-pressure deficit (VPD), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), under controlled conditions. Daily courses of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were measured under natural conditions. Maximum CO2 assimilation rates, under optimal controlled conditions, were about 13

  18. Perceiving environmental properties from motion information: Minimal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1989-01-01

    The status of motion as a minimal information source for perceiving the environmental properties of surface segregation, three-dimensional (3-D) form, displacement, and dynamics is discussed. The selection of these particular properties was motivated by a desire to present research on perceiving properties that span the range of dimensional complexity.

  19. Early growth conditions, phenotypic development and environmental change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pat Monaghan

    2007-01-01

    Phenotypic development is the result of a complex interplay involving the organism's own genetic make-up and the environment it experiences during development. The latter encompasses not just the current environment, but also indirect, and sometimes lagged, components that result from environmental effects on its parents that are transmitted to their developing offspring in various ways and at various stages. These

  20. Environmental Condition Assessment of US Military Installations Using GIS Based Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Steve; Wang, Guangxing; Howard, Heidi; Anderson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are subjective to the experts' knowledge and experience. Thus, further advancing this approach is needed by developing a scientific method to derive the weights of environmental variables.

  1. Common lung conditions: environmental pollutants and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can have short- and long-term effects on lung health. Sources of air pollution include gases (eg, carbon monoxide, ozone) and particulate matter (eg, soot, dust). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollution. Elevated ozone concentrations are associated with increases in lung-related hospitalizations and mortality. Elevated particulate matter pollution increases the risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. Occupations with high exposures to pollutants (eg, heavy construction work, truck driving, auto mechanics) pose higher risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. Some industrial settings (eg, agriculture, sawmills, meat packing plants) also are associated with higher risks from pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency issues an air quality index for cities and regions in the United States. The upper levels on the index are associated with increases in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Damp and moldy housing might make asthma symptoms worse; individuals from lower socioeconomic groups who live in lower quality housing are particularly at risk. Other household exposures that can have negative effects on lung health include radon, nanoparticles, and biomass fuels. PMID:23767420

  2. Vibration-based structural health monitoring using adaptive statistical method under varying environmental condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Seung-Seop; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the dynamic properties of a structure such as natural frequencies depend not only on damage but also on environmental condition (e.g., temperature). The variation in dynamic characteristics of a structure due to environmental condition may mask damage of the structure. Without taking the change of environmental condition into account, false-positive or false-negative damage diagnosis may occur so that structural health monitoring becomes unreliable. In order to address this problem, an approach to construct a regression model based on structural responses considering environmental factors has been usually used by many researchers. The key to success of this approach is the formulation between the input and output variables of the regression model to take into account the environmental variations. However, it is quite challenging to determine proper environmental variables and measurement locations in advance for fully representing the relationship between the structural responses and the environmental variations. One alternative (i.e., novelty detection) is to remove the variations caused by environmental factors from the structural responses by using multivariate statistical analysis (e.g., principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis, etc.). The success of this method is deeply depending on the accuracy of the description of normal condition. Generally, there is no prior information on normal condition during data acquisition, so that the normal condition is determined by subjective perspective with human-intervention. The proposed method is a novel adaptive multivariate statistical analysis for monitoring of structural damage detection under environmental change. One advantage of this method is the ability of a generative learning to capture the intrinsic characteristics of the normal condition. The proposed method is tested on numerically simulated data for a range of noise in measurement under environmental variation. A comparative study with conventional methods (i.e., fixed reference scheme) demonstrates the superior performance of the proposed method for structural damage detection.

  3. Environmental conditions and transcriptional regulation inEscherichia coli: a physiological integrative approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heladia Salgado; Socorro Gama-Castro; Julio Collado-Vides

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria develop a number of devices for sens- ing, responding, and adapting to different environmental conditions. Understanding within a genomic perspective how the transcriptional machinery of bacteria is modulat- ed, as a response to changing conditions, is a major chal- lenge for biologists. Knowledge of which genes are turned on or turned off under specific conditions is essential for our

  4. Relationships among fisheries exploitation, environmental conditions, and ecological indicators across a series of marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Caihong; Large, Scott; Knight, Ben; Richardson, Anthony J.; Bundy, Alida; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Boldt, Jennifer; van der Meeren, Gro I.; Torres, Maria A.; Sobrino, Ignacio; Auber, Arnaud; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Piroddi, Chiara; Diallo, Ibrahima; Jouffre, Didier; Mendes, Hugo; Borges, Maria Fatima; Lynam, Christopher P.; Coll, Marta; Shannon, Lynne J.; Shin, Yunne-Jai

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how external pressures impact ecosystem structure and functioning is essential for ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. We quantified the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions on ecological indicators derived from two different data sources, fisheries catch data (catch-based) and fisheries independent survey data (survey-based) for 12 marine ecosystems using a partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM). We linked these ecological indicators to the total biomass of the ecosystem. Although the effects of exploitation and environmental conditions differed across the ecosystems, some general results can be drawn from the comparative approach. Interestingly, the PLS-PM analyses showed that survey-based indicators were less tightly associated with each other than the catch-based ones. The analyses also showed that the effects of environmental conditions on the ecological indicators were predominantly significant, and tended to be negative, suggesting that in the recent period, indicators accounted for changes in environmental conditions and the changes were more likely to be adverse. Total biomass was associated with fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions; however its association with the ecological indicators was weak across the ecosystems. Knowledge of the relative influence of exploitation and environmental pressures on the dynamics within exploited ecosystems will help us to move towards ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. PLS-PM proved to be a useful approach to quantify the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions and suggest it could be used more widely in fisheries oceanography.

  5. Exertional Heat Illness and Environmental Conditions During a Single Football Season in the Southeast

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Earl R; Ferrara, Michael S; Broglio, Steven P

    2006-01-01

    Context: Recommendations for heat illness prevention provided by sports medicine associations do not always account for sex differences, specific age populations, regional environmental conditions, equipment worn during activity, or the athlete's size or preexisting level of fitness. Objective: To evaluate the rate of exertional heat illness (EHI) among collegiate football athletes and to monitor environmental conditions during American football practice for a 3-month period. Design: Epidemiologic study in which we reviewed the occurrence rates of EHI and wet bulb globe temperature readings during a 3-month period of American collegiate football practice sessions. Setting: Five universities in the southeastern region of the United States. Patients or Other Participants: Collegiate football players at the 5 universities. Main Outcome Measure(s): Wet bulb globe temperatures were recorded from August through October 2003, at the beginning, middle, and end of each practice session. The EHIs were identified and recorded, and athlete-exposures (AEs) were calculated. Results: A total of 139 EHIs and 33?196 AEs were reported (EHI rate = 4.19/1000 AEs). The highest incidence of EHIs was in August (88%, EHI rate = 8.95/1000 AEs) and consisted of 70% heat cramps (6.13/1000 AEs), 23% heat exhaustion (2.06/ 1000 AEs), and 7% heat syncope (0.58/1000 AEs). No cases of heat stroke or hyponatremia were identified. The highest risk of EHI occurred during the first 3 weeks of the study; mean wet bulb globe temperature declined significantly as the study continued ( P < .001). Temperatures in the final 5 weeks of the study were significantly cooler than in the first 5 weeks ( P < .05). Conclusions: Heat cramps were the most common EHI and occurred most often during the first 3 weeks of practice. Athletic trainers should take all necessary preventive measures to reduce the risk of EHI. PMID:17043703

  6. Enhanced biodegradation of methoxychlor in soil under sequential environmental conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, S; Lancione, R L; Sewall, A E

    1982-01-01

    Ring-U-[14C]methoxychlor [1,1-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane] was incubated in soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Primary degradation of methoxychlor occurred under anaerobic conditions, but not under aerobic conditions, after 3 months of incubation. Analysis of soil extracts, using gas chromatography, demonstrated that only 10% of the compound remained at initial concentrations of 10 and 100 ppm (wt/wt) of methoxychlor. Evidence is presented that a dechlorination reaction was responsible for primary degradation of methoxychlor. Analysis of soils treated with 100 ppm of methoxychlor in the presence of 2% HgCl2 showed that 100% of the compound remained after 3 months, indicating that degradation in the unpoisoned flasks was biologically mediated. Methanogenic organisms, however, are probably not involved, as strong inhibition of methane production was observed in all soils treated with methoxychlor. During the 3-month incubation period, little or no evaluation of 14CO2 or 14CH4 occurred under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Cometabolic processes may be responsible for the extensive molecular changes which occurred with methoxychlor because the rate of its disappearance from soil was observed to level off after exhaustion of soil organic matter. After this incubation period, soils previously incubated under anaerobic conditions were converted to aerobic conditions. The rates of 14CO2 evolution from soils exposed to anaerobic and aerobic sequences of environments ranged from 10- to 70-fold greater than that observed for soils exposed solely to an aerobic environment. PMID:7125645

  7. Conclusive Exclusion of Quantum States

    E-print Network

    Somshubhro Bandyopadhyay; Rahul Jain; Jonathan Oppenheim; Christopher Perry

    2014-07-10

    In the task of quantum state exclusion we consider a quantum system, prepared in a state chosen from a known set. The aim is to perform a measurement on the system which can conclusively rule that a subset of the possible preparation procedures can not have taken place. We ask what conditions the set of states must obey in order for this to be possible and how well we can complete the task when it is not. The task of quantum state discrimination forms a subclass of this set of problems. Within this paper we formulate the general problem as a Semidefinite Program (SDP), enabling us to derive sufficient and necessary conditions for a measurement to be optimal. Furthermore, we obtain a necessary condition on the set of states for exclusion to be achievable with certainty and give a construction for a lower bound on the probability of error. This task of conclusively excluding states has gained importance in the context of the foundations of quantum mechanics due to a result of Pusey, Barrett and Rudolph (PBR). Motivated by this, we use our SDP to derive a bound on how well a class of hidden variable models can perform at a particular task, proving an analogue of Tsirelson's bound for the PBR experiment and the optimality of a measurement given by PBR in the process. We also introduce variations of conclusive exclusion, including unambiguous state exclusion, and state exclusion with worst case error.

  8. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLIER ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON MINERAL SUPPORTS UNDER NON-TRADITIONAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic organic reactions performed under non-traditional conditions are gaining popularity primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a catalyst o...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON THE RELEASE OF OPHIOSPHAERELLA AGROSTIS ASCOSPORES UNDER CONTROLLED AND FIELD CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ophiosphaerella agrostis, the causal agent of dead spot of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), can produce prodigious numbers of pseudothecia and ascospores throughout the summer. The environmental conditions and seasonal timings associated with O. agrostis ascospore release are unknown. The...

  10. A Four-day Workweek: a Policy for Improving Employment and Environmental Conditions in Europe

    E-print Network

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

    Can working less lead to a healthier economy and better environmental conditions? Which factors should be taken into consideration when forming an answer to this question? In this article Nicholas Ashford and Giorgos Kallis ...

  11. Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

    Survey results are presented from 65 parents, students over 12 years, teachers, and other school employees using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. It shows the results of years of neglect of infrastructure for children and reveals disturbing new information about the environmental health of school…

  12. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium Effect of Environmental Conditions and Lesion Age

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium 165 Effect of Environmental Conditions, and 8 days during the wetness period. Leaf wetness and temperature were measured near the plants death in California forests when environmental parameters conducive to sporulation of California bay

  13. Environmental Conditions in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Before and After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting an environmental assessment to determine the ecological effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), baseline environmental data is essential to establish ecosystem condition prior to the incident. EPA?s National Coastal Assessment...

  14. Adoption of improved irrigation and drainage reduction technologies under limiting environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Dinar; Mark B. Campbell; David Zilberman

    1992-01-01

    Modern irrigation technologies have been suggested as a means of conserving scarce water and reducing environmental pollution caused by irrigated agriculture. This paper applies an economic model of technology selection that provides a general framework to analyzing adoption of irrigation technologies under various environmental conditions. Data from the San Joaquin Valley of California is used to verify the theoretical relationships.

  15. Refrigerant-Free Air Conditioning: Completely Safe, Environmentally-Friendly Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Frenger

    2012-01-01

    Refrigerants for air conditioning universally have serious environmental or human-toxic side effects. Compressed, pure air may be substituted as an environmentally-friendly, safe refrigerating fluid using a vortex tube cooling device. Freezing temperatures can be produced. Various compressor technologies, control systems and efficiency enhancements are discussed.

  16. Flexible DCP interface. [signal conditioning system for use with Kansas environmental sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (principal investigator); Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system must supply the sensors and signal conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform (DCP). A universal signal conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  17. Conclusions and Policy Directions,

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Romero-Lankao, Paty [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Gnatz, P [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter briefly revisits the constraints and opportunities of mitigation and adaptation, and highlights and the multiple linkages, synergies and trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation and urban development. The chapter then presents future policy directions, focusing on local, national and international principles and policies for supporting and enhancing urban responses to climate change. In summary, policy directions for linking climate change responses with urban development offer abundant opportunities; but they call for new philosophies about how to think about the future and how to connect different roles of different levels of government and different parts of the urban community. In many cases, this implies changes in how urban areas operate - fostering closer coordination between local governments and local economic institutions, and building new connections between central power structures and parts of the population who have often been kept outside of the circle of consultation and discourse. The difficulties involved in changing deeply set patterns of interaction and decision-making in urban areas should not be underestimated. Because it is so difficult, successful experiences need to be identified, described and widely publicized as models for others. However, where this challenge is met, it is likely not only to increase opportunities and reduce threats to urban development in profoundly important ways, but to make the urban area a more effective socio-political entity, in general - a better city in how it works day to day and how it solves a myriad of problems as they emerge - far beyond climate change connections alone. It is in this sense that climate change responses can be catalysts for socially inclusive, economically productive and environmentally friendly urban development, helping to pioneer new patterns of stakeholder communication and participation.

  18. Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides under cyclic loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Castagna, A.; Alven, D.A.; Stoloff, N.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The tensile and fatigue crack growth behavior in air in hydrogen and in oxygen of an Fe-Al-Cr-Zr alloy is described. The results are compared to data for FA-129. A detailed analysis of frequency effects on fatigue crack growth rates of FA-129, tested in the B2 condition, shows that dislocation transport of hydrogen from the surface is the rate limiting step in fatigue crack growth.

  19. Macroeconomic conditions in the U.S. and congressional voting on environmental policy: 1970–2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun M. Tanger; Peng Zeng; Wayde Morse; David N. Laband

    2011-01-01

    Using the Environmental Scorecard ratings of Congressmen and Senators published annually by the League of Conservation Voters, we explore empirically whether political support for pro-environment legislation, aggregated across each legislative body, is sensitive over time to changing economic conditions — that is, whether there is a political trade-off between economic conditions and the environment. Using LCV scorecard ratings from 1970

  20. Parasitism in early life: environmental conditions shape within-brood variation in responses to infection.

    PubMed

    Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Burthe, Sarah J; Lewis, Sue; Reed, Thomas E; Herborn, Katherine A; Newell, Mark A; Takahashi, Emi A; Daunt, Francis; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2014-09-01

    Parasites play key ecological and evolutionary roles through the costs they impose on their host. In wild populations, the effect of parasitism is likely to vary considerably with environmental conditions, which may affect the availability of resources to hosts for defense. However, the interaction between parasitism and prevailing conditions is rarely quantified. In addition to environmental variation acting on hosts, individuals are likely to vary in their response to parasitism, and the combined effect of both may increase heterogeneity in host responses. Offspring hierarchies, established by parents in response to uncertain rearing conditions, may be an important source of variation between individuals. Here, we use experimental antiparasite treatment across 5 years of variable conditions to test how annual population productivity (a proxy for environmental conditions) and parasitism interact to affect growth and survival of different brood members in juvenile European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). In control broods, last-hatched chicks had more plastic growth rates, growing faster in more productive years. Older siblings grew at a similar rate in all years. Treatment removed the effect of environment on last-hatched chicks, such that all siblings in treated broods grew at a similar rate across environmental conditions. There were no differences in nematode burden between years or siblings, suggesting that variation in responses arose from intrinsic differences between chicks. Whole-brood growth rate was not affected by treatment, indicating that within-brood differences were driven by a change in resource allocation between siblings rather than a change in overall parental provisioning. We show that gastrointestinal parasites can be a key component of offspring's developmental environment. Our results also demonstrate the value of considering prevailing conditions for our understanding of parasite effects on host life-history traits. Establishing how environmental conditions shape responses to parasitism is important as environmental variability is predicted to increase. PMID:25535557

  1. Conclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Mellodge; Pushkin Kachroo

    This work has investigated abstraction of dynamical systems. Abstraction deals with the representation of a system using a\\u000a simpler model which captures the important behavior of the original system. The motivating example throughout this work was\\u000a the robotic car.\\u000a \\u000a After a review of the mathematical preliminaries in Chapter 2, details of the robotic car modeling and one particular controller\\u000a were

  2. Conclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Jakob A. Mooij; A. Mooij

    The cranial nerves can be involved in trauma, tumour growth, or neurovascular compression syndromes. Of the latter, trigeminal\\u000a neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most clearly defined and rewarding for neurosurgical treatment,\\u000a preferably by MVD. Tinnitus\\/vertigo patients are much more difficult to assess, but also here, with appropriate patient selection,\\u000a MVD can achieve good treatment results. For patients

  3. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, C; Friedman, G; Klatsky, A; Eisner, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.?SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.?PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.?RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women), and cold/flu symptoms (OR=1.52 in men, 1.57 in women). Any current ETS exposure was also associated with chronic cough (OR=1.22) in men and with heart disease (OR=1.10) in women. Self reported stroke was inversely associated with any current ETS exposure in men (OR=0.27). No associations were noted for cancer or tumour and for migraine.?CONCLUSION—ETS exposure correlated with several personal characteristics potentially associated with adverse health outcomes. Although the study design precluded causal inference, ETS exposure was associated with several self reported acute and chronic medical conditions.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; smoking PMID:11553655

  4. Application of Whole Genome Expression Analysis to Assess Bacterial Responses to Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukanti, R. V.; Mintz, E. M.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial responses to environmental signals are multifactorial and are coupled to changes in gene expression. An understanding of bacterial responses to environmental conditions is possible using microarray expression analysis. In this study, the utility of microarrays for examining changes in gene expression in Escherichia coli under different environmental conditions was assessed. RNA was isolated, hybridized to Affymetrix E. coli Genome 2.0 chips and analyzed using Affymetrix GCOS and Genespring software. Major limiting factors were obtaining enough quality RNA (107-108 cells to get 10?g RNA)and accounting for differences in growth rates under different conditions. Stabilization of RNA prior to isolation and taking extreme precautions while handling RNA were crucial. In addition, use of this method in ecological studies is limited by availability and cost of commercial arrays; choice of primers for cDNA synthesis, reproducibility, complexity of results generated and need to validate findings. This method may be more widely applicable with the development of better approaches for RNA recovery from environmental samples and increased number of available strain-specific arrays. Diligent experimental design and verification of results with real-time PCR or northern blots is needed. Overall, there is a great potential for use of this technology to discover mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to environmental conditions.

  5. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Diesel Carbon Soot Combustion under Simulated Catalytic-Reaction Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohsuke; Watanabe, Keitaro; Sato, Takeshi; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2015-05-18

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) is used to monitor the catalytic combustion of diesel carbon soot upon exposure to molecular oxygen at elevated temperatures by using a gas-injection specimen heating holder. The reaction conditions simulated in the ETEM experiments reconstruct real conditions effectively. This study demonstrated for the first time that soot combustion occurs at the soot-catalyst interface for both Ag/CeO2 and Cu/BaO/La2 O3 catalysts. PMID:25603930

  6. SIMPLE TEST METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE ENERGY RATINGS OF PV MODULES UNDER VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Poissant; Lorraine Couture; Lisa Dignard-bailey; Didier Thevenard; Pat Cusack; Hans Oberholzer

    Abstract – Work ,is presently ,underway ,to develop ,an international standard ,for module ,energy ,rating that takes into account the impact of different environmental,conditions on the energy performance,of PV modules. This paper presents simple outdoor and indoor test methods,inspired from the draft IEC 61853 standard to evaluate the performance,of various module,technologies under different climatic conditions. Indoor tests were ,performed ,using

  7. A benthic index of environmental condition of Gulf of Mexico estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia D. Engle; J. Kevin Summers; Gary R. Gaston

    1994-01-01

    An index was developed for estuarine macrobenthos in the Gulf of Mexico that discriminated between areas with degraded environmental\\u000a conditions and areas with undegraded or reference conditions. Test sites were identified as degraded or reference based on\\u000a criteria for dissolved oxygen levels, sediment toxicity tests, and sediment contamination. Discriminant analysis was used\\u000a to identify a suite of measures of benthic

  8. Applications of remote sensing for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, F.; Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Martini, S. [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1997-08-01

    The paper shows the remote sensing activities that ENEA is carrying out for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions and their modifications over the last fifteen years. The activities were requested by the Italian Research Ministry to gain knowledge of the circulation model of the Adriatic Sea and to understand what caused algae blooms in some of the last years. The Adriatic Sea is a high environmental risk sea, because its depth is low and a strong pollutant charge is coming into the sea from the Po river and from many other rivers of the NE coast of Italy. Processing of satellite images has covered the period from 1980 up to now and has allowed the reconstruction of modifications of the environmental conditions of the sea. The paper shows the first results obtained by remote sensing images processing that will be utilized for the database of the Adriatic Sea.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of micro-environmental conditions in public transportation buses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengwei Zhu; Philip Demokritou; John Spengler

    2010-01-01

    This study examines both numerically and experimentally the micro-environmental conditions in public transportation buses. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed and experimentally validated. The developed CFD model was used to calculate the spatial distributions of the mean age and mean residual lifetime of air in the bus environment and evaluate the efficiency of the bus ventilation system. Additionally,

  10. The adaptation of domestic ruminants to environmental constraints under extensive conditions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review The adaptation of domestic ruminants to environmental constraints under extensive conditions for maintenance of suckling ruminants typically account for more than 75% of the animals total annual energy requirement ofa ruminant ani- mal in relation to feed intake that will primarily determine the success

  11. The effect of environmental conditions on the seasonal dormancy pattern and germination of weed seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Bouwmeester

    1990-01-01

    Weeds cause considerable losses in horticultural and agricultural crops. Weeds are still predominantly controlled with herbicides. To reduce the use of chemicals, a better understanding of the biology of weeds is required. In this thesis the effect of environmental conditions on dormancy and germination of Chenopodium album L., Polygonum persicaria L., P. lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium, Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop.

  12. The influence of environmental conditions on aspects of the time budgests of breeding ospreys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher H. Stinson

    1978-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) were observed for 350 h in 1975 in southeastern Virginia. Other studies have demonstrated that weather can have an effect on aspects of osprey foraging behavior (e.g., frequency of diving), but for the environmental conditions observed in this study, weather and other variables did not appear to limit the ability of ospreys to feed their young.

  13. Influences of offshore environmental conditions on wind shear profile parameters in Nantucket Sound

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    on offshore data collected for the Cape Wind project in Nantucket Sound, off the coast of Massachusetts unusable. SITE AND DATA The data [3] used in this project were taken at a tower owned by Cape WindInfluences of offshore environmental conditions on wind shear profile parameters in Nantucket Sound

  14. Insects, diseases, animals and environmental conditions can all injure holly plants. Monitor your plants frequently,

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Insects, diseases, animals and environmental conditions can all injure holly plants. Monitor your disorders. Chewing Insects Holly leaf miners are chewing insects that feed on hollies, preferably American, but will help reduce feeding punctures on the underside of leaves. Control larvae with systemicsappliedinmid

  15. EVALUATION OF SEVERAL ASSESSMENT METHODS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers from U.S. EPA's Gulf Ecology Division have conducted a multi-year evaluation of the environmental condition of near-coastal areas affected by different types of stressors. Areas of study have included coastal rivers, transportation canals, residential canals and estua...

  16. Regulation of free corticosterone and CBG capacity under different environmental conditions in altricial nestlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Almasi; Alexandre Roulin; Susanne Jenni-Eiermann; Creagh W. Breuner; Lukas Jenni

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of circulating glucocorticoids is regulated in response to environmental and endogenous conditions. Total circulating corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, consists of a fraction which is bound to corticosterone-binding globulins (CBG) and a free fraction. There is increasing evidence that the environment modulates free corticosterone levels through varying the concentration of CBG, but experimental evidence is lacking. To

  17. Social inequality in perceived environmental exposures in relation to housing conditions in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Kohlhuber; Andreas Mielck; Stephan K. Weiland; Gabriele Bolte

    2006-01-01

    In Germany the impact of socioeconomic factors on environmental exposures and adverse housing conditions has been rarely studied up to now. The aim of our study was to assess whether and, if yes, how perceived exposure to noise and air pollution is influenced by socioeconomic status in Germany. We used data from a large-scale population-based survey. In this survey, data

  18. Effect of Calcium Ions and Environmental Conditions on the Properties of -Casein Stabilized Films and Emulsions

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    of calcium in milk.1,5 The main calcium binding sites are * To whom correspondence should be addressed. EEffect of Calcium Ions and Environmental Conditions on the Properties of -Casein Stabilized Films in the oil phase. A major shift of the film parameters occurs in the presence of calcium ions. The decrease

  19. The impacts of environmental conditions on microwave radiometry of vegetation: a physical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa A. Karam; GenCorp Aerojet

    1996-01-01

    The physical microwave vegetation radiometry model developed at Aerojet is employed to investigate the impacts of environmental conditions on microwave radiometry of vegetation\\/forest. The model is based on solution of the radiative transfer equations and it operates over a wide frequency band in the microwave and millimeter wave regions for both coniferous and deciduous forest as well as grass and

  20. Modeling Effects of Relative Humidity, Moisture, and Extreme Environmental Conditions on Power Electronic Performance

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Brad

    Modeling Effects of Relative Humidity, Moisture, and Extreme Environmental Conditions on Power to quantify the effects of humidity on circuit board performance of power electronic equipment. In the extreme, high humidity may lead to higher condensation of water on the metal surfaces. The concentration

  1. Abstract Environmental conditions influence the breeding and migratory patterns of many avian species

    E-print Network

    Abstract Environmental conditions influence the breeding and migratory patterns of many avian species and may have particularly dramatic effects on long- distance migrants that breed at northern in relation to the breeding or migration phenologies of small shorebirds and their raptor predators. Although

  2. Study on electricity generation performance of thermoelectric device in extreme environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this paper, studies were performed on the thermoelectric device to generate electricity in extreme outer-space environmental conditions. Mathematical models were established to relate the power generation and temperature difference across the cold and hot surfaces of thermoelectric device. Preliminary experiments were performed to test the practical output of a single stage TED. It was observed when the temperature difference

  3. Exergy balance of a general system with variation of environmental conditions and some applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yalç?n A. Gö?ü?; Ünal Çamdal?; Mehmet ?. Kavsao?lu

    2002-01-01

    An exergy balance of a system helps to identify causes of losses. Establishing an exergy balance necessitates correction terms if environmental conditions change over the time period under consideration or the system is moving with respect to the environment. Applications show that these effects are considerable in some cases. On the other hand an exergy balance is also a means

  4. Environmental Consequences of Impact Cratering Events as a Function of Ambient Conditions on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kring, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The end of the Mesozoic Era is defined by a dramatic floral and faunal turnover that has been linked with the Chicxulub impact event, thus leading to the realization that impact cratering can affect both the geologic and biologic evolution of Earth. However, the environmental consequences of an impact event and any subsequent biological effects rely on several factors, including the ambient environmental conditions and the extant ecosystem structures at the time of impact. Some of the severest environmental perturbations of the Chicxulub impact event would not have been significant in some periods of Earth history. Consequently, the environmental and biological effects of an impact event must be evaluated in the context in which it occurs.

  5. Environmental consequences of impact cratering events as a function of ambient conditions on Earth.

    PubMed

    Kring, David A

    2003-01-01

    The end of the Mesozoic Era is defined by a dramatic floral and faunal turnover that has been linked with the Chicxulub impact event, thus leading to the realization that impact cratering can affect both the geologic and biologic evolution of Earth. However, the environmental consequences of an impact event and any subsequent biological effects rely on several factors, including the ambient environmental conditions and the extant ecosystem structures at the time of impact. Some of the severest environmental perturbations of the Chicxulub impact event would not have been significant in some periods of Earth history. Consequently, the environmental and biological effects of an impact event must be evaluated in the context in which it occurs. PMID:12809133

  6. Sleep deprivation impairs the extinction of cocaine-induced environmental conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Berro, L F; Hollais, A W; Patti, C L; Fukushiro, D F; Mári-Kawamoto, E; Talhati, F; Costa, J M; Zanin, K A; Lopes-Silva, L B; Ceccon, L M; Santos, R; Procópio-Souza, R; Trombin, T F; Yokoyama, T S; Wuo-Silva, R; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L; Frussa-Filho, R

    2014-09-01

    Persistence of a drug-environment conditioning induced by repeated psychostimulant treatment is thought to play a key role in the addictive cycle. In addition, sleep disorders are a common feature in patients with addictive disorders. Sleep deprivation shares similar neurobiological effects with psychostimulants. Therefore, we investigated whether sleep deprivation would impair the extinction of previously established conditioning between the drug effect and the environmental cues. Four cohorts of male adult mice underwent a behavioral sensitization procedure pairing drug (cocaine at 15 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline with environment (open-field apparatus). The extinction of conditioned locomotion was evaluated after control (home-cage maintained) or sleep deprivation (gentle handling method for 6h) conditions. Sleep deprivation both postponed the initiation and impaired the completeness of extinction of the conditioned locomotion promoted by previous drug-environment conditioning in cocaine-sensitized animals. While the cocaine control group required 5 free-drug sessions of exposure to the open-field apparatus to complete extinction of conditioned locomotion, the cocaine pre-treated group that experienced sleep deprivation before each extinction session still significantly differed from its respective control group on Day 5 of extinction. The possibility that the sleep condition can influence the extinction of a long-lasting association between drug effects and environmental cues can represent new outcomes for clinically relevant phenomena. PMID:24836180

  7. Understanding the savanna dynamics in relation to rangeland management systems and environmental conditions in semi-arid Botswana 

    E-print Network

    Kgosikoma, Olaotswe Ernest

    2012-06-25

    This thesis investigates the effects of rangeland management systems on savanna ecosystems under different environmental conditions in Botswana, Southern Africa. The soil sampling and vegetation assessment were conducted ...

  8. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ?C20 ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ?-3:?-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms, cryptophytes and dinoflagellates as key sources of LCEFA. Moreover, the analyses indicate that future shifts towards cyanobacteria-dominated communities will result in lower LCEFA content in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26076015

  9. Urban Tree Species Show the Same Hydraulic Response to Vapor Pressure Deficit across Varying Tree Size and Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ewers, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The functional convergence of tree transpiration has rarely been tested for tree species growing under urban conditions even though it is of significance to elucidate the relationship between functional convergence and species differences of urban trees for establishing sustainable urban forests in the context of forest water relations. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured sap flux of four urban tree species including Cedrus deodara, Zelkova schneideriana, Euonymus bungeanus and Metasequoia glyptostroboides in an urban park by using thermal dissipation probes (TDP). The concurrent microclimate conditions and soil moisture content were also measured. Our objectives were to examine 1) the influence of tree species and size on transpiration, and 2) the hydraulic control of urban trees under different environmental conditions over the transpiration in response to VPD as represented by canopy conductance. The results showed that the functional convergence between tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree canopy transpiration amount (Ec) was not reliable to predict stand transpiration and there were species differences within same DBH class. Species differed in transpiration patterns to seasonal weather progression and soil water stress as a result of varied sensitivity to water availability. Species differences were also found in their potential maximum transpiration rate and reaction to light. However, a same theoretical hydraulic relationship between Gc at VPD?=?1 kPa (Gcref) and the Gc sensitivity to VPD (?dGc/dlnVPD) across studied species as well as under contrasting soil water and Rs conditions in the urban area. Conclusions/Significance We concluded that urban trees show the same hydraulic regulation over response to VPD across varying tree size and environmental conditions and thus tree transpiration could be predicted with appropriate assessment of Gcref. PMID:23118904

  10. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  11. Effect of environmental conditions on the fatty acid fingerprint of microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, Mikhail; Dippold, Michaela; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Lipid biomarkers, especially phospholipids, are routinely used to characterize microbial community structure in environmental samples. Interpretations of these fingerprints mainly depend on rare results of pure cultures which were cultivated under standardized batch conditions. However, membrane lipids (e.g. phopholipid biomarker) build up the interface between microorganisms and their environment and consequently are prone to be adapted according to the environmental conditions. We cultivated several bacteria, isolated from soil (gram-positive and gram-negative) under various conditions e.g. C supply and temperature regimes. Effect of growth conditions on phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) as well as neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFA) and glycolipid fatty acids (GLFA) was investigated by conventional method of extraction and derivatization, followed by assessments with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, phospholipids were measured as intact molecules by ultra high performance liquid chromatography - quadrupole - time of flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-ToF) to further assess the composition of headgroups with fatty acids residues and their response on changing environmental conditions. PLFA fingerprints revealed a strong effect of growth stage, C supply and temperature e.g. decrease of temperature increased the amount of branched and/or unsaturated fatty acids to maintain the membrane fluidity. This strongly changes the ratio of specific to unspecific fatty acids depending on environmental conditions. Therefore, amounts of specific fatty acids cannot be used to assess biomass of a functional microbial group in soil. Intracellular neutral lipids depended less on environmental conditions reflecting a more stable biomarker group but also showed less specific fatty acids then PLFA. Therefore, combination of several lipid classes is suggested as more powerful tool to assess amounts and functionality of environmental microbial communities. Further information was gained from the analysis of intact polar lipids. Ethanolamines and cholines were the most abundant head groups within bacteria and are mainly combined with one specific and one unspecific fatty acid. Reactions on changing environmental conditions occurred mainly by modifications of fatty acids and rarely by a change of the headgroup fingerprint. This approach thus enables to categorize a certain amount of formerly unspecific fatty acids towards a specific microbial group. Ecological understanding for the interface between surrounding environment and cellular metabolism could be deepened by investigating the intact compounds e.g. intact phospholipids of microbial membranes. However, data from further organisms as well as diverse microbial communities are needed to continue the databases of intact phospholipids. Further investigations of diverse microbial communities under changing environmental conditions have to follow these first studies to 1) assess the effects of soil environment on microbial membranes (e.g. associations in biofilms) and 2) assess the effect of interspecific microbial interactions on their membrane properties and lipid fingerprints. Thus, combination of various lipid biomarkers as well as their intact characterization enables a more detailed look into microbial community structure and their respond on environmental conditions, improves our understanding of microbial functioning in ecosystems and enables a more specific estimation of biomass of various microbial groups.

  12. Commercial catch rates of the clam Spisula solida reflect local environmental coastal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, V.; Leitão, F.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of environmental variables and fishing pressure (explanatory variables were lagged 1 year) on commercial catch rates of the clam Spisula solida was studied on an annual basis over a 21 year period in three areas off the Portuguese coast (the Northwest, the Southwest and the South) between 1989 and 2009. Each area showed distinct environmental (oceanographic and hydrological) characteristics. Different sensitivities of S. solida fishing grounds to environmental variables were found among the study areas. On the Northwest coast, the combined effect of NAO indices and sea surface temperature had a positive effect on S. solida fisheries, particularly during the spawning season. On the Southwest coast, the variation of S. solida catches was negatively associated with wind magnitude and positively related with South-Southeast winds. Winter river discharges and summer sea surface temperature negatively affected S. solida catches on the South coast. Fishing effort also affected S. solida catch rates in the South. However, “extreme” changes in environmental conditions were the main drivers of short-term variations in catch rates. These results indicate that variations of S. solida catches strongly reflect a regional signature of local climatic features off the coast. Information on local environmental conditions should therefore be used for the purpose of identifying management actions to ensure long-term sustainability of S. solida fisheries.

  13. How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous tree species

    SciTech Connect

    Bassow, S.L.; Bazzaz, F.A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

    1998-12-01

    Species composition of temperate forests vary with successional age and seems likely to change in response to significant global climate change. Because photosynthesis rates in co-occurring tree species can differ in their sensitivity to environmental conditions, these changes in species composition are likely to alter the carbon dynamics of temperate forests. To help improve their understanding of such atmosphere-biosphere interactions, the authors explored changes in leaf-level photosynthesis in a 60--70 yr old temperate mixed-deciduous forest in Petersham, Massachusetts (USA). Diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions differentially influenced in situ leaf-level photosynthesis rates in the canopies of four mature temperate deciduous tree species: red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), white birch (Betula papyrifera), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The authors measured in situ photosynthesis at two heights within the canopies through a diurnal time course on 7 d over two growing seasons. They simultaneously measured a suite of environmental conditions surrounding the leaf at the time of each measurement. The authors used path analysis to examine the influence of environmental factors on in situ photosynthesis in the tree canopies.

  14. Assessment of the environmental conditions of the Sarno river basin (south Italy): a stream sediment approach.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Stefano; Iavazzo, Pietro; Adamo, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2013-06-01

    The Sarno river basin covers an area of 500 km(2) collecting the waters of Solofrana and Cavaiola tributaries. Originally it manly represents a source of livelihood for inhabitants by fishing and transporting goods; currently, the Sarno river, still partially used for irrigation, is affected by an extreme environmental degradation as a result of uncontrolled outflow of industrial waste. Within the framework of a wider geochemical prospecting project aiming at characterizing the whole territory of the Campania region, 89 stream sediment samples with a sampling density of 1 sample per 5 km(2) were collected in the river basin and analyzed by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in order to assess the environmental conditions at a regional scale. A GIS-aided technique, based on both the actual distribution of potentially harmful elements and their regional background values, was used to generate the maps of the contamination factors and of the contamination degrees for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn. Furthermore, a factor analysis was performed to assess the nature and the extent of contamination sources for the river sediments. Results showed that the Sarno river basin could be divided in two "environmental status" units: one, low contaminated, corresponding to the hilly and mountain areas, and the second, from moderately to very highly contaminated, corresponding to the economically developed areas of the valley floor characterized by a high population density. This work was developed within a project that aims to investigate the relationships between environmental pollution and human health by analyzing environmental media (stream sediments, water, soil and vegetation) together with human hair of resident population. In this context, the spatial correlation between the extremely compromised environmental conditions of developed areas and the incidence rate of liver cancer in the same area was also explored posing the need of a careful costs/benefits analysis to assess whether the deterioration of the environment, that could adversely affect the conditions of public health, is worth the economic development. PMID:23053925

  15. Environmental conditions associated with bat white-nose syndrome in the north-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flory, Abigail R.; Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    2. By 2010, the fungus G. destructans was detected in new areas of North America far from the area it was first observed, as well as in eight European bat species in different countries, yet mortality was not observed in many of these new areas of North America or in any part of Europe. This could be because of the differences in the fungus, rates of disease progression and/or in life-history or physiological traits of the affected bat species between different regions. Infection of bats by G. destructans without associated mortality might also suggest that certain environmental conditions might have to co-occur with fungal infection to cause mortality. 3. We tested the environmental conditions hypothesis using Maxent to map and model landscape surface conditions associated with WNS mortality. This approach was unique in that we modelled possible requisite environmental conditions for disease mortality and not simply the presence of the causative agent. 4. The top predictors of WNS mortality were land use/land cover types, mean air temperature of wettest quarter, elevation, frequency of precipitation and annual temperature range. Model results suggest that WNS mortality is most likely to occur in landscapes that are higher in elevation and topographically heterogeneous, drier and colder during winter, and more seasonally variable than surrounding landscapes. 5. Synthesis and applications. This study mapped the most likely environmental surface conditions associated with bat mortality owing to WNS in the north-eastern United Sates; maps can be used for selection of priority monitoring sites. Our results provide a starting point from which to investigate and predict the potential spread and population impacts of this catastrophic emerging disease.

  16. Section 1—Conclusions and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The conclusions listed below are derived from scientific data presented in the review of research on ultrasound bioeffects. The recommendations detail how the medical community should respond to these conclusions. The conclusions and recommendations are divided into six parts that correspond with the papers in this journal identified as Sections 3 through 8. The background information on which these conclusions and recommendations are based may be found in those sections. PMID:17710221

  17. An adaptive ant colony optimization framework for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives under varied environmental water availability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szemis, J. M.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    Human water use is increasing and, as such, water for the environment is limited and needs to be managed efficiently. One method for achieving this is the scheduling of environmental flow management alternatives (EFMAs) (e.g., releases, wetland regulators), with these schedules generally developed over a number of years. However, the availability of environmental water changes annually as a result of natural variability (e.g., drought, wet years). To incorporate this variation and schedule EFMAs in a operational setting, a previously formulated multiobjective optimization approach for EFMA schedule development used for long-term planning has been modified and incorporated into an adaptive framework. As part of this approach, optimal schedules are updated at regular intervals during the planning horizon based on environmental water allocation forecasts, which are obtained using artificial neural networks. In addition, the changes between current and updated schedules can be minimized to reduce any disruptions to long-term planning. The utility of the approach is assessed by applying it to an 89km section of the River Murray in South Australia. Results indicate that the approach is beneficial under a range of hydrological conditions and an improved ecological response is obtained in a operational setting compared with previous long-term approaches. Also, it successfully produces trade-offs between the number of disruptions to schedules and the ecological response, with results suggesting that ecological response increases with minimal alterations required to existing schedules. Overall, the results indicate that the information obtained using the proposed approach potentially aides managers in the efficient management of environmental water.

  18. Effects of varying environmental conditions on vegetation response to ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, R.T.; Triemer, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Developing an exposure-effects model for plant response to ozone exposure is a complex process. It is known that ozone must enter the plant through the stomata for an effect to occur. Therefore, ozone uptake is related not only to ambient ozone concentrations, but also to environmental factors which control stomatal movement. In addition, cellular factors within the plant can mitigate ozone impact and ultimately control plant response. This paper presents a review of the scientific literature on plant responses (e.g. visible foliar injury, reductions in growth or yield) to ozone exposures under varying environmental conditions known to affect stomatal aperture. The results of this effort show the importance of considering key environmental factors when developing exposure-effects models.

  19. Extent of fungal growth on fiberglass duct liners with and without biocides under challenging environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Behzad S; Ross, Kristen

    2003-03-01

    Eight brands of fiberglass duct liners, including three that contained biocides, were exposed to challenging environmental conditions that would promote fungal growth. Twenty-four rectangular sheet metal ducts in three groups of eight ducts per group were lined with the eight selected liners. Each group of ducts was exposed to one of the three test conditions within an environmental chamber for a period of 15 days. These conditions were a) 75 percent RH, b) 75 percent RH plus water spray, c) 75 percent RH plus dry nutrient, and d) 75 percent RH plus water plus nutrient. Viable spores of Aspergillus niger were aerosolized into each duct as seed. On the 16th day, air and surface samples for fungal spores were collected from inside ducts. The results of air sampling using N6 sampler and visual inspection indicated that two out of three biocide-containing liners, Permacote and Toughgard, inhibited fungal growth but only under condition A. The third biocide-containing liner, Aeroflex Plus, was effective even when it was wet (conditions A and B). All three biocide-containing liners failed to inhibit fungal growth under conditions C and D. Among the five other types of liners that did not contain biocides, ATCO Flex with a smooth Mylar coating was more preferable, exhibiting lower fungal activity during conditions A, B, and C. All liners failed under condition D when nutrient and water were added together. Surface sampling using adhesive tape failed to produce representative results, apparently due to rough/porous surface of duct liners. It was concluded that duct liners with biocide treatment could be less promoting to microbial growth under high humidity as long as their surfaces remain clean and water-free. A liner with an impermeable and smooth surface seems to be less subject to microbial growth under most conditions than biocide-containing liners having porous and/or rough surfaces. PMID:12573965

  20. Dietary Lysine Responses of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 days of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was condu...

  1. Immune Activity, Body Condition and Human-Associated Environmental Impacts in a Wild Marine Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Patrick M.; Hall, Ailsa J.; Goodman, Simon J.; Cruz, Marilyn; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on individuals, which could contribute to population declines, especially in times of energy shortage. PMID:23840603

  2. Microbial forensics: predicting phenotypic characteristics and environmental conditions from large-scale gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minseung; Zorraquino, Violeta; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2015-03-01

    A tantalizing question in cellular physiology is whether the cellular state and environmental conditions can be inferred by the expression signature of an organism. To investigate this relationship, we created an extensive normalized gene expression compendium for the bacterium Escherichia coli that was further enriched with meta-information through an iterative learning procedure. We then constructed an ensemble method to predict environmental and cellular state, including strain, growth phase, medium, oxygen level, antibiotic and carbon source presence. Results show that gene expression is an excellent predictor of environmental structure, with multi-class ensemble models achieving balanced accuracy between 70.0% (±3.5%) to 98.3% (±2.3%) for the various characteristics. Interestingly, this performance can be significantly boosted when environmental and strain characteristics are simultaneously considered, as a composite classifier that captures the inter-dependencies of three characteristics (medium, phase and strain) achieved 10.6% (±1.0%) higher performance than any individual models. Contrary to expectations, only 59% of the top informative genes were also identified as differentially expressed under the respective conditions. Functional analysis of the respective genetic signatures implicates a wide spectrum of Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways with condition-specific information content, including iron transport, transferases, and enterobactin synthesis. Further experimental phenotypic-to-genotypic mapping that we conducted for knock-out mutants argues for the information content of top-ranked genes. This work demonstrates the degree at which genome-scale transcriptional information can be predictive of latent, heterogeneous and seemingly disparate phenotypic and environmental characteristics, with far-reaching applications. PMID:25774498

  3. Environmental Conditions Influence Allometric Patterns in the Blow Fly, Chrysomya albiceps

    PubMed Central

    Horenstein, M Battán; Peretti, Av

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study variations in allometry of body characters in females and males of two populations of blow flies, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), under different environmental conditions to establish patterns of morphological variation. Body size of both males and females in the experimental population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the natural population, indicating an important influence of food on body size. All genitalic and non-genitalic characters in males and females of the two populations showed a trend towards negative allometry rather than isometry. Allometric patterns were modified in both sexes and between populations. The data show generally larger allometric slopes in females than in males. We confirmed that the environmental conditions have an important effect on allometric patterns and body size. PMID:22224467

  4. Environmental and mental conditions predicting the experience of involuntary musical imagery: An experience sampling method study.

    PubMed

    Floridou, Georgia A; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) study on 40 volunteers was conducted to explore the environmental factors and psychological conditions related to involuntary musical imagery (INMI) in everyday life. Participants reported 6 times per day for one week on their INMI experiences, relevant contextual information and associated environmental conditions. The resulting data was modeled with Bayesian networks and led to insights into the interplay of factors related to INMI experiences. The activity that a person is engaged was found to play an important role in the experience of mind wandering, which in turn enables the experience of INMI. INMI occurrence is independent of the time of the day while the INMI trigger affects the subjective evaluation of the INMI experience. The results are compared to findings from earlier studies based on retrospective surveys and questionnaires and highlight the advantage of ESM techniques in research on spontaneous experiences like INMI. PMID:25800098

  5. Effect of environmental conditions on the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Onose, Shinji; Kitahara, Eriko; Chumchuen, Sukunya; Takasaki, Midori; Konishi, Hajime; Kanekatsu, Rensuke

    2011-01-01

    Mulberry leaves have been used as the sole food for silkworms in sericulture, and also as a traditional medicine for diabetes prevention. Mulberry leaf components, for example 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), inhibit the activity of ?-glucosidase and prevent increased blood glucose levels, and they are highly toxic to caterpillars other than silkworms. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves changes with the season, but it is unknown which environmental conditions influence the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. We investigated in this study the relationship between the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and environmental conditions of temperature and photoperiod. The results demonstrate that low temperatures induced decreasing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while the induction of newly grown shoots by the scission of branches induced increasing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was related to the defense mechanism of mulberry plants against insect herbivores. PMID:22146716

  6. Creep and Environmental Durability of EBC/CMCs Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    Interest in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for use in high temperature structural applications has prompted the need for characterization of material strength and creep performance under complex aerospace turbine engine environments. Stress-rupture tests have been performed on SiC/SiC composites systems, with varying fiber types and coating schemes to demonstrate material behavior under isothermal conditions. Further testing was conducted under exposure to thermal stress gradients to determine the effect on creep resistance and material durability. In order to understand the associated damage mechanisms, emphasis is placed on experimental techniques as well as implementation of non-destructive evaluation; including electrical resistivity monitoring. The influence of environmental and loading conditions on life-limiting material properties is shown.

  7. STATE TRANSITION7-Dependent Phosphorylation Is Modulated by Changing Environmental Conditions, and Its Absence Triggers Remodeling of Photosynthetic Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Sonja Verena; Scholz, Martin; Trompelt, Kerstin; Barth, Johannes; Gäbelein, Philipp; Steinbeck, Janina; Xue, Huidan; Clowez, Sophie; Fucile, Geoffrey; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Fufezan, Christian; Hippler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    In plants and algae, the serine/threonine kinase STN7/STT7, orthologous protein kinases in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), respectively, is an important regulator in acclimation to changing light environments. In this work, we assessed STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation under high light in C. reinhardtii, known to fully induce the expression of LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX STRESS-RELATED PROTEIN3 (LHCSR3) and a nonphotochemical quenching mechanism, in relationship to anoxia where the activity of cyclic electron flow is stimulated. Our quantitative proteomics data revealed numerous unique STT7 protein substrates and STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation variations that were reliant on the environmental condition. These results indicate that STT7-dependent phosphorylation is modulated by the environment and point to an intricate chloroplast phosphorylation network responding in a highly sensitive and dynamic manner to environmental cues and alterations in kinase function. Functionally, the absence of the STT7 kinase triggered changes in protein expression and photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) and resulted in the remodeling of photosynthetic complexes. This remodeling initiated a pronounced association of LHCSR3 with PSI-LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEX I (LHCI)-ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductase supercomplexes. Lack of STT7 kinase strongly diminished PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, while PSII core complex phosphorylation and accumulation were significantly enhanced. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence that the regulation of protein phosphorylation is critical for driving successful acclimation to high light and anoxic growth environments and gives new insights into acclimation strategies to these environmental conditions. PMID:25858915

  8. Dynamic polarization fluctuation characteristics of optical fiber submarine cables under various environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Namihira; Yukio Horiuchi; Shiro Ryu; Kiyofumi Mochizuki; Hiroharu Wakabayashi

    1988-01-01

    Polarization fluctuation characteristics of optical-fiber submarine cable under 8000-m-deep sea environmental conditions, optical-fiber submarine cable coupling under periodic variable tension, and cable performance during and after installation, are presented. As a worst case, it is demonstrated that the maximum frequency spectrum of polarization fluctuation is less than 200 Hz under dynamic composite stress states. It is found that the polarization

  9. The performance of RTK-GPS for surveying under challenging environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-S. Lee; L. Ge

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the availability of RTK GPS (Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning Systems) under some challenging environmental conditions. Testing was performed under two of these condi-tions,i.e. a small tree-covered garden and a pylon for high-voltage electricity supply. The increase in the number of satellites had many benefits for the integer ambiguity resolution, but no significant

  10. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on the performance of laying hens under warm environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ishak T. Kechik; A. H. Sykes

    1974-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on the performance of laying hens maintained under high environmental temperatures (32.2 °C and 33.3 °C, respectively), and a third trial was carried out under ambient conditions (12.8 °C to 17.3 °C).Weekly changes in egg yield, shell deformation, percentage of cracked eggs and body weight showed an

  11. Design of a leaching test framework for coal fly ash accounting for environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mohammad; Russell, Nigel V

    2007-08-01

    Fly ash from coal combustion contains trace elements which, on disposal or utilisation, may leach out, and therefore be a potential environmental hazard. Environmental conditions have a great impact on the mobility of fly ash constituents as well as the physical and chemical properties of the fly ash. Existing standard leaching methods have been shown to be inadequate by not representing possible disposal or utilisation scenarios. These tests are often criticised on the grounds that the results estimated are not reliable as they are not able to be extrapolated to the application scenario. In order to simulate leaching behaviour of fly ash in different environmental conditions and to reduce deviation between measurements in the fields and the laboratories, it is vital to study sensitivity of the fly ash constituents of interest to major factors controlling leachability. pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, leachant type and redox potential are parameters affecting stability of elements in the fly ash. Sensitivity of trace elements to pH and liquid to solid ratio (as two major overriding factors) has been examined. Elements have been classified on the basis of their leaching behaviour under different conditions. Results from this study have been used to identify leaching mechanisms. Also the fly ash has been examined under different standard batch leaching tests in order to evaluate and to compare these tests. A Leaching Test Framework has been devised for assessing the stability of trace elements from fly ashes in different environments. This Framework assists in designing more realistic batch leaching tests appropriate to field conditions and can support the development of regulations and protocols for the management and disposal of coal combustion by-products or other solid wastes of environmental concern. PMID:17171257

  12. Corrosion of 15-5PH H1025 stainless steel due to environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abad; M. Hahn; O. S. Es-Said

    2010-01-01

    A simple corrosion experiment was conducted to simulate the effects of stray current and salt water environmental conditions of 15-5PH H1025 stainless steel, which is a common material used on aircraft. Pieces of non-corroded 15-5PH H1025 stainless steel were immersed in 71°C tap water without current, 71°C tap water with current, and deionized water with current. It was determined that

  13. Accumulation of uranium by filamentous green algae under natural environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid A. Aleissa; El-Said I. Shabana; Fahad I. S. Al-Masoud

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of algae to concentrate uranium under natural environmental conditions is measured by a-spectrometry. Spirogyra, a filamentous green fresh-water alga, has concentrated uranium from a surface concrete ponds with elevated uranium levels\\u000a (140-1140 ppb). The concentration factors (CFs) ranged from 8.9-67 with an average value of 22.Cladophora spp, a filamentous green marine alga has concentrated uranium from the marine

  14. Virtual-SAP: An Immersive Tool for Visualizing the Response of Building Structures to Environmental Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug A. Bowman; Mehdi Setareh; Márcio S. Pinho; Ali Ndiwalana; Alex Kalita; Yunha Lee; John F. Lucas; Matthew Gracey; Malini Kothapalli; Qinwei Zhu; Ameya Datey; Pradeep Tumati

    2003-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments (VEs) offer interactive, real-time visualization capabilities for engineers, architects, and scientists. This paper presents Virtual- SAP, an immersive VE application allowing users to assess building structures and their response to various environmental conditions through an interactive design- build-test-redesign cycle. Virtual-SAP has three distinct user interfaces that support its use with a high-end, multi- tracker VE system, with

  15. Influence of environmental conditions on the production of phenazine-1-carboxamide by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391.

    PubMed

    van Rij, E Tjeerd; Wesselink, Monique; Chin-A-Woeng, Thomas F C; Bloemberg, Guido V; Lugtenberg, Ben J J

    2004-05-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 produces the secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), which is an antifungal metabolite required for biocontrol activity of the strain. Identification of conditions involved in PCN production showed that some carbon sources and all amino acids tested promote PCN levels. Decreasing the pH from 7 to 6 or decreasing the growth temperature from 21 to 16 degrees C decreased PCN production dramatically. In contrast, growth at 1% oxygen as well as low magnesium concentrations increased PCN levels. Salt stress, low concentrations of ferric iron, phosphate, sulfate, and ammonium ions reduced PCN levels. Fusaric acid, a secondary metabolite produced by the soilborne Fusarium spp. fungi, also reduced PCN levels. Different nitrogen sources greatly influenced PCN levels. Analysis of autoinducer levels at conditions of high and low PCN production demonstrated that, under all tested conditions, PCN levels correlate with autoinducer levels, indicating that the regulation of PCN production by environmental factors takes place at or before autoinducer production. Moreover, the results show that autoinducer production not only is induced by a high optical density but also can be induced by certain environmental conditions. We discuss our findings in relation to the success of biocontrol in the field. PMID:15141960

  16. Modeling territory attendance and preening behavior in a seabird colony as functions of environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Henson, Shandelle M; Galusha, Joseph G; Hayward, James L; Cushing, J M

    2007-01-01

    In previous studies we developed a general compartmental methodology for modeling animal behavior and applied the methodology to marine birds and mammals. In this study we used the methodology to construct a system of two differential equations to model the dynamics of territory attendance and preening in a gull colony on Protection Island, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. We found that colony occupancy was driven primarily by abiotic environmental conditions, including tide height, time of day, solar elevation, and wind speed over open water. For birds in the colony, preening behavior was driven to some extent by abiotic environmental conditions (including time of day, solar elevation, humidity, and wind speed on the colony), but apparently was driven primarily by local and/or biotic effects not included in the model. In terms of R(2) values, the model explained 65% and 37% of the variability in colony occupancy and preening data, respectively, as a function of these six abiotic environmental factors. PMID:22880615

  17. Adsorption of a Protein Monolayer via Hydrophobic Interactions Prevents Nanoparticle Aggregation under Harsh Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Blankenburg, Jan; Olson, Jana; Landes, Christy F.; Link, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We find that citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles aggregate and precipitate in saline solutions below the NaCl concentration of many bodily fluids and blood plasma. Our experiments indicate that this is due to complexation of the citrate anions with Na+ cations in solution. A dramatically enhanced colloidal stability is achieved when bovine serum albumin is adsorbed to the gold nanoparticle surface, completely preventing nanoparticle aggregation under harsh environmental conditions where the NaCl concentration is well beyond the isotonic point. Furthermore, we explore the mechanism of the formation of this albumin ‘corona’ and find that monolayer protein adsorption is most likely ruled by hydrophobic interactions. As for many nanotechnology-based biomedical and environmental applications, particle aggregation and sedimentation are undesirable and could substantially increase the risk of toxicological side-effects, the formation of the BSA corona presented here provides a low-cost bio-compatible strategy for nanoparticle stabilization and transport in highly ionic environments. PMID:23914342

  18. Hormonal Signal Amplification Mediates Environmental Conditions during Development and Controls an Irreversible Commitment to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Schaedel, Oren N.; Gerisch, Birgit; Antebi, Adam; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Many animals can choose between different developmental fates to maximize fitness. Despite the complexity of environmental cues and life history, different developmental fates are executed in a robust fashion. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a powerful model to examine this phenomenon because it can adopt one of two developmental fates (adulthood or diapause) depending on environmental conditions. The steroid hormone dafachronic acid (DA) directs development to adulthood by regulating the transcriptional activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. The known role of DA suggests that it may be the molecular mediator of environmental condition effects on the developmental fate decision, although the mechanism is yet unknown. We used a combination of physiological and molecular biology techniques to demonstrate that commitment to reproductive adult development occurs when DA levels, produced in the neuroendocrine XXX cells, exceed a threshold. Furthermore, imaging and cell ablation experiments demonstrate that the XXX cells act as a source of DA, which, upon commitment to adult development, is amplified and propagated in the epidermis in a DAF-12 dependent manner. This positive feedback loop increases DA levels and drives adult programs in the gonad and epidermis, thus conferring the irreversibility of the decision. We show that the positive feedback loop canalizes development by ensuring that sufficient amounts of DA are dispersed throughout the body and serves as a robust fate-locking mechanism to enforce an organism-wide binary decision, despite noisy and complex environmental cues. These mechanisms are not only relevant to C. elegans but may be extended to other hormonal-based decision-making mechanisms in insects and mammals. PMID:22505848

  19. Environmental Influences on the Release of Ophiosphaerella agrostis Ascospores Under Controlled and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, John E; Dernoeden, Peter H; O'Neill, Nichole R

    2005-11-01

    ABSTRACT Ophiosphaerella agrostis, the causal agent of dead spot of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), can produce prodigious numbers of pseudothecia and ascospores throughout the summer. The environmental conditions and seasonal timings associated with O. agrostis ascospore release are unknown. The objectives of this research were to (i) determine the influence of light and relative humidity on ascospore release in a controlled environment, (ii) document the seasonal and daily discharge patterns of ascospores in the field, and (iii) elucidate environmental conditions that promote ascospore release under field conditions. In a growth chamber, a sharp decrease (100 to approximately 50%; 25 degrees C) in relative humidity resulted in a rapid (1- to 3-h) discharge of ascospores, regardless of whether pseudothecia were incubated in constant light or dark. In the field, daily ascospore release increased between 1900 and 2300 h and again between 0700 and 1000 h local time. The release of ascospores occurred primarily during the early morning hours when relative humidity was decreasing and the canopy began to dry, or during evening hours when relative humidity was low and dew began to form. Few ascospores were released between 1100 and 1800 h when the bentgrass canopy was dry. The release of ascospores also was triggered by precipitation. Of the ascospores collected during precipitation events, 87% occurred within 10 h of the beginning of each event. PMID:18943368

  20. [Fluorescence parameters of chlorophyll in leaves of caules plants in different environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, O V; Talipova, E V; Kukarskikh, G P; Krendeleeva, T E; Rubin, A B

    2005-01-01

    The functional state of medicinal plants of Convallaria majalis L., Vaccinium vitis-idaeae L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. in connection with heavy metal accumulation in their leaves under man impact was studied by the pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) fluorometric method. The relative yield of variable fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), induction of fluorescence of chlorophyll, and fluorescence quenching processes in leaves at different distances from the local Kirov-Sovetsk, Kirov-Omutninsk road in Kirov region were analyzed. Changes in biophysical characteristics with the increasing content of heavy metals in leaves were demonstrated. The most informative characteristic is F(v)/F(m). Its value correlates with the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and reflects the potential effeciency of photosynthesis. The better are the environmental conditions of plant growth, the higher is the F(v)/F(m) ratio and the lower is its average statistical deviation. Fluorescence induction curves do not always vary in shape under our ecological conditions, indicating relatively favorable conditions at places of plant growth investigated. The rate of the environmental pollution in the investigated region is not critical, since the content of heavy metal in leaves does not change considerably with the distance from the road. PMID:16358792

  1. Thermal Cyclic Behavior of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Investigated Under High-Heat-Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) have been developed to protect silicon-carbide- (SiC) based ceramic components in gas turbine engines from high-temperature environmental attack. With continuously increasing demands for significantly higher engine operating temperature, future EBC systems must be designed for both thermal and environmental protection of the engine components in combustion gases. In particular, the thermal barrier functions of EBC's become a necessity for reducing the engine-component thermal loads and chemical reaction rates, thus maintaining the required mechanical properties and durability of these components. Advances in the development of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TBC's and EBC's, respectively) will directly impact the successful use of ceramic components in advanced engines. To develop high-performance coating systems, researchers must establish advanced test approaches. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux technique was employed to investigate the thermal cyclic behavior of TBC's and EBC's on SiC-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates (SiC/SiC) under high thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. Because the laser heat flux test approach can monitor the coating's real-time thermal conductivity variations at high temperature, the coating thermal insulation performance, sintering, and delamination can all be obtained during thermal cycling tests. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3) thermal barrier and barium strontium aluminosilicate-based environmental barrier coatings (BSAS/BSAS+mullite/Si) on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated in this study. These coatings were laser tested in air under thermal gradients (the surface and interface temperatures were approximately 1482 and 1300 C, respectively). Some coating specimens were also subject to alternating furnace cycling (in a 90-percent water vapor environment at 1300 C) and laser thermal gradient cycling tests (in air), to investigate the water vapor effect. All cyclic tests were conducted using a 60-min hot-time temperature.

  2. Social inequality in perceived environmental exposures in relation to housing conditions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kohlhuber, Martina; Mielck, Andreas; Weiland, Stephan K; Bolte, Gabriele

    2006-06-01

    In Germany the impact of socioeconomic factors on environmental exposures and adverse housing conditions has been rarely studied up to now. The aim of our study was to assess whether and, if yes, how perceived exposure to noise and air pollution is influenced by socioeconomic status in Germany. We used data from a large-scale population-based survey. In this survey, data on perceived exposure to noise and air pollution and on socioeconomic status and housing conditions were collected on an individual basis. The study population consisted of 7,275 adults aged 17-98 years (40% women), each representing the head of one household. For the association between perceived environmental exposure and social factors confounder-adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary or ordinal logistic regression. In bivariate analyses subjects with non-German nationality, East Germans, respondents with low income, those with lower educational and occupational status, and subjects living in adverse housing conditions were more likely to report being highly exposed. In multivariate analyses high perceived exposure to noise was associated with low household income (OR 1.52 [95% CI 1.13-2.05] lowest versus highest income group). Perceived air pollution exposure was also related to household income (1.67 [1.14-2.44] lower middle versus highest income group). Further associated variables were need for renovation of the house, type of house, and type of neighborhood. This study shows that in Germany, as in other industrial countries, environmental exposures are distributed unequally and that especially economic differences play important roles. PMID:16290820

  3. A correlational analysis of the effects of changing environmental conditions on the NR atomic hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragonette, Richard A.; Suter, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive statistical analysis has been undertaken to determine if a correlation exists between changes in an NR atomic hydrogen maser's frequency offset and changes in environmental conditions. Correlation analyses have been performed comparing barometric pressure, humidity, and temperature with maser frequency offset as a function of time for periods ranging from 5.5 to 17 days. Semipartial correlation coefficients as large as -0.9 have been found between barometric pressure and maser frequency offset. Correlation between maser frequency offset and humidity was small compared to barometric pressure and unpredictable. Analysis of temperature data indicates that in the most current design, temperature does not significantly affect maser frequency offset.

  4. Canine dirofilariosis under specific environmental conditions of the Eastern Slovak Lowland.

    PubMed

    Iglódyová, Adriana; Miterpáková, Martina; Hurníková, Zuzana; Antolová, Daniela; Dubinský, Pavol; Letková, Valéria

    2012-03-23

    The aim of the present study was to collect data from Eastern Slovak Lowland, southern Slovakia, to assess risk of the spread of canine dirofilariosis. Climate and environmental conditions in the Eastern Slovak Lowland are ideally suitable for the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. In the past, an endemic locality of dangerous mosquito transmitted malaria was found in this area. Today, another zoonotic parasitic disease threatens--dirofilariosis. The results of the first detailed study revealed a 34.44% prevalence in dogs harbouring dirofilariae. D. repens was diagnosed in all infected specimen, with 2 individuals being co-infected also with D. immitis. PMID:22462446

  5. Portuguese native Artemia parthenogenetica resisting invasion by Artemia franciscana - Assessing reproductive parameters under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Pedro M.; Hontoria, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade; Bio, Ana

    2014-05-01

    There is widespread interest in the conservation of native Artemia biodiversity. In Portugal, only two known populations of native Artemia remain: one in the Rio Maior salina, the other in the Aveiro salina complex, both of the diploid Artemia parthenogenetica species. All other Portuguese hypersaline environments where Artemia can be found have been invaded by Artemia franciscana, which has eradicated the native strains. Invasiveness and resilience of, respectively, exotic and indigenous species are thought to depend on strain-specific traits and adaptation to local conditions. This work evaluates the reproductive performance of the two Portuguese native strains and the invasive species exposed to different salinities, temperatures, photoperiods and food supplies. Reproduction periods, quantity and quality of offspring varied significantly, depending on both the Artemia strain and environmental conditions. A. parthenogenetica from Rio Maior reproduced better than A. franciscana at high salinity (150) and low food supply, which may reflect an adaptation to its biotope that aids its resistance to invasion. But A. parthenogenetica form Aveiro performed much worse than its invasive competitor, under most of the conditions tested. It is unlikely that A. franciscana has not been introduced in this salina by chance alone. Other biological traits of the local A. parthenogenetica or adaptation to unstudied local factors (e.g. pollution) are probably responsible for this strain's survival. Further knowledge on specific local conditions and trait-specific tolerances to biotic and abiotic conditions are needed to understand (non-)invasion patterns and preserve the remaining native populations.

  6. Seasonal changes of environmental conditions in the phytolittoral zone of Lake Ostrowite in the Bory Tucholskie National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Bana?

    The environmental conditions of submerged vegetation in Lake Ostrowite (the Bory Tucholskie National Park) were examined at monthly intervals from July 2004 to December 2006. The seasonal variability of environmental features was determined based on 3-5 water and sediment samples collected each time in the central part of the aquatic plant population's home range (4-5 m deep). The following properties

  7. The first "space" vegetables have been grown in the "SVET" greenhouse using controlled environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Bercovich, Yu. A.; Mashinskiy, A. L.; Meleshko, G. I.

    The paper describes the "SVET" project—a new generation of space greenhouse with small dimensions. Through the use of a minicomputer, "SVET" is fully capable of automatically operating and controlling environmental systems for higher plant growth. A number of preliminary studies have shown the radish and cabbage to be potentially important crops for CELSS (Closed Environmental Life Support System). The "SVET" space greenhouse was mounted on the "CRYSTAL" technological module docked to the Mir orbital space station on 10 June 1990. Soviet cosmonauts Balandin and Solovyov started the first experiments with the greenhouse on 15 June 1990. Preliminary results of seed cultivation over an initial 54-day period in "SVET" are presented. Morphometrical characteristics of plants brought back to Earth are given. Alteration in plant characteristics, such as growth and developmental changes, or morphological contents were noted. A crop of radish plants was harvested under microgravity conditions. Characteristics of plant environmental control parameters and an estimation of functional properties of control and regulation systems of the "SVET" greenhouse in space flight as received via telemetry data is reported.

  8. Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2015-04-01

    Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05 mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

  9. A research on functional status, environmental conditions, and risk of falls in dementia.

    PubMed

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of disability, physical activity, and functional status as well as environmental conditions on the risk of falls among the elderly with dementia after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Data were derived from a group including 1210 Malaysian elderly who were demented and noninstitutionalized. The study was a national cross-sectional survey that was entitled "Determinants of Health Status among Older Malaysians." Approximately 17% of subjects experienced falls. The results showed that ethnic non-Malay (OR = 1.73) and functional decline (OR = 1.67) significantly increased the risk of falls in samples (P < 0.05). The findings indicated that increased environmental quality (OR = 0.64) significantly decreased the risk of falls (P < 0.05). Disability, age, marital status, educational level, sex differences, and physical activity were found irrelevant to the likelihood of falls in subjects (P > 0.05). It was concluded that functional decline and ethnic non-Malay increased the risk of falls but the increased environmental quality reduced falls. PMID:24963440

  10. A Research on Functional Status, Environmental Conditions, and Risk of Falls in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of disability, physical activity, and functional status as well as environmental conditions on the risk of falls among the elderly with dementia after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Data were derived from a group including 1210 Malaysian elderly who were demented and noninstitutionalized. The study was a national cross-sectional survey that was entitled “Determinants of Health Status among Older Malaysians.” Approximately 17% of subjects experienced falls. The results showed that ethnic non-Malay (OR = 1.73) and functional decline (OR = 1.67) significantly increased the risk of falls in samples (P < 0.05). The findings indicated that increased environmental quality (OR = 0.64) significantly decreased the risk of falls (P < 0.05). Disability, age, marital status, educational level, sex differences, and physical activity were found irrelevant to the likelihood of falls in subjects (P > 0.05). It was concluded that functional decline and ethnic non-Malay increased the risk of falls but the increased environmental quality reduced falls. PMID:24963440

  11. Exploring the relationship between vegetation spectra and eco-geo-environmental conditions in karst region, Southwest China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuemin Yue; Kelin Wang; Bing Zhang; Zhengchao Chen; Quanjun Jiao; Bo Liu; Hongsong Chen

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing of local environmental conditions is not accessible if substrates are covered with vegetation. This study explored\\u000a the relationship between vegetation spectra and karst eco-geo-environmental conditions. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques\\u000a showed that there were significant differences between spectral features of vegetation mainly distributed in karst and non-karst\\u000a regions, and combination of 1,300- to 2,500-nm reflectance and 400- to 680-nm

  12. Ad libitum adjustments to fluid intake during cool environmental conditions maintain hydration status during a 3-day mountain bike race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rose; E. M. Peters-Futre

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveIn this study, the hydration status of amateur cyclists who voluntarily adjusted their fluid intake to environmental conditions during a 3-day, 248-km mountain bike (MTB) race was assessed.DesignProspective observational field study.SettingSani2C MTB Race, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2006.Participants18 randomly selected amateur, male MTB cyclists.Main outcome measuresReported usual fluid intake, environmental conditions, voluntary fluid intake, urine voided, changes in body mass, serum

  13. Effect of environmental conditions on emergency department use by wheezing children

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, L.G.; Iwamoto, L.M.; Yamamoto, K.S.; Worthley, R.G. (Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, Honolulu, HI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine in children the relationship of wheezing to measurable environmental factors. STUDY DESIGN: Multiple regression analysis was used to measure correlation with air quality, weather, and seasonal and infection-related variables. RESULTS: Daily wheezing census was significantly correlated with weather and seasonal variables and the daily infection census. We are not certain which weather variable is the dominant factor in the weather association because all of the weather variables have some degree of colinearity. Air quality as measured by carbon monoxide and airborne particles was not shown to be associated with wheezing. CONCLUSION: A high incidence of pediatric emergency department presentations for wheezing are associated with weather, infections, and months of the year.

  14. Environmental conditions associated with lesions in introduced free-ranging sheep in Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Jenny G.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Spraker, Terry R.; Schuler, Bridget A.; Hess, Steven C.; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Sin, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife species which have been translocated between temperate and tropical regions of the world provide unique opportunities to understand how disease processes may be affected by environmental conditions. European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) from the Mediterranean Islands were introduced to the Hawaiian Islands for sport hunting beginning in 1954 and were subsequently hybridized with feral domestic sheep (O. aries), which had been introduced in 1793. Three isolated mouflon populations have become established in the Hawaiian Islands but diseases in these populations have been little studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gross and histologic lesions in respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems of free-ranging sheep in two isolated volcanic environments on Hawai‘i Island. Tissue and fecal samples were collected in conjunction with population reductions during February 2011. We found gross or histologic evidence of lungworm infection in 44/49 sheep from Mauna Loa which were exposed to gaseous emissions from K?lauea Volcano. In contrast, only 7/50 sheep from Mauna Kea had lesions consistent with lungworm, but Mauna Kea sheep had significantly more upper respiratory tract inflammation and hyperplasia consistent with chronic antigenic stimulation, possibly associated with exposure to fine airborne particulates during extended drought conditions. We hypothesize that gasses from K?lauea Volcano contributed to severity of respiratory disease principally associated with chronic lungworm infections at Mauna Loa; however, there were numerous other potentially confounding environmental factors and interactions that merit further investigation.

  15. Environmental conditions and human drivers for changes to north Ethiopian mountain landscapes over 145 years.

    PubMed

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Hurni, Hans; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Crummey, Donald; Ritler, Alfons; Portner, Brigitte; Nievergelt, Bernhard; Moeyersons, Jan; Munro, Neil; Deckers, Jozef; Billi, Paolo; Poesen, Jean

    2014-07-01

    As quantitative or spatially distributed studies of environmental change over truly long-term periods of more than 100 years are extremely rare, we re-photographed 361 landscapes that appear on historical photographs (1868-1994) within a 40,000 km(2) study area in northern Ethiopia. Visible evidence of environmental changes apparent from the paired photographs was analyzed using an expert rating system. The conditions of the woody vegetation, soil and water conservation structures and land management were worse in the earlier periods compared to their present conditions. The cover by indigenous trees is a notable exception: it peaked in the 1930s, declined afterwards and then achieved a second peak in the early 21st century. Particularly in areas with greater population densities, there has been a significant increase in woody vegetation and soil and water conservation structures over the course of the study period. We conclude that except for an apparent upward movement of the upper tree limit, the direct human impacts on the environment are overriding the effects of climate change in the north Ethiopian highlands and that the northern Ethiopian highlands are currently greener than at any other time in the last 145 years. PMID:24717722

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of steel slag. Study of its behavior under simulated environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Carla; Díaz, Mario; Villa-García, María A

    2010-07-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of steel slag produced in two ArcelorMittal steel plants located in the North of Spain, as well as the study of the influence of simulated environmental conditions on the properties of the slag stored in disposal areas, was carried out by elemental chemical analysis, XRF, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analyzer. Spectroscopic characterization of the slag was also performed by using FTIR spectroscopy. Due to the potential uses of the slag as low cost adsorbent for water treatment and pollutants removal, its detailed textural characterization was carried out by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the slag is a crystalline heterogeneous material whose main components are iron oxides, calcium (magnesium) compounds (hydroxide, oxide, silicates, and carbonate), elemental iron, and quartz. The slags are porous materials with specific surface area of 11 m(2)g(-1), containing both mesopores and macropores. Slag exposure to simulated environmental conditions lead to the formation of carbonate phases. Carbonation reduces the leaching of alkaline earth elements as well as the release of the harmful trace elements Cr (VI) and V. Steel slags with high contents of portlandite and calcium silicates are potential raw materials for CO(2) long-term storage. PMID:20568743

  17. Effects of environmental conditions on inducing charge structures of thunderstorms over Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Sunil Dnyandeo; Gopalakrishnan, Venkatachalam; Murugavel, Palani; Sinkevich, Andrei; Lal, Deen Mani

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that environmental conditions like convective instability, aerosol loading, and availability of moisture content affect the polarity of charge structures of thunderstorms. The electrical characteristics of thunderstorms observed during the pre-monsoon season of year 2009, over Eastern India were studied to identify the effects of different environmental conditions on charge structures of thunderstorms occurring over this region. Electric field and Maxwell current data suggest that at least one of these thunderstorms had an inverted charge structure. Doppler RADAR, radiosonde, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data have been used to compare the microphysical and dynamical characteristics of these thunderstorms. The thermo dynamical structure observed by radiosonde during the day on which an inverted polarity thunderstorm was observed showed very high CAPE in the mixed-phase region compared to other thunderstorm days. Furthermore, the AOD peaked 1 day before this thunderstorm. The back trajectories of winds also suggest that the aerosols might have been transported from a desert region on that day. It has been proposed that the large ice nuclei concentration can produce dominant positive charge in the lower portion of the mixed-phase region by maintaining ice saturation.

  18. Heterogeneous Kinetics of cis-Pinonic Acid with Hydroxyl Radical under Different Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chengyue; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Jinzhu; Ma, Qingxin; Chu, Biwu; He, Hong

    2015-06-25

    To understand the atmospheric fate of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), heterogeneous degradation behaviors of a specific tracer derived from ?-pinene-cis-pinonic acid (CPA), initiated by hydroxyl radicals (OH), were investigated under different environmental conditions using a flow reactor. The second-order rate constant (k2) of the CPA-OH reaction was determined to be (6.17 ± 1.07) × 10(-12) cm(3)·molecule(-1)·s(-1) at 25 °C and 40% relative humidity (RH). Higher temperature promoted this reaction, while relative humidity had a little inhibiting effect on it. The atmospheric lifetime of CPA varied from 2.1 to 3.3 days under different environmental conditions. Infrared spectrometry (IR), density functional theory (DFT) calculation and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results indicated that the oxidation products should be ascribed to poly(carboxylic acid)s. This study shows that the heterogeneous degradation of CPA initiated by OH radical is appreciable, and the concentrations of CPA measured in field measurements may underestimate the corresponding precursors of SOA. PMID:26017096

  19. The Role of Abiotic Environmental Conditions and Herbivory in Shaping Bacterial Community Composition in Floral Nectar

    PubMed Central

    Samuni-Blank, Michal; Izhaki, Ido; Laviad, Sivan; Bar-Massada, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram; Halpern, Malka

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that “everything is everywhere, but the environment selects”. Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria) and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient. Bacteria were sampled from floral nectar and bugs at four sites, spanning a geographical range of 200 km from Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions, under open and bagged flower treatments. In agreement with the niche assembly hypothesis, the differences in bacterial community compositions were explained by differences in abiotic environmental conditions. These results suggest that microbial model systems are useful for addressing macro-ecological questions. In addition, similar bacterial communities were found in the nectar and on the surface of the bugs that were documented visiting the flowers. These similarities imply that floral nectar bacteria dispersal is shaped not only by air borne bacteria and nectar consumers as previously reported, but also by visiting vectors like the mirid bugs. PMID:24922317

  20. Species traits and environmental conditions govern the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spooner, D.E.; Vaughn, C.C.; Galbraith, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Changing environments can have divergent effects on biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships at alternating trophic levels. Freshwater mussels fertilize stream foodwebs through nutrient excretion, and mussel species-specific excretion rates depend on environmental conditions. We asked how differences in mussel diversity in varying environments influence the dynamics between primary producers and consumers. We conducted field experiments manipulating mussel richness under summer (low flow, high temperature) and fall (moderate flow and temperature) conditions, measured nutrient limitation, algal biomass and grazing chironomid abundance, and analyzed the data with non-transgressive overyielding and tripartite biodiversity partitioning analyses. Algal biomass and chironomid abundance were best explained by trait-independent complementarity among mussel species, but the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels (algae and grazers) depended on seasonal differences in mussel species' trait expression (nutrient excretion and activity level). Both species identity and overall diversity effects were related to the magnitude of nutrient limitation. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity of a resource-provisioning (nutrients and habitat) group of species influences foodweb dynamics and that understanding species traits and environmental context are important for interpreting biodiversity experiments. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Using Magnetically Responsive Tea Waste to Remove Lead in Waters under Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Siang Yee; Choi, Siwon; Dien, Vivian; Sow-Peh, Yoke Keow; Qi, Genggeng; Hatton, T. Alan; Doyle, Patrick S.; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb2+) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water–deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater–that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16–5.55 ppm) of Pb2+ ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb2+ ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ?70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb2+ ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions. PMID:23818955

  2. ConclusionsConclusions AFM BackgroundAFM Background

    E-print Network

    , feedback maintains F constant (by adjusting z) based on the calculation ______. Air Low Amplitude Vacuum High Frequency SEM image of gold- coated tip Deposit 100nm thick gold coating on tip of conventional Si content areas on in tip; complete overlap indicates complete coating Operation Conditions · FM mode

  3. Transcriptional response of the model planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica SH1T to changing environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wecker, Patricia; Klockow, Christine; Ellrott, Andreas; Quast, Christian; Langhammer, Philipp; Harder, Jens; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Background The marine model organism Rhodopirellula baltica SH1T was the first Planctomycete to have its genome completely sequenced. The genome analysis predicted a complex lifestyle and a variety of genetic opportunities to adapt to the marine environment. Its adaptation to environmental stressors was studied by transcriptional profiling using a whole genome microarray. Results Stress responses to salinity and temperature shifts were monitored in time series experiments. Chemostat cultures grown in mineral medium at 28°C were compared to cultures that were shifted to either elevated (37°C) or reduced (6°C) temperatures as well as high salinity (59.5‰) and observed over 300 min. Heat shock showed the induction of several known chaperone genes. Cold shock altered the expression of genes in lipid metabolism and stress proteins. High salinity resulted in the modulation of genes coding for compatible solutes, ion transporters and morphology. In summary, over 3000 of the 7325 genes were affected by temperature and/or salinity changes. Conclusion Transcriptional profiling confirmed that R. baltica is highly responsive to its environment. The distinct responses identified here have provided new insights into the complex adaptation machinery of this environmentally relevant marine bacterium. Our transcriptome study and previous proteome data suggest a set of genes of unknown functions that are most probably involved in the global stress response. This work lays the foundation for further bioinformatic and genetic studies which will lead to a comprehensive understanding of the biology of a marine Planctomycete. PMID:19725962

  4. The ecophysiology of sulfur isotope fractionation by sulfate reducing bacteria in response to variable environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, W.; Bradley, A. S.; Johnston, D. T.; Pereira, I. A. C.; Venceslau, S.; Wallace, C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur relative to sulfate. The magnitude of discrimination (fractionation) depends on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR, Kaplan & Rittenberg (1964) Can. J. Microbio.; Chambers et al. (1975) Can. J. Microbio; Sim et al. (2011) GCA; Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS), ii) the ambient sulfate concentration (Harrison & Thode (1958) Research; Habicht et al. (2002) Science; Bradley et al. in review), iii) both sulfate and electron donor availability, or iv) an intrinsic physiological limitation (e.g. cellular division rate). When neither sulfate nor electron donor limits csSRR a more complex function relates the magnitude of isotope fractionation to cell physiology and environmental conditions. In recent and on-going work we have examined the importance of enzyme-specific fractionation factors, as well as the influence of electron donor or electron acceptor availability under carefully controlled culture conditions (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). In light of recent advances in MSR genetics and biochemistry we utilize well-characterized mutant strains, along with a continuous-culture methodology (Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS) to further probe the fractionation capacity of this metabolism under controlled physiological conditions. We present our latest findings on the magnitude of S and D/H isotope fractionation in both wild type and mutant strains. We will discuss these in light of recent theoretical advances (Wing & Halevy (2014) PNAS), examining the mode and relevance of MSR isotope fractionation in the laboratory to modern and ancient environmental settings, particularly anoxic marine sediments.

  5. Environmental distribution of acetochlor, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and propisochlor under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Konda, L N; Pásztor, Z

    2001-08-01

    The environmental behavior, movement, distribution, persistence, and runoff by rainfall of the pesticides acetochlor, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and propisochlor were studied under field conditions during a five-month period at normal weather conditions. The pesticide concentrations in soil depths of 0-5 and 5-20 cm, and in sediment and runoff water samples (collected from an artificial reservoir built in the lower part of the experimental plot) were measured every second week and following every runoff event. The contamination of a stream running across the lowest part of the plot was also monitored. The weather conditions were also recorded at the experimental site. The pesticide residues were quantified by a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen phosphorus selective detector (GC-NPD). There was a consistent decrease in pesticide residues in the 0-5 cm soil layer with time after spaying. At 140 days after treatment only atrazine and chlorpyrifos were present; acetochlor and propisochlor were not detected in this soil layer. Atrazine and chlorpyrifos in the soil at a depth of 5-20 cm were detectable during the whole experimental interval, whereas acetochlor and propisochlor concentrations were below the limit of detection. Pesticide losses by the surface runoff process and the contamination of the stream were closely related to the time of rainfall elapsed after treatment and amount of rain at the experimental plots. Losses were primarily dependent on surface rainfall volume and intensity. The maximum detected residues of atrazine and acetochlor in stream water were 1 order of magnitude higher than the maximum residue limit specified by the European Union (EU) for environmental and drinking water (0.1 microg/L for individual compounds and 0.5 microg/L for total pesticides). Chlorpyrifos and propisochlor were not detected in this matrix. PMID:11513679

  6. Major methodological constraints to the assessment of environmental status based on the condition of benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, João Paulo; Pinto, Vanessa; Sá, Erica; Silva, Gilda; Azeda, Carla; Pereira, Tadeu; Quintella, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Lino Costa, José; José Costa, Maria; Chainho, Paula

    2014-05-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was published in 2008 and requires Member States to take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status in aquatic ecosystems by the year of 2020. The MSFD indicates 11 qualitative descriptors for environmental status assessment, including seafloor integrity, using the condition of the benthic community as an assessment indicator. Member States will have to define monitoring programs for each of the MSFD descriptors based on those indicators in order to understand which areas are in a Good Environmental Status and what measures need to be implemented to improve the status of areas that fail to achieve that major objective. Coastal and offshore marine waters are not frequently monitored in Portugal and assessment tools have only been developed very recently with the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The lack of historical data and knowledge on the constraints of benthic indicators in coastal areas requires the development of specific studies addressing this issue. The major objective of the current study was to develop and test and experimental design to assess impacts of offshore projects. The experimental design consisted on the seasonal and interannual assessment of benthic invertebrate communities in the area of future implementation of the structures (impact) and two potential control areas 2 km from the impact area. Seasonal benthic samples were collected at nine random locations within the impact and control areas in two consecutive years. Metrics included in the Portuguese benthic assessment tool (P-BAT) were calculated since this multimetric tool was proposed for the assessment of the ecological status in Portuguese coastal areas under the WFD. Results indicated a high taxonomic richness in this coastal area and no significant differences were found between impact and control areas, indicating the feasibility of establishing adequate control areas in marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, significant differences were found between different seasons and different years, showing that the coastal benthic communities important temporal variations. Although those variations did not affect the status assessment based on metrics that considered the ratio between sensitive and tolerant taxa, diversity indices showed different classifications between seasons and years. These results indicate the need for a temporal stratification of the monitoring programs. That might be achieved by setting different thresholds for specific seasons or selecting specific monitoring seasons. It might also require a regular assessment of the environmental conditions that support the identification of outlier years, which monitoring results should be carefully considered.

  7. Relationship between environmental conditions and rates of coastal erosion in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Overeem, I.; Wobus, C. W.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; LeWinter, A. L.; Stanton, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Rates of coastal cliff erosion are a function of the geometry and substrate of the coast; storm frequency, duration, magnitude, and wave field; and regional sediment sources. In the Arctic, the duration of sea ice-free conditions limits the time over which coastal erosion can occur, and sea water temperature modulates erosion rates where ice content of coastal bluffs is high. Predicting how coastal erosion rates in this environment will respond to future climate change requires that we first understand modern coastal erosion rates. Arctic coastlines are responding rapidly to climate change. Remotely sensed observations of coastline position indicate that the mean annual erosion rate along a 60-km reach of Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast, characterized by high ice content and small grain size, doubled from 7 m yr-1 for the period 1955-1979 to 14 m yr-1 for 2002-2007. Over the last 30 years the duration of the open water season expanded from ?45 days to ?95 days, increasing exposure of permafrost bluffs to seawater by a factor of 2.5. Time-lapse photography indicates that coastal erosion in this environment is a halting process: most significant erosion occurs during storm events in which local water level is elevated by surge, during which instantaneous submarine erosion rates can reach 1-2 m/day. In contrast, at times of low water, or when sea ice is present, erosion rates are negligible. We employ a 1D coastal cross-section numerical model of the erosion of ice-rich permafrost bluffs to explore the sensitivity of the system to environmental drivers. Our model captures the geometry and style of coastal erosion observed near Drew Point, Alaska, including insertion of a melt-notch, topple of ice-wedge-bounded blocks, and subsequent degradation of these blocks. Using consistent rules, we test our model against the temporal pattern of coastal erosion over two periods: the recent past (~30 years), and a short (~2 week) period in summer 2010. Environmental conditions used to drive model runs for the summer of 2010 include ground-based measurements of meteorological conditions (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction) and coastal waters (water level, wave field, water temperature), supplemented by high temporal frequency (4 frames/hour) time-lapse photography of the coast. Reconstruction of the 30-year coastal erosion history is accomplished by assembling published observations and records of meteorology and sea ice conditions, including both ground and satellite-based records, to construct histories of coastline position and environmental conditions. We model wind-driven water level set-up, the local wave field, and water temperature, and find a good match against the short-term erosion record. We then evaluate which environmental drivers are most significant in controlling the rates of coastal erosion, and which melt-erosion rule best captures the coastal history, with a series of sensitivity analyses. The understanding gained from these analyses provides a foundation for evaluating how continuing climate change may influence future coastal erosion rates in the Arctic.

  8. Embryo transcriptome response to environmental factors: implication for its survival under suboptimal conditions.

    PubMed

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tesfaye, Dawit; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl

    2014-09-01

    After its formation, the mammalian zygote undergoes a series of morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations prior to undergoing cell differentiation. The zygote is then transformed into a complex multicellular organism in a defined time window which may differ between species. These orderly embryonic developmental events are tightly regulated by temporal and spatial activation and/or deactivation of genes and gene products. This phenomenon may in turn be dependent on the intrinsic characteristics of the embryo itself, the physiological and biochemical composition of the maternal environment or by in vitro culture condition. In fact, when embryos are subjected to suboptimal culture condition, some of the embryos may escape the environmental stress by activating certain transcripts and some others which are unable to activate anti-stress agents may die or exhibit abnormal development. This phenomenon may partly depend on transcripts and proteins stored during oogenesis. Indeed after embryonic genome activation, the embryo destiny is governed by its own transcripts and protein synthesized over time. Therefore, this review begins by highlighting the type and quality of transcripts accumulated or degraded during oogenesis and its impact on the embryo survival. Thereafter, emphasis is given to the transcriptome response of preimplantation embryos to suboptimal culture conditions. In addition, the long term effect of preimplantation culture environment on the transcriptome response embryos/fetus during peri and post implantation has been addressed. Finally, a brief summary of the epigenetic control of culture induced genetic variation of the embryos has been highlighted. PMID:24972951

  9. Molecular evolution of the hyperthermophilic archaea of the Pyrococcus genus: analysis of adaptation to different environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prokaryotic microorganisms are able to survive and proliferate in severe environmental conditions. The increasing number of complete sequences of prokaryotic genomes has provided the basis for studying the molecular mechanisms of their adaptation at the genomic level. We apply here a computer-based approach to compare the genomes and proteomes from P. furiosus, P. horikoshii, and P. abyssi to identify features of their molecular evolution related to adaptation strategy to diverse environmental conditions. Results Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA genes from 26 Pyrococcus strains suggested that the divergence of P. furiosus, P. horikoshii and P. abyssi might have occurred from ancestral deep-sea organisms. It was demonstrated that the function of genes that have been subject to positive Darwinian selection is closely related to abiotic and biotic conditions to which archaea managed to become adapted. Divergence of the P. furiosus archaea might have been due to loss of some genes involved in cell motility or signal transduction, and/or to evolution under positive selection of the genes for translation machinery. In the course of P. horikoshii divergence, positive selection was found to operate mainly on the transcription machinery; divergence of P. abyssi was related with positive selection for the genes mainly involved in inorganic ion transport. Analysis of radical amino acid replacement rate in evolving P. furiosus, P. horikoshii and P. abyssi showed that the fixation rate was higher for radical substitutions relative to the volume of amino acid side-chain. Conclusions The current results give due credit to the important role of hydrostatic pressure as a cause of variability in the P. furiosus, P. horikoshii and P. abyssi genomes evolving in different habitats. Nevertheless, adaptation to pressure does not appear to be the sole factor ensuring adaptation to environment. For example, at the stage of the divergence of P. horikoshii and P. abyssi, an essential evolutionary role may be assigned to changes in the trophic chain, namely, acquisition of a consumer status at a high (P. horikoshii) or low level (P. abyssi). PMID:20042074

  10. Environmental baseline conditions for impact assessment of unconventional gas exploitation: the G-Baseline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Berhard; Millot, Romain; Parker, Beth L.; Gaucher, Eric; Clarkson, Christopher R.; Cherry, John A.; Humez, Pauline; Cahill, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    A major scientific challenge and an indispensible prerequisite for environmental impact assessment in the context of unconventional gas development is the determination of the baseline conditions against which potential environmental impacts on shallow freshwater resources can be accurately and quantitatively tested. Groundwater and surface water resources overlying the low-permeability hydrocarbon host rocks containing shale gas may be impacted to different extents by naturally occurring saline fluids and by natural gas emanations. Baseline assessments in areas of previous conventional hydrocarbon production may also reveal anthropogenic impacts from these activities not related to unconventional gas development. Once unconventional gas exploitation has started, the baseline may be irrevocably lost by the intricate superposition of geogenic and potential anthropogenic contamination by stray gas, formation waters and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. The objective of the Franco-Canadian NSERC-ANR project G-Baseline is to develop an innovative and comprehensive methodology of geochemical and isotopic characterization of the environmental baseline for water and gas samples from all three essential zones: (1) the production zone, including flowback waters, (2) the intermediate zone comprised of overlying formations, and (3) shallow aquifers and surface water systems where contamination may result from diverse natural or human impacts. The outcome will be the establishment of a methodology based on innovative tracer and monitoring techniques, including traditional and non-traditional isotopes (C, H, O, S, B, Sr, Cl, Br, N, U, Li, Cu, Zn, CSIA...) for detecting, quantifying and modeling of potential leakage of stray gas and of saline formation water mixed with flowback fluids into fresh groundwater resources and surface waters taking into account the pathways and mechanisms of fluid and gas migration. Here we present an outline of the project as well as first results from chemical and isotopic analyses on gas, fluid and solid samples collected during a baseline monitoring program at the Carbon Management Canada field research site in south-eastern Alberta, Canada.

  11. Selection for Genetic Variation Inducing Pro-Inflammatory Responses under Adverse Environmental Conditions in a Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kuningas, Maris; May, Linda; Tamm, Riin; van Bodegom, David; van den Biggelaar, Anita H. J.; Meij, Johannes J.; Frölich, Marijke; Ziem, Juventus B.; Suchiman, Helena E. D.; Metspalu, Andres; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic age-associated, degenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory host responses that are deleterious later in life may originate from evolutionary selection for genetic variation mediating resistance to infectious diseases under adverse environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings In the Upper-East region of Ghana where infection has remained the leading cause of death, we studied the effect on survival of genetic variations at the IL10 gene locus that have been associated with chronic diseases. Here we show that an IL10 haplotype that associated with a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, characterised by low IL-10 (p?=?0.028) and high TNF-? levels (p?=?1.39×10?3), was enriched among Ghanaian elders (p?=?2.46×10?6). Furthermore, in an environment where the source of drinking water (wells/rivers vs. boreholes) influences mortality risks (HR 1.28, 95% CI [1.09–1.50]), we observed that carriers of the pro-inflammatory haplotype have a survival advantage when drinking from wells/rivers but a disadvantage when drinking from boreholes (pinteraction?=?0.013). Resequencing the IL10 gene region did not uncover any additional common variants in the pro-inflammatory haplotype to those SNPs that were initially genotyped. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these data lend strong arguments for the selection of pro-inflammatory host responses to overcome fatal infection and promote survival in adverse environments. PMID:19907653

  12. Changes in fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition of zooplankton assemblages related to environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in zooplankton fatty acid and hydrocarbon patterns are described in relation to changes in environmental conditions and species composition. The regulation of zooplankton abundance by sea nettle-ctenophore interaction was examined in a small Rhode Island coastal pond. Sea nettles were nettles were able to eliminate ctenophores from the pond and subsequently zooplankton abundance increased. During one increase in zooplankton abundance, it was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased while monounsaturated fatty acids increased. It was concluded that this shift in biochemical pattern was due to food limitation. In addition, zooplankton fatty acids were used in multivariate discriminant analysis to classify whether zooplankton were from coastal or estuarine environments. Zooplankton from coastal environments were characterized by higher monounsaturate fatty acids. Zooplankton hydrocarbon composition was affected by species composition and by pollution inputs. The presence of Calanus finmarchicus was detected by increased levels of pristane.

  13. The yeast ubiquitin ligase SCFMet30: connecting environmental and intracellular conditions to cell division

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Peter; Su, Ning-Yuan; Yen, James L; Ouni, Ikram; Flick, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Ubiquitination regulates a host of cellular processes and is well known for its role in progression through the cell division cycle. In budding yeast, cadmium and arsenic stress, the availability of sulfur containing amino acids, and the intracellular concentration of S-adenosylmethionine are linked to cell cycle regulation through the ubiquitin ligase SCFMet30. Regulation is achieved by ubiquitination of the transcription factor Met4. Met4 activity is controlled by a regulatory K48-linked ubiquitin chain that is synthesized by Cdc34/SCFMet30. A ubiquitin-interacting-motif (UIM) present in Met4 prevents degradation of ubiquitinated Met4 allowing the ubiquitin chain to function as a reversible switch of Met4 activity. Here we discuss mechanisms of Met4 and SCFMet30 regulation in response to intracellular and environmental conditions, and describe the integration of these signals with cell cycle control. PMID:16895602

  14. Environmental conditions impacting juvenile Chinook salmon growth off central California: An ecosystem model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, J.; Huff, D. D.; Martin, B. T.; Jackson, D. W.; Edwards, C. A.; Rose, K. A.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K. S.; Lindley, S. T.; Wells, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    A fully coupled ecosystem model is used to identify the effects of environmental conditions and upwelling variability on growth of juvenile Chinook salmon in central California coastal waters. The ecosystem model framework consists of an ocean circulation submodel, a biogeochemical submodel, and an individual-based submodel for salmon. Simulation results indicate that years favorable for juvenile salmon growth off central California are characterized by particularly intense early season upwelling (i.e., March through May), leading to enhanced krill concentrations during summer near the location of ocean entry (i.e., Gulf of the Farallones). Seasonally averaged growth rates in the model are generally consistent with observed values and suggest that juvenile salmon emigrating later in the season (i.e., late May and June) achieve higher weight gains during their first 90 days of ocean residency.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus metabolic response to changing environmental conditions - a metabolomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Liebeke, Manuel; Lalk, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Microorganisms preserve their metabolic function against a wide range of external perturbations including biotic or abiotic factors by utilizing cellular adaptations to maintain cell homeostasis. Functional genomics aims to detect such adaptive alterations on the level of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome to understand system wide changes and to identify interactions between the different levels of biochemical organization. Microbial metabolomics measures metabolites, the direct biochemical response to the environment, and is pivotal to the understanding of the variability and dynamics of bacterial cell metabolism. Metabolomics can measure many different types of compounds including primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, second messengers, quorum sensing compounds and others, which all contribute to the complex bacterial response to an environmental change. Recent data confirmed that many metabolic processes in pathogenic bacteria are linked to virulence and invasive capabilities. Deciphering bacterial metabolism in response to specific environmental conditions and in specific genetic backgrounds will help map the complex network between the metabolome and the other "-omes". Here, we will review a selection of case studies for the pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and summarize the current state of metabolomics literature covering staphylococci metabolism under different physiological states. PMID:24439195

  16. Evidence for the role of environmental agents in the initiation or progression of autoimmune conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J J; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    The concordance of autoimmune disease among identical twins is virtually always less than 50% and often in the 25-40% range. This observation, as well as epidemic clustering of some autoimmune diseases following xenobiotic exposure, reinforces the thesis that autoimmune disease is secondary to both genetic and environmental factors. Because nonliving agents do not have genomes, disease characteristics involving nonliving xenobiotics are primarily secondary to host phenotype and function. In addition, because of individual genetic susceptibilities based not only on major histocompatibility complex differences but also on differences in toxin metabolism, lifestyles, and exposure rates, individuals will react differently to the same chemicals. With these comments in mind it is important to note that there have been associations of a number of xenobiotics with human autoimmune disease, including mercury, iodine, vinyl chloride, canavanine, organic solvents, silica, l-tryptophan, particulates, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. In addition, there is discussion in the literature that raises the possibility that xenobiotics may also exacerbate an existing autoimmune disease. In this article we discuss these issues and, in particular, the evidence for the role of environmental agents in the initiation or progression of autoimmune conditions. With the worldwide deterioration of the environment, this is a particularly important subject for human health. PMID:10970167

  17. Plant response to environmental conditions: assessing potential production, water demand, and negative effects of water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, François

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for analyzing plant performance and its genetic variability under a range of environmental conditions. Biomass accumulation is linked every day to available light in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) domain, multiplied by the proportion of light intercepted by plants and by the radiation use efficiency. Total biomass is cumulated over the duration of the considered phase (e.g., plant cycle or vegetative phase). These durations are essentially constant for a given genotype provided that time is corrected for temperature (thermal time). Several ways of expressing thermal time are reviewed. Two alternative equations are presented, based either on the effect of transpiration, or on yield components. Their comparative interests and drawbacks are discussed. The genetic variability of each term of considered equations affects yield under water deficit, via mechanisms at different scales of plant organization and time. The effect of any physiological mechanism on yield of stressed plants acts via one of these terms, although the link is not always straightforward. Finally, I propose practical ways to compare the productivity of genotypes in field environments, and a “minimum dataset” of environmental data and traits that should be recorded for that. PMID:23423357

  18. Food for thought: Conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.runhaar@geo.uu.n [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80, 115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: p.r.honnef-runhaar@gw.utwente.n [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Oegema, Tammo, E-mail: tammo.oegema@imsa.n [IMSA Amsterdam, Prins Hendriklaan 15, 1075 AX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses-frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world-act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in decision-making may be understood from this perspective. Environmental knowledge that is inconsistent with dominant discourses runs the risk of being ignored. Discourses on the value of EA as a tool for decision-making may have a similar effect. Stimulating decision-makers and stakeholders to critically reflect on and reconsider their discourses in the light of EAs-also known as frame reflection or policy learning-may enhance the probability that these assessments and the knowledge that they generate impact upon decision-making. Up to now little has been written about how discourse reflection in the context of EA can be promoted. Valuable inputs are fragmented over different bodies of literature. In this paper we draw from these bodies to identify favourable conditions for discourse reflection.

  19. Holocene size variations in two diatom species off East Antarctica: Productivity vs environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Xavier

    2009-11-01

    I here present a biometric investigation on two diatom species, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (O'Meara) Hustedt and Fragilariopsis curta (Van Heurck) Hustedt, in Holocene samples from sediment core MD03-2601 from the Antarctic Continental Shelf off Adélie Land, East Antarctica. Apical valve length measurements of the two species are compared to their respective absolute and relative abundances as a proxy for the species productivity. Fragilariopsis kerguelensis valves were longer and more abundant during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and smaller and less abundant during the colder Late-Holocene period. Conversely, F. curta valves were smaller and less abundant during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and longer and more abundant during the colder Late-Holocene period. Mean apical valve length variations even follow centennial-to-millennial oscillations in the species abundances. Maximal valve length and minimal valve length were also larger during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and during the colder Late-Holocene period for F. keguelensis and F. curta, respectively. The observed positive size-abundance relationships are linked to the environmental conditions at the core location that stands today at the lower ecological limit for F. kerguelensis and upper ecological limit for F. curta. More favourable environmental conditions (warmer, less icy for F. kerguelensis and colder, icier for F. curta) allowed for sexual reproduction at the upper range of the sexually inducible size window and subsequent restoration of larger initial cells which, in turn, resulted in overall bigger size of the species populations, though vegetative multiplication was more frequent.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in a terrestrial raptor: relationships to environmental conditions and individual traits.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Ahrens, Lutz; Herzke, Dorte; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife may be influenced by the physical and biotic environment, and concentrations vary greatly among areas, seasons, and individuals. Different hypotheses about sources of variation in perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations were examined in eggs (n?=?107) of tawny owls (Strix aluco) collected over a 24-yr period (1986-2009) in Norway. Predictor variables included the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), temperature, snow, food availability (vole abundance), and individual traits such as age, body condition, and clutch size. Concentrations of both perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) varied several fold in the population, both inter- and intra-annually. Moreover, individuals laid eggs with several times higher or lower PFAS concentrations within few years (1 yr-5 yr). After controlling for temporal trends (i.e., declining PFOS and increasing PFCA concentrations), both PFOS and PFCAs were positively associated to the winter NAO in the previous year (NAOy - 1 ), suggesting that atmospheric transport may be affecting the input of PFASs to the local ecosystem. Perfluoro-octane sulfonate was negatively related to temperature, but the pattern was complex as there was an interaction between temperature and the feeding conditions. The PFOS accumulation was highest in years with high vole abundance and low to medium temperatures. For PFCAs, there was an interaction between NAOy - 1 and feeding conditions, suggesting that strong air transport toward Norway and high consumption of voles led to a moderate increase in PFCA accumulation. The individual traits, however, had very little impact on the concentrations of PFASs in the eggs. The present study thus suggests that annual variation in environmental conditions influences the concentrations of PFASs in a terrestrial raptor such as the tawny owl. PMID:25323676

  1. Environmental effects on grass-endophyte associations in the harsh conditions of south Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Novas, M Victoria; Collantes, Marta; Cabral, Daniel

    2007-07-01

    Cool-season grasses are frequently infected by Neotyphodium endophytes and this association is often considered as a mutualistic symbiosis. We examined the incidence of Neotyphodium in populations of Bromus setifolius, Phleum alpinum and Poa spiciformis, native and wide-spread grasses from south Patagonia, Argentina. The incidence of 36 populations of Bromus setifolius was studied in association with climatic and soil variables. 31 populations of Ph. alpinum were sampled in five different plant communities. Seventeen populations of P. spiciformis were sampled in three different plant communities. The association between incidence and climatic variables in Ph. alpinum and between incidence and soil fertility in P. spiciformis was investigated. In B. setifolius endophyte incidence was positively correlated with annual average rainfall contrary to the results found in Ph. alpinum. All the populations of P. spiciformis were infected by endophytes and the incidence was associated with plant community. The Neotyphodium-grass interaction is variable in natural populations, supporting the increasing evidence that the Neotyphodium-host interaction depends, in many cases, on the environmental conditions. Field observations suggest that in detrimental low growth conditions the association is not favoured, leading to a decrease in the endophyte frequency of infection or even to the complete loss of the association. PMID:17466027

  2. Migration path annotation: cross-continental study of migration-flight response to environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mandel, James T; Bohrer, Gil; Winkler, David W; Barber, David R; Houston, C Stuart; Bildstein, Keith L

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the movements of animals is pivotal for understanding their ecology and predicting their survival in the face of rapid global changes to climate, land use, and habitats, thus facilitating more effective habitat management. Migration by flying animals is an extreme form of movement that may be especially influenced by weather. With satellite telemetry studies, and the growing availability of information about the Earth's weather and land surface conditions, many data are collected that can advance our understanding about the mechanisms that shape migrations. We present the track annotation approach for movement data analysis using information about weather from the North American Reanalysis data set, a publicly available, regional, high-resolution model-observation hybrid product, and about topography, from a publicly available high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). As a case study, we present the analysis of the response to environmental conditions in three contrasting populations of Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) across North America, tracked with a three-dimensional GPS-based sensor. Two populations in the east and west coasts of the United States responded similarly to weather, indicating use of both slope and thermal soaring. Continental-interior, "Plains populations," exhibited a different migratory pattern primarily indicative of thermal soaring. These differences help us understand the constraints and behaviors of soaring migrants. The track annotation approach allowed large-scale comparative study of movement in an important migratory species, and will enable similar studies at local to global scales. PMID:21939059

  3. Influence of Environmental Conditions on Hydrogen Peroxide Formation by Streptococcus gordonii

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, John P.; Stinson, Murray W.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide generated by viridans group streptococci has an antagonistic effect on many bacterial species, including a number of pathogens, in the oral environment. This study examines the influence of a variety of environmental conditions on rates of hydrogen peroxide synthesis by Streptococcus gordonii. Hydrogen peroxide was synthesized at every concentration of glucose and sucrose tested from 10 ?M to 1 M, with the highest rates occurring at 0.1 mM sucrose and 1 mM glucose. S. gordonii appeared to have an intracellular store of polysaccharide which supported hydrogen peroxide formation even when the assay buffer contained no carbohydrate. Most heavy metal ions inhibited peroxidogenesis, and anaerobic conditions induced adaptive down-regulation of hydrogen peroxide synthesis; however, peroxidogenesis was generally insensitive to moderate increases in salt concentration, alteration of the mineral content of the assay solution, and changes in pH between 5.0 and 7.5. In contrast, stimulation of peroxidogenesis occurred in 1 mM Mg2+ and 10 to 50 mM potassium l-lactate. Maximum peroxidogenesis occurred during the mid-logarithmic and late-logarithmic phases of bacterial growth. These bacterial responses may have significant implications for oral ecology and oral health. PMID:10569775

  4. Jumping to conclusions in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Simon L; Averbeck, Bruno B; Furl, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with a variety of symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, and cognitive dysfunction. Impairments on decision-making tasks are routinely reported: evidence points to a particular deficit in learning from and revising behavior following feedback. In addition, patients tend to make hasty decisions when probabilistic judgments are required. This is known as “jumping to conclusions” (JTC) and has typically been demonstrated by presenting participants with colored beads drawn from one of two “urns” until they claim to be sure which urn the beads are being drawn from (the proportions of colors vary in each urn). Patients tend to make early decisions on this task, and there is evidence to suggest that a hasty decision-making style might be linked to delusion formation and thus be of clinical relevance. Various accounts have been proposed regarding what underlies this behavior. In this review, we briefly introduce the disorder and the decision-making deficits associated with it. We then explore the evidence for each account of JTC in the context of a wider decision-making deficit and then go on to summarize work exploring JTC in healthy controls using pharmacological manipulations and functional imaging. Finally, we assess whether JTC might have a role in therapy. PMID:26170674

  5. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320 and 550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed: (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a teardrop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off-mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent events, characterised by large fluctuations in environmental conditions near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a day, which is the largest temperature variability as measured so far in a cold-water coral habitat. Warm events, related to Gulf Stream meanders, had the duration of roughly 1 week and the current during these events was directed to the NNE. The consequences of such events must be significant given the strong effects of temperature on the metabolism of cold-water corals. Furthermore, elevated acoustic backscatter values and high mass fluxes were also recorded during these events, indicating a second stressor that may affect the corals. The abrasive nature of sand in combination with strong currents might sand blast the corals. We conclude that cold-water corals near Cape Lookout live under extreme conditions that limit mound growth at present.

  6. Changes of Enzyme Activities and Compositions of Abnormal Fruiting Bodies Grown under Artificial Environmental Conditions in Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soo Muk; June, Chang Sung; Weon, Hang Yeon; Park, Jeong Sik; Choi, Sun Gyu; Cheong, Jong Chun; Sung, Jae Mo

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical changes of abnormal fruiting bodies grown under artificial environmental conditions in P. ostreatus. Abnormal mushroom growth during cultivation damages the production of good quality mushroom. This study showed that different environmental conditions produced morphological changes in the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus. The fruiting bodies with morphological changes were collected and examined for differences in biochemical properties, enzyme activities, and carbohydrates composition. The enzyme activities assay showed that glucanase and chitinase activities decreased when the temperature was below or above the optimum cultivation temperature for P. ostreatus. The biochemical compositions of the abnormal mushroom were significantly different from the normal fruiting bodies. It was suggested that the changes in the biochemical composition of abnormal mushroom were caused by the unfavorable environmental conditions during mushroom cultivation. PMID:24049471

  7. Encystment of Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis: Effects of environmental conditions and cell concentration.

    PubMed

    Fouque, Emilie; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Thomas, Vincent; Humeau, Philippe; Héchard, Yann

    2014-11-01

    Vermamoeba vermiformis is a free-living amoeba (FLA) which is widely distributed in the environment. It is known to colonize water systems and to be a reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella pneumophila. For these reasons the control of V. vermiformis represents an important health issue. However, FLA may be resistant to disinfection treatments due to the process of encystment. Thereby, it is important to better understand factors influencing this process. In this aim, we investigated the effect of temperature, pH, osmotic pressure and cell concentration on the encystment of two V. vermiformis strains. Encystment was quite fast, with a 100% encystment rate being observed after 9h of incubation. For the two strains, an optimal encystment was obtained at 25 and 37°C. Concerning pH and osmotic pressure, there were different effects on the encystment according to the tested strains. For the reference strain (ATCC 50237), the patterns of encystment were similar for pH comprised between 5 and 9 and for KCl concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mol L(-1). For the environmental strain (172A) an optimal encystment was obtained for basic pH (8 and 9) and for a concentration in KCl of 0.1 mol L(-1). The results also clearly demonstrated that the encystment rate increased with cell concentration, suggesting that there is an inter-amoebal communication. The present study establish for the first time environmental conditions favoring encystment and would lay the foundations to better control the encystment of V. vermiformis. PMID:24721257

  8. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1–3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1–39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts. These data identify environmental factors affecting transmission and potential distribution of each parasite taxon, and provide important information increasing our understanding of the potential effects of environmental change on parasite ecology. PMID:24533331

  9. Climatic and environmental conditions favoring the crossing of the Carpathians by early Neolithic populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Per?oiu, Ioana; Per?oiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    The study of the origin and spread of Neolithic has been the subject of heated debate since the early studies of Childe (1942). To what extent the dispersal process was influenced by environmental factors is still debated, one of the issues being whether climatic conditions influencing agricultural practices, could have influenced the dispersal route, "blocking" some of the Neolithic societies in front of ecological barriers. Data from Neolithic sites in SE Europe shows that a continuous stream of people and cultures flowed through the Danube's Iron Gates towards Central Europe, while in the eastern part of Europe this process was delayed, people and cultures "moving" around the Carpathians and crossing them with a delay of ca. 1000 years. One of the possible avenues for this crossing is the floodplain of Some?u Mic River (Transylvanian depression), home to the oldest (~8500 cal. BP) Neolithic settlement in Romania. In this paper, we review the climatic and environmental changes that affected the region at the time of Neolithic dispersal. Pollen and stable isotopes in cave ice indicate an early Holocene rapid warming during summer months, peaking around 7 ka cal. BP; and a delayed warming for autumn and winter months, peaking at 5 ka cal. BP, both followed by a continuous cooling trend towards the present. Some?u Mic River developed and maintained a narrow sinuous channel during the Holocene, with local development of meanders and anabranches, in response to both climatic and geologic controlling factors. Archaeological finds in the floodplain and the lower terraces suggest that human societies in the region responded in sensitive manner to these climatic and environmental changes. During warm and dry periods, with low fluvial activity, the number of settlements increased in the floodplain's perimeter, while during the short cold and humid periods, the number of settlements rapidly increased on the lower terraces and on the valley slopes, disappearing from the flooded valley bottom and flash-flood prone alluvial fans. Our results suggest that once reaching the foothills of the Carpathian Mts., early Neolithic communities encountered a forested landscape and rather than clearing it for agriculture, they have moved along the middle Danube towards Pannonia and Central Europe, as well as along the lower reaches of the Danube's tributaries, following the most suitable and easily accessible terrain for agriculture practices.

  10. Holocene environmental conditions in South Georgia - a multi-proxy study on a coastal marine record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Sonja; Jivcov, Sandra; Groten, Sonja; Viehberg, Finn; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Holocene environmental history of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia so far has been reconstructed from lake sediments, peat records and geomorphological observations. The data available indicate a postglacial ice retreat, which reached the coastal areas around the early Holocene. Climate reconstructions for the Holocene, on the other hand, provide a more complex picture, which may partly result from the influence of local effects. We present preliminary results of a multi-proxy study on a sediment core recovered in early 2013 from a coastal marine inlet (Little Jason Lagoon) in Cumberland West Bay. The results include elemental data (high resolution XRF-scans, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, and sulphur, lipid biomarkers, and macrofossil data. The sediment core comprises a c. 11m long sequence, which contains a complete record of postglacial sedimentation in the inlet. Its base is formed by a diamicton, indicating a former glaciation of the site, which is overlain by well-stratified sediments passing over into more massive muds in the upper past. A radiocarbon age from the organic-rich sediments above the diamicton provides a first estimate of 9700 14C years BP for a minimum age of ice retreat. We use the elemental data to infer changes in clastic input (e.g., K/Ti ratios), productivity (TOC) and water salinity (Cl counts) in the course of the Holocene. While Little Jason Lagoon has a connection to the sea today (sill depth c. 1 m), a decrease in Cl counts downcore points to fresher conditions in the early part of the record. This could be an indicator for changing relative sea level and/or changes in the amounts of freshwater inflow from the catchment. Macroscopic plant remains and lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and sterols) provide information on the terrestrial vegetation in the catchment and its changes through time as well as on the influence of marine conditions in the lagoon. We suggest that the record from Little Jason Lagoon provides an important link between terrestrial and marine archives of Holocene environmental change in South Georgia.

  11. EMAP AND OTHER TOOLS FOR MEASURING BIODIVERSITY HABITAT CONDITIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several research efforts that will contribute to assessment and monitoring of neotropical migratory birds are described, including: ) the use of neotropical migrants in the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) as potential indicators of general environmental con...

  12. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions: individual self-maintenance and the open-ended evolution of a collection of similar entities. The other category refuse to include reproduction and evolution, and take a sort of psychic view of the living. Section 6 examines the relationship between the question of the definition of life and that of the origins of life. There is a close parallel between the general conceptions of the origins of life and the definitions of life. PMID:20162362

  13. Environmental Conditioning of Skeletal Anomalies Typology and Frequency in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Prestinicola, Loredana; Boglione, Clara; Makridis, Pavlos; Spanò, Attilio; Rimatori, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, 981 reared juveniles of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were analysed, 721 of which were from a commercial hatchery located in Northern Italy (Venice, Italy) and 260 from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (Crete, Greece). These individuals were from 4 different egg batches, for a total of 10 different lots. Each egg batch was split into two lots after hatching, and reared with two different methodologies: intensive and semi-intensive. All fish were subjected to processing for skeletal anomaly and meristic count analysis. The aims involved: (1) quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing whether differences in skeletal elements arise between siblings and, if so, what they are; (2) investigating if any skeletal bone tissue/ossification is specifically affected by changing environmental rearing conditions; and (3) contributing to the identification of the best practices for gilthead seabream larval rearing in order to lower the deformity rates, without selections. The results obtained in this study highlighted that: i) in all the semi-intensive lots, the bones having intramembranous ossification showed a consistently lower incidence of anomalies; ii) the same clear pattern was not observed in the skeletal elements whose ossification process requires a cartilaginous precursor. It is thus possible to ameliorate the morphological quality (by reducing the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies and the variability in meristic counts of dermal bones) of reared seabream juveniles by lowering the stocking densities (maximum 16 larvae/L) and increasing the volume of the hatchery rearing tanks (minimum 40 m3). Feeding larvae with a wide variety of live (wild) preys seems further to improve juvenile skeletal quality. Additionally, analysis of the morphological quality of juveniles reared under two different semi-intensive conditions, Mesocosm and Large Volumes, highlighted a somewhat greater capacity of Large Volumes to significantly augment the gap with siblings reared in intensive (conventional) modality. PMID:23409031

  14. Environmental conditions at the South Col of Mount Everest and their impact on hypoxia and hypothermia experienced by mountaineers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypoxia and hypothermia are acknowledged risk factors for those who venture into high-altitude regions. There is, however, little in situ data that can be used to quantify these risks. Here, we use 7?months of continuous meteorological data collected at the South Col of Mount Everest (elevation 7,896?m above sea level) to provide the first in situ characterization of these risks near the summit of Mount Everest. Methods This is accomplished through the analysis of barometric pressure, temperature and wind speed data collected by an automatic weather station installed at the South Col. These data were also used as inputs to parameterizations of wind chill equivalent temperature (WCT) and facial frostbite time (FFT). Results The meteorological data show clear evidence of seasonality, with evidence of pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon conditions. Low pressures, cold temperatures and high wind speeds characterize the pre- and post-monsoon periods with significant variability associated with the passage of large-scale weather systems. In contrast, the monsoon period is characterized by higher pressures, warmer temperatures and lower wind speeds with a pronounced reduction in variability. These environmental conditions are reflected in WCTs as low as ?50°C and FFTs as short as 2?min during the pre- and post-monsoon periods. During the monsoon, the risk of cold injury is reduced with WCTs of order ?20°C and FFTs longer than 60?min. The daily cycle in the various parameters is also investigated in order to assess the changes in conditions that would be experienced during a typical summit day. The post-monsoon period in particular shows a muted daily cycle in most parameters that is proposed to be the result of the random timing of large-scale weather systems. Conclusions Our results provide the first in situ characterization of the risk of hypoxia and hypothermia on Mount Everest on daily, weekly and seasonal timescales, and provide additional confirmation as to the extreme environment experienced by those attempting to summit Mount Everest and other high Himalayan mountains. PMID:23849229

  15. Interaction of ribonucleotides with oxide and silicate minerals under varying environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillie, C.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large quantities of nucleic acids are found in natural environments, released after the death of an organism and subsequent cell lysis [1]. Nucleic acids are known to adsorb on mineral surfaces [2, 3, 4], which protect them from degradation, whether enzymatic [5, 6] or UV-mediated [7]. It may then contribute to the extracellular genetic pool available in soils to microorganisms for horizontal gene transfers [8]. In order to better understand the behaviour of extracellular nucleic acids in soils, we have investigated the interactions between nucleotides, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP, 5'-AMP and 5'-UMP, and ?-alumina as a model compound for Al in six-fold coordination in soil minerals. We carried out batch adsorption experiments over a wide range of pH, ionic strength and surface loading. Alumina adsorbs high amounts of nucleotides > 2 ?mol/m2. In similar environmental conditions, swelling clays such as nontronite and montmorillonite adsorb less than 0.1 ?mol/m2 if the total surface area is taken under consideration. However, if only the edges of clay particles are considered, the amount of nucleotides adsorbed reaches values between 1.2 and 2 ?mol/m2 [9], similar to the alumina and consistent with ';oxide-like' surface sites on the edges of the clay particles. Surface complexation modeling enabled us to predict the speciation of the surface species on the alumina, as well as the stoichiometry and thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the adsorption of nucleotides. We used the extended triple-layer model (ETLM), that takes into account the electrical work linked to the desorption of chemisorbed water molecules during the formation of inner-sphere complexes. Two surface species are thought to form on the surface of corundum: a monodentate inner-sphere complex, dominant at pH < 7.5, and a bidentate outer-sphere complex, dominant at higher pH. Both complexes involve interactions between the negatively charged phosphate group and the positively charged surface of alumina. Our results provide a better understanding of how nucleic acids attach to mineral surfaces under varying environmental conditions in soil environments. Moreover, the predicted configuration of nucleotide surface species, bound via the phosphate group, could have implications for the abiotic formation and concentration of nucleic acids in the context of the origin of life. References : [1] Lorenz and Wackernagel (1987), Applied and environmental microbial., 2948-2952 [2] Ferris (2005), Reviews in mineralogy & geochemistry 59, 187-210 [3] Cleaves H.J. et al. (2011), Chemosphere 83, 1560-1567 [4] Arora & Kamaluddin (2009), Astrobiology 9, 165-171 [5] Cai et al. (2006), Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (9), 2971-2976 [6] Franchi and Gallori (2005),Gene 346, 205-214 [7] Scappini et al. (2004), International Journal of Astrobiology 3(1), 17-19 [8] Levy-Booth et al. (2007), Soil Biol. Biochem. 39, 2977-2991. [9] Feuillie et al. (2013), Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (in press)

  16. Ruggedizing infrared integrated Dewar-detector assemblies for harsh environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Ashush, Nataniel; Shlomovich, Baruch; Oppenhaim, Yaakov; Gridish, Yaakov; Kahanov, Ezra; Koifman, Alina; Tuito, Avi

    2014-06-01

    Cryogenically cooled infrared electro-optical payloads have to operate and survive frequent exposure to harsh vibrational and shock conditions typical of the modern battlefield. This necessitates the development of special approaches to ruggedizing their sensitive components. The ruggedization requirement holds true specifically for Integrated Dewar-Detector Assemblies (IDDA), where the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) is usually supported by a thin-walled cold finger enveloped by an evacuated tubular Dewar. Without sufficient ruggedization, harsh environmental vibration may give rise to structural resonance responses resulting in spoiled image quality and even mechanical fractures due to material fatigue. The authors present their approach for the ruggedization of the IDDA by attaching the FPA to a semi-rigid support extending from the dynamically damped Dewar envelope. A mathematical model relies on an experimentally evaluated set of frequency response functions for a reference system and a lumped model of a wideband dynamic absorber. By adding only 2% to the weight of the IDDA, the authors have managed to attenuate the relative deflection and absolute acceleration of the FPA by a factor of 3. The analytical predictions are in full agreement with experiment.

  17. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  18. Environmental risk assessment of GE plants under low-exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew; Devos, Yann; Raybould, Alan; Bigelow, Patrick; Gray, Alan

    2014-12-01

    The requirement for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically engineered (GE) plants prior to large scale or commercial introduction into the environment is well established in national laws and regulations, as well as in international agreements. Since the first introductions of GE plants in commercial agriculture in the 1990s, a nearly universal paradigm has emerged for conducting these assessments based on a few guiding principles. These include the concept of case-by-case assessment, the use of comparative assessments, and a focus of the ERA on characteristics of the plant, the introduced trait, and the receiving environment as well as the intended use. In practice, however, ERAs for GE plants have frequently focused on achieving highly detailed characterizations of potential hazards at the expense of consideration of the relevant levels of exposure. This emphasis on exhaustive hazard characterization can lead to great difficulties when applied to ERA for GE plants under low-exposure conditions. This paper presents some relevant considerations for conducting an ERA for a GE plant in a low-exposure scenario in the context of the generalized ERA paradigm, building on discussions and case studies presented during a session at ISBGMO 12. PMID:24178711

  19. Survival response of Bacteriovorax in surface biofilm versus suspension when stressed by extremes in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Henry N; Turng, Been-Foo; Kelley, Jacqueline I

    2009-10-01

    The Bacteriovorax, previously in the genus Bdellovibrio, are prokaryotes that prey upon many Gram-negative bacteria. They are ubiquitous in salt-water environments and have been reported to have a strong association with biofilms. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that this association affords protection for the Bacteriovorax and enhances their survival in nature when exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Experiments were designed to compare their survival in biofilms versus in suspension when exposed to extremes in salinity and temperature. Natural mixed-population biofilms generated in moderate-salinity (16 per thousand) Patuxent River water and containing Bacteriovorax were exposed to drastic changes in salinity by placing in low-salinity (1 per thousand) river water and salt-free (no measurable salinity) distilled water for up to 14 days. In a separate trial, the biofilm was exposed to extremes in temperature, 5 degrees C and 35 degrees C, for up to 12 weeks in aquarium mesocosms. Simultaneously, suspensions of the Bacteriovorax were exposed to the same extremes in salinity and temperature as biofilms. The results revealed that the Bacteriovorax typically were able to survive for a week or longer while in association with biofilms than when in suspension. These results are consistent with observations from nature and establish that biofilms are important in the survival and ecology of the Bacteriovorax. PMID:19267151

  20. Environmental enrichment blocks reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjuan; Meng, Li; Huang, Keyu; Wang, Hua; Li, Dongliang

    2015-07-10

    This study aimed to explore the effect of environmental enrichment (EE) on the reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in C57Bl/6J mice. To investigate the effect of training dose on the extinction and relapse of ethanol-induced CPP, doses of ethanol were applied and we found 0.8g/kg and 1.6g/kg training doses lead to significant CPP. In the reinstatement procedure, previously extinguished 1.6g/kg ethanol CPP could be markedly reinstated by a priming injection of 0.8g/kg. In contrast, priming with 0.4g/kg of ethanol failed to reinstate the CPP induced by 0.8g/kg. To investigate whether concomitant EE exposure could prevent the reinstatement of ethanol-induced CPP, one half of the mice were housed in standard environment (SE) and the other half in EE during the extinction and reinstatement session in the second experiment. Our study showed that reinstatement of ethanol-induced CPP was blocked by EE and the extinction rate was the same between SE and EE mice. These findings suggest that EE can block reinstatement of ethanol-induced CPP in mice, and aiding in the identification of new therapeutic strategies for alcohol addiction. PMID:26003446

  1. Environmental conditions in near-wall plasmas generated by impact of energetic particle fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, O.; Šmíd, M.; Burian, T.; Juha, L.; Krása, J.; Krouský, E.; Matulková, I.; Skála, J.; Velyhan, A.; Liska, R.; Velechovský, J.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Larroche, O.; Ullschmied, J.

    2013-09-01

    Directional flows of energetic ions produced by laser-exploded foils were used to investigate transient phenomena accompanying the plasma interaction with surfaces of solid targets (walls). In experiments carried out on the iodine laser system PALS, the formation of energetic plasma jets from burn-through foils of Al and Ta was optimized using the three-frame interferometry and applied to a design of alternate experimental configurations. The interaction of the directional plasma flows with secondary targets was studied via X-ray imaging, optical and high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The environmental conditions in near-wall plasmas created at surfaces of plasma-exposed solids, in particular the velocity distribution of impinging and back-scattered ions, were determined via analysis of the observed spatially-resolved spectra of Al Ly? and He? groups. The validity of the ion velocity gradients derived from the Doppler effect induced shifts and splitting of the spectral lines was supported by theoretical modeling based on a combination of hydrodynamic, atomic and collisional-radiative codes.

  2. IGF-1 release kinetics from chitosan microparticles fabricated using environmentally benign conditions.

    PubMed

    Mantripragada, Venkata P; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to maximize growth factor encapsulation efficiency into microparticles. The novelty of this study is to maximize the encapsulated growth factors into microparticles by minimizing the use of organic solvents and using relatively low temperatures. The microparticles were fabricated using chitosan biopolymer as a base polymer and cross-linked with tripolyphosphate (TPP). Insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was encapsulated into microparticles to study release kinetics and bioactivity. In order to authenticate the harms of using organic solvents like hexane and acetone during microparticle preparation, IGF-1 encapsulated microparticles prepared by the emulsification and coacervation methods were compared. The microparticles fabricated by emulsification method have shown a significant decrease (p<0.05) in IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency, and cumulative release during the two-week period. The biocompatibility of chitosan microparticles and the bioactivity of the released IGF-1 were determined in vitro by live/dead viability assay. The mineralization data observed with von Kossa assay, was supported by mRNA expression levels of osterix and runx2, which are transcription factors necessary for osteoblasts differentiation. Real time RT-PCR data showed an increased expression of runx2 and a decreased expression of osterix over time, indicating differentiating osteoblasts. Chitosan microparticles prepared in optimum environmental conditions are a promising controlled delivery system for cells to attach, proliferate, differentiate and mineralize, thereby acting as a suitable bone repairing material. PMID:25063148

  3. Evaluation and refinement of the environmental stress index for different climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Moran, D S; Pandolf, K B; Laor, A; Heled, Y; Matthew, W T; Gonzalez, R R

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the recently constructed environmental stress index (ESI) for a large database comprising various climatic conditions. Data analysis of measurements from 19 locations revealed a high correlation between ESI and the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index for each database. Validity from statistical analysis, including optimization procedures, slightly changed the ESI constants as follows: ESI = 0.62Ta - 0.007RH + 0.002SR + 0.0043(Ta x RH) - 0.078(0.1 + SR)(-1) where: Ta = ambient temperature (degrees C); RH = relative humidity (%); and SR = solar radiation (w x m(-2)). The refined ESI and the WBGT index were applied to databases of more than 125,000 measurements for each variable: Ta, RH, SR, black globe temperature (Tg), and wet bulb temperature (Tw). For each database, the ESI was then successfully correlated with the WBGT (P < 0.05, R2 > or = 0.899). We conclude that the refined ESI, which is constructed from fast response and commonly used weather sensors (Ta, RH, SR), is a potential index to serve as an alternative to the WBGT for heat category assessment. PMID:12901442

  4. Sediment modification by seagrass beds: Muddification and sandification induced by plant cover and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Katwijk, M. M.; Bos, A. R.; Hermus, D. C. R.; Suykerbuyk, W.

    2010-09-01

    Seagrasses are well-known ecosystem engineers. They reduce water dynamics and sediment resuspension, and trap fine sediments. However, exceptions of this paradigm have been reported. To test whether these exceptions could be related to plant cover and environmental conditions, we investigated sediment modification under influence of seagrass presence in various annual eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds with varying plant cover and sediment composition. At the relatively wave-exposed, sandy sites, dense vegetation caused muddification (increase in fine sediments and organic content) of the sediments. Sparse vegetation (<35% cover) had no effect, as such confirming the classical sediment trapping paradigm. In contrast, at the sheltered sites with muddy sediments, dense vegetation had no effect on the sediment composition, and in sparse vegetation sandification (decrease in fine sediments and organic content) was recorded. Sandification was never recorded before and was probably related to turbulence enhancement. Both, muddification and sandification are likely to provide a feedback on seagrass performance. Muddification may increase the nutrient input and, depending on the nutrient status of the system, either stimulate or reduce seagrass development. Similarly, sandification may postpone and even prevent extinction of seagrass beds when it occurs in areas that may have become too muddy for seagrass growth.

  5. Effect of environmental conditions on the decay of stone in archaeological site of Volubilis - Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalil, Issam; Chaaba, Ali; Cherkaoui, Khalid; Brunetaud, Xavier; Beck, Kevin; Al-Mukhtar, Muzahim

    2015-04-01

    Volubilis is the most excavated and the best preserved archaeological site of Morocco. Located about thirty kilometres north of Meknes, it was a Mauritanian capital founded in the 3rd century B.C., and became an important outpost of the Roman Empire. Volubilis monuments are constructed with five regional lithotypes of limestone. A grey massive limestone and beige-yellowish calcarenite limestone are the two most largely used on Volubilis site, representing respectively about 30% and 60 % of the total volume of building stones. Field observations showed that the calcarenite limestone is more decayed than the massive limestone and is mainly affected by scaling, alveolization and sanding. This work aims to estimate the role of environmental conditions on the decay of the calcarenite stone through the effect of thermal stresses and freezing-thawing action. Air temperature data of Meknes station is analysed. Furthermore, mineralogical composition of the calcarenite limestone and its intrinsic properties required for stress calculation are determined. The results of this study show that the calcarenite limestone is a quite soft carbonate stone, contains about 71 % of calcite, 18 % of quartz and others accessory minerals. Besides, there is no risk of damage due to freezing-thawing processes. Nonetheless, thermal stresses may have an important role in the decay of calcarenite stones of the Volubilis site.

  6. The Effect of Exogenous Jasmonic Acid on Induced Resistance and Productivity in Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) Is Influenced by Environmental Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Délano-Frier; Norma A. Martínez-Gallardo; Octavio Martínez-de La Vega; Manuel D. Salas-Araiza; Elva R. Barbosa-Jaramillo; Adriana Torres; Paloma Vargas; Anatoli Borodanenko

    2004-01-01

    Amaranthus hypochondriacus is a C4 pseudocereal crop capable of producing reasonable grain yields in adverse environmental conditions that limit cereal performance. It accumulates trypsin inhibitors and a-amylase inhibitors in seeds and leaves that are considered to act as insect feeding deterrents. Foliar trypsin and a-amylase inhibitors also accumulate by treatment with exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) in controlled laboratory conditions. Three

  7. GCM Simulations of Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" Conditions: Implications for the Environmental Limits on Terrestrial Metazoans and Their Extraterrestrial Analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth intervals provide excellent opportunities to examine the environmental limits on terrestrial metazoans. A series of GCM simulations was run in order to quantify climatic conditions during these intervals. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Stability of organics at Mars: Characterization of oxidation processes impact on organics under Mars surface environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey Noblet; Patrice Coll; Cyril Szopa; Hervé Cottin; Fabien Stalport

    2010-01-01

    One of the main goals of current and future in situ missions to Mars is to search for organics at the surface\\/subsurface, and then to determine their origin (exogenous or endogenous, biotic or abiotic). The understanding on how organic compounds evolve under the Mars surface environmental conditions is thus a necessary key for these missions. As an illustration the Mars

  9. The effects of environmental conditioning on tensile properties of high performance aramid fibers at near-ambient temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abu Obaid; J. M. Deitzel; J. W. Gillespie; J. Q. Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Aramid and aramid copolymer fibers are used in a wide variety of military and civilian applications; however, the long-term effects of environmental exposure on tensile properties are still not well understood. The current effort investigates the effect of hygrothermal conditioning on the tensile properties of Kevlar® KM2 ®, Twaron®, and the newly available Russian copolymer, Armos® high performance fibers. Moisture

  10. Effects of Environmental Conditions during Stream, Estuary, and Ocean Residency on Chinook Salmon Return Rates in the Skagit River, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Correigh M. Greene; David W. Jensen; George R. Pess; E. Ashley Steel; Eric Beamer

    2005-01-01

    We predicted 22 years of return rates for wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha as a function of environmental conditions experienced during residency in freshwater, tidal delta, bay, and ocean habitats as well as as an indicator of density dependence (based on egg production) across life stages. The best predictors of return rate included the magnitude of floods experienced during incubation,

  11. Chemical and Physical Environmental Conditions Underneath Mat and Canopy-Forming Macroalgae, and Their Effects on Understorey Corals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudine Hauri; Katharina E. Fabricius; Britta Schaffelke; Craig Humphrey; Stuart Humphries

    2010-01-01

    Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal

  12. Natural selection on a measure of parasite resistance varies across ages and environmental conditions in a wild mammal

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Natural selection on a measure of parasite resistance varies across ages and environmental Individuals in natural populations are under constant threat of infection from parasitic organisms that have detrimental effects on host condition and fitness (Poulin, 2007). Infection and damage by parasites may

  13. Potential energy savings and environmental impacts of energy efficiency standards for vapor compression central air conditioning units in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Lu

    2007-01-01

    Owing to the rapid development of economy and the stable improvement of people's living standard, central air conditioning units are broadly used in China. This not only consumes large energy, but also results in adverse energy-related environmental issues. Energy efficiency standards are accepted effective policy tools to reduce energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Recently, China issued two national energy efficiency

  14. Seeking Balance: The Importance of Environmental Conditions in Men and Women Faculty's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Shannon K.; Newell, Ellen E.; Gardner, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty retention is of increasing importance in the current economic climate. We examined the role of an institution's environmental conditions (e.g., climate, collegiality, and administration) in faculty well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, intent to leave, emotional and physical health). Women reported significantly lower well-being and a…

  15. In SituImaging of Catalytic Etching on Silver during Methanol Oxidation Conditions by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme J. Millar; Megan L. Nelson; Philippa J. R. Uwins

    1997-01-01

    Polycrystalline silver is used to catalytically oxidise methanol to formaldehyde. This paper reports the results of extensive investigations involving the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to monitor structural changes in silver during simulated industrial reaction conditions. The interaction of oxygen, nitrogen, and water, either singly or in combination, with a silver catalyst at temperatures up to 973 K

  16. Lubricity effect of carbon dioxide used as an environmentally friendly refrigerant in air-conditioning and refrigeration compressors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emerson Escobar Nunez; Kyriaki Polychronopoulou; Andreas A. Polycarpou

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns have increased the interest in alternative natural refrigerants for air-conditioning and refrigeration compressors. Carbon dioxide (CO2) or R744 is an attractive candidate to replace harmful hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants, which will need to be replaced in the near future due to their high global warming potential. In this paper the tribological behavior of gray cast iron in the presence of

  17. Variation in gene expression of Andropogon gerardii in response to altered environmental conditions associated with climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecological consequences of changes in environmental conditions associated with global climate change will depend in part on how organisms respond to those shifts at the individual level. Currently our understanding of genetic responses of plants to alterations in precipitation and temperature as...

  18. Environmental Exposure Conditions for Teflon FEP on the Hubble Space Telescope Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline a.; Barth, Janet L.; Thomson, Shaun; Gregory, Teri; Savage, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched into low Earth orbit on April 24,1990. During the first servicing mission in December 1993 (3.6 years after launch), multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets were retrieved from the two magnetic sensing systems located on the light shield. Retrieval of one of the solar arrays during this mission also provided MLI blanket material from the solar array drive arm. These MLI materials were analyzed in ground-based facilities, and results indicate that the space-facing outer layer of the MLI, aluminized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene), was beginning to degrade. Close inspection of the FEP revealed through-the-thickness cracks in areas with the highest solar exposure and stress concentration. During the second servicing mission in February 1997 (6.8 years after launch), astronauts observed and documented severe cracking in the outer layer of the MLI blankets on both the solar-facing and anti-solar-facing surfaces. During this second mission, some material from the outer layer of the light shield MLI was retrieved and subsequently analyzed in ground-based facilities. After the second servicing mission, a Failure Review Board was convened by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to address the MLI degradation problem on HST. Members of the Electro-Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field participated on this board. To determine possible degradation mechanisms, board researchers needed to consider all environmental constituents to which the FEP MLI surfaces were exposed. On the basis of measurements, models, and predictions, environmental exposure conditions for FEP surfaces on HST were estimated for various time periods from launch in 1990 through 2010, the planned end-of-life for HST. The table summarizes these data including the number and temperature ranges of thermal cycles; equivalent Sun hours; fluence and absorbed radiation dose from solar event x rays; fluence and absorbed dose from solar wind protons and electrons trapped in Earth s magnetic field; fluence of plasma electrons and protons; and atomic oxygen fluence.

  19. Characteristics of lead(II) adsorption onto "Natural Red Earth" in simulated environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahatantila, K.; Vithanage, M. S.; Seike, Y.; Okumura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lead is considered as a non-biodegradable and potentially toxic heavy metal and it is found as a common environmental pollutant. Adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) onto natural iron and aluminum coated sand, which is called Natural Red Earth (NRE), have been studied to ascertain the effect of pH, ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature and time. Lead(II) adsorption achieved its maximum adsorption of nearly 100% at neutral to slightly acidic conditions. The optimum pH was nearly 5.5 and 6.5 for 2.41 and 24.1 ?mol/L initial Pb(II) concentrations, respectively. Lead(II) adsorption was independent of 100 fold variation of ionic strength (0.001 - 0.1), indirectly evidencing dominance of an inner-sphere surface complexation mechanism for 10 fold variation of initial Pb(II) concentrations (2.41 and 24.1 ?mol/L). Adsorption edges were quantified with a 2pK generalized diffuse double layer model considering two site types, >FeOH and >AlOH, for Pb(II) binding. The modeling results better fit with the mixture of monodentate and bidentated binding of Pb(II) onto >FeOH site and bidentate binding of Pb(II) onto >AlOH site. The intrinsic constants obtained were log KFeOPb=13.93, log K(FeO)2Pb=11.88 and log K(AlO)2Pb=13.21. Time required to reach the equilibrium was also increase from 15 min to 1hr with increasing Pb(II) concentrations from 2.41 to 24.1 ?mol/L. Kinetic data fitted better to pseudo second order kinetic model. Lead(II) adsorption onto NRE was better explained by Two-site Langmuir isotherm with sorption maximum of 1.39x10-2 and 2.30x10-3 mol/kg for two sites with different affinities. Negative Gibbs free energy values indicated spontaneity of Pb(II) adsorption onto NRE, and entropy and enthalpy of adsorption were 124.04 J/K mol and 17.71 KJ/mol, respectively. These results suggested that the NRE could be effectively used as a low cost candidate for removal of Pb(II) from environmental water, since use of low cost materials to treat contaminated water is of importance for the developing world.

  20. Morphology of biogenic iron oxides records microbial physiology and environmental conditions: toward interpreting iron microfossils.

    PubMed

    Krepski, S T; Emerson, D; Hredzak-Showalter, P L; Luther, G W; Chan, C S

    2013-09-01

    Despite the abundance of Fe and its significance in Earth history, there are no established robust biosignatures for Fe(II)-oxidizing micro-organisms. This limits our ability to piece together the history of Fe biogeochemical cycling and, in particular, to determine whether Fe(II)-oxidizers played a role in depositing ancient iron formations. A promising candidate for Fe(II)-oxidizer biosignatures is the distinctive morphology and texture of extracellular Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide stalks produced by mat-forming microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing micro-organisms. To establish the stalk morphology as a biosignature, morphologic parameters must be quantified and linked to the microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing metabolism and environmental conditions. Toward this end, we studied an extant model organism, the marine stalk-forming Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. We grew cultures in flat glass microslide chambers, with FeS substrate, creating opposing oxygen/Fe(II) concentration gradients. We used solid-state voltammetric microelectrodes to measure chemical gradients in situ while using light microscopy to image microbial growth, motility, and mineral formation. In low-oxygen (2.7-28 ?m) zones of redox gradients, the bacteria converge into a narrow (100 ?m-1 mm) growth band. As cells oxidize Fe(II), they deposit Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide stalks in this band; the stalks orient directionally, elongating toward higher oxygen concentrations. M. ferrooxydans stalks display a narrow range of widths and uniquely biogenic branching patterns, which result from cell division. Together with filament composition, these features (width, branching, and directional orientation) form a physical record unique to microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizer physiology; therefore, stalk morphology is a biosignature, as well as an indicator of local oxygen concentration at the time of formation. Observations of filamentous Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide microfossils from a ~170 Ma marine Fe-Si hydrothermal deposit show that these morphological characteristics can be preserved in the microfossil record. This study demonstrates the potential of morphological biosignatures to reveal microbiology and environmental chemistry associated with geologic iron formation depositional processes. PMID:23790206

  1. Reverse-engineering the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptional network under changing environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Javier; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Elena, Santiago F

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular mechanisms plants have evolved to adapt their biological activities to a constantly changing environment is an intriguing question and one that requires a systems biology approach. Here we present a network analysis of genome-wide expression data combined with reverse-engineering network modeling to dissect the transcriptional control of Arabidopsis thaliana. The regulatory network is inferred by using an assembly of microarray data containing steady-state RNA expression levels from several growth conditions, developmental stages, biotic and abiotic stresses, and a variety of mutant genotypes. Results We show that the A. thaliana regulatory network has the characteristic properties of hierarchical networks. We successfully applied our quantitative network model to predict the full transcriptome of the plant for a set of microarray experiments not included in the training dataset. We also used our model to analyze the robustness in expression levels conferred by network motifs such as the coherent feed-forward loop. In addition, the meta-analysis presented here has allowed us to identify regulatory and robust genetic structures. Conclusions These data suggest that A. thaliana has evolved high connectivity in terms of transcriptional regulation among cellular functions involved in response and adaptation to changing environments, while gene networks constitutively expressed or less related to stress response are characterized by a lower connectivity. Taken together, these findings suggest conserved regulatory strategies that have been selected during the evolutionary history of this eukaryote. PMID:19754933

  2. Chacahoula brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Chacahoula salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Chacahoula salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 20.5 nautical miles (23.6 statute miles) for Site A, or 19.4 nautical miles (22.3 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a peak rate of 90 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and November 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of the brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model. Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish.

  3. Concrete Durability in Harsh Environmental Conditions Exposed to Freeze Thaw Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamze, Youssef

    Under line Pathology of Materials; one of the environmental causes of damage effects on concrete is freeze thaw cycles, which deteriorate the concrete exposed to water in cold weather. An example of old concrete is a dam project that was built in Canada, in the early 1909-1913. This project was reconstructed in 1932, 1934 and 1972, and required renovation due to the ice abrasion with the freeze/thaw cycles. Before completing any renovation, it is required to analyze the structural stability and the concrete failures of this dam. An investigation was conducted to determine the quality of the concrete in the Piers and in the Bridge Deck Slab. It was also required to determine the basic materials’ properties that constitute this project. This will improve the analysis of its stability [10]. Core samples were examined and used as test samples, for the Alkali-Silica reactivity test samples, as well as the compressive strength test, the Chloride Ion test, and the freeze thaw testing which was performed on two sets of 12 concrete core samples that were taken from different locations in the project. These locations are the representations of the age of the concrete. Thus, the age difference between the samples’ two sets is four decades. Testing was performed on prisms cut from cores. ASTM C-666 procedure (A) was applied using an automatic test system [6]. It was suggested that a plan for renovation of this project should be performed after the analysis is undertaken to assess the conditions estimating the remaining life of the concrete in this project [15].

  4. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wenxiong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C were>64 d, 30.5 d and 3.9 d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64 d at 4 °C, 27.9 d at 25 °C and 4.5d at 40 °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7 d and 6.8 d, respectively, compared with 9.7 d and 14.4 d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5 d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4 d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry. PMID:25460745

  5. Role of Environmental Conditions on the Fate and Transport of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. L.; Chowdhury, I.

    2011-12-01

    Industrial processes and consumer products based on nanotechnology are a fast-rising component of the current economy, predicted to be $1 trillion industry by 2015. As most of the industries are embracing nanotechnology in their production for novel properties and higher efficiency, nanomaterial-based products will capture the significant portion of the consumer market in near future. Hence, nanomaterial-based products will be ubiquitous and the byproducts of the production will be released in the environment, demanding the investigation of fate, transport and toxicity of these novel materials. Therefore, in this study the fate and transport of nanoparticles in aquatic environments have been investigated. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been used as model nanoparticles, as it is one of most widely used nanoparticles in consumer products and industry. The project was developed to identify the fundamental mechanisms involved in the transport of nano-TiO2 and the contribution of various environmental parameters including solution chemistry (pH, ionic strength, and ion valence), hydrodynamic effects, and the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteria. Extensive physicochemical characterization of the nanoparticles was conducted under various solution condition including electrokinetic characterization, hydrodynamic diameter, and stability of nanoparticles. Transport studies have been conducted in both macroscopic (packed-bed column) and microscopic (parallel plate flow cell) systems. The combination of these transport and characterization tools has demonstrated the critical role that pH, ionic strength and valence, NOM, bacteria, primary nanoparticle size and aggregation state play in the transport. Results from both transport systems, as well as bacterial and particle characterization will be presented, as well as the proposed transport and retention mechanisms observed.

  6. Amoxicillin-degradation products formed under controlled environmental conditions: identification and determination in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Gozlan, Igal; Rotstein, Adi; Avisar, Dror

    2013-05-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is a widely used penicillin-type antibiotic whose presence in the environment has been widely investigated, despite its rapid hydrolysis to various degradation products (DPs). In this work, the formation of AMX DPs was studied in various aqueous solutions containing 100?gmL(-1) AMX. Three phosphate buffer solutions, at pH 5, pH 7 and pH 8, and a fourth buffer solution at pH 7 with the addition of the bivalent ions Mg(2+)and Ca(2) as chelating agents, were examined under controlled environmental conditions. In addition, two solutions from natural sources were examined secondary effluents and tap water. The obtained DPs were identified by their MS/MS, UV and NMR spectra (obtained from pure compounds isolated by preparative HPLC) as: AMX penicilloic acid (ADP1/2), AMX penilloic acid (ADP4/5) and phenol hydroxypyrazine (ADP6). Two additional detected DPs AMX 2',5'-diketopiperazine (ADP8/9), and AMX-S-oxide (ADP3) were reported and discussed in our previous publications. These DPs were then detected in secondary effluent and groundwater from a well located beneath agricultural fields continuously irrigated with secondary effluent. Concentrations in the secondary effluent were: ADP1/2, several micrograms per liter; ADP4/5, 0.15?gL(-1), and ADP8/9, 0.5?gL(-1). ADP6 were detected but not quantified. In the groundwater, only ADP8/9 was detected, at a concentration of 0.03?gL(-1). The detection and quantification of DPs of other investigated drugs is recommended as an integral part of any study, method or technique dealing with pharmaceutical residues in aquatic environments. PMID:23466086

  7. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. J. N.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320-550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed, (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a tear drop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent features near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a day, which is the largest temperature variability as measured so far in a cold-water coral habitat. Warm events, related to Gulf Stream meanders, had the duration of roughly one week and the current during these events was directed to the NNE. The consequences of such events must be significant given the strong effects of temperature on the metabolism of cold-water corals. Furthermore, elevated acoustic backscatter values and high mass fluxes were also recorded during these events, indicating a second stressor that may affect the corals. The abrasive nature of sand in combination with strong currents might sand blast the corals. We conclude that cold-water corals near Cape Lookout live under extreme conditions that limit mound growth at present.

  8. Cumulative impacts of coastline variation on hydrodynamic condition and environmental capacity of Jiaozhou Bay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Zhang; Guipeng Yang; Yi Tian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the definition and the generic typology of cumulative effects. The most important environmental problem caused by the development is the cumulative effects. Based on this theory, this paper selects Jiaozhou Bay as a typical coastal region, studies the cumulative effects on the hydrodynamic force environment and marine environmental capacity which caused by human reclaiming, and forecasts the

  9. Environmental monitoring and air-conditioning automatic control with intelligent building wireless sensor network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zheng; Yajuan Qin; Deyun Gao; Hongke Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is the connection between the physical world and mankind. Particularly, environmental monitoring and devices automatic control of intelligent building based on wireless sensor network is considered as one of the most crucial applications. It can perceive many kinds of environmental parameters and feedback control information to some devices to provide comfortable environment to people. However, it

  10. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9?months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break?=??66% in 2?years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236?days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  11. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9?months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break?=?-66% in 2?years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236?days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  12. Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Under Spectrum Loading in Various Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheevskiy, S.; Glinka, G.; Lee, E.

    2013-03-01

    The fatigue process consists, from the engineering point of view, of three stages: crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, and the final failure. It is also known that the fatigue process near notches and cracks is governed by local strains and stresses in the regions of maximum stress and strain concentrations. Therefore, the fatigue crack growth can be considered as a process of successive crack increments, and the fatigue crack initiation and subsequent growth can be modeled as one repetitive process. The assumptions mentioned above were used to derive a fatigue crack growth model based, called later as the UniGrow model, on the analysis of cyclic elastic-plastic stresses-strains near the crack tip. The fatigue crack growth rate was determined by simulating the cyclic stress-strain response in the material volume adjacent to the crack tip and calculating the accumulated fatigue damage in a manner similar to fatigue analysis of stationary notches. The fatigue crack growth driving force was derived on the basis of the stress and strain history at the crack tip and the Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) fatigue damage parameter, D = ?max??/2. It was subsequently found that the fatigue crack growth was controlled by a two-parameter driving force in the form of a weighted product of the stress intensity range and the maximum stress intensity factor, ? K p K {max/1- p }. The effect of the internal (residual) stress induced by the reversed cyclic plasticity has been accounted for and therefore the two-parameter driving force made it possible to predict the effect of the mean stress including the influence of the applied compressive stress, tensile overloads, and variable amplitude spectrum loading. It allows estimating the fatigue life under variable amplitude loading without using crack closure concepts. Several experimental fatigue crack growth datasets obtained for the Al 7075 aluminum alloy were used for the verification of the proposed unified fatigue crack growth model. The method can be also used to predict fatigue crack growth under constant amplitude and spectrum loading in various environmental conditions such as vacuum, air, and corrosive environment providing that appropriate limited constant amplitude fatigue crack growth data obtained in the same environment are available. The proposed methodology is equally suitable for fatigue analysis of smooth, notched, and cracked components.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Available from the Institute of Environmental Standards and Technology website at www.iest.org or phone (847) 255-1561...recommended that the microbalance be installed on a vibration isolation platform to isolate the microbalance's load cell...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Available from the Institute of Environmental Standards and Technology website at www.iest.org or phone (847) 255-1561...recommended that the microbalance be installed on a vibration isolation platform to isolate the microbalance's load cell...

  15. THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN POPULATION DYNAMICS UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental variability can influence species distributions through changes in survival, fecundity, behavior, and metabolic activities. As worldwide coastal populations rise, the associated deforestation and development can increase both quantities and variability in runoff...

  16. Conclusions from recent pionic--atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Strauch, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D--52425 Juelich (Germany); Amaro, F.; Covita, D. S.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Veloso, J. F. C. A. [Dept. of Physics, Coimbra University, P--3000 Coimbra (Portugal); Anagnostopoulos, D. F. [Dept. of Material Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GR--45110 (Greece); Biri, S. [Institut of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H--4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Gorke, H. [Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, Ph.; Zmeskal, J. [Stefan Meyer Institut, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A--1090 Vienna (Austria); Indelicato, P.; Jensen, Th.; Le Bigot, E.-O. [Lab. Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Paris 6, ENS, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, F--75005 Paris (France)] (and others)

    2008-08-08

    The most recent pionic--hydrogen experiment marks the completion of a whole series of measurements, the main goal of which was to provide conclusive data on pion--nucleon interaction at threshold for comparison with calculations from Chiral perturbation theory. The precision achieved for hadronic shift and broadening of 0.2% and 2%, respectively, became possible by comprehensive studies of cascade effects in hydrogen and other light exotic atoms including results from the last years of LEAR operation. In order to obtain optimum conditions for the Bragg crystal spectrometer, the cyclotron trap II has been used to provide a suitable X--ray source. To characterize the bent crystal spectrometer, the cyclotron trap has been modified to operate as an electron--cyclotron resonance source, which produces with high intensity narrow X-ray transitions in the few keV range originating from highly charged ions.

  17. Interrelationships of fish and channel environmental conditions with aquatic macrophytes in an Argentine irrigation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. Fernández; K. J. Murphy; A. López cazorla; M. R. Sabbatini; M. A. Lazzari; J. C. J. Domaniewski; J. H. Irigoyen

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between fish, environmental variables and submerged macrophytes within the irrigation\\u000a system of the lower valley of the Río Colorado in southern Argentina. Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), the strongest\\u000a environmental gradients detected were conductivity and carp ( Cyprinus carpi) biomass per unit area of channel cross-section.\\u000a These variables were positively associated with each other and

  18. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics in a new hospital building

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Stephens, Brent

    2015-03-02

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogatemore »measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO? concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ~8×10? data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for hospital environments, where they can impact patient health and the survival and spread of healthcare associated infections.« less

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Indoor Environmental Conditions, Human Occupancy, and Operational Characteristics in a New Hospital Building

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Stephens, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogate measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO2 concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ?8×106 data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for hospital environments, where they can impact patient health and the survival and spread of healthcare associated infections. PMID:25729898

  20. Tracking the autumn migration of the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) with satellite telemetry and relationship to environmental conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Yaonan; Hao, Meiyu; Takekawa, John Y.; Lei, Fumin; Yan, Baoping; Prosser, Diann J.; Douglas, David C.; Xing, Zhi; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    The autumn migration routes of bar-headed geese captured before the 2008 breeding season at Qinghai Lake, China, were documented using satellite tracking data. To assess how the migration strategies of bar-headed geese are influenced by environmental conditions, the relationship between migratory routes, temperatures, and vegetation coverage at stopovers sites estimated with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were analyzed. Our results showed that there were four typical migration routes in autumn with variation in timing among individuals in start and end times and in total migration and stopover duration. The observed variation may be related to habitat type and other environmental conditions along the routes. On average, these birds traveled about 1300 to 1500?km, refueled at three to six stopover sites and migrated for 73 to 83 days. The majority of the habitat types at stopover sites were lake, marsh, and shoal wetlands, with use of some mountainous regions, and farmland areas.

  1. Temporal variation in environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages around an offshore oil platform in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toyonobu

    2015-07-01

    This study reports temporal variations in the environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages observed in the vicinity of an offshore oil platform and the surrounding seafloor in the North Sea. Multi-seasonal sampling was conducted at a typical large steel jacketed facility, using mid-water fish traps at three different depths (i.e., 10, 50 & 100 m). Commercially important gadoids such as saithe Pollachius virens, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus and cod Gadus morhua were the most abundant species, however, the species composition and the relative abundances of the species varied with depth, season and between years. Comparisons with a large-scale bottom trawl survey data suggested highly dynamic and species-specific interactions between fish movements, changing environmental conditions and the physical presence of an offshore platform. Given the number of platforms currently installed across the North Sea, there is a need to identify biological mechanisms behind such dynamic interactions. PMID:25965149

  2. Conditions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Christy Wyckoff; Scott E. Henke; Kurt C. VerCauteren

    Research interests in feral hogs typically involve their negative impacts on ecosystems or their potential as a disease reservoir, especially with disease transmission to domestic swine. Authors within scientific literature state that feral hogs were captured as part of their research, but usually fail to mention specific conditions in which hogs were captured. Novice researchers of feral hogs must rely

  3. Chamaegigas intrepidus DINTER: An Aquatic Poikilohydric Angiosperm that Is Perfectly Adapted to Its Complex and Extreme Environmental Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Heilmeier; Wolfram Hartung

    \\u000a \\u000a Chamaegigas intrepidus DINTER is a tiny poikilohydric member of the Scrophulariaceae growing endemically in ephemeral rock pools on granite outcrops\\u000a in Central Namibia. Environmental conditions are complex and extreme: (1) frequent and rapid desiccation and rehydration during\\u000a the rainy summer season, (2) complete dehydration during the dry winter season lasting up to 11 months, (3) intensive solar\\u000a irradiation and high temperatures

  4. Investigations of sequential leaching behaviour of Cu and Zn from coal fly ash and their mobility in environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleonora So?o; Jan Kalembkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of chemical fraction of Cu and Zn in the coal fly ash by methods of five-step sequential extraction was carried out in order to characterize metal mobility in environmental conditions. The research involved (i) water-soluble (pH 7), (ii) acid-soluble (pH 5), (iii) oxide, (iv) difficult reducible and (v) residual metal fractions. It was discovered, that the total

  5. Investigations of chemical fraction of Co and Ni in industrial fly ash and mobility of metals in environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleonora So?o; Jan Kalembkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of chemical fraction of Co and Ni in the industrial fly ash by methods of five step sequential extraction was carried out in order to characterize metal mobility in environmental conditions. The research involved (i) water-soluble (pH=7), (ii) acid-soluble (pH=5), (iii) oxide, (iv) sulfide and (v) residue metal fractions. It was discovered, that the total extraction of

  6. Element concentrations in the xylem sap of Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings extracted by various methods under different environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANKE BERGER; RAM OREN; ERNST-DETLEF SCHULZE

    We used a Scholander pressure chamber to assess the effects of various extraction methods under different environmental conditions on element concentrations in xylem sap of 3-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings. Sap from excised shoots contained higher element concentrations when extracted at low than at high over-pressures. When comparing plants differing in water status, we found that a high extraction

  7. An Environmental Friendly and Cost Effective Way of Waste Heat Recovery from Split Air Conditioning System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rahman; Chin Wai Meng; Adrian Ng

    This paper presents the research on the establishment of waste heat recovery device from split air conditioning system. So far, two types of research activities have been conducted to recover waste heat from split type air conditioning systems. For the first type of research the condenser of the air conditioning unit is replaced by copper tube, which is submerged in

  8. Hypoxia tolerance of common sole juveniles depends on dietary regime and temperature at the larval stage: evidence for environmental conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Zambonino-Infante, José L.; Claireaux, Guy; Ernande, Bruno; Jolivet, Aurélie; Quazuguel, Patrick; Sévère, Armelle; Huelvan, Christine; Mazurais, David

    2013-01-01

    An individual's environmental history may have delayed effects on its physiology and life history at later stages in life because of irreversible plastic responses of early ontogenesis to environmental conditions. We chose a marine fish, the common sole, as a model species to study these effects, because it inhabits shallow marine areas highly exposed to environmental changes. We tested whether temperature and trophic conditions experienced during the larval stage had delayed effects on life-history traits and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. We thus examined the combined effect of global warming and hypoxia in coastal waters, which are potential stressors to many estuarine and coastal marine fishes. Elevated temperature and better trophic conditions had a positive effect on larval growth and developmental rates; warmer larval temperature had a delayed positive effect on body mass and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. The latter suggests a lower oxygen demand of individuals that had experienced elevated temperatures during larval stages. We hypothesize that an irreversible plastic response to temperature occurred during early ontogeny that allowed adaptive regulation of metabolic rates and/or oxygen demand with long-lasting effects. These results could deeply affect predictions about impacts of global warming and eutrophication on marine organisms. PMID:23486433

  9. Assessment of the risk of failure of high voltage substations due to environmental conditions and pollution on insulators.

    PubMed

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-07-01

    Pollution on electrical insulators is one of the greatest causes of failure of substations subjected to high levels of salinity and environmental pollution. Considering leakage current as the main indicator of pollution on insulators, this paper focuses on establishing the effect of the environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators and determining the significant change in the magnitude of the pollution on the insulators during dry and humid periods. Hierarchical segmentation analysis was used to establish the effect of environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to determine the significant changes in the magnitude of the pollution due to climate periods. An important result was the discovery that leakage current was more common on insulators during dry periods than humid ones. There was also a higher risk of failure due to pollution during dry periods. During the humid period, various temperatures and wind directions produced a small change in the risk of failure. As a technical result, operators of electrical substations can now identify the cause of an increase in risk of failure due to pollution in the area. The research provides a contribution towards the behaviour of the leakage current under conditions similar to those of the Colombian Caribbean coast and how they affect the risk of failure of the substation due to pollution. PMID:25634366

  10. Long-term human response to uncertain environmental conditions in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    Dillehay, Tom D.; Kolata, Alan L.

    2004-01-01

    Human interaction with the physical environment has increasingly transformed Earth-system processes. Reciprocally, climate anomalies and other processes of environmental change of natural and anthropogenic origin have been affecting, and often disrupting, societies throughout history. Transient impact events, despite their brevity, can have significant long-term impact on society, particularly if they occur in the context of ongoing, protracted environmental change. Major climate events can affect human activities in critical conjunctures that shape particular trajectories of social development. Here we report variable human responses to major environmental events in the Andes with a particular emphasis on the period from anno Domini 500–1500 on the desert north coast of Perú. We show that preindustrial agrarian societies implemented distinct forms of anticipatory response to environmental change and uncertainty. We conclude that innovations in production strategies and agricultural infrastructures in these indigenous societies reflect differential social response to both transient (El Niño–Southern Oscillation events) and protracted (desertification) environmental change. PMID:15024122

  11. Individual consistency and phenotypic plasticity in rockhopper penguins: female but not male body mass links environmental conditions to reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment. PMID:26030824

  12. Individual Consistency and Phenotypic Plasticity in Rockhopper Penguins: Female but Not Male Body Mass Links Environmental Conditions to Reproductive Investment

    PubMed Central

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment. PMID:26030824

  13. Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols - Biological standard particles and the influence of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex; Förster, Jan-David; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) such as pollen, fungal spores, bacteria, biogenic polymers and debris from larger organisms are known to influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere and public health. PBAP can account for up to ~30% of fine and up to ~70% of coarse particulate matter in urban, rural and pristine environment and are released with estimated emission rates of up to ~1000 Tg/a [1]. Continuous measurements of the abundance, variability and diversity of PBAP have been difficult until recently, however. The application of on-line instruments able to detect autofluorescence from biological particles in real-time has been a promising development for the measurement of PBAP concentrations and fluxes in different environments [2,3]. The detected fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) can be regarded as a subset of PBAP, although the exact relationship between PBAP and FBAP is still being investigated. Autofluorescence of FBAP is usually a superposition of fluorescence from a mixture of individual fluorescent molecules (fluorophores). Numerous biogenic fluorophores such as amino acids (e.g., tryptophan, tyrosine), coenzymes (e.g., NAD(P)H, riboflavin) and biopolymers (e.g., cellulose) emit fluorescent light due to heterocyclic aromatic rings or conjugated double bonds within their molecular structures. The tryptophan emission peak is a common feature of most bioparticles because the amino acid is a constituent of many proteins and peptides. The influence of the coenzymes NAD(P)H and riboflavin on the autofluorescence of bacteria can be regarded as an indicator for bacterial metabolism and has been utilized to discriminate between viable and non-viable organisms [4]. However, very little information is available about other essential biofluorophores in fungal spores and pollen. In order to better understand the autofluorescence behavior of FBAP, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy to analyze standard bioparticles (pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria) as well as atmospherically relevant chemical substances. We addressed the sensitivity and selectivity of autofluorescence based online techniques. Moreover, we investigated the influence of environmental conditions, such as relative humidity and oxidizing agents in the atmosphere, on the autofluorescence signature of standard bioparticles. Our results will support the molecular understanding and quantitative interpretation of data obtained by real-time FBAP instrumentation [5,6]. [1] Elbert, W., Taylor, P. E., Andreae, M. O., & Pöschl, U. (2007). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4569-4588. [2] Huffman, J. A., Treutlein, B., & Pöschl, U. (2010). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3215-3233. [3] Pöschl, U., et al. (2010). Science, 329, 1513-1516. [4] Lakowicz, J., Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy, Plenum publishers, New York, 1999. [5] Pöhlker, C., Huffman, J. A., & Pöschl, U., (2012). Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 37-71. [6] Pöhlker, C., Huffman, J. A., Förster J.-D., & Pöschl, U., (2012) in preparation.

  14. The evolution of conditional dispersal and reproductive isolation along environmental gradients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua L. Payne; Rupert Mazzucco; Ulf Dieckmann

    2011-01-01

    Dispersal modulates gene flow throughout a population's spatial range. Gene flow affects adaptation at local spatial scales, and consequently impacts the evolution of reproductive isolation. A recent theoretical investigation has demonstrated that local adaptation along an environmental gradient, facilitated by the evolution of limited dispersal, can lead to parapatric speciation even in the absence of assortative mating. This and other

  15. Effect of environmental conditions on emergency department use by wheezing children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Yamamoto; L. M. Iwamoto; K. S. Yamamoto; R. G. Worthley

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine in children the relationship of wheezing to measurable environmental factors. STUDY DESIGN: Multiple regression analysis was used to measure correlation with air quality, weather, and seasonal and infection-related variables. RESULTS: Daily wheezing census was significantly correlated with weather and seasonal variables and the daily infection census. We are not certain which weather variable is the dominant

  16. Environmental conditions encountered during typical consumer retail display affect fruit and vegetable quality and waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cecilia N. Nunes; Jean Pierre Emond; Mary Rauth; Sharon Dea; Khe V. Chau

    2009-01-01

    Temperature and relative humidity (RH) are the most important environmental factors affecting the sensory quality of fresh produce, and therefore, the consumer acceptability for fruits and vegetables displayed in a produce department. Poor temperature management inevitably occurs in commercial handling and reduces the quality and maximum potential shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Since there is a lack of information

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  18. Feature Extraction and Sensor Fusion for Ultrasonic Structural Health Monitoring Under Changing Environmental Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinghui Lu; Jennifer E. Michaels

    2009-01-01

    Strongly reverberating diffuse-like ultrasonic waves can interrogate large areas of complex structures that do not support more easily interpreted guided waves. However, sensitivity to environmental changes such as temperature and surface wetting can degrade the performance of a structural health monitoring system using these types of waves. Surface wetting is investigated here with a simplified experiment where controlled amounts of

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COASTAL WATERS FOLLOWING HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the morning of August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Biloxi, Mississippi, as a strong category three hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The massive winds and flooding had the potential for a tremendous environmental impac...

  20. Germination and Growth of a Vegetable Exposed to Very Severe Environmental Conditions Experimentally Induced by High Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Takashi; Ikezawa, Shunjiro

    1982-09-01

    Ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission power lines are required in order to reduce transmission energy losses, and to transfer more power across long distances. However, the ecological and biological influence of UHV lines has not been documented well. Possible influences of UHV lines are: electro-magnetic field, ozone, NOx, and ion shower. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the germination and growth of Raphanus sativus L.cv. Kaiware-daikon exposed to an experimental environment in which all the above influences at very severe intensity levels were working simultaneously. Several environmental conditions severer than those predicted for future UHV lines were set up, using a high voltage at 60 Hz. The germination and growth of this plant were suppressed under the experimental conditions used, the suppression being greater the severer the conditions. When the electric field is strong, corona discharge occurs at the tip of the plant.

  1. Changes in body composition during breeding: Reproductive strategies of three species of seabirds under poor environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Shoshanah R; Edwards, Darryl B; Ringrose, Julian; Elliott, Kyle H; Weber, Jean-Michel; Gaston, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Seabirds differ dramatically in life history traits and breeding strategies. For example, gulls have short incubation shifts (several hours) and high metabolic rates, auks have medium-length incubation shifts (12-24h) and high metabolic rates, and petrels have long incubation shifts (days) and low metabolic rates. How these different strategies affect the dynamics of body components is poorly known. We compared body, organ and lipid mass changes among three different seabirds (gull: black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla; auk: thick-billed murre Uria lomvia; petrel: northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis) at Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2002 (a year with low reproductive success and poor chick growth across all three species). This study is among the first to compare mass and lipid dynamics among different species foraging in the same food web and at similar trophic levels during the same breeding season (same environmental conditions). In fulmars and murres, most of decreases in body mass reflected decreases in lipid mass while in kittiwakes the increase in body mass reflected an increase in lean mass, especially the muscle. The species with the longest fasting endurance (incubation shift length) had the highest percent body lipids during incubation (fulmars: 13.3%, murres: 7.3%, kittiwakes: 6.9%), the highest variability in body lipids, tended to regulate body mass primarily through lipid stores and tended to regulate exercise and digestive organs separately. In contrast, in the species with the highest metabolic rate, all organ systems were adjusted similarly and in relation to body mass, and in a similar manner between incubation (stress due to heavy ice conditions) and chick-rearing (lower stress due to ice-free conditions). In high metabolic rate species, we suggest that organ size varies in response to environmental stress. We conclude that the organ dynamics of seabirds are set by a combination of key life history traits (like incubation shift and metabolic rate) and environmental conditions. PMID:20888927

  2. Assessing the aggregation behaviour of iron oxide nanoparticles under relevant environmental conditions using a multi-method approach.

    PubMed

    Chekli, Laura; Phuntsho, Sherub; Roy, Maitreyee; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2013-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater; however, their mobility and reactivity in subsurface environments are significantly affected by their tendency to aggregate. Assessing their stability under environmental conditions is crucial for determining their environmental fate. A multi-method approach (including different size-measurement techniques and the DLVO theory) was used to thoroughly characterise the behaviour of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) under environmentally relevant conditions. Although recent studies have demonstrated the importance of using a multi-method approach when characterising nanoparticles, the majority of current studies continue to use a single-method approach. Under some soil conditions (i.e. pH 7, 10 mM NaCl and 2 mM CaCl2) and increasing particle concentration, Fe2O3NPs underwent extensive aggregation to form large aggregates (>1 ?m). Coating the nanoparticles with dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated as an alternative "green" solution to overcoming the aggregation issue instead of using the more commonly proposed polyelectrolytes. At high concentrations, DOM effectively covered the surface of the Fe2O3NPs, thereby conferring negative surface charge on the particles across a wide range of pH values. This provided electrostatic stabilisation and considerably reduced the particle aggregation effect. DOM-coated Fe2O3NPs also proved to be more stable under high ionic strength conditions. The presence of CaCl2, however, even at low concentrations, induced the aggregation of DOM-coated Fe2O3NPs, mainly via charge neutralisation and bridging. This has significant implications in regards to the reactivity and fate of these materials in the environment. PMID:23764608

  3. Analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium Proteome through Environmental Response toward Infectious Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, Joshua N.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Gustin, Jean K.; Rue, Joanne; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (aka, S. typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes ~40,000 reported cases of acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea a year in the United States. To develop a deeper understanding of the infectious state of S. typhimurium, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based “bottom-up” proteomics was used to globally analyze the proteins present under specific growth conditions. Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strain cells were grown in contrasting culture conditions that mimicked both natural free-living conditions and an infectious state, i.e., logarithm phase, stationary phase and Mg-depleted medium growth. Initial comparisons of the LT2 strain protein abundances among cell culture conditions indicate that the majority of proteins do not change significantly. Not unexpectedly, cells grown in Mg-depleted medium conditions had a higher abundance of Mg2+ transport proteins than found in other growth conditions. A second more virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain (14028) was also studied with these growth conditions and used to directly compare to the LT2 strain. The strain comparison offers a unique opportunity to compare and contrast observations in these closely related bacteria. One particular protein family, propanediol utilization proteins, was drastically more abundant in the 14028 strain than in the LT2 strain, and may be a contributor to increased pathogenicity in the 14028 strain.

  4. Mite growth on fungus under various environmental conditions and its potential application to biofilters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. WOERTZ; K. A. KINNEY; N. J. R. KRAAKMAN; W. N. M. VAN HEININGEN; M. H. A. VAN EEKERT; J. W. VAN GROENESTIJN

    2002-01-01

    The effects of relative humidity, temperature, pH and vapor-phase toluene concentration on Tyrophagus putrescentiae growth on Cladophialophora sp. were tested in controlled environmental chambers. It was observed that the mites were able to reproduce readily at relative humidities between 90% and 97% as well as on porous perlite support material pre-soaked in nutrient media of pH 2.5, 4 and 7.

  5. Mite growth on fungus under various environmental conditions and its potential application to biofilters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Woertz; K. A. Kinney; N. J. R. Kraakman; W. N. M. van Heiningen; M. H. A. van Eekert; J. W. van Groenestijn

    2002-01-01

    The effects of relative humidity, temperature, pH and vapor-phase toluene concentration on Tyrophagus\\u000a putrescentiae growth on Cladophialophora sp. were tested in controlled environmental chambers. It was observed that the mites were able to reproduce readily at relative\\u000a humidities between 90% and 97% as well as on porous perlite support material pre-soaked in nutrient media of pH 2.5, 4 and\\u000a 7.

  6. Determination of the optimal culture conditions for detecting thermophilic campylobacters in environmental water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Lévesque; Karen St-Pierre; Eric Frost; Robert D. Arbeit; Sophie Michaud

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated alternative protocols for culturing thermophilic campylobacters in environmental water. All samples were filtered through a sterile 0.45?m pore-size membrane, which was then incubated in Preston enrichment broth. Four variables were compared: water sample volume (2000mL vs. 500mL), enrichment broth volume (25mL vs. 100mL), enrichment incubation duration (24h vs. 48h), and number of enrichment passages (one vs. two).

  7. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  8. MEASURES OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ARE EFFECTIVE TOOLS FOR EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    At their core, ecological risk assessments aim to evaluate the biological integrity and long-term sustainability of natural ecosystems. These are difficult objectives that will ultimately require development of novel indicators of ecological condition that are more accurate and ...

  9. Environmental Conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: before and after the BP Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides a summary of ecological condition and sediment chemistry data for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries that were exposed to oil and oil-related contaminants from the BP Oil Spill. ...

  10. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Sand; S. K. Fischer

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and

  11. Relating coral species traits to environmental conditions in the Jakarta Bay/Pulau Seribu reef system, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachello-Dolmen, P. G.; Cleary, D. F. R.

    2007-07-01

    A key question in ecology is how biological traits of species determine their locations within an ecosystem. Identifying associations between species traits and environmental variables can help us to understand the causes of disturbance and predict whether species with given traits will persist under changing environmental conditions. To this end corals and environmental variables were sampled in 20 patch reefs of Pulau Seribu, located to the northwest of Jakarta, Indonesia. RLQ analysis, a multivariate ordination approach was subsequently used to relate species traits (colony shape, colony form, corallite size, reproductive mode and adaptive strategy) to environmental variables (e.g., heavy metal concentration in seawater and sediment, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and the cover of sand, dead coral, algae, sponges and soft corals). Using RLQ analysis, we identified environmental gradients associated with significant variation in species traits. Stress tolerant species with a massive morphology, meandroid shape and large corallites were associated with sites with a high abundance of algae and a relatively high concentration of potentially toxic heavy metals in seawater including Cu and Cd, whereas ruderal species and species with a branching morphology and very small corallites were linked to midshore sites. Competitively dominant species with a laminar or free-living morphology, phaceloid shape, very large corallites and brooding reproductive mode were linked to offshore sites with abundant Ca and Sr in the sediment and a high cover of Halimeda algae and sponges. Results of this study indicate that disturbance has differentially affected the marine environment of the Pulau Seribu system, which in turn interacts with coral species traits to determine local species composition.

  12. Section 3, Component 3: Control of Environmental Factors and Comorbid Conditions That Affect Asthma August 28, 2007

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Section 3, Component 3: Control of Environmental Factors and Comorbid Conditions That Affect Asthma THAT AFFECT ASTHMA K E Y P O I N T S : C O N T R O L O F E N V I R O N M E N T A L F A C T O R S A N D C O M O R B I D C O N D I T I O N S T H A T A F F E C T A S T H M A Exposure of patients who have asthma

  13. Visible/Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Sensing of Solids under Controlled Environmental Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Anheier, Norman C.; Mendoza, Albert; Fritz, Brad G.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the use of a wind tunnel for conducting controlled passive hyperspectral imaging experiments. Passive techniques are potentially useful for detecting explosives, solid-phase chemicals and other materials of interest from a distance so as to provide operator safety. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates a wind tunnel facility that can generate and circulate artificial atmospheres to control lighting, humidity, temperature, aerosol burdens, and obscurants. We will present recent results describing optimized sensing of solids over tens of meters distance using both visible and near-infrared cameras, as well as the effects of certain environmental parameters on data retrieval.

  14. Droplet-turbulence interactions in sprays exposed to supercritical environmental conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santavicca, Domenic A.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research was to experimentally characterize the behavior of droplets in vaporizing sprays under conditions typical of those encountered in high pressure combustion systems such as liquid fueled rocket engines. Of particular interest are measurements of droplet drag and lift, droplet dispersion, droplet heating, and droplet vaporization under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. A summary of the major accomplishments achieved during the period from June 1990 through June 1993, a brief description and status report on five research areas, which were directly or indirectly supported by this grant, and a list of publications and personnel associated with this research is included.

  15. Determination of Storm Flashing/Non-Flashing Condition From Convective and Environmental Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and fundamental problem in cloud electrification is whether or not a cloud can be determined to be producing lightning or not producing lightning, based solely on knowledge of its microphysical (and perhaps environmental) state. A merged database of TRMM radar, microwave and lightning observations and NCEP reanalysis environmental parameters is used to answer this question, for the tropics. The formal skill of traditional, univariate rule-based approaches (e.g., 35 dBZ occurrence at 6 km altitude) is quantified (via the probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR) and critical skill index (CSI)). Under indiscriminate application to the tropics, peak rule-based CSI for categorization of flashing storms is approximately 50%, with peak POD approximately 67% and minimum FAR approximately 33%, with peak CSI found for radar reflectivity-based parameters at 7-7.5 km altitude (near -15C). Separation of land and ocean domains yields approximately 5-10% gains in CSI over land. Conventional multivariate categorization techniques (discriminant analysis) are then applied, and less conventional (neural network) categorization techniques are also discussed.

  16. Environmental Conditions and Body Temperatures of Elderly Women Living Alone or in Local Authority Home

    PubMed Central

    Salvosa, Carmencita B.; Payne, P. R.; Wheeler, Erica F.

    1971-01-01

    The environmental and body temperatures of two groups of elderly women have been measured. One group was living in a local authority home (L.A.H.) and the others in their own homes in North London. The L.A.H. provided a constant environmental temperature which was at all times higher than that of the private houses. In the latter group the ambient temperature was higher in bed-sitting rooms than in houses with separate living rooms and bedrooms. Body temperatures in summer were similar throughout both groups. In winter the skin and mouth temperatures of the subjects living independently were lower than those in the L.A.H. Four subjects who had low mouth temperatures measured during two consecutive winters did not prove to have lowered deep body temperatures. The diet of these four subjects was similar in respect of all nutrients to that found in other groups of subjects of the same age, and in relation to published dietary standards was adequate in all respects. PMID:5134562

  17. An evolutionary model of the environmental conditions that shape the development of prosociality.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel Tumminelli

    2014-01-01

    The current review presents a model for how prosocial development is driven by sociocognitive mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection to translate critical environmental factors into locally adaptive levels of prosociality. This is done through a synthesis of two existing literatures. Evolutionary developmental psychologists have demonstrated a biological basis for the emergence of prosocial behavior early in youth, and work based on social learning theory has explored how social experiences can influence prosociality across development. The model forwarded organizes this latter literature in a way that is specific to how the biological mechanisms underpinning prosociality have evolved. This consists of two main psychological mechanisms. 1) A domain-specific program that is responsive to environmental factors that determine the relative success of different levels of prosociality. It uses the local prevalence of prosocial others (i.e., support) and expectations for prosocial behavior (i.e., structure) to guide prosocial development. 2) The domain-general process of cultural learning, by which youth adopt local social norms based on the examples of others. Implications and hypotheses are articulated for both the sociocognitive structure of the individual and the role of social contexts. PMID:25299885

  18. Variation of cyanobacteria with different environmental conditions in Nansi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chang; Peil, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Xie, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Nansi Lake is located on the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. A comprehensive study was carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria in the lake from June 2008 to May 2011 based on monthly sample monitoring from five stations. The effect of environmental factors on cyanobacterial abundance was also evaluated. The cyanobacterial community contained 15 genera and 23 species. The cyanobacterial abundance of each monitoring station ranged from 0 to 1.53 x 10(7) cells/L with an average of 1.45 x 10(6) cells/L, which accounted for 11.66% of the total phytoplankton abundance. The dominant species of cyanobacteria were Pseudanabaena (32.94%) and Merismopedia (19.85%), not the bloom-forming algae such as Microcystis and Anabaena. In addition, the cyanobacterial community structure and water quality variables changed substantially over the survey period. Redundancy analysis (RDA) suggested that temperature and phosphorus were important environmental factors that affected cyanobacteria. Temperature was the most important factor affecting cyanobacterial abundance. The effect of phosphorus on cyanobacterial abundance was more notable in warm periods than in periods with low temperature. PMID:23513680

  19. Degradation of methylene blue: optimization of operating condition through a statistical technique and environmental estimate of the treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Qiongfang; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Fan, Fang

    2008-05-01

    FeO(x)-MoO(3)-P(2)O(5) (x=1 or 1.5) composite catalyst was prepared by solid reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Its catalytic activities on degradation of a heteropolyaromatic dye, methylene blue (MB), were also investigated under mild condition. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised. And the results revealed that initial concentration of MB was the key factor that affected the decoloration, while the catalysts dose has an insignificant effect. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little influence on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation. PMID:17868986

  20. Effect of environmental conditions on radon concentration-track density calibration factor of solid-state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sersy, A.; Mansy, M.; Hussein, A.

    2004-04-01

    In this work, the effect of environmental conditions viz., temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on the track density--radon concentrations calibration factor (K) has been studied for CR-39 and LR-115 track detectors. The factor K was determined using a reference radon chamber in the National Institute for Standards (NIS) in Egypt. Track detectors were etched at the recommended optimum etching conditions. It is found that, the calibration factor K varies with both T and RH, so they should be considered for the sake of uncertainty reduction. Good agreement is found between the calculated and measured values of K and the compatibility between them is in the range of experimental uncertainty.

  1. Comparing The Thermal Environmental In Broiler Housing Using Two Bird's Densities Under Tropical Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Eugenia Corria Aradas; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Douglas D'Alessandro Salgado

    Brazilian farmers have adopted high bird density associated to auxiliary management such as adapted tunnel ventilation system in order to optimize broiler productions and to provide thermal comfort for the reared birds. This research compared two distinct broiler's lodging systems in three commercial flocks and similar outside conditions using: a conventional housing system lodging 13 birds\\/m2 (G1) and an adapted

  2. Durability studies of montmorillonite clay filled epoxy composites under different environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zainuddin; M. V. Hosur; Y. Zhou; Ashok Kumar; S. Jeelani

    2009-01-01

    Even though fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are used in many applications, their integrity overtime is still unknown and remains a major concern. Due to inherent viscoelastic nature of polymers and their composites, exposure to elevated temperature and moist conditions results in matrix cracking, plasticization, and interfacial debonding and so on resulting in premature failure of composite structures. Researcher have

  3. Challenges for Physical Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Under Pristine and Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reported size distribution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is strongly affected by the underlying measurement method, agglomeration state, and dispersion conditions. A selection of AgNP materials with vendor-reported diameters ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm, various size distrib...

  4. The effect of early environmental manipulation on locomotor sensitivity and methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward.

    PubMed

    Hensleigh, E; Pritchard, L M

    2014-07-15

    Early life stress leads to several effects on neurological development, affecting health and well-being later in life. Instances of child abuse and neglect are associated with higher rates of depression, risk taking behavior, and an increased risk of drug abuse later in life. This study used repeated neonatal separation of rat pups as a model of early life stress. Rat pups were either handled and weighed as controls or separated for 180 min per day during postnatal days 2-8. In adulthood, male and female rats were tested for methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward and methamphetamine induced locomotor activity. Tissue samples were collected and mRNA was quantified for the norepinephrine transporter in the prefrontal cortex and the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens. Results indicated rats given methamphetamine formed a conditioned place preference, but there was no effect of early separation or sex. Separated males showed heightened methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, but there was no effect of early separation for females. Overall females were more active than males in response to both saline and methamphetamine. No differences in mRNA levels were observed across any conditions. These results suggest early neonatal separation affects methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in a sex-dependent manner but has no effects on methamphetamine conditioned place preference. PMID:24713150

  5. Test of Dynamic Properties in Different Environmental Conditions with Different Occupant Weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. McEvoy; Terry McRoberts; Ryoko Yamasaki

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with accelerated aging of different vehicle segment foams such as high and low density passenger cars and truck cushions. These different segments have different durability, density, firmness, and thickness requirements in many cases. This paper explores the difference in vehicle environment, accelerated aging conditions, and the numbers of fatigue cycles, then provides experimental methods to determine complete

  6. TOXICITY OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS UNDER NATURALLY VARYING AND CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 val...

  7. Role of Environmental Conditions on the Interaction of L-Arginine with Oxide Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Lee, N.; Cleaves, H. J., II; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    The current study is focused on surface interactions between L-arginine, the most basic protein amino acid, and rutile in NaCl media over a wide range of solution pH conditions, amino acid concentrations, and solution ionic strengths.

  8. Acquisition of sensor fusion rule based on environmental condition in sensor fusion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Futoshi Kobayashi; Yosuke Tanabe; Toshio Fukuda; Fumio Kojima

    2001-01-01

    The manufacturing systems have become more and more complex for adapting to various process conditions. Recently, various and numerous sensors are equipped in the systems for measuring various states in processes. For efficient manufacturing, a sensor fusion method is needed for inferring state which cannot be measured by conventional sensors. So, many sensor fusion methods have been proposed so far.

  9. Morphological parameters of the barnacle, Balanus tintinnabulum antillensis, as indicators of physiological and environmental conditions 

    E-print Network

    Boland, Gregory Scott

    1980-01-01

    RESULTS DISCUSSION SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES VITA TABLE OF CONTENTS Pa&ac 111 't V 10 18 25 45 57 61 69 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Latitude and 1onoitude of samp'le stations 2. Description of sample stations Pacae 19 20 3... on platform 296-O, fall 1978 Pacae 41 15 16 Regressions for meat dry weight on meat wet weight for fall-winter I-m depths and spring I-m depth on platform 296-O Regressions of meat dry weight on cavity volume for 296-O 8-m station, summer 1978 and summer...

  10. Abundance of Broad Bacterial Taxa in the Sargasso Sea Explained by Environmental Conditions but Not Water Mass

    PubMed Central

    Sjöstedt, Johanna; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To explore the potential linkage between distribution of marine bacterioplankton groups, environmental conditions, and water mass, we investigated the factors determining the abundance of bacterial taxa across the hydrographically complex Subtropical Convergence Zone in the Sargasso Sea. Based on information from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from various locations and two depths, abundances of the predominant taxa (eubacteria, Archaea, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and the Roseobacter, SAR11, and SAR86 clades) were quantified by real-time PCR. In addition, the abundances of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and picoalgae were determined by flow cytometry. Linear multiple-regression models determining the relative effects of eight environmental variables and of water mass explained 35 to 86% of the variation in abundance of the quantified taxa, even though only one to three variables were significantly related to any particular taxon's abundance. Most of the variation in abundance was explained by depth and chlorophyll a. The predominant phototrophs, Prochlorococcus and picoalgae, were negatively correlated with phosphate, whereas eubacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, and SAR86 were negatively correlated with nitrite. Water mass showed limited importance for explaining the abundance of the taxonomical groups (significant only for Roseobacter, explaining 14% of the variation). The results suggest the potential for predicting the abundance of broad bacterioplankton groups throughout the Sargasso Sea using only a few environmental parameters. PMID:24561593

  11. A comparison of modern and fossil ostracods from Frasassi Cave system (northeastern Apennines, Italy) to infer past environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, S.; Namiotko, T.; Montanari, A.; Brugiapaglia, E.; Mainiero, M.; Mariani, S.; Fiebig, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cave water and sediments from an extensive sulfidic, chemioautotrophic subterranean ecosystem in the hypogenic karst complex of Frasassi (northeastern Apennines of Italy) was analysed for modern and fossil ostracode assemblages. 22 extant and 16 extinct ostracode species make of this continental sulphidic ecosystem one of the richest worldwide. Both modern and fossil assemblages show the expected pattern of species diversity after the simulation procedure for taxonomic distinctness, which indicates no major extinction events since the Pleistocene. Extant species display patchy distribution according to habitat heterogeneity within the sulphidic environment. Fossil assemblages from a 3 m thick fluvial deposit trapped near the entrance of the Caverna del Carbone (CDC) at about 30 m above present river level, and a fine sand deposit resting at about the same elevation in Sala Duecento (SDS) within the Grotta Grande del Vento preliminarily dated with OSL at 111±17 ka are being investigated. The former deposit has yet to be dated but it represents probably a normal stratigraphic succession spanning a few tens of kyr, which was deposited when the cave entrance was at the reach of fluvial flooding, potentially recording the transition from the last interglacial Riss-Würm to the glacial Würm. Sediment samples from the SDS site yielded an ostracode assemblage represented by 12 species with a d18O signature of -5‰ and a well-diversified palinoflora assemblage indicating a transitional condition between steppe and temperate forest. The top sediment from the CDC site is characterized by a less diversified ostracode assemblage represented by 8 species, d18O of -3‰, and a poorly diversified palinoflora dominated by herbaceous plants and lesser pines, indicating a colder environment in the early stage of the last glacial. Additional information on the geometric morphometry approach of B-splines method applied to extant and fossil specimens of the hypogean Mixtacandona ostracode was used to identify microevolutionary patterns and environmentally cued variation. Analyses indicate the presence of one morphotype of a new species A of the group Mixtacandona riongessa, and three distinctive morphotypes of a species B of the group M. laisi-chappuisi occurring in stratigraphically distinct fluvial-cave sediments. Apparent difference in the disparity level between these species could be associated with their survival in different environmental conditions. Species A is found nowadays living exclusively in sulphidic cave waters, and was present in the system since at least the end of the last interglacial. The extraordinary high taxonomic and morphological diversity of ostracods reflects in situ evolutionary processes that have occurred under the cumulative effect of high environmental energy availability of subterranean sulphidic ecosystems, heterogeneous environmental conditions, and spatial and temporal isolation.

  12. The effect of surface condition and sulfur on the environmental resistance of airfoils

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, J.C.; Murphy, W.H. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinatti, OH (United States); Smialek, J.L. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The environmental protection of aircraft engine high-pressure turbine blades is dependent upon the formation of a thin, slow-growing, external alumina scale. The adherence of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) scales to superalloys or coatings has been shown to be improved by adding an oxygen-active element (Y) or by desulfurization. Studies will be presented that show that cast surfaces are contaminated with sulfur and are more susceptible to high-velocity oxidation than machined surfaces regardless of an oxygen-active-element addition. In addition, the positive effect of oxygen-active elements and desulfurization on the performance of a single-crystal and directionally solidified Ni-base super-alloy in a 1149{degrees}C cyclic oxidation test and a 927{degrees}C/5 ppm sea-salt Type-I hot-corrosion test will be discussed.

  13. Linking shoreline displacement to environmental conditions in the Wax Lake Delta, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geleynse, N.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of river deltas are not well-understood in part because of scarcity of historical data that document the growth or retreat of their channel networks, islands and shorelines. In particular, the mapping of deltaic shorelines is not trivial, however recent developments allow for their extraction from satellite and aerial imagery. Here, we present an analysis of environmental data and Landsat imagery of the Wax Lake Delta, a naturally-developing river delta in the shallow Atchafalaya Basin, Gulf of Mexico, USA. The image-based shoreline corresponds to the hydrodynamic shoreline, that is, the boundary of the subaerial and subaqueous portions of the delta, however, can be related to a morphodynamically-relevant shoreline by application of our method [Geleynse et al., 2012] to bathymetric-topographic data. Moreover, the effect of tides, river floods, wind, and vegetation cover on the extracted shorelines of the Wax Lake Delta can be identified.

  14. Static and dynamic mooring analysis - Stability of floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) risers for extreme environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Yu-Ho; Kim, Kookhyun; Jo, Chul-Hee; Kim, Do-Youb

    2013-06-01

    Floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) facilities are used at most of the offshore oil fields worldwide. FPSO usage is expected to grow as oil fields move to deeper water, thus requiring the reliability and stability of mooring wires and risers in extreme environmental conditions. Except for the case of predictable attack angles of external loadings, FPSO facilities with turret single point mooring (SPM) systems are in general use. There are two types of turret systems: permanent systems and disconnectable turret mooring systems. Extreme environment criteria for permanent moorings are usually based on a 100-year return period event. It is common to use two or three environments including the 100-year wave with associated wind and current, and the 100-year wind with associated waves and current. When fitted with a disconnectable turret mooring system, FPSOs can be used in areas where it is desirable to remove the production unit from the field temporarily to prevent exposure to extreme events such as cyclones or large icebergs. Static and dynamic mooring analyses were performed to evaluate the stability of a spider buoy after disconnection from a turret during cyclone environmental conditions

  15. Cytoprotective Effect of Short-Term Pretreatment with Proanthocyanidin on Human Gingival Fibroblasts Exposed to Harsh Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kurauchi, Michiko; Niwano, Yoshimi; Shirato, Midori; Kanno, Taro; Nakamura, Keisuke; Egusa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that exposing mouse fibroblasts to proanthocyanidin (PA) for only 1 min accelerated cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In this study, exposing human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to PA for 1 min similarly accelerated the proliferative response of the cells. Besides the accelerated proliferative response, PA showed a cytoprotective effect on HGFs exposed to harsh environmental conditions; short-term exposure of HGFs in the mitotic phase to pure water or physiological saline resulted in a lower recovery of viable cells. Pretreatment and concomitant treatment with PA improved the low recovery of cells exposed to pure water or physiological saline. In addition, HGFs exposed to PA for 1 min proliferated well even after being cultured in serum-free medium. In 100% confluent HGFs, being cultured in serum-free medium resulted in a high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, but pretreatment with PA prevented the cells from increasing intracellular ROS. Thus, the results suggest that a short-term PA treatment exerts cytoprotective effects on HGFs exposed to harsh environmental conditions by improving the intracellular oxidative stress response. PMID:25405354

  16. Investigations of chemical fraction of Co and Ni in industrial fly ash and mobility of metals in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Soco, Eleonora; Kalembkiewicz, Jan

    2007-02-01

    The quantitative evaluation of chemical fraction of Co and Ni in the industrial fly ash by methods of five step sequential extraction was carried out in order to characterize metal mobility in environmental conditions. The research involved (i) water-soluble (pH=7), (ii) acid-soluble (pH=5), (iii) oxide, (iv) sulfide and (v) residue metal fractions. It was discovered, that the total extraction of the studied metals from fly ash to solutions take place in the following quantities Co - 35.5 and Ni - 153.0mgkg(-1). The investigations of chemical fractions proved that the subject metals occur mainly in fly ash as: oxide (Co - 7.0, Ni - 28.5mgkg(-1)) and residue (Co - 11.5, Ni - 42.5mgkg(-1)) as well as sulfide (Co - 8.5, Ni - 46.5mgkg(-1)). Low concentrations of metals for water-soluble fraction (Co - 0.7, Ni - 1.2mgkg(-1)) and acid-soluble fraction (Co - 4.5, Ni - 23.5mgkg(-1)) were observed. The fractions of Co and Ni leachable from the ash in environmental conditions contain: 24.0% (Co) and 23.3% (Ni) of metal total amount in the industrial fly ash. The obtained mobility parameter of Co and Ni can be applied to estimate the concentration increase of mobile and hardly mobile forms of these metals in soil polluted with the ash. PMID:17150241

  17. [The environmental conditions of the Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody (Caucasian Mineral Waters) health resort region, methods for their monitoring and improvement].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, M M; Rud', N Iu; Pershin, I M

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the unique environmental conditions of the Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody (Caucasian Mineral Waters) health resort region with special reference to its paramount importance for the national interests of Russia. It is emphasized, however, that the environmental conditions in the region under consideration are far from being satisfactory. In connection with this, the authors point out to the necessity of expanding areas of protective forest stands and prohibition of the implementation of new building projects in the frontal mountain sanitary zones; they draw special attention to the potential danger of degradation of mineral water springs under the influence of changes in the distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients in the upper part of the lithosphere leading to the deterioration of their composition and the contamination of ground and surface waters with municipal and domestic effluents. Special attention is given to the harm and impermissibility of illegal extraction of mineral waters from producing wells. An original method for water quality control and estimation of the optimal production rate is proposed. The authors hypothesize the possible causes behind the discontinuation of mud formation at the Tambukan deposits and substantiate the necessity of using the resource-saving technologies for processing raw materials and urgent measures to eliminate the factors responsible for desalination and pollution of this mineral mud lake. It is concluded that strict state control should be exercised in the region by means of the introduction of the multilevel automated information system for round-the-clock environmental monitoring. The authors believe that only joint efforts of scientists, legislative and executive authorities can preserve Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody health resort region for the future generations. PMID:23210368

  18. Periodic oscillations of a model for membrane permeability with fluctuating environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres, Pedro J

    2015-07-01

    We perform an analytical study of the dynamics of a multi-solute model for water transport across a cell membrane under periodic fluctuations of the extracellular solute molalities. Under the presence of non-permeating intracellular solute, water volume experiences periodic oscillations if and only if the extracellular non-permeating solute molality is positive in the average. On the other hand, in the absence of non-permeating intracellular solute, a sufficient condition for the existence of an infinite number of periodic solutions of the model is provided. Such sufficient condition holds automatically in the case of only one permeating solute. The proofs are based on classical tools from the qualitative theory of differential equations, namely Brouwer degree, upper and lower solutions and comparison arguments. PMID:25017486

  19. Monitoring and Prevention of Anemia Relying on Nutrition and Environmental Conditions in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Sacirovi?, Selim; Asotic, Jasminka; Maksimovic, Radmila; Radevic, Borislav; Muric, Benin; Mekic, Hasim; Biocanin, Rade

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction Anemia is a blood disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of healthy red blood cells or reduced hemoglobin, the iron-bearing protein in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to tissues throughout the body. The most common symptoms of this disorder are fatigue, weakness and, in extreme cases, shortness of breath or palpitations, or you may have no symptoms at all. Sports anemia is a term loosely applied to a least three different conditions: hemodilution, iron deficiency anemia and foot-strike anemia. Not exclusive to athletes, iron deficiency anemia occurs most often among women who may lose more iron each month when they menstruate than they take in. Material and Methods Therefore, we examined its effect on the physical condition of female athletes. Several years (since 2010th until 2012th), we studied how anemia among girls (pioneers, juniors and seniors categories) that are involved in sports (women’s soccer, volleyball and handball) in Rasina’s district (Serbia), affecting their physical fitness. When their trainers approach to us, complaining that they have players who are great, so extraordinary talents, but by no means able to withstand more than twenty minutes in the game, we suggest them to perform laboratory tests. It was tested 134th female athletes. Results and Discussion Anemia was observed in 43. (9. pioneers, 19. juniors and 15. seniors). So, laboratory results showed that in these girls anemia causes poor sport condition. After that, the girls enhanced nutrition. Their diet consisted of iron supplements and vitamins. Altitude training was organized for them, also. After all these treatments, condition significantly improved. It was first time that trainers in Rasina’s district realizing significance of laboratory tests. PMID:24082840

  20. Uranium Biominerals Precipitated by an Environmental Isolate of Serratia under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Laura; Morris, Katherine; Lloyd, Jonathan. R.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulating the microbially-mediated precipitation of uranium biominerals may be used to treat groundwater contamination at nuclear sites. The majority of studies to date have focussed on the reductive precipitation of uranium as U(IV) by U(VI)- and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter and Shewanella species, although other mechanisms of uranium removal from solution can occur, including the precipitation of uranyl phosphates via bacterial phosphatase activity. Here we present the results of uranium biomineralisation experiments using an isolate of Serratia obtained from a sediment sample representative of the Sellafield nuclear site, UK. When supplied with glycerol phosphate, this Serratia strain was able to precipitate 1 mM of soluble U(VI) as uranyl phosphate minerals from the autunite group, under anaerobic and fermentative conditions. Under phosphate-limited anaerobic conditions and with glycerol as the electron donor, non-growing Serratia cells could precipitate 0.5 mM of uranium supplied as soluble U(VI), via reduction to nano-crystalline U(IV) uraninite. Some evidence for the reduction of solid phase uranyl(VI) phosphate was also observed. This study highlights the potential for Serratia and related species to play a role in the bioremediation of uranium contamination, via a range of different metabolic pathways, dependent on culturing or in situ conditions. PMID:26132209

  1. Environmental Conditions around Itineraries to Destinations as Correlates of Walking for Transportation among Adults: The RECORD Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Brondeel, Ruben; Chaix, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Assessing the contextual factors that influence walking for transportation is important to develop more walkable environments and promote physical activity. To advance previous research focused on residential environments and overall walking for transportation, the present study investigates objective environmental factors assessed around the residence, the workplace, the home – work itinerary, and the home – supermarket itinerary, and considered overall walking for transportation but also walking to work and to shops. Methods Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007–2008, aged 30–79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Multilevel ordinal regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental characteristics associated with self-reported overall walking for transportation, walking to work, and walking to shops. Results High individual education was associated with overall walking for transportation, with walking to work, and walking to shops. Among workers, a high residential neighborhood education was associated with increased overall walking for transportation, while a high workplace neighborhood education was related to an increased time spent walking to work. The residential density of destinations was positively associated with overall walking for transportation, with walking to work, and with walking to shops, while the workplace density of destinations was positively associated with overall walking for transportation among workers. Environmental factors assessed around the itineraries were not associated with walking to work or to the shops. Conclusion This research improves our understanding of the role of the environments on walking for transportation by accounting for some of the environments visited beyond the residential neighborhood. It shows that workers' walking habits are more influenced by the density of destinations around the workplace than around the residence. These results provide insight for the development of policies and programs to encourage population level active commuting. PMID:24828890

  2. Teleportation via generalized measurements, and conclusive teleportation

    E-print Network

    Tal Mor; Pawel Horodecki

    1999-06-14

    In this work we show that teleportation is a special case of a generalized Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) non-locality. Based on the connection between teleportation and generalized measurements we define conclusive teleportation. We show that perfect conclusive teleportation can be obtained with any pure entangled state, and it can be arbitrarily approached with a particular mixed state.

  3. SIMPLE TEST METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE ENERGY RATINGS OF PV MODULES UNDER VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS MÉTHODES SIMPLES D'ESSAI POUR L'ÉVALUATION DE LA PERFORMANCE ÉNERGÉTIQUES DE MODULES PV DANS DE DIVERSES CONDITIONS CLIMATIQUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Poissant; Lorraine Couture; Lisa Dignard-Bailey; Didier Thevenard; Pat Cusack; Hans Oberholzer

    Work is presently underway to develop an international standard for module energy rating that takes into account the impact of different environmental conditions on the energy performance of PV modules. This paper presents simple outdoor and indoor test methods inspired from the draft IEC 61853 standard to evaluate the performance of various module technologies under different climatic conditions. Indoor tests

  4. The COPAS’08 expedition to the Patagonian Shelf: Physical and environmental conditions during the 2008 coccolithophore bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Stuart C.; Poulton, Alex J.; Allen, John T.; Pidcock, Rosalind; Balch, William M.

    2010-10-01

    Here we present observations of the hydrography of the Patagonian Shelf, shelf break and offshore waters, with reference to the environmental conditions present during the period of peak coccolithophore abundance. Analysis of a hydrographic dataset collected in December 2008 (austral spring/summer), as part of the Coccolithophores of the Patagonian Shelf (COPAS) research cruise, identified 5 distinct surface water masses in the region between 37°S and 55°S. These water masses, identified through salinity gradients, displayed varying mixed layer depths, macronutrient inventories and chlorophyll- a fluorescence. Subantarctic Shelf Water (SSW), located to the north of the Falkland Islands and extending north along the shelf break, was also host to a large coccolithophore bloom. The similarities between the distribution of calcite, as seen in remote sensing data, and SSW indicate that the coccolithophore bloom encountered conditions conducive to bloom development within this water mass. Analysis of chemical and environmental data also collected during the COPAS cruise revealed that many of the commonly cited conditions for coccolithophore bloom development were present within SSW (e.g. low N:P ratio, high N:Si ratio, shallow mixed layer depth). In the other water masses present on the Patagonian Shelf greater variability in these same parameters may explain the more diffuse concentration of calcite, and the smaller size of possible coccolithophore blooms. The distribution of SSW is strongly influenced by the latitudinal variation in shelf break frontal width, which varies from 20 to 200 km, and consequently strong hydrographic controls underlie the position of the coccolithophore bloom during austral summer.

  5. Survey of fishes and environmental conditions in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of fishery resources in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore. During February/March, May, August, and November 1999, fish were sampled with floating variable-mesh gill nets and small minnow traps from as many as 14 sites in the lagoon. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total ammonia(NH3 + NH4+), salinity, turbidity, water depth, and bottom substrate composition were also measured at each site. A total of 2,656 fish represented by eight species was captured during the study. Gill nets captured Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi; prickly sculpin, Cottus asper, silver surfperch, Hyperprosopon ellipticum; longfin smelt, Spirinchus thaleichthys; and striped bass, Morone saxatilis; whereas minnow traps captured Sacramento perch; prickly sculpin; and threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Cluster analysis (Ward's minimum variance method of fish catch statistics identified two major species assemblages-the first dominated by Sacramento perch and, to a lesser extent, by largemouth bass, and the second dominated by Pacific herring and threespine stickleback. Simple discriminant analysis of environmental variables indicated that salinity contributed the most towards separating the two assemblages.

  6. Intracellular pH Recovery Rates in Bivalve Hemocytes Following Exposure to Acidic Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croxton, A.; Wikfors, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of ocean acidification effects upon carbonate shell-forming species have caused great concern for the future of shellfisheries. Nevertheless, bivalve species inhabiting an estuarine environment have evolved in these environments with fluctuating pH levels. Previous experimental studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated the ability of oyster hemocytes to maintain intracellular homeostasis under acidic external conditions. However, little information is known of this homeostatic mechanism in other molluscan shellfish species present in these same habitats. In the current study we propose to determine if other bivalve species of aquaculture interest also possess this intracellular regulation by applying an in vitro hemocyte pH-recovery assay, previously developed for oysters, on the northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the softshell clam, Mya arenaria. Preliminary results from the determination of initial intracellular pH levels, the initial step in the rate recovery assay, indicated a pH range between 7.0-7.4. This range was comparable to initial values measured in oysters, and consistent with data reported in the current literature. The second step of the hemocyte pH-recovery assay involves exposing oyster hemocytes to acidic external conditions and measuring the ability of the hemocyte intracellular pH to maintain homeostasis (i.e. recovery rate). Results from the recovery rate process will be presented.

  7. Impact of environmental conditions on the marine natural product bryostatin 1.

    PubMed

    Manning, Thomas J; Rhodes, Emily; Land, Michael; Parkman, Render; Sumner, Brandy; Lam, Tukiet T; Marshall, Alan G; Phillips, Dennis

    2006-05-20

    Marine Natural Products (MNPs), such as bryostatin 1, are exposed to a range of physical and chemical conditions through the life cycle of the host organism. These include exposure to sunlight, oxidizing and reducing agents, cation binding, and adsorption to reactive metal oxide surfaces. Using Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR), Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), UV/Vis absorbance spectroscopy, and molecular modeling, we studied the impact of UV light, TiO2, I2, and reaction with FeCl3 on the structure of bryostatin 1. Our results demonstrate that natural conditions transform bryostatin to a number of structures, including one with a molar mass of 806 Da, which we have previously identified in the sediment collected from the Gulf of Mexico. To date, at least 20 different structures of bryostatin have been reported in the literature. This work suggests that these variations may be products of the chemical environment in which the bryozoa Bugula neritina resides and are not the result of genetic variations within Bugula. PMID:16835096

  8. Organic-coated silver nanoparticles in biological and environmental conditions: fate, stability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; Siskova, Karolina M; Zboril, Radek; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-02-01

    This review paper presents the overview of processes involved in transformation of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in biological systems and in the aquatic environment. The coating on AgNPs greatly influences the fate, stability, and toxicity of AgNPs in aqueous solutions, biological systems, and the environment. Several organic-coated AgNP systems are discussed to understand their stability and toxicity in biological media and natural water. Examples are presented to demonstrate how a transformation of organic-coated AgNPs in an aqueous solution is affected by the type of coating, pH, kind of electrolyte (mono- or divalent), ionic strength, organic ligands (inorganic and organic), organic matter (fulvic and humic acids), redox conditions (oxic and anoxic), and light. Results of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and ecotoxicity of coated AgNPs to food chain members (plants, bacteria, and aquatic and terrestrial organisms) are reviewed. Key factors contributing to toxicity are the size, shape, surface coating, surface charge, and conditions of silver ion release. AgNPs may directly damage the cell membranes, disrupt ATP production and DNA replication, alternate gene expressions, release toxic Ag(+) ion, and produce reactive oxygen species to oxidize biological components of the cell. A progress made on understanding the mechanism of organic-coated AgNP toxicity using different analytical techniques is presented. PMID:24406050

  9. Transcriptional Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to Oxidative Stress Mimicking Environmental Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2008-03-12

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria are anaerobes readily found in oxic-anoxic interfaces. Multiple defence pathways against oxidative conditions were identified in these organisms and proposed to be differentially expressed under different concentrations of oxygen, contributing to their ability to survive oxic conditions. In this study, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough cells were exposed to the highest concentration of oxygen that sulphate-reducing bacteria are likely to encounter in natural habitats, and the global transcriptomic response was determined. 307 genes were responsive, with cellular roles in energy metabolism, protein fate, cell envelope and regulatory functions, including multiple genes encoding heat shock proteins, peptidases and proteins with heat shock promoters. Of the oxygen reducing mechanisms of D. vulgaris only the periplasmic hydrogen-dependent mechanism is up-regulated, involving the [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase(s) and the Hmc membrane complex. The oxidative defence response concentrates on damage repair by metal-free enzymes. These data, together with the down regulation of the Fur operon, which restricts the availability of iron, and the lack of response of the PerR operon, suggest that a major effect of this oxygen stress is the inactivation and/or degradation of multiple metalloproteins present in D. vulgaris as a consequence of oxidative damage to their metal clusters.

  10. Environmental oxygen conditions during the origin and early evolution of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towe, Kenneth M.

    The well-known sensitivity of proteins and nucleic acids to UV-radiation requires that some internally consistent protection scenario be envisioned for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth. Although a variety of ozone-surrogates has been proposed, the available biochemical, geochemical and geological evidence best supports the conclusion that free oxygen was available at levels capable of providing at least a moderate ozone screen. Levels of oxygen near 1-2% of the present atmospheric level are consistent with such a screen, and with: (1) the biochemical needs of early procaryotes considered phylogenetically more primitive than the oxygen-producing Cyanobacteria; (2) the rare-earth element data from the oxide facies of the 3.8 Byr-old Isua banded-iron formations; (3) the nature and phylogenetic distribution of superoxide dismutases; (4) the need for aerobic recycling of early photosynthetic productivity dictated by the distribution of ancient sedimentary iron and organic carbon; (5) the incompatibility of dissolved reduced sulfur (to support anoxygenic photosynthesis) and ferrous iron (to support banded iron-formations) in the surface waters of the world oceans; and (6) the comparative oxygen and UV-sensitivities of modern procaryotes.

  11. The Effect of Environmental Conditions on Biofilm Formation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Nur Siti K.; Eng Guan, Chua; Nathan, Sheila; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative saprophytic bacterium, is the causative agent of the potentially fatal melioidosis disease in humans. In this study, environmental parameters including temperature, nutrient content, pH and the presence of glucose were shown to play a role in in vitro biofilm formation by 28 B. pseudomallei clinical isolates, including four isolates with large colony variants (LCVs) and small colony variants (SCVs) morphotypes. Enhanced biofilm formation was observed when the isolates were tested in LB medium, at 30°C, at pH 7.2, and in the presence of as little as 2 mM glucose respectively. It was also shown that all SVCs displayed significantly greater capacity to form biofilms than the corresponding LCVs when cultured in LB at 37°C. In addition, octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), a quorum sensing molecule, was identified by mass spectrometry analysis in bacterial isolates referred to as LCV CTH, LCV VIT, SCV TOM, SCV CTH, 1 and 3, and the presence of other AHL's with higher masses; decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) were also found in all tested strain in this study. Last but not least, we had successfully acquired two Bacillus sp. soil isolates, termed KW and SA respectively, which possessed strong AHLs degradation activity. Biofilm formation of B. pseudomallei isolates was significantly decreased after treated with culture supernatants of KW and SA strains, demonstrating that AHLs may play a role in B. pseudomallei biofilm formation. PMID:22970167

  12. Environmental conditions and biotic interactions influence ecosystem structure and function in a drying stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlam, J.P.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    Benthic consumers influence stream ecosystem structure and function, but these interactions depend on environmental context. We experimentally quantified the effects of central stoneroller minnows (Campostoma anomalum (Rafinesque) and Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki meeki (Faxon)) on benthic communities using electric exclusion quadrats in Little Mulberry Creek before (June) and during (August) seasonal stream drying. Unglazed ceramic tiles were deployed in June and August to measure periphyton and invertebrate abundance, and leafpack decomposition and primary production were also measured in August. Relationships between stoneroller and crayfish density and the size of consumer effects were evaluated with multiple linear regression models. Average chlorophyll a abundance was greater on exposed than exclusion tiles in August, but not in June. Sediment dry mass, periphyton ash-free dry mass (AFDM), and chironomid densities on tiles did not differ among treatments in either period. Leaf packs decayed faster in exposed than exclusion treatments (kexposed = 0.038 ?? 0.013, kexclusion = 0.007 ?? 0.002), but consumer effects were stronger in some pools than others. Leafpack invertebrate biomass and abundance and tile primary productivity did not differ among treatments. Consumer effects on chlorophyll a were related to crayfish and stoneroller density, and effects on chironomid density were related to stoneroller density. These results contrast with a previous exclusion experiment in Little Mulberry Creek that demonstrated strong consumer effects. The influence of stream drying on consumer effects appears to have been reduced by strong spates, underscoring the importance of conducting multi-year studies to determine the magnitude of variability in ecological interactions. ?? US Government: USGS 2010.

  13. Peroxisomal Monodehydroascorbate Reductase. Genomic Clone Characterization and Functional Analysis under Environmental Stress Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; del Río, Luis A.

    2005-01-01

    In plant cells, ascorbate is a major antioxidant that is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) is the enzymatic component of this cycle involved in the regeneration of reduced ascorbate. The identification of the intron-exon organization and the promoter region of the pea (Pisum sativum) MDAR 1 gene was achieved in pea leaves using the method of walking polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA. The nuclear gene of MDAR 1 comprises nine exons and eight introns, giving a total length of 3,770 bp. The sequence of 544 bp upstream of the initiation codon, which contains the promoter and 5? untranslated region, and 190 bp downstream of the stop codon were also determined. The presence of different regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the gene might indicate distinct responses to various conditions. The expression analysis in different plant organs by northern blots showed that fruits had the highest level of MDAR. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaves transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens having the binary vectors pGD, which contain the autofluorescent proteins enhanced green fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein with the full-length cDNA for MDAR 1 and catalase, indicated that the MDAR 1 encoded the peroxisomal isoform. The functional analysis of MDAR by activity and protein expression was studied in pea plants grown under eight stress conditions, including continuous light, high light intensity, continuous dark, mechanical wounding, low and high temperature, cadmium, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. This functional analysis is representative of all the MDAR isoforms present in the different cell compartments. Results obtained showed a significant induction by high light intensity and cadmium. On the other hand, expression studies, performed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated differential expression patterns of peroxisomal MDAR 1 transcripts in pea plants grown under the mentioned stress conditions. These findings show that the peroxisomal MDAR 1 has a differential regulation that could be indicative of its specific function in peroxisomes. All these biochemical and molecular data represent a significant step to understand the specific physiological role of each MDAR isoenzyme and its participation in the antioxidant mechanisms of plant cells. PMID:16055677

  14. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary S?cz Commune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ga?a?, Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary S?cz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary S?cz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  15. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  16. Formation of Martian Gullies by the Action of Liquid Water Flowing Under Current Martian Environmental Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Toon, O. B.; Pollard, W. H.; Mellon, M. T.; Pitlick, J.; McKay, C. P.; Andersen, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft show geologically young small-scale features resembling terrestrial water-carved gullies. An improved understanding of these features has the potential to reveal important information about the hydrological system on Mars, which is of general interest to the planetary science community as well as the field of astrobiology and the search for life on Mars. The young geologic age of these gullies is often thought to be a paradox because liquid water is unstable at the Martian surface. Current temperatures and pressures are generally below the triple point of water (273 K, 6.1 mbar) so that liquid water will spontaneously boil and/or freeze. We therefore examine the flow of water on Mars to determine what conditions are consistent with the observed features of the gullies.

  17. Fretting wear of iron, nickel, and titanium under varied environmental conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Fretting wear experiments were conducted on high purity iron, nickel and titanium in air under conditions of varied humidity and temperature, and in nitrogen. For iron and titanium, maximum fretting occurred at 10 and 30 percent relative humidity respectively. Nickel showed a minimum in fretting wear at about 10 percent relative humidity. With increasing temperature, all three metals initially showed reduced fretting wear, with increasing wear observed as temperatures increased beyond 200-300 C. For titanium, dramatically reduced fretting wear was observed at temperatures above 500 C, relatable to a change in oxidation kinetics. All three metals showed much less fretting wear in N2 with the presence of moisture in N2 having a proportionally stronger effect than in air.

  18. Fretting wear of iron, nickel, and titanium under varied environmental conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Fretting wear experiments were conducted on high-purity iron, nickel and titanium in air under conditions of varied humidity and temperature, and in nitrogen. For iron and titanium, maximum fretting occurred at 10 and 30 percent relative humidity respectively. Nickel showed a minimum in fretting wear at about 10% relative humidity. With increasing temperature, all three metals initially showed reduced fretting wear, with increasing wear observed as temperatures increased beyond 200-300 C. For titanium, dramatically reduced fretting wear was observed at temperatures above 500 C, relatable to a change in oxidation kinetics. All three metals showed much less fretting wear in N2 with the presence of moisture in N2 having a proportionally stronger effect than in air.

  19. Monitoring of the environmental conditions inside the dome of the 4m Blanco Telescope at CTIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Els, S. G.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Bustos, E. B.; Seguel, J.; Walker, D. E.; Berdja, A.; Riddle, R.; Schöck, M.; Skidmore, W.; Travouillon, T.

    2010-07-01

    Between February and April 2009 a number of ultrasonic anemometers, temperature probes and dust sensors were operated inside the CTIO Blanco telescope dome. These sensors were distributed in a way that temperature and 3 dimensional wind speeds were monitored along the line of sight of the telescope. During telescope operations, occasional seeing measurements were obtained using the Mosaic CCD imager and the CTIO site monitoring MASS-DIMM system. In addition, also a Lunar Scintillometer (LuSci) was operated over the course of a few nights inside the dome. We describe the instrumental setup and first preliminary results on the linkage of the atmospheric conditions inside the dome to the overall image quality.

  20. Building environmental performance model for variable air volume systems in air-conditioned high-rise buildings in sub-tropical climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok Wai Mui

    2002-01-01

    As Hong Kong's economy prospered in the 1950s, air-conditioning became the norm as part of the building services designs for office buildings. Unfortunately, Cantonese speakers translated the term 'air conditioning system' into something which literally meant 'cold air system'. The concept of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) was never properly rooted in the minds of users. Since the energy crisis of

  1. The environmental conditionings of the location of primeval settlements in the Wieprz River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozie?, Marcin; Kozie?, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The Wieprz River along the section currently occupied by the Nadwieprza?ski Landscape Park (NLP) constituted a convenient place of human settlement from the moment of retreat of the last ice sheet. Depending on the types of economy preferred by representatives of individual archaeological cultures, the river valley from Spiczyn to Dorohucza offered continuous access to water. This obviously gained additional importance from the moment of appearance of Neolithic cultures, particularly the Globular Amphora culture and Corded Ware culture with semi-nomadic style of life, dealing with breeding. Neolithic hunters-gatherers exploited the animal resources available in the river and its vicinity. The further role of fishing, i.e. providing a diet element or supplementation already in the conditions of agricultural-breeding economy, seems to be evidenced by findings of fishing hooks at Lusatian and Wielbark sites. Another factor affecting the location of settlements in NLP was also its close vicinity to the crops of the Rejowiec flint. According to archaeologists, this is particularly obvious in the case of the Late Palaeolithic and the turn of the Neolithic and Bronze Age. The communication function of the river could also be of importance: in the case of seasonal animal migrations of animals and hunters (Late Palaeolithic); livestock and shepherds (Globular Amphora culture and Corded Ware culture); or people alone (migration of the population of the Wielbark culture to the Red Sea). The fact that a commercial trail fragment was located along the Wieprz River is probably evidenced by the abundance of import from various parts of Europe at site 53 in Spiczyn. Fertile soils (black soils, silt-peat soils) prevailing in the valley also favoured the settlement of cultures with an agricultural-breeding model of economy, providing good conditions for horticulture. Meadows near the river could be used as pastures.

  2. Environmental conditions during the Frasnian-Fammenian mass extinction inferred from chlorophyll-derived porphyrin biomarkers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uveges, B. T.; Junium, C. K.; Cohen, P. A.; Boyer, D.

    2014-12-01

    The widespread mass extinction that occurred across the Frasnian- Fammenian (F-F) boundary was one of the largest losses of biodiversity in Earth's history. The F-F extinction interval is expressed in western New York State by two organic rich black shale intervals known as the Upper and Lower Kellwasser events. These shale intervals are well preserved, thermally immature, and are well constrained in age by conodont biostratigraphy, and thus provide an exceptional opportunity to study the organic material originating from the F-F boundary. In order to test hypotheses about the cause(s) and consequences of the FF biotic crisis, a broader knowledge of the organic carbon sources is needed, and a characterization of the marine primary producer communities will assist in this endeavor. One such avenue is through the study of chlorophyll-derived biomarkers (porphyrins). The organic extracts of powdered shale samples from the Kellwasser horizons were analyzed using HPLC/LC-MSn and diode array UV-Vis spectroscopy. Preliminary data from the Kellwasser intervals reveal only one porphyrin, with a mass (M+H) of 600. The UV-Vis absorbance spectrum (Soret = 405nm, ? = 533nm, ? = 570nm) of the metallated compound is consistent with that of a vanadyl porphyrin with a free-base (M+H) of 535. Collision-induced mass spectra displays mass losses of 43 and 57 daltons, which are consistent with an extended alkyl chain at the C-8 position. Extended alkyl chains at C-8 are exclusively associated with porphyrins derived from bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e. The presence of bacterioporphyrins is congruous with the episodic presence of anoxic and sulfidic conditions in the photic zone. What is surprising is that a bacteriochlorophyll- derived porphyrin is the most abundant in these sequences, and their study may help to elucidate the conditions surrounding the F-F mass extinction, and further constrain the fluctuations in marine oxygen content in the Upper Devonian Appalachian Basin.

  3. Environmental Change: Precipitation and N, P, K, mg Fertilization Influences on Crop Yield Under Temperate Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, Dd. M.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Agroecological quality has a well estabished dependence on climate-rainfall changes because the water problems are pressing. Therefore, there is, growing concern about the potentially wide ranging risks that climate change would have on these key industries as the nature and extent of anticipated changes have become more evident. It also includes changes in land use and in plant production and their management. These changes are unprecedented in terms of both their rate and their spatial extent. Changes in land use (agrotechnics, soil, cultivation, fertility, quality, protection etc.) and in plant production (plant, nutrition, rotation, protection etc.) are currently the main manifestations. As an interdisciplinary problem it is necessary to study such a complex matter in terms of agricultural production. Generally, among natural catastrophes, droughts and floods cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods that were experienced in Hungary in the early 1980s have drawn renewed attention to the analyses of these problems. New research on climate change-soil-plant systems are focused on yield and yield quality. This paper reports of the climate changes (rainfall); soil (acidic sandy brown forest) properties, mineral N, P, K, Mg fertilisation level and plant interactions on rye (Secale cereale L.), on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields in a long term field experiment set up at Nyírlugos in north-eastern Hungary under temperate climate conditions in 1962. Results are summarised from 1962 to 1990. Main conclusions were as follows: 1. Rye: a, Experimental years were characterised by frequent extremes of precipitation variabilities and changes. b, By an average year, at a satisfactory fertilisation level (N: 90 kg ha-1 and NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg combinations) the maximum yield reached 3.8 t ha-1. But yield was decreased by 17% and by 52% due to drought and excess rainfall, respectively. Negative effects (drought, excess rainfall) were diminished by 20-25% with Mg treatments. c, Correlation between rye yields and precipitation during vegetation seasons showed that optimum yield (4.0 t ha-1) develops in the 430-470 mm range. 2. Potato: a, Trial years were estimated by recurrent extremes of climate. b, In vegetation seasons poor in rainfall yield safety in potato cannot be secured by fertilisation (N, NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg) alone. Under this weather condition yield was decreased by 35%. c, Optimum yields range between 17-21 t ha-1 at 280-350 mm. 3. Winter wheat: a, Climate was manifested mainly by precipitation using average, drought, dry and rainy levels. b, Yields from drought year effects with N, NP and NK combinations were diminished to 48% and with NPK and NPKMg treatments fell to 51%. c, Optimum yields (3.5-4.0 t ha-1) were developed at 450-500 mm. This paper summarises quantified results of rye, potato and winter wheat research with regarding to interaction effects and relationships between climate (rainfall)-mineral nutrition-crop production changes in Hungary during a long term field experiment to agricultural sustainability. Key words: ecology, rainfall, crop, fertilization, yield Introduction: "Climate Change" are recognized as a serious environmental issues [1]. Presently the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the inertia in trends in emissions means that we can expect significant changes for at least the next few decades and probably for the whole 21th century too [2]. It would badly need to understand what might be involved in adapting to the new climates. A decade ago, researchers asked the „what if" question. For example, what will be the impact if climate changes. Now, we must increasingly address the following question: how do we respond effectivelly to prevent damaging impacts and take advantage of new climatic opportunities [3]. This question requires detailed in information regarding expected impacts and effectíve adaptive measures. Information on adaptation is required for governments, la

  4. Improvement of Text Dependent Speaker Identification System Using Neuro-Genetic Hybrid Algorithm in Office Environmental Conditions

    E-print Network

    Islam, Md Rabiul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an improved strategy for automated text dependent speaker identification system has been proposed in noisy environment. The identification process incorporates the Neuro- Genetic hybrid algorithm with cepstral based features. To remove the background noise from the source utterance, wiener filter has been used. Different speech pre-processing techniques such as start-end point detection algorithm, pre-emphasis filtering, frame blocking and windowing have been used to process the speech utterances. RCC, MFCC, MFCC, MFCC, LPC and LPCC have been used to extract the features. After feature extraction of the speech, Neuro-Genetic hybrid algorithm has been used in the learning and identification purposes. Features are extracted by using different techniques to optimize the performance of the identification. According to the VALID speech database, the highest speaker identification rate of 100.000 percent for studio environment and 82.33 percent for office environmental conditions have been achieved i...

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of air conditions as a tool for the environmental management of a show cave (Cueva del Agua, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Calaforra, J. M.; Sanchez-Martos, F.

    We recorded the air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration within the Cueva del Agua, a cave in Spain, under natural conditions prior to the cave being opened to tourists. Geostatistical tools are useful techniques for characterizing microclimate parameters with the aim of adopting measures to ensure the conservation and sound environmental management of tourist caves. We modelled the spatial distribution of these microclimatic parameters over an annual cycle using iterative residual kriging, revealing the stratification of air related to the cave's topography. Replenishment of the cave air is activated by convective circulation that accompanies the development of inversions in the thermal gradient of the air. Comparison of the spatial distribution of each microclimatic parameter over time enables us to characterize the exchange of air between the cave interior and the outside, as well as identify potential areas that could be opened to tourists and determine suitable visiting schedules.

  6. [The effects of environmental thermal condition on transitional skin temperature of peripheral parts of human hands and feet during exercise].

    PubMed

    Aita, M; Yoshizumi, K

    1994-11-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on transitional skin temperatures of peripheral parts of human hands and feet were examined during exercise to obtain basic information on thermal characteristics of heat transfer from human body to the environment. Very thin and fat male adults served as subjects who were in contrast regarding fat content. Their skin temperatures were undertaken by thermocouples in a climate chamber. The exercise was made using an ergometer at three stages of the chamber temperatures. The skin temperature of a fat subject's trunk was observed to be lower than that of thin subject due to the insulation of fat in the body. In compensation for less heat transfer from the trunk, the temperatures of peripheral parts of fat subject's hands and feet were higher than that of the thin subject. Moreover, the response of the temperature to the thermal load due to exercise was observed to be quicker. These kinds of variation were considered as due to the increase in blood flow through arteriovenous anastomoses, AVA. It seemed that AVA blood of the thin subject did not increase during resting condition at the environmental temperatures of 10 and 20 degrees C but was accelerated by the thermal load due to exercise. In addition, the response of AVA on the foot seemed to be delayed compared with that on the hand. PMID:7880331

  7. Multiple Stressors in a Top Predator Seabird: Potential Ecological Consequences of Environmental Contaminants, Population Health and Breeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bustnes, Jan O.; Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza H. K.; Magnusdóttir, Ellen; Strøm, Hallvard; Hanssen, Sveinn A.; Petersen, Aevar; Olafsdóttir, Kristin; Borgå, Katrine; Gabrielsen, Geir W.; Furness, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contaminants may have impacts on reproduction and survival in wildlife populations suffering from multiple stressors. This study examined whether adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increased with poor population health and breeding conditions in three colonies (60–74°N) of great skua (Stercorarius skua) in the north-eastern Atlantic (Shetland, Iceland and Bjørnøya [Bear Island]). POPs (organochlorines [OCs] and polybrominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs]) were measured in plasma of incubating birds (n = 222), concentrations differing nearly tenfold among colonies: Bjørnøya (2009) > Bjørnøya (2010) > Iceland (2009) > Shetland (2009). Reproductive success (hatching success and chick survival) showed that breeding conditions were favourable in Shetland and at Bjørnøya (2010), but were very poor in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2009). Biomarkers indicated that health was poor in the Shetland population compared to the other populations. Females whose chicks hatched late had high POP concentrations in all colonies except at Bjørnøya (2010), and females losing their eggs at Bjørnøya (2009) tended to have higher concentrations than those hatching. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between female POP concentrations and chick body condition at hatching in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2010). Supplementary feeding experiments were conducted, and in Iceland where feeding conditions were poor, significant negative relationships were found between female POP concentrations and daily growth-rate in first-hatched chicks of control nests, but not in food supplemented nests. This suggests that negative impacts of POPs were mitigated by improved feeding conditions. For second-chicks, there was a strong negative relationship between the female POP concentrations and growth-rate, but no effects of supplementary feeding. Lowered adult return-rate between breeding seasons with increasing POP loads were found both at Bjørnøya (2009) and in Shetland, especially related to BDEs. This indicates stronger fitness consequences of POPs following seasons with very poor breeding conditions and/or high reproductive effort. This study suggests that the impacts of POPs may differ depending on population health and breeding conditions, and that even low concentrations of POPs could have ecological consequences during adverse circumstances. This is important with regard to risk assessment of biomagnifying contaminants in marine ecosystems. PMID:26172383

  8. Characteristics of a Microcystin-Degrading Bacterium under Alkaline Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kunihiro; Shimizu, Kazuya; Kawauchi, Yukio; Maseda, Hideaki; Utsumi, Motoo; Zhang, Zhenya; Neilan, Brett A.; Sugiura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    The pH of the water associated with toxic blooms of cyanobacteria is typically in the alkaline range; however, previously only microcystin-degrading bacteria growing in neutral pH conditions have been isolated. Therefore, we sought to isolate and characterize an alkali-tolerant microcystin-degrading bacterium from a water bloom using microcystin-LR. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolated bacterium belonged to the genus Sphingopyxis, and the strain was named C-1. Sphingopyxis sp. C-1 can grow; at pH 11.0; however, the optimum pH for growth was pH 7.0. The microcystin degradation activity of the bacterium was the greatest between pH 6.52 and pH 8.45 but was also detected at pH 10.0. The mlrA homolog encoding the microcystin-degrading enzyme in the C-1 strain was conserved. We concluded that alkali-tolerant microcystin-degrading bacterium played a key role in triggering the rapid degradation of microcystin, leading to the disappearance of toxic water blooms in aquatic environments. PMID:20224628

  9. Study on corrosion behaviors of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets in different environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. J.; Li, A. H.; Zhu, M. G.; Pan, W.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Nd-Fe-B magnets have outstanding magnetic properties, but their corrosion resistance is poor because the rare-earth-rich phases in them are easily oxidized. In this article, we report an investigation of the corrosion behaviors of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with varied compositions in different corrosion conditions. The weight losses of the magnets after corrosion testing were measured after brushing off the corrosion products. The magnetic flux losses of the magnets were measured using a fluxmeter. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analysis system was employed to observe the corrosion morphology. It was found that the humid-heat resistance of the magnets was obviously improved by partially substituting Dy for Nd and adding minor Co. The corrosion products and morphologies of Nd-Fe-B magnets for the autoclave test were different from those for the constant humid-heat test. The corrosion rates of the magnets for the former were much slower than for the latter; this is probably because the high-pressure steam led to an oxygen-deficient atmosphere, and the liquid film on the surface of the magnet specimens hindered the diffusion of oxygen into the bulk for the autoclave test.

  10. Fragmentation of amyloid fibrils occurs in preferential positions depending on the environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Lazzari, Stefano; Balderas Barragán, Daniel; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mechanism of amyloid fibril breakage is of fundamental importance in various research fields including biomedicine and bionanotechnology. The aim of this work is to clarify the impact of temperature and agitation speed on the fibril breakage rate constant, which depends both on the fibril length as well as on the position of fragmentation along the fibril longitudinal axis. In particular, we intend to discriminate between three fibril fragmentation mechanisms: erosion (i.e., breakage occurs preferentially at the ends of the fibril), random (i.e., breakage occurs with the same likelihood at any position), or central (i.e., breakage occurs preferentially at the center of the fibril). To do so, we compare the time evolution of the fibril length distribution followed with atomic force microscopy with simulations from a kinetic model based on population balance equations (PBE). In this frame, we investigate the breakage mechanism of insulin fibrils, which turns out to be affected by the operative conditions employed. Moreover, we compare our findings with literature data obtained with ?-lactoglobulin and ?2-microglobulin. It is observed that high temperature drives the breakage toward an erosion mechanism, while a high agitation rate rather induces a central breakage. PMID:25792156

  11. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: relationships with feeding ecology and body condition.

    PubMed

    Fuglei, E; Bustnes, J O; Hop, H; Mørk, T; Björnfoth, H; van Bavel, B

    2007-03-01

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43condition showed a significant inverse relationship with SigmaPBDE, SigmaChlordane and HCB, suggesting that increased tissue contaminant concentrations are associated with depletion of adipose tissue. The seasonal cyclic storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue, characteristic in Arctic wildlife, may then provide increased input of contaminants to sensitive, vital effect organs. Trophic position was estimated by delta(15)N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. PMID:16963168

  12. Fish assemblage structure and relations with environmental conditions in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Isaak, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Fish and habitat were sampled from 110 reaches in the Salt River basin (Idaho and Wyoming) during 1996 and 1997 to assess patterns in fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed. We identified four distinct fish assemblages using cluster analysis: (1) allopatric cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)); (2) cutthroat trout - brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell, 1814)) - Paiute sculpin (Cottus beldingi Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1891); (3) cutthroat trout - brown trout (Salmo trutta L., 1758) - mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi Girard, 1850); and (4) Cyprinidae-Catostomidae. The distribution of fish assemblages was explained by thermal characteristics, stream geomorphology, and local habitat features. Reaches with allopatric cutthroat trout and the cutthroat trout - brook trout - Paiute sculpin assemblage were located in high-elevation, high-gradient streams. The other two fish assemblages were generally located in low-elevation streams. Associations between habitat gradients, locations of reaches in the watershed, and occurrence of species were further examined using canonical correspondence analysis. The results suggest that stream geomorphology, thermal conditions, and local habitat characteristics influence fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed, and they provide information on the ecology of individual species that can guide conservation activities. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  13. Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Webley, P.; Saiet, E., II

    2014-12-01

    Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) Numerous scientific and logistical applications exist in Alaska and other arctic regions requiring analysis of expansive, remote areas in the near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands. These include characterization of wild land fire plumes and volcanic ejecta, detailed mapping of lava flows, and inspection of lengthy segments of critical infrastructure, such as the Alaska pipeline and railroad system. Obtaining timely, repeatable, calibrated measurements of these extensive features and infrastructure networks requires localized, taskable assets such as UAVs. The Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) provides practical solutions to these problem sets by pairing various IR sensors with a combination of fixed-wing and multi-rotor air vehicles. Fixed-wing assets, such as the Insitu ScanEagle, offer long reach and extended duration capabilities to quickly access remote locations and provide enduring surveillance of the target of interest. Rotary-wing assets, such as the Aeryon Scout or the ACUASI-built Ptarmigan hexcopter, provide a precision capability for detailed horizontal mapping or vertical stratification of atmospheric phenomena. When included with other ground capabilities, we will show how they can assist in decision support and hazard assessment as well as giving those in emergency management a new ability to increase knowledge of the event at hand while reducing the risk to all involved. Here, in this presentation, we illustrate how UAV's can provide the ideal tool to map and analyze the hazardous events and critical infrastructure under extreme environmental conditions.

  14. Investigations of sequential leaching behaviour of Cu and Zn from coal fly ash and their mobility in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Soco, Eleonora; Kalembkiewicz, Jan

    2007-07-16

    The quantitative evaluation of chemical fraction of Cu and Zn in the coal fly ash by methods of five-step sequential extraction was carried out in order to characterize metal mobility in environmental conditions. The research involved (i) water-soluble (pH 7), (ii) acid-soluble (pH 5), (iii) oxide, (iv) difficult reducible and (v) residual metal fractions. It was discovered, that the total extraction of the studied metals from coal fly ash to solutions take place in the following quantities Cu-39.0mgkg(-1) and Zn-89.0mgkg(-1). The investigations of chemical fractions proved that the subject metals occur mainly in coal fly ash as: oxide (Cu-12.0mgkg(-1), Zn-37.0mgkg(-1)) and residual (Cu-9.5mgkg(-1), Zn-27.0mgkg(-1)) as well as difficult reducible (Cu-16.5mgkg(-1), Zn-22.0mgkg(-1)). Low concentrations of metals for water-soluble fraction (Cuenvironmental conditions contain: 2.6% (Cu) and 3.4% (Zn) of metal total amount in the coal fly ash. The obtained mobility parameter of Cu and Zn can be applied to estimate the concentration increase of mobile and hardly mobile forms of these metals in soil polluted with the ash. PMID:17194534

  15. Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions: Environmental Factors Characterization and Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Ruiz, Melany; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and is referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. An Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium named A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, has been identified as being responsible for the Feammox process(1, 2) Feammox process was noted in riparian wetland soils in New Jersey(1,3), in tropical rainforest soils in Puerto Rico (4) and in paddy soils in China (5). In addition to these published locations, Feammox process was also found in samples collected from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments in New Jersey, river sediments from South Carolina, and forested soils near an acid mine drainage (Dabaoshan, Guangdong province) in China. Using primers acm342f - 439r (2), Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in samples where Feammox was observed, after strictly anaerobic incubations. According to a canonical correspondence analysis with environmental characteristics and soil microbial communities, the species-environment relationship indicated that pH and Fe oxides content were the primary factors controlling Feammox process. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. No correlation was found between the distributions of Feammox bacteria and other NH4+ oxidation bacteria. Pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain was isolated in an autotrophic medium, from an active Feammox membrane reactor (A6 was enriched to 65.8% of the total bacteria). A 13C labeled CO2 amendment was conducted, and the 13C in cells of A6 increased from 1.80% to 10.3% after 14 days incubation. In a separate incubation, 15NH4Cl was added with a final concentration of 0.5 mmol L-1, and 0.133 mmol L-1 of 15NO2- was detected, while no 15NO3- was produced. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 were then grown in Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs). While being gently shaken, with a voltage input of 0.7V and a 10? resistance between the anode and cathode, the MECs produce currents, increasing from 0.1?A up to ~35?A while NH4+ was available in the medium. Up to 105 copies of DNA/ml have been detected in liquid medium after 3 weeks of operation. Hence, MECs represent an alternative, iron-free form, for optimized biomass production of pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6. References 1. Clement J.C., Shrestha J., Ehrenfeld J.G., Jaffé P.R., 2005. Soil Biol Biochem 37:2323-2328. 2. Huang S., and Jaffé P.R., 2014. Biogeosciences Discussions 11, 12295-12321 3. Shrestha J., Rich J., Ehrenfeld J., Jaffé P.R., 2009. Soil Sci. 174:156-164. 4. Yang W.H., Weber K.A., Silver W.L., 2012. Nat Geosc 5: 538-541. 5. Ding L.J., An X.L., Li S., Zhang G.L., Zhu Y.G., 2014. Environ Sci Technol. 48:10641-7

  16. Changes in erosional input and environmental conditions at Lake Gerzensee, Switzerland, during Termination 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Raden, U. J.; Gilli, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Ammann, B.

    2012-04-01

    The lateglacial record from Lake Gerzensee became an iconic figure since the early days of correlating terrestrial records with the results of polar ice core studies as initiated by Siegenthaler, Eicher, Oeschger and Dansgaard in 1984. Recently, the stable isotope record of Gerzensee was refined using a new sediment core retrieved in autumn 2008 in unprecedented resolution of 0.5cm (= 8-14 years). Depending on the sedimentation rate, the inferred temporal sample resolution of this new stable isotope record is between 8 and 14 years. A robust chronology was established through wiggle matching of the ?18O records from Gerzensee and NGRIP. Primary tie points between the two records were the prominent ?18O-shifts at the beginning and end of the Bølling/Allerød (B/A) and the Younger Dryas (YD). Then, three minor oscillations (Gerzensee, GI-1c2, and Aegelsee Oscillation) clearly visible in both, the NGRIP and Gerzensee ?18O record, were correlated. XRF core scanning was then applied to the sediments of Lake Gerzensee to establish high-resolution elemental records with a spatial resolution of 2mm. These elemental concentrations allow studying the influence of the lateglacial climate pattern on the environment and the lake system in great detail. It can be observed that environmental thresholds such as vegetation density play a mayor role on the erosive input into a lake system. Detrital elements (like Al, K, Zr, Rb, and Ti) reflect the erosional influx, which strongly decreases during the Bølling/Allerød reaching lowest concentration at the onset of the GI-1c2 oscillation. This coincides precisely with the full development of a stable pine forest in the vicinity of Lake Gerzensee demonstrating the strong coupling between vegetation and erosion. A comparable study (Lauterbach et al., 2011) at Mondsee, Austria allows to compare the same linkages between erosive input and pine forest development and to elaborate regional differences in this coupling. Initiated by technical developments, the transition in and out of the Younger Dryas received lately much attention in order to determine rates of change for the different proxies. Similar patterns and timing are observed between the Gerzensee elemental record and the sub-annually resolved NGRIP ice core record (Steffensen et al., 2008). For example, the detrial input at Gerzensee during the onset of the YD mimics in great detail the Ca2+ curve in Greenland pointing towards a fast change in the atmospheric circulation at this time. Beside the large lateglacial transitions, the short-term oscillation during the Bølling/Allerød reveal unique patterns in the lake record. The strongest expressed cold swing in the elemental records of Lake Gerzensee is the Aegelsee Oscillation (GI-1d). Interestingly, the detrital input increases approximately 50 years earlier then the sharp decrease in the oxygen isotope at the onset of this oscillation. In order to evaluate if these patterns are site-specific or of larger spatial extent, more highly resolved records are needed from terrestrial archives, as well as from the ice sheets.

  17. Effects of individual pre-fledging traits and environmental conditions on return patterns in juvenile king penguins.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of early life stages in individuals' life history and population dynamics, very few studies have focused on the constraints to which these juvenile traits are subjected. Based on 10 years of automatic monitoring of over 2500 individuals, we present the first study on the effects of environmental conditions and individual pre-fledging traits on the post-fledging return of non-banded king penguins to their natal colony. Juvenile king penguins returned exclusively within one of the three austral summers following their departure. A key finding is that return rates (range 68-87%) were much higher than previously assumed for this species, importantly meaning that juvenile survival is very close to that of adults. Such high figures suggest little juvenile dispersal, and selection occurring mostly prior to fledging in king penguins. Pre-fledging conditions had a strong quadratic impact on juvenile return rates. As expected, cohorts reared under very unfavourable years (as inferred by the breeding success of the colony) exhibited low return rates but surprisingly, so did those fledged under very favourable conditions. Juvenile sojourns away from the colony were shorter under warm conditions and subsequent return rates higher, suggesting a positive effect of climate warming. The longer the post-fledging trip (1, 2 or 3 years), the earlier in the summer birds returned to their natal colony and the longer they stayed before leaving for the winter journey. The presence of juveniles in the colony was more than twice the duration required for moulting purposes, yet none attempted breeding in the year of their first return. Juvenile presence in the colony may be important for acquiring knowledge on the social and physical colonial environment and may play an important part in the learning process of mating behaviour. Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age. PMID:21687715

  18. Chemical and Physical Environmental Conditions Underneath Mat- and Canopy-Forming Macroalgae, and Their Effects on Understorey Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m?2 dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading). The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation. PMID:20856882

  19. Chemical and physical environmental conditions underneath mat- and canopy-forming macroalgae, and their effects on understorey corals.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m(-2) dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading). The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation. PMID:20856882

  20. Effects of Individual Pre-Fledging Traits and Environmental Conditions on Return Patterns in Juvenile King Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A.; Hanuise, Nicolas; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of early life stages in individuals' life history and population dynamics, very few studies have focused on the constraints to which these juvenile traits are subjected. Based on 10 years of automatic monitoring of over 2500 individuals, we present the first study on the effects of environmental conditions and individual pre-fledging traits on the post-fledging return of non-banded king penguins to their natal colony. Juvenile king penguins returned exclusively within one of the three austral summers following their departure. A key finding is that return rates (range 68–87%) were much higher than previously assumed for this species, importantly meaning that juvenile survival is very close to that of adults. Such high figures suggest little juvenile dispersal, and selection occurring mostly prior to fledging in king penguins. Pre-fledging conditions had a strong quadratic impact on juvenile return rates. As expected, cohorts reared under very unfavourable years (as inferred by the breeding success of the colony) exhibited low return rates but surprisingly, so did those fledged under very favourable conditions. Juvenile sojourns away from the colony were shorter under warm conditions and subsequent return rates higher, suggesting a positive effect of climate warming. The longer the post-fledging trip (1, 2 or 3 years), the earlier in the summer birds returned to their natal colony and the longer they stayed before leaving for the winter journey. The presence of juveniles in the colony was more than twice the duration required for moulting purposes, yet none attempted breeding in the year of their first return. Juvenile presence in the colony may be important for acquiring knowledge on the social and physical colonial environment and may play an important part in the learning process of mating behaviour. Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age. PMID:21687715

  1. Laboratory study of microbial cleaning of oil spills under Saudi environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sayed, A.A.H.; Shebl, A.M.; Ramadan, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-11-01

    An active strain of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from oil-contaminated soil at the Arabian Gulf was able to utilize the crude oil at a concentration of 5 mg/ml added to sterile Gulf water. microbial growth and gas chromatographic analysis of the remaining oil were used as a criteria for oil degradation by this strain. The bacteria at a cell density of 10{sup 5} CFU/ml was able to degrade the crude oil at concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 15 mg/ml in Gulf water samples. At low concentration (2.5 mg/ml), about 70% of crude oil had disappeared within 7 days. At high concentration (15 mg/ml), the extent of oil degradation decreased, where only 50% of the added oil had disappeared. The rate of degradation by the inoculated bacteria was slightly increased by the addition of inorganic nutrients, mainly P or N to the Gulf water. The degradative capacity of Pseudomonas sp. was optimum when the bacteria was incubated at 25 C, where 47% of the added oil has disappeared within 5 days of incubation. Low cell density (10{sup 3} CFU/ml) of the degrading bacteria required a long lag period before initiation of oil degradation, whereas high cell density (10{sup 6} CFU/ml) rapidly degraded oil with a short lag period under the same conditions. This strain could be useful in decontamination of spilled oil in Gulf water if it acts well under field trial test and survived for a reasonable period sufficient for oil biodegradation.

  2. Herbal Supplement Extends Life Span Under Some Environmental Conditions and Boosts Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Villeponteau, Bryant; Matsagas, Kennedy; Nobles, Amber C.; Rizza, Cristina; Horwitz, Marc; Benford, Gregory; Mockett, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100) that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span. PMID:25879540

  3. Tracking Biological and Ecosystem Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Pacific Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Moore, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Changing seasonal sea ice conditions and seawater temperatures strongly influence biological processes and marine ecosystems at high latitudes. In the Pacific Arctic, persistent regions termed "hotspots", are localized areas with high benthic macroinfaunal biomass that have been documented over four decades (see Figure). These regions are now being more formally tracked to relate physical forcing and ecosystem response as an Arctic Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) supported by the US National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan and international partners. These hotspots are important foraging areas for upper trophic level benthic feeders, such as marine mammals and seabirds. South of St. Lawrence Island (SLI) in the northern Bering Sea, benthic feeding spectacled eiders, bearded seals and walruses are important winter consumers of infauna, such as bivalves and polychaetes. Gray whales have historically been a major summer consumer of benthic amphipods in the Chirikov Basin to the north of SLI, although summertime sightings of gray whales declined in the Chirikov from the 1980s up until at least 2002. The SE Chukchi Sea hotspot, as are the other hotspots, is maintained by export of high chlorophyll a that is produced locally as well as advected by water masses transiting northward through the system. Both walrus and gray whales are known to forage in this hotspot seasonally on high biomass levels of benthic prey. Notably the center of the highest benthic biomass regions has shifted northward in three of the DBO hotspots in recent years. This has coincided with changing sediment grain size, an indicator of current speed, and is also likely a response to changes in primary production in the region. Studies of these broad biological responses to changing physical drivers have been facilitated through development of the DBO cooperative effort by both US and international scientists. The DBO includes a series of coordinated, multi-trophic level observations that integrate physical, biogeochemical and biological measurements along transect lines that intersect all of the benthic hotspots. We will highlight results at three of the DBO time-series sites from the northern Bering Sea to the SE Chukchi Sea in relation to retrospective and ongoing process-oriented studies in the region.

  4. Plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations in stereotypic and non-stereotypic horses: do stereotypic horses cope better with poor environmental conditions?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stereotypic behaviours, i.e. repetitive behaviours induced by frustration, repeated attempts to cope and/or brain dysfunction, are intriguing as they occur in a variety of domestic and captive species without any clear adaptive function. Among the different hypotheses, the coping hypothesis predicts that stereotypic behaviours provide a way for animals in unfavourable environmental conditions to adjust. As such, they are expected to have a lower physiological stress level (glucocorticoids) than non-stereotypic animals. Attempts to link stereotypic behaviours with glucocorticoids however have yielded contradictory results. Here we investigated correlates of oral and motor stereotypic behaviours and glucocorticoid levels in two large samples of domestic horses (NStudy1 = 55, NStudy2 = 58), kept in sub-optimal conditions (e.g. confinement, social isolation), and already known to experience poor welfare states. Each horse was observed in its box using focal sampling (study 1) and instantaneous scan sampling (study 2). Plasma samples (collected in study 1) but also non-invasive faecal samples (collected in both studies) were retrieved in order to assess cortisol levels. Results Results showed that 1) plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations did not differ between horses displaying stereotypic behaviours and non-stereotypic horses and 2) both oral and motor stereotypic behaviour levels did not predict plasma cortisol or faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations. Conclusions Cortisol measures, collected in two large samples of horses using both plasma sampling as well as faecal sampling (the latter method minimizing bias due to a non-invasive sampling procedure), therefore do not indicate that stereotypic horses cope better, at least in terms of adrenocortical activity. PMID:23289406

  5. Influence of Variable Environmental Conditions on Presence and Concentration of Energetic Chemicals Near Soil Surface in the Vadoze Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaya, A. A.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive-related compounds (ERCs) are found near the soil-atmospheric surface in sites containing buried explosive devices, such as landmines and unexploded ordnance, detonation-residual, and munitions residues from explosive manufacturing facilities. Accurate assessment of the fate and transport processes is essential for predicting their movement to the surface, groundwater, or any other important environmental compartment. The transport processes controlling the direction and magnitude of the movement, and chemical and physical processes controlling the fate of the chemicals vary with environmental conditions. This research addresses the effect of variable rainfall, evaporation, temperature, and solar radiation on fate and transport of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-Dinitrotoluene (DNT), and other related chemicals in partially saturated soil. Experiments have been conducted in a laboratory-scale 3D SoilBed placed inside an environmental chamber equipped with rainfall and solar radiation simulators, and temperature control settings. The SoilBed was packed with a sandy soil. Experiments have been conducted by burying a TNT/DNT source, simulating a landmine, and applying different rainfall and light radiation cycles while monitoring DNT, TNT, and other related ERCs solute concentrations temporally and spatially within the SoilBed. Experiments include different source characteristics, rainfall intensities, temperatures, and radiation cycles to evaluate their effect on the detection and movement of ERC in soils in both aqueous and vapor phases. Temporal and spatial data has been analyzed comparatively and quantitatively. Comparative analysis was developed using surfer®- and voxler®-generated images and 3D visualization models applying spatial interpolation and masking methods. Single and multi-variable statistical analysis has been employed to determine the most important factors affecting the fate, transport and detection of ERC near soil-atmospheric surfaces. Results show that rainfall, radiation, and temperature variations influence the presence, transport, and concentrations of TNT and DNT near the soil surface. Higher concentrations are observed near the end of rainfall events, both in the aqueous and gaseous phases. Higher rainfall intensity results in higher presence and concentrations. Lower TNT and DNT concentrations than their solubility limit indicate rate-limited mass transfer, dissolution limitations, and dilution processes. Radiation events and higher atmospheric temperatures result in greater presence and concentrations of DNT and TNT, indicating influence of these factors on fate and transport processes. TNT degradation by-products measured mostly in the upper segments of the SoilBed, suggest degradation processes resulting from radiation-induced conditions near the soil-atmospheric surface. Although the ERC source consists of equal mass of TNT and DNT, greater detection density and concentrations are observed for DNT. A generalized linear mixed statistical model has been applied to quantify the effect of environmental conditions on ERC detection and concentrations. The statistical analysis indicates that rainfall events and related water contents are the most influential factors affecting the presence and concentrations of ERCs in the aqueous and gaseous phase. Solar radiation, and related heat flux, is the second most influential parameter. Although atmospheric temperature influence the presence and concentration of ERCs in soils, it is the least influential parameter.

  6. Stress tolerance and virulence of insect-pathogenic fungi are determined by environmental conditions during conidial formation.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Keyser, Chad A; Hallsworth, John E; Roberts, Donald W

    2015-08-01

    The virulence to insects and tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi are greatly influenced by physical, chemical, and nutritional conditions during mycelial growth. This is evidenced, for example, by the stress phenotypes of Metarhizium robertsii produced on various substrates. Conidia from minimal medium (Czapek's medium without sucrose), complex medium, and insect (Lepidoptera and Coleoptera) cadavers had high, moderate, and poor tolerance to UV-B radiation, respectively. Furthermore, conidia from minimal medium germinated faster and had increased heat tolerance and were more virulent to insects than those from complex medium. Low water-activity or alkaline culture conditions also resulted in production of conidia with high tolerance to heat or UV-B radiation. Conidia produced on complex media exhibited lower stress tolerance, whereas those from complex media supplemented with NaCl or KCl (to reduce water activity) were more tolerant to heat and UV-B than those from the unmodified complex medium. Osmotic and nutritive stresses resulted in production of conidia with a robust stress phenotype, but also were associated with low conidial yield. Physical conditions such as growth under illumination, hypoxic conditions, and heat shock before conidial production also induced both higher UV-B and heat tolerance; but conidial production was not decreased. In conclusion, physical and chemical parameters, as well as nutrition source, can induce great variability in conidial tolerance to stress for entomopathogenic fungi. Implications are discussed in relation to the ecology of entomopathogenic fungi in the field, and to their use for biological control. This review will cover recent technologies on improving stress tolerance of entomopathogenic fungi for biological control of insects. PMID:25791499

  7. The first "space" vegetables have been grown in the "SVET" greenhouse by means of controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T N; Bercovich YuA; Mashinskiy, A L; Meleshko, G I

    1992-04-01

    The paper describes the project "SVET"--the creating of a small dimensions space greenhouse of new generation. By means of minicomputer, "SVET" is full-automatic operating and controlling environmental conditions system in the higher plants growth unit. A number of studies have selected the radish and cabbage vegetables as a potentially important crop for CELSS (short term cycle of vegetation). The "SVET" space greenhouse has been mounted on the "CRYSTAL" technological module which docked to the "MIR" orbital space station on June 10, 1990. Soviet cosmonauts Balandin and Solovyov started the first experiments with the greenhouse on June 15, 1990. The preliminary results of the seeds cultivation for the first 54-days period in "SVET" are presented. Morphometrical characteristics of the plants, brought back to the Earth are given. The vegetation peculiarities, such as the plants growth and the development slowing-down, or the dry substance contents raising are noted. For the first time, the root crop of radish plants at microgravity conditions, are produced. Characteristics of controlled plants' environment parameters and an estimation of functional properties of control and regulation systems of the "SVET" greenhouse in space flight according to telemetry data is given. PMID:11541047

  8. Cork stoppers as an effective sorbent for water treatment: the removal of mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Cláudia B; Oliveira, Joana R; Rocha, Luciana S; Tavares, Daniela S; Silva, Carlos M; Silva, Susana P; Hartog, Niels; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, E

    2014-02-01

    The technical feasibility of using stopper-derived cork as an effective biosorbent towards bivalent mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions was evaluated in this study. Only 25 mg/L of cork powder was able to achieve 94 % of mercury removal for an initial mercury concentration of 500 ?g/L. It was found that under the conditions tested, the efficiency of mercury removal expressed as equilibrium removal percentage does not depend on the amount of cork or its particle size, but is very sensitive to initial metal concentration, with higher removal efficiencies at higher initial concentrations. Ion exchange was identified as one of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of Hg onto cork in the absence of ionic competition. Under ionic competition, stopper-derived cork showed to be extremely effective and selective for mercury in binary mixtures, while in complex matrices like seawater, moderate inhibition of the sorption process was observed, attributed to a change in mercury speciation. The loadings achieved are similar to the majority of literature values found for other biosorbents and for other metals, suggesting that cork stoppers can be recycled as an effective biosorbent for water treatment. However, the most interesting result is that equilibrium data show a very rare behaviour, with the isotherm presenting an almost square convex shape to the concentration axis, with an infinite slope for an Hg concentration in solution around 25 ?g/L. PMID:24026204

  9. An index of the environmental thermal load imposed on exercising horses and riders by hot weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Schroter, R C; Marlin, D J

    1995-11-01

    There is a need to determine objectively the environmental heat load imposed on horses competing to an international standard in 3-day-events in environments where there is likely to be a high level of radiation added to high ambient temperatures and relative humidity; the presently used FEI 'Comfort Index' is severely limited in its applicability. It is proposed that the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) Index be used. This index was originally established for man exercising strenuously under harsh climatic conditions with high solar radiation levels. It may be defined as: WBGT = 0.7Twb + 0.3Tg where Twb is the wet bulb temperature of the ambient air, measured in the shade and Tg is the black globe temperature. Climatic conditions should be monitored continuously at a site representative of the detailed topography and nature of the terrain of the competition course. The upper limit for the index for competitions involving fit, fully acclimatised horses, running on ground of optimal going, is recommended to be 32.5 degrees C. This limit should be reduced, by an as yet undetermined amount, for unacclimatised and unfit horses or when the going is less good. PMID:8933080

  10. Lilium spp. pollen in China (Liliaceae): taxonomic and phylogenetic implications and pollen evolution related to environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Du, Yun-peng; Wei, Chi; Wang, Zhong-xuan; Li, Shuang; He, Heng-bin; Jia, Gui-xia

    2014-01-01

    Recent molecular and karyologic studies have significantly modified delimitation of Lilium. However, despite the importance of pollen evolution in the genus comprehensive studies with electron microscopy and evaluation of pollen evolution are lacking. Therefore, we studied pollen morphology in a sample of 65 individuals from 37 taxa covering all the sections distributed in the world, using scanning electron microscopy. Our collection of 49 individuals from 21 taxa covering all five sections in China was also included in the database. We found pollen tetrads in L. bakerianum. Based on present and previous studies, our results suggest that pollen from L. formosanum should be classified as a new type, Formosanum. Combined with morphological and molecular evidence, pollen sculpture patterns appear to reflect phylogenetic relationships and are useful for species or subsection delimitation. Based on a comprehensive survey and correlation with potential functional implications, we propose the following hypothesis: evolution of an exine sculpture shows pollen type trends from Martagon ? Callose ? Concolor ? Formosanum. The evolutionary trend regarding pollen sculpture and size could be related to selective pressure to adapt to environmental conditions. Pollen size and shape showed a significantly positive correlation with annual precipitation, and smaller pollen grains appear to adapt better in habitats with extreme conditions. Evolution trends in exine sculpture do not appear to be definitively correlated with pollen size and shape. PMID:24498208

  11. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Cuijpers

    2009-01-01

    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of psychotherapy on the basis of 5 trials. Therefore, we have been careful in our

  12. Conclusions 7.1 Local Model nets

    E-print Network

    Murray-Smith, Roderick

    Chapter 7 Conclusions 7.1 Local Model nets The work undertaken has shown that Local Model Nets have modelling. The local nature of the models means that the trained networks are more transparent, and can be used in hybrid local model nets to better cope with high­dimensional systems. 7.1.1 Local Model Net

  13. Conclusions Propose a food recognition engine

    E-print Network

    Yanai, Keiji

    Conclusions Propose a food recognition engine with MKL-based future fusion -Achieved 61 (e.g. shape context, PHoG) Other features (e.g. date/time, GPS info.) Implement a food advisory system Prototype System You can try it ! Send a food photo to food@mm.cs.uec.ac.jp and you will get

  14. A MultipleConclusion Specification Logic

    E-print Network

    Miller, Dale

    Forum: A Multiple­Conclusion Specification Logic Dale Miller Computer Science Department University the design of a number of logic programming languages. Two such languages, â??Prolog and its linear logic­order programming) but lack primitives for concurrency. The logic programming language, LO (Lin­ ear Objects) [2

  15. A Multiple-Conclusion Specification Logic

    E-print Network

    Miller, Dale

    Forum: A Multiple-Conclusion Specification Logic Dale Miller Computer Science Department University the design of a number of logic programming languages. Two such languages, Prolog and its linear logic-order programming) but lack primitives for concurrency. The logic programming language, LO (Lin- ear Objects) [2

  16. Reconstructing palaeo-environmental conditions in the Baltic: A multi-proxy comparison from IODP Site M0059 (Little Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Andrén, Thomas; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Krupinski, Nadine; Peyron, Odile; Stepanova, Anna; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-04-01

    Some of the largest marine environmental impacts from ongoing global climate change are occurring in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins, including severe oxygen depletion, intensifying stratification, and increasing temperatures. In order to predict future changes in water mass conditions, it is essential to reconstruct how these conditions have changed in the past. The brackish Baltic Sea is one of the largest semi-enclosed basins worldwide, and hence provides a unique opportunity to analyse past changes. IODP Expedition 347 recovered a unique set of long sediment cores from the Baltic Sea Basin which allow new high-resolution reconstructions. The application of existing and development of new proxies in such a setting is complicated, as environmental changes often occur on much faster time scales with much larger variations. Therefore, we present a comparison of commonly used proxies to reconstruct palaeoecosystems, -temperatures, and -salinity from IODP Site M0059 in the Little Belt. The age model for Site M0059 is based on 14C dating and biostratigraphic correlation with neighbouring terrestrial pollen records. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the development of the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the research area and the related environmental conditions, and to identify potential limitations for specific proxies. Pollen is used as proxy for vegetation development in the hinterland of the southern Baltic Sea and as land/air-temperature proxies. By comparison with dinoflagellate cysts and green algae remains from the same samples, a direct land-sea comparison is provided. The application of the modern analogues technique to pollen assemblages has previously yielded precise results for late Pleistocene and Holocene datasets including specific information on seasonality, but pollen-based reconstructions for Northern Europe may be hampered by plant migration effects. Chironomid remains are used where possible as indicators for surface water conditions during the warm season. Analyses of palynomorphs and chironomids are complemented with the analysis of lipid palaeothermometers, such as TEX86 and the long chain diol index (LDI), which both allow reconstructing variation in sea surface temperatures (SST) of the Baltic Sea. In addition, the MBT/CBT proxy is used to infer past changes in mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) and the diol index (DI) to determine variation in salinity of the Baltic Sea's surface waters over the investigated time period. The low salinity (25 psu) of the Little Belt is a potential limitation for several of the used proxies, which could lead to under-estimation of paleo-temperatures. To quantitatively and qualitatively estimate the impact of salinity, ?18O measurements (monospecific) and faunal assemblage analyses are performed on benthic foraminifera as well as ostracod faunal assemblages, which are especially sensitive to bottom water salinity changes. The results of this inter-comparison study will be useful for the reconstruction of gradients between different settings, e.g. how water column stratification developed, possibly if and how changes in seasonality occurred, and to identify the circumstances under which specific proxies may be affected by secondary impacts.

  17. Surface adsorption, intracellular accumulation and compartmentalization of Pb(II) in batch-operated lagoons with Salvinia minima as affected by environmental conditions, EDTA and nutrients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenia J. Olguín; Gloria Sánchez-Galván; Teresa Pérez-Pérez; Arith Pérez-Orozco

    2005-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors and nutrients on the various possible removal mechanisms (surface adsorption, intracellular\\u000a accumulation and precipitation to sediments) and partitioning of lead among various compartments (plant biomass, water column\\u000a and sediments) in Salvinia minima batch-operated lagoons, were evaluated. Surface adsorption was found to be the predominant mechanism for Pb(II) removal under\\u000a all environmental conditions tested in the

  18. Impact of environmental housing conditions on the emotional responses of mice deficient for nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide precursor gene.

    PubMed

    Ouagazzal, A-M; Moreau, J-L; Pauly-Evers, M; Jenck, F

    2003-09-15

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a newly discovered neuropeptide that has been implicated in the neurobiological regulation of the behavioral responses to stress and fear. To investigate the role of this peptide in the expression of stress/anxiety-related behaviors in mice, a gene targeting approach to disrupt N/OFQ in the pre-proN/OFQ gene was used. The impact of environmental housing conditions (single and social housing) was assessed on N/OFQ-knockout male and female mice in different experimental paradigms known to trigger distinctive types of stress and anxiety states. Neurological examination of homozygous mutant adult animals indicated that basic neurological functions (vision, audition, olfaction, tactile and pain sensitivity, motor performances) were normal. When housed individually, N/OFQ-knockout animals displayed responses similar to control animals in behavioral tests of emotional reactivity (behavioral despair, locomotor activity, light-dark preference, and acoustic startle tests). In contrast, increased emotional responses were detected when individually housed mice were crowded together (five per cage) under conditions of competitive access to food, water, space, and social contacts. Under those conditions, male mice deficient for N/OFQ developed greater home-cage aggression and increased fear/anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark and acoustic startle tests, when compared to their wild-type littermates. Group-housed female mutants also showed higher level of anxiety in the acoustic startle test, but needed additional restrain stress to express detectable levels of anxiety in the light-dark test. These data indicate a clear environment-induced rise in fear reactions of N/OFQ-knockout mice. They further suggest that N/OFQ system is essential for development of adequate coping strategies to acute and chronic stress. PMID:12946601

  19. Stable isotope signatures and element stoichiometry of Fucus vesiculosus as indicators for environmental conditions in the Kiel Bight, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winde, Vera; Mahler, Annika; Voss, Maren; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the BMBF project BIOACID II we aim for an understanding of the natural distribution and variation of isotopic composition and C-N-S stoichiometry in Fucus vesiculosus growing around the coast line of the Kiel fjord (part of the Kiel bight). Environmental conditions (aquatic chemistry, temperature, salinity) were monitored, too. Some changes in aquatic chemistry are related to stress factors like human activity (e.g., waste input) and further factors leading to specific changes in the composition of Fucus vesiculosus. Sampling was carried out at different stations at the west and east coast of the Kiel Fjord. For each sampling station the aquatic chemistry (TA, pH, salinity, d13C(DIC), main and trace elements and nutrients) as well as the composition of the Fucus organic tissues (stoichiometry and stable isotope composition of carbon, nitrogen) are analysed. The Fucus tissue was sampled in three size classes (small, medium, large). It is shown, that Fucus vesiculosus indicates clear differences in the N contents and stable isotopes between the west and the east site of the Kiel Fjord. Stable nitrogen isotope signatures in Fucus vesiculosus, are useful proxies to identify the influence factors in the Fucus habitat. From the data it is obtained that the influence of human activity (wastewater treatment plant, harbour), small stream and drainage channels, which flow from the near coastal area into the bight, leads to different Fucus vesiculosus compositions. In future work, it is intended to extend the investigation to trace element signatures to further estimate environmental impacts.

  20. A holistic evaluation of risks in coastal regions under changing climatic, environmental and socioeconomic conditions: the Theseus Decision Support System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, I. J.; Garcia Alonso, E.; Mendez, F. J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Nicholls, R. J.; Thompson, R.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Fernandez, F.; Ondiviela, B.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Bagli, S.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general acceptance that global changes associated with natural hazards and socioeconomic processes are occurring at a faster pace than ever, with deep implications in terms of risk exposure and environmental impact. The capacity of coastal areas to adapt and react to these changes will be a key factor in the future preservation of life standards and represents a great challenge for politicians, scientists and professionals at any level. Within the large scope of Theseus Project (EU 7th Framework Program), one of the main objectives is to design a tool to help decision makers in defining optimal strategies to minimize risks within a certain city or coastal area in a three-fold sense: economic losses, human damages and environmental impacts. The resulting software, the Theseus-DSS, links the most relevant physical processes (waves, sea-levels, hard and soft structures, coastal erosion and inland flooding) with the potential impact zones (marine and inland), considering their functions (ecosystems) and uses (economic units), and the dependence of this functions and uses upon the prevailing physical conditions. The new software tries to fill a gap among the existing tools, based on the following pillars: • Seamless integration of disciplines: physics, engineering, ecology, social sciences and economy. • Intermediate spatial scales (1- 10 km) and medium-to- long time spans (1-10 years). • Decision-making based on a balance between deterministic models and expert, discussion-based assumptions. The user of the Theseus-DSS will be able either to check the consequences of predefined scenarios at a particular study site, or to create user-defined scenarios, run them and compare the results with other scenarios. The results are expressed, locally and at an aggregate level, in the three aforementioned dimensions: economic losses (€/year), mean annual expected live losses (persons/year) and impact on habitats (null, low, medium and high).

  1. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.

  2. The effect of exogenous jasmonic acid on induced resistance and productivity in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) is influenced by environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Délano-Frier, John P; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A; Martínez-de la Vega, Octavio; Salas-Araiza, Manuel D; Barbosa-Jaramillo, Elva R; Torres, Adriana; Vargas, Paloma; Borodanenko, Anatoli

    2004-05-01

    Amaranthus hypochondriacus is a C4 pseudocereal crop capable of producing reasonable grain yields in adverse environmental conditions that limit cereal performance. It accumulates trypsin inhibitors and alpha-amylase inhibitors in seeds and leaves that are considered to act as insect feeding deterrents. Foliar trypsin and alpha-amylase inhibitors also accumulate by treatment with exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) in controlled laboratory conditions. Three field experiments were performed in successive years to test if two nonphytotoxic dosages of JA were capable of inducing inhibitor activity in A. hypochondriacus in agronomical settings, and if this induced response reduced insect herbivory and insect abundance in foliage and seed heads. The performance of JA-treated plants was compared to insecticide-treated plants and untreated controls. The effect of exogenous JA on the foliar levels of six additional putatively defence proteins was also evaluated. Possible adverse effects of JA induction on productivity were evaluated by measuring grain yield, seed protein content, and germination efficiency. The results present a complex pattern and were not consistent from year to year. To some extent, the yearly variability observed could have been consequence of growth under drought versus nondrought conditions. In a drought year, JA-treated plants had lower levels of insect herbivory-derived damage in apical leaves and panicle than control plants, whereas in nondrought years, there was an inconsistent effect on aphids, with no effect on lepidopteran larvae. JA treatments reduced the size of the insect community in seed heads. The effect varied with year. Exogenous JA did not adversely affect productivity, and in the absence of drought stress, the higher dosage enhanced grain yield. Induction of defensive proteins by JA, although sporadic, was more effective in nondrought conditions. The patterns of foliar protein accumulation observed suggest that they may be part of a constitutive, rather than inducible, chemical defense mechanism that is developmentally regulated and critically dependent on the environment. The results emphasize the difficulties that are often encountered when evaluating the performance of chemical elicitors of induced resistance in field settings. PMID:15274445

  3. Summary and Conclusions 9.1 Summary

    E-print Network

    van Thienen, Peter

    plate tectonics. Several lines of evidence indicate internal temperatures for the early Earth that of the Earth. For example, no evidence of recent plate tectonics is found on either planet. In this thesis, the conditions under which plate tectonics and alternative geodynamic regimes may operate were investigated

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of Pleurodeles waltl complement component C3 under normal physiological conditions and environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Guéguinou, Nathan; Huin-Schohn, Cécile; Ouzren-Zarhloul, Nassima; Ghislin, Stéphanie; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2014-10-01

    C3 is a component of the complement system that plays a central role in immunity, development and tissue regeneration. In this study, we isolated the C3 cDNA of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl. This cDNA encodes a 1637 amino acid protein with an estimated molecular mass of 212.5 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that P. waltl C3 contains all the conserved domains known to be critical for C3 function. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that under normal physiological conditions, P. waltl C3 mRNA is expressed early during development because it is likely required for neurulation. Then, its expression increased as the immune system developed. In adults, the liver is the richest source of C3, though other tissues can also contribute. Further analysis of C3 expression demonstrated that C3 transcription increased when P. waltl larvae were exposed to pH or temperature stress, suggesting that environmental modifications might affect this animal's defenses against pathogens. PMID:24768999

  5. Effects of Cd & Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft & hard water including a German lake.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Elisa; Opitz, Judith; Thomas, George; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Dienemann, Holger; Jenemann, Kerstin; Dickinson, Bryan C; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-10-15

    Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far. PMID:24096235

  6. Spatial distribution and biodiversity of macrofauna in the southeast of the Caspian Sea, Gorgan Bay in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Mehrshad; Foshtomi, Maryam Yazdani; Noranian, Majid; Mira, Seyed Sahab

    2012-06-01

    Spatial distribution and biodiversity of macrofauna in the Gorgan Bay, southeast of the Caspian Sea, were studied at fifteen stations in June 2010. Also, depth, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total organic matter content and sediment particle size were measured in each station. A total 3,356 individuals belonged to eight families and ten species were identified. Polychaeta were numerically dominated groups and Streblospio gynobranchiata, was constant and dominant species with 60.28% of total individuals but Bivalvia with four species had highest species number, though the density of them were low. The maximum density (4,500 ind/m2) was obtained at station 1 while the minimum (411 ind/m2) was observed at station 6. There was not significant correlation between the density of macrofauna with all environmental conditions. In total, six feeding group were considered but surface deposit feeder and deposit feeder were dominant in all stations. The maximum mean species number, diversity, richness, and evenness were obtained, 6.33, 1.46, 1.38 and 0.87, respectively. Based on the M-AMBI and the AMBI classification it seems that bentic environment in Gorgan Bay was not bad but the results of Shannon-Wiener, Margalef and Simpson indices the results were vice versa. In general, the values of the mentioned indices decreased from the western to the eastern part of the bay. Furthermore, the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) showed that the structure of the macrofaunal assemblages was divides to six groups.

  7. Conversion of methane to liquid products, hydrogen, and ammonia with environmentally friendly condition-based microgap discharge.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mindong; Zhang, Zhitao; Bai, Mindi; Bai, Xiyao; Gao, Honghui

    2008-12-01

    The conversion of methane to liquid products, hydrogen (H2), and ammonia (NH3) was investigated experimentally using microgap discharge plasma at an environmentally friendly condition. The experimental results indicated that H2 and NH3 were detected as the main gas products. The highest yield and production rate of H2 was 14.4% (v/v) and 2974.6 micromol/min, respectively, whereas the highest yield and production rate of NH3 was 8000 ppm (v/v) and 165.1 micromol/min, respectively. Particularly, the liquid products were collected on the plate and consisted of pyrrole, 2-methyl-1,4-pentadiene, c-amidopyridine, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole, methylpyrazine, 1-hexyne, 1,4-heptadiene, and polycyclic organic compounds. Some liquid products were the intermediates of drug, flavor, dye, and organic synthesis, as well as edible flavor. The collection efficiency in mass and energy efficiency were 26.3% at once and 22.9 g/kWh, respectively. The whole reaction process was considered to be in line with green chemistry principles. PMID:19189759

  8. Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator of environmental conditions: the case of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kanduc, Tjasa; Medakovi?, Davorin; Hamer, Bojan

    2011-03-01

    The marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis lives attached to the surface of hard substrata, where its exposure and relative immobility allow it to record changes in ambient seawater. It is also found along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. Oxygen and carbon isotopes were analysed for calcite and aragonite in separate shell layers, while major, minor and trace elements in the bulk shell were analysed to evaluate environmental conditions such as the temperature of carbonate deposition, freshwater influence and locations of anthropogenic pollution. We found that, on average, aragonite is enriched by 1.1‰ in (13)C and by 0.2‰ in (18)O compared with calcite. The calculated temperatures for M. galloprovincialis shell growth from the investigated area range from 13.4 to 20.9 °C for calcite and from 16.6 to 23.1 °C for aragonite. According to the ?(18)O and ?(13)C values of shell layers, we can separate the investigated area into three locations: those with more influence of freshwater, those with less influence of freshwater and those with marine environments. The highest concentrations of manganese, barium, boron, arsenic, nickel and chromium were observed in shells from Omis, Bacvice and Zablace (Central Adriatic) and Sv. Ivan (South Adriatic), where chemical and heavy industries are located and where sewage is known to be discharged into coastal areas. The highest concentrations of zinc, lead and copper were measured in samples from Pula, Rijeka and Gruz, where there are also ports in addition to industry. PMID:21271424

  9. Timing, Frequency and Environmental Conditions Associated with Mainstem–Tributary Movement by a Lowland River Fish, Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua)

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Wayne M.; Dawson, David R.; O’Mahony, Damien J.; Moloney, Paul D.; Crook, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tributary and mainstem connections represent important links for the movement of fish and other biota throughout river networks. We investigated the timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with movements by adult golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) between the mainstem of the mid-Murray River and a tributary, the Goulburn River, in south-eastern Australia, using acoustic telemetry over four years (2007–2011). Fish were tagged and released in autumn 2007–2009 in the mid-Murray (n?=?42) and lower Goulburn (n?=?37) rivers within 3–6 km of the mid-Murray-lower Goulburn junction. 38% of tagged fish undertook mainstem–tributary movements, characterised mostly by temporary occupation followed by return of fish to the original capture river. Approximately 10% of tagged fish exhibited longer-term shifts between the mainstem and tributary. Movement of fish from the tributary into the mainstem occurred primarily during the spawning season and in some years coincided with the presence of golden perch eggs/larvae in drift samples in the mainstem. Many of the tributary-to-mainstem movements occurred during or soon after changes in flow. The movements of fish from the mainstem into the tributary were irregular and did not appear to be associated with spawning. The findings show that golden perch moved freely across the mainstem–tributary interface. This demonstrates the need to consider the spatial, behavioural and demographic interdependencies of aquatic fauna across geographic management units such as rivers. PMID:24788137

  10. Community Composition, Toxigenicity, and Environmental Conditions during a Cyanobacterial Bloom Occurring along 1,100 Kilometers of the Murray River

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tebrineh, Jamal; Merrick, Chester; Ryan, David; Humpage, Andrew; Bowling, Lee

    2012-01-01

    A cyanobacterial bloom impacted over 1,100 km of the Murray River, Australia, and its tributaries in 2009. Physicochemical conditions in the river were optimal to support a bloom at the time. The data suggest that at least three blooms occurred concurrently in different sections of the river, with each having a different community composition and associated cyanotoxin profile. Microscopic and genetic analyses suggested the presence of potentially toxic Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii at many locations. Low concentrations of saxitoxins and cylindrospermopsin were detected in Anabaena and Cylindrospermopsis populations. A multiplex quantitative PCR was used, employing novel oligonucleotide primers and fluorescent TaqMan probes, to examine bloom toxigenicity. This single reaction method identified the presence of the major cyanotoxin-producing species present in these environmental samples and also quantified the various toxin biosynthesis genes. A large number of cells present throughout the bloom were not potential toxin producers or were present in numbers below the limit of detection of the assay and therefore not an immediate health risk. Potential toxin-producing cells, possessing the cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis gene (cyrA), predominated early in the bloom, while those possessing the saxitoxin biosynthesis gene (sxtA) were more common toward its decline. In this study, the concentrations of cyanotoxins measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) correlated positively with the respective toxin gene copy numbers, indicating that the molecular method may be used as a proxy for bloom risk assessment. PMID:22081581

  11. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  12. EVALUATION OF IMMOBILIZED REDOX INDICATORS AS REVERSIBLE, IN SITU REDOX SENSORS FOR DETERMINING FE(III)-REDUCING CONDITIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. (R828772)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in situ methodology based on immobilized redox indicators has been developed to determine when Fe(III)-reducing conditions exist in environmental systems. The redox indicators thionine (Thi, formal potential at pH 7 ( E 70') equals 66 mV), tol...

  13. Effect of Harsh Environmental Conditions on Nutrient Utilization and Blood Parameters of Awassi Sheep and Kilis Goat Fed Different Levels of Concentrate Feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Can; N. Denek; M. ?eker

    2008-01-01

    Can, A., Denek, N. and ?eker, M. 2008. Effect of harsh environmental conditions on nutrient utilization and blood parameters of Awassi sheep and Kilis goat fed different levels of concentrate feed. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 33: 39–43.To determine the season effect (summer vs winter) on nutrient utilization and blood, rumen parameters of Awassi ram lambs and male Kilis goats fed

  14. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  15. Impact of Environmental Conditions (pH, Ionic Strength, And Electrolyte Type) On The Surface Charge And Aggregation Of Silver Nanoparticles Suspensions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of capping agents and environmental conditions (pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes) on surface charge and aggregation potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suspensions were investigated. Capping agents are chemicals used in the synthesis of nanopartic...

  16. Design of Experiments for Board-Level Solder Joint Reliability of PBGA Package Under Various Manufacturing and Multiple Environmental Loading Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiyu Qi; Michael Osterman; Michael Pecht

    2009-01-01

    A design of experiments was conducted to determine the reliability of plastic ball grid array packages under various manufacturing and multiple environmental loading conditions. Parameters included conformal coating methods, underfill, solder mask defined, and non-solder mask defined pads. Board-level temperature cycling, vibration, and combined temperature cycling and vibration testing were performed to quantify the reliability and identify preferred design parameters.

  17. NWCC Transmission Case Study Conclusions Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Wiese, Terry Allison

    2000-09-01

    OAK-B135 The NWCC Transmission Case Studies Conclusions Summary In the spring of 1999, the Utility Wind Interest Group (UWIG), with the cooperation of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), conducted a forum on transmission issues associated with the production of energy from wind. As a result of this forum, a number of issues were identified which, if successfully resolved, could help reduce barriers to the future expansion of wind power. The NWCC, being a multi-stakeholder group, was in an ideal position to conduct follow-up activities among a cross-section of the interested parties. The follow-up activities took the form of three case studies in the areas of interest identified by forum participants: (1) Transmission policy and pricing; (2) ''Virtual wheeling'' arrangements; and, (3) Transmission system improvements. The case studies provide an interesting snapshot in time dealing with a range of issues associated with scheduled or planned regulatory and restructuring proceedings related to energy transmission. The NWCC Transmission Subcommittee and the UWIG reviewed early drafts of the case studies in November 1999. The case studies were conducted through a questionnaire and interview process with interested parties. In writing each case study, NWCC staff attempted to identify all stakeholder groups with an interest in each topic and solicit their input. While all parties do not agree on every issue presented, a serious effort has been made to present all views in an unbiased fashion. At the end of each case study, relevant conclusions are drawn and recommendations for next steps are provided where appropriate.

  18. Industry and water security: overarching conclusions.

    PubMed

    Stigson, B

    2001-01-01

    Fresh water is key to sustainable development. World Business Council for Sustainable Development members are addressing fresh water use "within the corporate fenceline". However, to address water issues "outside the corporate fenceline" will require creative new public-private partnerships. Government's role is to provide sound framework conditions that will encourage businesses to invest time, staff and resources to address vital fresh water issues. Industry is committed to best practice within its internal operations and is ready to enter into partnerships to address broader fresh water issues. PMID:11379203

  19. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in birds under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and development of a kinetic predictive model.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Rodríguez, C; Alonso, E; Sáez, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Jiménez, B; San Andrés, M I

    2015-01-22

    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in birds under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085 ?g/kg per day, representing environmentally realistic exposure conditions. The best fitting was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 230 days, accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. The calculated assimilation efficiency was 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, which for this dose regime, was estimated at a value of about 65 ?g PFOS/L serum achieved after a theoretical 210 weeks continuous exposure. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in birds, as described for humans and monkeys; suggesting that a capacity-limited saturable process should also be considered in the kinetic behavior of PFOS in birds. Pseudo first-order kinetic models are highly convenient and frequently used for predicting bioaccumulation of chemicals in livestock and wildlife; the study suggests that previous bioaccumulation models using half-lives obtained at high doses are expected to underestimate the biomagnification potential of PFOS. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in chickens and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild bird species. PMID:25445721

  20. Toward characterizing the effects of environmental and operational conditions on diffuse-field ultrasonic guided-waves in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eybpoosh, Matineh; Berges, Mario; Noh, Hae Young

    2014-03-01

    One of the main challenges in real-world application of guided-waves based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of pipelines is their sensitivity to changes in environmental and operational conditions (EOC) that these structures are subject to. In spite of many favorable characteristics of guided-waves for NDE of pipes, their multi-modal, dispersive, and multi-path characteristics result in complex signals whose interpretation is a difficult task. Studies that have considered the effects of EOC variations either fail to reflect realistic EOC scenarios (e.g., limited to particular effects of specific EOCs, like time shifting effects of temperature in plates) or lack the necessary understanding of the effects of EOC variations on different aspects of the developed damage detection approaches. Such gaps limit the extensibility of these approaches to pipeline applications outside of controlled environments. This paper motivates the idea of analytically incorporating the effects of temperature and flow rate variations into damage diagnosis of pipes, through a number of case studies. A review of the existing literature on guided-wave based testing is also provided. For damage detection, a linear supervised classification method, namely linear discriminant analysis (LDA), is applied to experimental guided-wave data recorded from a hot water piping system under regular operation. Principal components, obtained through principal component analysis (PCA), and Fourier transforms of the signals are two sets of damage-sensitive features (DSF) that are examined for LDA-based classification. The effects of temperature and flow rate difference among testing and training datasets on (A) detection performance and (B) goodness of fit of the method to the data are investigated.

  1. Characterization of condenser microphones under different environmental conditions for accurate speed of sound measurements with acoustic resonators.

    PubMed

    Guianvarc'h, Cécile; Gavioso, Roberto M; Benedetto, Giuliana; Pitre, Laurent; Bruneau, Michel

    2009-07-01

    Condenser microphones are more commonly used and have been extensively modeled and characterized in air at ambient temperature and static pressure. However, several applications of interest for metrology and physical acoustics require to use these transducers in significantly different environmental conditions. Particularly, the extremely accurate determination of the speed of sound in monoatomic gases, which is pursued for a determination of the Boltzmann constant k by an acoustic method, entails the use of condenser microphones mounted within a spherical cavity, over a wide range of static pressures, at the temperature of the triple point of water (273.16 K). To further increase the accuracy achievable in this application, the microphone frequency response and its acoustic input impedance need to be precisely determined over the same static pressure and temperature range. Few previous works examined the influence of static pressure, temperature, and gas composition on the microphone's sensitivity. In this work, the results of relative calibrations of 1/4 in. condenser microphones obtained using an electrostatic actuator technique are presented. The calibrations are performed in pure helium and argon gas at temperatures near 273 K and in the pressure range between 10 and 600 kPa. These experimental results are compared with the predictions of a realistic model available in the literature, finding a remarkable good agreement. The model provides an estimate of the acoustic impedance of 1/4 in. condenser microphones as a function of frequency and static pressure and is used to calculate the corresponding frequency perturbations induced on the normal modes of a spherical cavity when this is filled with helium or argon gas. PMID:19655971

  2. Marked deleterious changes in the condition, growth and maturity schedules of Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae) in an estuary reflect environmental degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, Alan; Hesp, S. Alex; Hall, Norman G.; Hipsey, Matthew R.; Potter, Ian C.

    2014-08-01

    As Acanthopagrus butcheri typically completes its life within its natal estuary and possesses plastic biological characteristics, it provides an excellent model for exploring the ways and extent to which a fish species can respond to environmental changes over time. The environment of the Swan River Estuary in south-western Australia has deteriorated markedly during the last two decades, reflecting the effects of increasing eutrophication and hypoxia in the upper regions, where A. butcheri spends most of the year and spawns. In this study, the biological characteristics of A. butcheri in 2007-11 were determined and compared with those in 1993-95. Between these two periods, the condition factor for females and males of A. butcheri across their length ranges declined by 6 and 5%, respectively, and the parameters k and L? in the von Bertalanffy growth curves of both sexes underwent marked reductions. The predicted lengths of females and males at all ages ?1 year were less in 2007-11 than in 1993-95 and by over 30% less at ages 3 and 6. The ogives relating maturity to length and age typically differed between 1993-94 and 2007-10. The L50s of 156 mm for females and 155 mm for males in 2007-10 were less than the corresponding values of 174 and 172 mm in 1993-94, whereas the A50s of 2.5 years for both females and males in 2007-10 were greater than the corresponding values of 1.9 and 2.0 years in 1993-94. The above trends in condition, growth and maturity parameters between periods are consistent with hypotheses regarding the effects of increasing hypoxia on A. butcheri in offshore, deeper waters. However, as the density of A. butcheri declined in offshore, deeper waters and increased markedly in nearshore, shallow waters, density-dependent effects in the latter waters, although better oxygenated, also probably contributed to the overall reductions in growth and thus to the changes in the lengths and ages at maturity.

  3. The influence of reproductive condition and concurrent environmental factors on torpor and foraging patterns in female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Rintoul, Jody L P; Brigham, R Mark

    2014-08-01

    Unlike many other mammals, bats in temperate regions employ short bouts of torpor throughout the reproductive period to maintain a positive energy balance. In addition to decreasing energy expenditure during the day, they typically alter foraging patterns as well. It is well known that various environmental conditions influence both torpor and foraging patterns, but studies of these factors often have focussed on one element in isolation thus it is not known how the two behaviours are collectively influencing temperate bats. The objective of our study was to assess how reproductive condition and environmental factors concurrently affect energy balance in female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We equipped pregnant and lactating bats in southwest Saskatchewan, Canada with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters. While transmitters were active, skin temperature data were collected and foraging patterns were determined using triangulation. Of the various environmental and physiological parameters used to model torpor characteristics, roost type was the most important factor. Bats roosting in trees used deeper and longer torpor bouts than those roosting in buildings. Lactating bats had a tendency to forage for longer durations than pregnant bats, and often made more foraging trips. When taken together, we found that foraging duration and torpor duration were not directly related during pregnancy, but exhibited an inverse relationship during lactation. This provides support for the hypothesis that there are physiological trade-offs for reproductive bats and suggests that how bats compensate is not entirely predictable based on current environmental conditions. PMID:24973192

  4. Conclusive evidence of endotoxaemia in biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Clements, W; Erwin, P; McCaigue, M; Halliday, I; Barclay, G; Rowlands, B

    1998-01-01

    Background—Endotoxaemia is implicated in the pathophysiology of obstructive jaundice. The EndoCab enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a novel assay which measures endogenous antibody (IgG) to the inner core region of circulating endotoxins (ACGA). ?Aims—To investigate the significance of endotoxaemia in biliary obstruction using the EndoCab assay and assess the specificity of the humoral response to endotoxin compared with an exogenous antigenic challenge (tetanus toxoid, TT). ?Methods—Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied: no operation, sham operation, and bile duct ligation for 21 days (BDL). In the second study, rats rats received prior immunisation with TT. ?Results—In the preliminary experiment, plasma ACGA was significantly increased in the BDL group (306.6 (18.3)% versus 119.9(6.7)% and 105.2 (4.6)% in the sham and no operation groups, respectively; p<0.001). Although the mean endotoxin concentration in the BDL group was greater than that in the control groups this was not significant. There was a strong positive correlation between ACGA and endotoxin concentrations (p=0.0021). In the second study mean ACGA after 21 days of BDL was significantly elevated (267.1 (31.2)% versus 101.6 (21.2)% at baseline, p<0.0001). ACGA was unaffected in the other two groups. TT antibody concentrations fell in all three groups; only in the BDL group was the fall significant (97.6(5.3)% versus 78.8 (4.2)% at baseline, p<0.05). ?Conclusions—The specific rise in ACGA supports the hypothesis that endotoxin has an integral role in the pathophysiology of obstructive jaundice. The production of anticore glycolipid antibodies specifically reflects systemic endotoxaemia in this model. The EndoCab assay provides a novel, sensitive, and specific method for endotoxin detection. ?? Keywords: biliary obstruction; endotoxaemia; EndoCab assay PMID:9536958

  5. Condition and type of housing as an indicator of potential environmental lead exposure and pediatric blood lead levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Clark; R. L. Bornschein; P. Succop; S. S. Que Hee; P. B. Hammond; B. Peace

    1985-01-01

    Environmental evaluations in a prospective behavior study of children with blood lead levels up to about 50 g\\/dl were performed by an intensive environmental survey and by exterior visual evaluations of housing quality. Serial blood lead values for infants in the study were compared to exterior housing type and quality, which itself was also compared with results of the intensive

  6. Social and environmental enrichment enhances sensitivity to the effects of kappa opioids: studies on antinociception, diuresis and conditioned place preference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Smith; Paul A. Bryant; Jacob M. McClean

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that social and environmental enrichment can have a marked impact on the functional maturation of the central nervous system and may influence an organism's sensitivity to psychotropic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of social and environmental enrichment on sensitivity to drugs possessing activity at the kappa opioid receptor. Rats

  7. A practical deployment of Intelligent Building Wireless Sensor Network for environmental monitoring and air-conditioning control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zheng; Yajuan Qin; Deyun Gao; Junqi Duan; Hongke Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is the core support technology in the framework of the Internet of Things. Environmental monitoring and devices control of intelligent building based on wireless sensor network is considered as one of the most crucial applications. It can perceive several environmental parameters and feedback control information to devices to provide more comfortable environment for people. However, it is

  8. Clinical Conditions Associated with Environmental Exposures: an Epidemiologic Study in Two Communities in Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    CALO, WILLIAM A.; QUINTANA, RAFAEL; CATONI, IVAN; VALLE, YARÍ; ÁLVAREZ, JULIO J.; COLÓN, WANDA M.; DELGADO, MARLA S.; ESTRELLA, MAYRA; GONZÁLEZ, AIDA L.; KALLIS, MARÍA; MARRERO, VIVIENNE M.; MELÉNDEZ, LEHIDA; MIRANDA, AISHA I.; NIEVES, KAREN; OSORIO, LYDIETTE; RODRÍGUEZ, JOSÉ M.; TORRES, AZALIA; SUÁREZ, ERICK; ORTIZ, ANA P.

    2013-01-01

    Background A population-based cross-sectional design was used to compare the prevalence of respiratory and general symptoms and of respiratory and heart diseases in two communities of Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico: Guayabal, exposed to particulate matter from quarries and diesel exhaust; and Río Cañas Abajo, which has no such exposure. Methods A probabilistic sampling design was used to obtain a representative sample of households and 288 residents of the selected households were interviewed. Adjusted PORs were estimated to assess the relationship between diseases/symptoms and place of residence using logistic regression models. To estimate the parameters of this model, a multilevel approach was used in order to control for potential correlation among residents of the same block. Results A higher prevalence of general and respiratory symptoms and of respiratory diseases was observed for residents of Guayabal when compared to Río Cañas Abajo (p<0.05). Residents of Guayabal were more likely to have bronchitis (adjusted POR=5.5; p-value<0.05), nasal allergies (adjusted POR=4.2; p-value=0.01), nasal congestion (adjusted POR=2.9; p-value=0.02), and nausea and vomiting (adjusted POR=8.7; p-value<0.01). Conclusions The perception of the community of Guayabal of a higher prevalence of symptoms and health conditions was supported by the present findings. This study provides statistical evidence for the design of an analytical epidemiologic study aimed at evaluating the potential effect of quarrying on adverse health outcomes in the community of Guayabal. PMID:19530554

  9. Different environmental conditions, different results: the role of controlled environmental stress on grape quality potential and the way to monitor it

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. van Leeuwen; O. Trégoat; X. Choné; J.-P. Gaudillère; D. Pernet

    Environmental stress, such as water deficit or limited nitrogen availability, reduces grape yield, but generally promotes grape quality potential for red table wine production. Limited nitrogen uptake limits grape yield but enhances grape quality potential for red table wine production, because it reduces berry size and enhances phenolic compound synthesis. Water deficit stress has one negative effect (reduction of photosynthesis),

  10. Effects of Exercise and Environmental Complexity on Deficits in Trace and Contextual Fear Conditioning Produced by Neonatal Alcohol Exposure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, W.B.; St. Cyr, S.A.; Jablonski, S.A.; Hunt, P.S.; Klintsova, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, voluntary exercise and environmental complexity increases hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial learning and long-term potentiation deficits in animals prenatally exposed to alcohol. The present experiment extended these findings to neonatal alcohol exposure and to delay, trace, and contextual fear conditioning. Rats were administered either 5.25 g/kg/day alcohol via gastric intubation or received sham-intubations (SI) between Postnatal Day (PD) 4 and 9 followed by either free access to a running wheel on PD 30–41 and housing in a complex environment on PD 42–72 (wheel-running plus environmental complexity; WREC) or conventional social housing (SHSH) from PD 30 to 72. Adult rats (PD 80 ± 5) received 5 trials/day of a 10-s flashing-light conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with .8 mA footshock either immediately (delay conditioning) or after a 10-s trace interval (trace conditioning) for 2 days. Neonatal alcohol exposure impaired context and trace conditioning, but not short-delay conditioning. The WREC intervention did not reverse these deficits, despite increasing context-related freezing in ethanol-exposed and SI animals. PMID:22644967

  11. Modeling enterococcus densities measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and membrane filtration using environmental conditions at four Great Lakes beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the summer months of 2003 and 2004 at four US Great Lakes beaches were analyzed using regression analysis to identify relationships between meteorological, physical water characteristics, and beach characterist...

  12. Membrane assisted passive sampler for triazine compounds in water bodies--characterization of environmental conditions and field performance.

    PubMed

    Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Chimuka, Luke; Vrana, Branislav; Cukrowska, Ewa

    2011-05-23

    In this work, a simple, inexpensive and very selective membrane assisted passive sampler (MAPS) that does not use organic solvents, based on a thin walled silicone hollow fibre membrane for extraction of ionizable organic compounds in water bodies is reported. The potential for passive sampling of basic compounds is demonstrated. By changing the acceptor solution from acidic to basic conditions, the MAPS can be successfully used to extract acidic organic compound. The influence of environmental factors such as temperature, sample matrix and hydrodynamics on enrichment factors and sampling rates have been investigated in order to calibrate the passive sampler for measurement of TWA concentration of triazines. The selectivity, extraction efficiency and enrichment factor of the developed sampler has been compared to the Chemcatcher passive sampler. It was found that the chemical uptake of basic triazine compounds into the passive sampler remained linear and integrative throughout the 7 days exposure periods. For atrazine, propazine, prometryne and terbutryne a large 3 days time lag was experienced. A plot of natural logarithms of the amount taken up by the sampler against exposure time gave linear relationship for these compounds. The sampling rates for individual triazine compounds increased with change of hydrodynamic conditions from static to turbulent. The presence of 20 mg L(-1) humic substances in solution was found to have no significant effect on the concentration of compounds trapped in the acceptor solution. Once these compounds are trapped in the acceptor solution they do not diffuse back during the deployment period. A strong dependence of the sampling rates on the type of protective cover used was noted. Stainless steel protective cover was found to be the better than the iron mesh as it did not rust during deployment. The detection limits on HPLC with UV detection ranged from 0.50 to 4.50 ?g L(-1) for MAPS, 0.40 to 3.50 ?g L(-1) for Chemcatcher passive sampler and 0.35 to 4.50 ?g L(-1) for SPE with 7 days exposure of passive samplers. Preliminary field trial of the potential of the MAPS to monitor ionizable triazine compounds in Hartebeespoort dam found west of Johannesburg, South Africa was compared to Chemcatcher and SPE technique with C(18) sorbents for grab samples. No quantifiable amounts of triazine compounds were found in any of the deployed passive samplers in the preliminary field applications. Triazine compounds were also not detected in grab samples after SPE. However, data from laboratory studies support the feasibility of MAPS to measure the freely dissolved fraction of ionizable organic chemicals in water. The MAPS also exhibited slightly better selectivity towards matrix components found in natural water compared to SPE technique or Chemcatcher with C(18) disk as trapping media. PMID:21565305

  13. The effect of some environmental conditions and final-host- and parasite-related factors on the penetration of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae into mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Ornbjerg Christensenl; Flemming Frandsen; Peter Nansen

    1979-01-01

    The capacity ofSchistosoma mansoni cercariae to penetrate mouse tail skin was studied under selected environmental exposure conditions and in relation to some parasite-and final-host-related factors. Mice were exposed to non-labelled or75Se-methionine labelled cercariae using the tail immersion technique. The number of cercariae which penetrated of the amount of tail-bound radioactivity was used to express the host-penetrative capacity of the larvae

  14. Assessing and predicting the success of Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt, a rare European aquatic macrophyte, in relation to lake environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Wingfield; Kevin J. Murphy; Martin Gatwood

    \\u000a Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt is a submerged annual macrophyte, rare in Europe, which is protected under the EC Habitats Directive.\\u000a N. flexilis appears to be decreasing in the British Isles, its main stronghold in Europe. We outline the environmental conditions required\\u000a for N. flexilis growth, comparing between present and recently extinct sites for the plant. Plant traits (leaf

  15. Assessing and predicting the success of Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt, a rare European aquatic macrophyte, in relation to lake environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Wingfield; Kevin J. Murphy; Martin Gaywood

    2006-01-01

    Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt is a submerged annual macrophyte, rare in Europe, which is protected under the EC Habitats Directive.\\u000a N. flexilis appears to be decreasing in the British Isles, its main stronghold in Europe. We outline the environmental conditions required\\u000a for N. flexilis growth, comparing between present and recently extinct sites for the plant. Plant traits (leaf

  16. Sensitivity of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and formaldehyde (HCHO) preservation in snow to changing environmental conditions: Implications for ice core records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel A. Hutterli; Joseph R. McConnell; Roger C. Bales; Richard W. Stewart

    2003-01-01

    (1) Sensitivity studies with physically based numerical air-snow-firn transfer models for formaldehyde (HCHO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) show that even though nonlinear processes determine the preservation of HCHO and H2O2 in snow and firn, changes in atmospheric mixing ratios are linearly recorded in ice cores under otherwise constant environmental conditions. However, temperature, snowpack ventilation, and rate and timing of snow

  17. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Eduard; Bakels, Corrie

    2015-06-01

    Neandertal occupation of Eemian environments in Europe is well attested by several archaeological sites dating to this interglacial period. Does this mean that Neandertals were living in closed forest environments? Due to the potential variability of Eemian environments in space and time, it is necessary to study environmental records that can be correlated with phases of hominin presence, as reflected in the archaeological record. Such a perspective can be obtained from the small basin locality Neumark-Nord 2, as it contains an extensive and detailed environmental record, as well as a large archaeological record consisting of several distinct find levels. Analysis shows that hominin presence is predominantly associated with semi-open environmental conditions. A review of the data from the neighbouring Neumark-Nord 1 basin shows that semi-open environments were also characterizing the wider environment during phases of hominin presence at both basin localities. Large herbivores attracted to the water in these basins may have played an important role in the vegetation openness, probably in conjunction with (local) climatic conditions. The relationship between hominin presence and semi-open environments is explained as Neandertals exploiting the large herbivores aggregating around these freshwater localities, while the more varied vegetation would also have provided them with edible plant foods. Other Eemian sites from freshwater contexts provide evidence for semi-open conditions as well.

  18. Linking benthic biodiversity and environmental conditions at the sea floor combining statistical and mechanistic modeling. Case study on the Black Sea's northwestern shelf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drion, Roxanne; Capet, Arthur; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2014-05-01

    The preservation of the health and biodiversity of benthic ecosystems is a crucial priority in order to achieve the Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine waters. The multiple pressures acting on the ocean, and in particular, on the coastal zone may prevent the maintenance of biodiversity either directly (e.g. trawling, dredging) or indirectly by modifying environmental conditions at the sea floor (e.g. eutrophication, pollution, acidification, warming). The management of the GES of the benthos in a changing environment and the definition of management strategies (e.g. nutrient reduction) that would preserve GES require tools able to predict the modifications of environmental conditions and to link these modifications to the status of the benthic system. Coupled biogeochemical-circulation models provide a large amount of information on physical (e.g. currents, salinity, temperature, shear stress) and biochemical conditions (e.g. oxygen, inorganic nutrients, sinking detritus) but cannot provide an information on species richness. We propose to link these aspects by applying canonical ordination techniques (e.g. Redundancy Analysis, CoInertia Analysis) on a large data set on macrobenthos collected on the Black Sea's north-western shelf with in-situ sediment data (e.g. granulometry, carbon and nitrogen content, C/N ratio, CaCO3 content) and bottom conditions (e.g. shear stress, level of oxygen stress, flux of organic matter to the sediments) provided by a three dimensional model. Beyond taxonomic description, the analysis is performed on the functional composition of the macrobenthos: A trait-based approach is used to assess the functional composition of the macrobenthos by associating the considered species to a list of biological, ecological and behavioral traits. This approach allows to appraise how local conditions determine the functional and taxonomical diversity and provides a mean to evaluate the impact of habitat alteration on the ecological role of benthic assemblages. A particular attention is given to the influence of seasonal hypoxia on benthic biotopes composition.

  19. Taking the pulse of Colorados Front Range: developing regional indicators of environmental and quality of life condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.

    2005-01-01

    Indicators are routinely used to report the status and trends of human health, economy, educational achievement, and quality of life. Some environmental indicators, such as for water and air quality, are routinely reported and used to inform personal, management, or policy decisions. Other environmental indicators, particularly those that do not relate directly to human well-being, have been harder to define, interpret, or use. These indicators may be just as useful and important in describing the ability to provide ecosystem good and services, or less tangible quality of life measures, but they may be suspect because of the quality of data or even the source of the information.

  20. Species-specific differences in temporal and spatial variation in ?(13)C of plant carbon pools and dark-respired CO (2) under changing environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Dubbert, Maren; Rascher, Katherine G; Werner, Christiane

    2012-09-01

    Stable carbon isotope signatures are often used as tracers for environmentally driven changes in photosynthetic ?(13)C discrimination. However, carbon isotope signatures downstream from carboxylation by Rubisco are altered within metabolic pathways, transport and respiratory processes, leading to differences in ?(13)C between carbon pools along the plant axis and in respired CO(2). Little is known about the within-plant variation in ?(13)C under different environmental conditions or between species. We analyzed spatial, diurnal, and environmental variations in ?(13)C of water soluble organic matter (?(13)C(WSOM)) of leaves, phloem and roots, as well as dark-respired ?(13)CO(2) (?(13)C(res)) in leaves and roots. We selected distinct light environments (forest understory and an open area), seasons (Mediterranean spring and summer drought) and three functionally distinct understory species (two native shrubs-Halimium halimifolium and Rosmarinus officinalis-and a woody invader-Acacia longifolia). Spatial patterns in ?(13)C(WSOM) along the plant vertical axis and between respired ?(13)CO(2) and its putative substrate were clearly species specific and the most ?(13)C-enriched and depleted values were found in ?(13)C of leaf dark-respired CO(2) and phloem sugars, ~-15 and ~-33 ‰, respectively. Comparisons between study sites and seasons revealed that spatial and diurnal patterns were influenced by environmental conditions. Within a species, phloem ?(13)C(WSOM) and ?(13)C(res) varied by up to 4 ‰ between seasons and sites. Thus, careful characterization of the magnitude and environmental dependence of apparent post-carboxylation fractionation is needed when using ?(13)C signatures to trace changes in photosynthetic discrimination. PMID:22618996

  1. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titain, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1995-1998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for greater than 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally- listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes between 1995 and 1997. No direct impacts to scrub-jays were observed as a result of normal launches. The explosion of the Delta rocket in January 1997 caused direct impacts to the habitat of several scrub-jays families, from fire and debris; however, no scrub-jay mortality was observed. Mortality exceeded reproductive output at all areas over the course of the study. Populations of the southeastern beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) populations, a Federally listed, threatened species, reside near all the launch complexes. Hurricane Erin and several other tropical storms impacted several areas at the inception of the study in 1995 causing coastal habitat alterations as a result of salt-water intrusion. Both the habitat and the beach mice populations recovered during the course of the study. No direct impacts to southeastern beach mice were observed as a result of normal launch operations. Direct impacts were observed to the habitat as a result of the explosion of the Delta rocket in January 1997. This alteration of the habitant resulted in a shift in use with the mice moving on to the newly burned part of the site. Waterbirds use wetlands and aquatic systems near the launch complexes. Species include the Federally-listed, endangered Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) and several state-listed species of special concern including the Snowy Egret (Egretta thula thula), Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens rufescens), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor ruficolis), and Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea). No impacts to these populations resulting from any launch operations were observed. Gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) also occur around the launch complexes. Most of those observed appeared to be in good condition; however, upper respiratory tract disease is known to occur in the population. Cape Canaveral Air Station, including areas near active launch complexes, remains important habitat for a variety of native plants and animals includin

  2. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titan, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1 995-1 998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for > 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally-listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes between 1995 and 1997. No direct impacts to scrub-jays were observed as a result of normal launches. The explosion of the Delta rocket in January 1997 caused direct impacts to the habitat of several scrub-jays families, from fire and debris; however, no scrub-jay mortality was observed. Mortality exceeded reproductive output at all areas over the course of the study. Populations of the southeastern beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) populations, a Federally listed, threatened species, reside near all the launch complexes. Hurricane Erin and several other tropical storms impacted several areas at the inception of the study in 1995 causing coastal habitat alterations as a result of salt-water intrusion. Both the habitat and the beach mice populations recovered during the course of the study. No direct impacts to southeastern beach mice were observed as a result of normal launch operations. Direct impacts were observed to the habitat as a result of the explosion of the Delta rocket in January 1997. This alteration of the habitat resulted in a shift in use with the mice moving on to the newly burned part of the site. Waterbirds use wetlands and aquatic systems near the launch complexes. Species include the Federally-listed, endangered Wood Stork (Mycferia americana) and several state-listed species of special concern including the Snowy Egret (Egretfa thula fhula), Reddish Egret (Egreffa rufescens rufescens), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), Tricolored Heron (Egreffa tricolor ruficolis), and Little Blue Heron (Egreffa caerulea). No impacts to these populations resulting from any launch operations were observed. Gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) also occur around the launch complexes. Most of those observed appeared to be in good condition; however, upper respiratory tract disease is known to occur in the population. Cape Canaveral Air Station, including areas near active launch colexes, remains important habitat for a variety of native plants and animals including threaten

  3. INVESTIGATION OF TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE CONTINUOUS AIR MONITORS UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH DUST LOADING IN ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation is an in-depth exploration of environmental influences that can cause degradation of the performance (sensitivity, alarm functionality, etc.) of Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs), such as the LANL/Canberra alpha-particle CAM, and a study of techniques to correct fo...

  4. Trends of macroinvertebrate community structure in glacier-fed rivers in relation to environmental conditions: a synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEXANDER M. M ILNER; J OHN E. B RITTAIN; E. P ETTS; Biologie Aquatique

    SUMMARY 1. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to predict macroinvertebrate taxo- nomic richness and individual taxon diversity at the reach level across seven European glacier-fed river sites from a set of 11 environmental variables. Maximum water temperature and channel stability were found to explain the most deviance in these models. 2. Using this information, and data from other recent

  5. Application of a Computer-Aided Image Analysis System to Evaluate Seed Germination under Different Environmental Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. DELL' AQUILA

    BACKGROUND. Computer-aided image analysis tech- niques have been recently developed in monitoring seed imbibition. Their integration with the standard germination test is needed to describe the germina- tion performance of a seed sample with high accura- cy. METHODS. The image analysis system consists of two sets of components: a), an environmental system, which includes a thermostatic cell, a timer controlled

  6. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Guo Ying; Xiang-Yang Yu; Rai S. Kookana

    2007-01-01

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan “does

  7. A standardized approach for estimating the permeability of plastic films to soil fumigants under various field and environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing atmospheric emissions of soil fumigants is critical for protecting human and environmental health. Covering the soil surface with a plastic tarp is a common approach to restrict fumigant emissions. The mass transfer of the fumigant vapors through the tarp is often the rate-limiting factor...

  8. FINAL REPORT. INVESTIGATIONS OF TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE CONTINUOUS AIR MONITORS UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH DUST LOADING IN ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective was to carry out studies to improve the detection of plutonium aerosols by environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs), particularly in dusty environments. A number of alpha-particle ECAMs are used at DOE sites such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)...

  9. Optimization of environmental conditions for production of a novel cold-active lipase from Pichia lynferdii Y-7723

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipases with abnormal functionality such as high thermostability and optimal activity at extreme conditions gain special attentions because of their applicability in the restricted reaction conditions. In particular, cold-active lipase(CAL)s have gained special attention in various industrial fields...

  10. Suppression of Cu Oxidation Using Environmentally Friendly Inhibitors under Conditions of High Temperature and High Humidity for Cu/Low-k

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Makoto; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kimura, Chiharu; Aoki, Hidemitsu; Sugino, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    The Cu surface at a via bottom is exposed to conditions of high temperature and high humidity during annealing after the via hole for Cu/low-k interconnection is cleaned. The Cu surface is oxidized by the water desorbed from the low-k film. The suppression of Cu corrosion is a necessary process. Benzotriazole (BTA) has been used as a conventional Cu corrosion inhibitor, but it has a large environmental impact. An environmentally friendly inhibitor to replace BTA is required. In this study, adenine and hypoxanthine are used as environmentally friendly Cu corrosion inhibitors. We have succeeded in effectively suppressing Cu corrosion under conditions of high temperature and high humidity using adenine and hypoxanthine. We have also investigated the desorption temperature of Cu corrosion inhibitor films by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). We have found that adenine and hypoxanthine are stable inhibitors during annealing. Moreover, it is clear from impedance measurements that adenine and hypoxanthine inhibitor films are thinner than BTA films. Adenine and hypoxanthine can readily be applied to next-generation LSI devices.

  11. Influence of Variable Environmental Conditions on Presence and Concentration of Energetic Chemicals Near Soil Surface in the Vadoze Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Anaya; I. Y. Padilla

    2008-01-01

    Many explosive-related compounds (ERCs) are found near the soil-atmospheric surface in sites containing buried explosive devices, such as landmines and unexploded ordnance, detonation-residual, and munitions residues from explosive manufacturing facilities. Accurate assessment of the fate and transport processes is essential for predicting their movement to the surface, groundwater, or any other important environmental compartment. The transport processes controlling the direction

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilised grassland: A 2-year study of the effects of N fertiliser form and environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Clayton; I. P. McTaggart; J. Parker; L. Swan; K. A. Smith

    1997-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of different N fertilisers on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from agricultural grassland, with a view to suggesting fertiliser practices least likely to cause substantial N2O emissions, and to assess the influence of soil and environmental factors on the emissions. Replicate plots on a clay loam\\u000a grassland were fertilised with ammonium sulphate (AS), urea

  13. Investigations of environmental conditions during cluster indicate probable vectors of unknown exogenous agent(s) of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    McStreet, G H; Elkunk, R B; Latiwonk, Q I

    1992-01-01

    During the tail-end of an active cluster several environmental investigations indicated that wildbirds were very probably the vectors of the unknown exogenous agent of MS. Canine distemper and genetic-autoimmune theories were very definitely eliminated because of the unusual pattern of the cluster. Studies of several avian pathogens unveiled Marek's (MDV) and/or IBD (Gumboro) as the most likely candidates for exogenous agent of MS. PMID:1312422

  14. Reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coxe, Robin L. (Inventor); Galica, Gary E. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Described are methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing technology. An environmental signal representative of an external environmental condition is received. A processing configuration is automatically selected, based on the environmental signal, from a plurality of processing configurations. A reconfigurable processing element is reconfigured to operate according to the selected processing configuration. In some examples, the environmental condition is detected and the environmental signal is generated based on the detected condition.

  15. Responses of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes between atmosphere and forest soil to changes in multiple environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Keya; Qin, Fen; Wang, Wantong; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of multiple environmental conditions on greenhouse gas (CO2 , N2 O, CH4 ) fluxes, we transferred three soil monoliths from Masson pine forest (PF) or coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (MF) at Jigongshan to corresponding forest type at Dinghushan. Greenhouse gas fluxes at the in situ (Jigongshan), transported and ambient (Dinghushan) soil monoliths were measured using static chambers. When the transported soil monoliths experienced the external environmental factors (temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposition) at Dinghushan, its annual soil CO2 emissions were 54% in PF and 60% in MF higher than those from the respective in situ treatment. Annual soil N2 O emissions were 45% in PF and 44% in MF higher than those from the respective in situ treatment. There were no significant differences in annual soil CO2 or N2 O emissions between the transported and ambient treatments. However, annual CH4 uptake by the transported soil monoliths in PF or MF was not significantly different from that at the respective in situ treatment, and was significantly lower than that at the respective ambient treatment. Therefore, external environmental factors were the major drivers of soil CO2 and N2 O emissions, while soil was the dominant controller of soil CH4 uptake. We further tested the results by developing simple empirical models using the observed fluxes of CO2 and N2 O from the in situ treatment and found that the empirical models can explain about 90% for CO2 and 40% for N2 O of the observed variations at the transported treatment. Results from this study suggest that the different responses of soil CO2 , N2 O, CH4 fluxes to changes in multiple environmental conditions need to be considered in global change study. PMID:23868392

  16. Performance modeling and assessment of infrared-sensors applicable for TALOS project UGV as a function of target/background and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbe, Stephane; Krapez, Jean-Claude; Louvet, Yolande

    2012-06-01

    TALOS (Transportable and Autonomous Land bOrder Surveillance system - www.talos-border.eu) is an international research project co-funded from EU 7th Framework Program funds in Security priority. The main objective of TALOS project is to develop and field test the innovative concept of a mobile, autonomous system for protecting European land borders. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) are major components of TALOS project. The UGVs will be equipped with long range radar for detection of moving vehicle and people, as well as long focal length EO/IR sensors allowing the operator to recognize and identify the detected objects of interest. Furthermore medium focal length IR sensors are used to allow the operator to drive the UGV. Those sensors must fulfill mission requirements for extremely various environmental conditions (backgrounds, topographic characteristics, climatic conditions, weather conditions) existing from Finland in the North and Bulgaria / Turkey in the South of Europe. An infrared sensor performance model was developed at ONERA in order to evaluate target detection, recognition and identification range for several simulations cases representative of the whole environmental variability domain. Results analysis allows assessing the operability domain of the infrared sensors. This paper presents the infrared sensor performance evaluation methodology and the synthesis of a large number of simulation results applied to two infrared sensors of interest: a medium / long range cooled MWIR sensor for observation and a short / medium uncooled LWIR sensor for navigation.

  17. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  18. Surface adsorption, intracellular accumulation and compartmentalization of Pb(II) in batch-operated lagoons with Salvinia minima as affected by environmental conditions, EDTA and nutrients.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Sánchez-Galván, Gloria; Pérez-Pérez, Teresa; Pérez-Orozco, Arith

    2005-12-01

    The effects of environmental factors and nutrients on the various possible removal mechanisms (surface adsorption, intracellular accumulation and precipitation to sediments) and partitioning of lead among various compartments (plant biomass, water column and sediments) in Salvinia minima batch-operated lagoons, were evaluated. Surface adsorption was found to be the predominant mechanism for Pb(II) removal under all environmental conditions tested in the absence of nutrients (an average of 54.3%) and in a nutrient medium (modified Hutner 1/10 medium) free of EDTA and phosphates (54.41%) at "high" initial Pb(II) concentrations (in the range of 10.3+/-0.13 to 15.2+/-0.05 mg/L). Under these conditions, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were 2,431+/-276 and 2,065+/-35, respectively. Lead removal was very rapid during the first 4 h and reached 70% in the absence of nutrients at the "medium" light intensity and temperature (LIT) tested, 88% in nutrient medium free of EDTA and supplemented with synthetic wastewater (at the "lowest" LIT tested), and 85% in medium free of EDTA and phosphates. It was concluded that the mechanisms of lead removal by S. minima, and the compartmentalization of this metal in the microcosm of batch-operated lagoons, are primarily a function of the presence of certain nutrients and chelants, with secondary dependence on environmental conditions. In addition, the results indicate that the percentage of lead removed is only a gross parameter and that the complementary use of BCF and compartmentalization analysis is required to gain a full insight into the metal removal process. PMID:15959726

  19. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b gene in brain tumor patients exposed to different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Shahid, S; Nawaz Chaudhry, M; Mahmood, N; Sheikh, S

    2015-05-01

    This study was aimed at finding out mutations of an anticancerous, antiviral and immunomodulatory gene (human interferon alpha-2b) in low- and high-grade brain tumor patients and correlate from hematological profiles. A molecular analysis was performed in which DNAs were extracted from brain biopsy samples of brain tumor patients. The gene was amplified through the PCR technique, and genetic data from sequencing were analyzed by bioinformatics to determine how mutations will lead to changes in human interferon alpha 2b protein in patients. A total of 38% gene mutations were identified among brain tumor patients. The highest percentage of (36%) frameshift mutations was identified. Hematological analysis shows modulations in the 'lymphocytes' parameter in a majority (64%) of the brain tumor patients. Environmental factors have been reported as risks of brain cancer. Patients were found to be under environmental stress from contaminated drinking water and from local gamma radiations. Brain tumor patients were found to have various mutations in an immunomodulating human interferon alpha-2b gene. These patients had immunosuppression that was further affirmed from their hematological profiles. This analysis may be helpful to develop certain biomarkers that may be used to develop novel immunotherapeutical drugs, which enhance a better immune response. PMID:25837663

  20. Changes in the solid state of anhydrous and hydrated forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions: Evidence of the formation of new hydrated forms.

    PubMed

    Censi, Roberta; Rascioni, Riccardo; Di Martino, Piera

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the solid state change of the anhydrous and hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions. Grinding was carried out manually in a mortar under the following conditions: at room temperature under air atmosphere (Method A), in the presence of liquid nitrogen under air atmosphere (Method B), at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere (Method C), and in the presence of liquid nitrogen under nitrogen atmosphere (Method D). Among the hydrates, the following forms were used: a dihydrate form (DSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 55% RH; a dihydrate form (CSN) obtained by crystallizing sodium naproxen from water; the tetrahydrate form (TSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 75% RH. The metastable monohydrate form (MSN), previously described in the literature, was not used because of its high physical instability. The chemical stability during grinding was firstly assessed and proven by HPLC. Modification of the particle size and shape, and changes in the solid state under different grinding methods were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The study demonstrated the strong influence of starting form, grinding and environmental conditions on particle size, shape and solid state of recovered sodium naproxen forms. In particular, it was demonstrated that in the absence of liquid nitrogen (Methods A and C), either at air or at nitrogen atmosphere, the monohydrate form (MSN) was obtained from any hydrates, meaning that these grinding conditions favored the dehydration of superior hydrates. The grinding process carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B) led to further hydration of the starting materials: new hydrate forms were identified as one pentahydrate form and one hexahydrate form. The hydration was caused by the condensation of the atmospheric water on sodium naproxen particles by liquid nitrogen and by the grinding forces that created a close contact between water and drug. The simultaneous disruption of the crystals, occurring during grinding, and their close contact with water molecules promoted the conversion in higher hydrates. Under the Method D, it was possible to highlight a certain tendency to hydration probably due to a rearrangement of water already present into the hydrates, but results were substantially different from Method B. Thus, summarizing, the different SN forms behave differently under different grinding and environmental conditions. PMID:25796350

  1. Zebrafish Facility Work at UMassZebrafish Facility Work at UMass Ensure proper environmental conditions including a wall

    E-print Network

    Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    ShrimpBrine Shrimp Brine shrimp are in cyst form and need to hatch When placed in salt water conditions including a wall maintained system, clean tanks and proper water quality Goal : Keep fish happy if necessary Check and record water chemistry Check and replace dirty filters (pads and bags) In certain

  2. The effect of different environmental conditions on the encystation of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Iftikhar, Hira; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    In this study, Acanthamoeba castellanii was cultivated under different stress conditions to induce possible encystation. The morphological and histological properties were analysed by light and electron microscopy as well as cyst-specific staining. The findings revealed that cysts prepared through liquid medium using higher osmolarity as a trigger (10% glucose with 50mM magnesium chloride for 72 h) are similar to cysts prepared using non-nutrient agar (nutrient deprivation as a trigger in plating assays for 14 days), as determined by SDS-resistance, cyst-specific Calcofluor white staining and transmission electron microscopy. Using liquid medium assay, A. castellanii encystation was studied by exposing trophozoites to media lacking growth ingredients (phosphate buffered saline or distilled water), inappropriate temperatures (4-45°C), pH (3-9), artificial light-dark cycles, 5% CO2, and microaerophilic conditions. Optimal encystation was observed when cells were incubated in PBS with 50mM MgCl2 and 10% glucose at 24-30°C at pH 7. Increasing temperature over 37°C or pH 9 adversely affected encystation, while light-dark cycles, 5% CO2 and microaerophilic conditions had no effect on encystation of A. castellanii. None of the aforementioned conditions had any effect on the viability of A. castellanii, as determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay. A complete knowledge of encystation in A. castellanii is crucial to our understanding of the biology of these ecologically and medically important organisms. PMID:23769934

  3. Lake Diatoms as Indicators of Land Use Effects, Changing Environmental Conditions, and the Effectiveness of Management Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lakes continue to face escalating pressures associated with land cover change and growing human populations. The U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment, which sampled more than 1000 lakes in a probabilistic survey, was the first large scale effort to characterize the condition of lak...

  4. Research on influence of environmental conditions on measurement performance of magnetic field sensor based on differential group delay in FBG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Haitong; Li, Yaocheng

    2015-02-01

    According to the sensing principle of FBG, the measurement performance of magnetic field sensor based on the differential group delay (DGD) in FBG is discussed in this article. The influence of external environmental parameters, including temperature, stress and pressure, on magnetic field sensor based on DGD are then analyzed from the aspect of theory and simulated through Matlab. As the simulation results indicates, the magnetic field sensing scheme based on DGD is not sensitive to temperature and stress, the specific performance is that the changing temperature or stress can make the DGD spectrum move along the horizontal axis (the wavelength), with the shape unchanged; when temperature variation or phase axial stress maintains the same, the DGD has a linear relation with the magnetic induction intensity. While the external pressure has serious impact on the magnetic field sensing scheme, which is apparently embodied in nonlinear and irregular change of DGD spectrum with the varying pressure.

  5. Microbiota Dynamics Associated with Environmental Conditions and Potential Roles of Cellulolytic Communities in Traditional Chinese Cereal Starter Solid-State Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Liang, Hebin; Lin, Wei-Tie; Feng, Feng; Luo, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    Traditional Chinese solid-state fermented cereal starters contain highly complex microbial communities and enzymes. Very little is known, however, about the microbial dynamics related to environmental conditions, and cellulolytic communities have never been proposed to exist during cereal starter fermentation. In this study, we performed Illumina MiSeq sequencing combined with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate microbiota, coupled with clone library construction to trace cellulolytic communities in both fermentation stages. A succession of microbial assemblages was observed during the fermentation of starters. Lactobacillales and Saccharomycetales dominated the initial stages, with a continuous decline in relative abundance. However, thermotolerant and drought-resistant Bacillales, Eurotiales, and Mucorales were considerably accelerated during the heating stages, and these organisms dominated until the end of fermentation. Enterobacteriales were consistently ubiquitous throughout the process. For the cellulolytic communities, only the genera Sanguibacter, Beutenbergia, Agrobacterium, and Erwinia dominated the initial fermentation stages. In contrast, stages at high incubation temperature induced the appearance and dominance of Bacillus, Aspergillus, and Mucor. The enzymatic dynamics of amylase and glucoamylase also showed a similar trend, with the activities clearly increased in the first 7 days and subsequently decreased until the end of fermentation. Furthermore, ?-glucosidase activity continuously and significantly increased during the fermentation process. Evidently, cellulolytic potential can adapt to environmental conditions by changes in the community structure during the fermentation of starters. PMID:26002897

  6. The effect of changing environmental conditions on microwave signatures of forest ecosystems - Preliminary results of the March 1988 Alaskan aircraft SAR experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Paris, Jack; Kasischke, Eric; Slaughter, Charles; Viereck, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    In preparation for the ESA ERS-1 mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft SAR data sets were acquired near Fairbanks in March 1988. P-, L-, and C-band data were acquired with the NASA/JPL Airborne SAR on five different days over a period of two weeks. The airborne data were augmented with intensive ground calibration data as well as detailed simultaneous in situ measurements of the geometric, dielectric, and moisture properties of the snow and forest canopy. During the time period over which the SAR data were collected, the environmental conditions changed significantly; temperatures ranged from unseasonably warm (1 to 9 C) to well below freezing (-8 to -15 C), and the moisture content of the snow and trees changed from a liquid to a frozen state. The SAR data clearly indicate the radar return is sensitive to these changing environmental factors, and preliminary analysis of the L-band SAR data shows a 0.4 to 5.8 dB increase (depending on polarization and canopy type) in the radar cross section of the forest stands under the warm conditions relative to the cold. These SAR observations are consistent with predictions from a theoretical scattering model.

  7. Gas chromatography for in situ analysis of a cometary nucleus V. Study of capillary columns' robustness submitted to long-term reduced environmental pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Szopa, C; Sternberg, R; Coscia, D; Goesmann, F; Gomes, R; Legrand, S; Jerome, M; Meierhenrich, U J; Raulin, F

    2014-11-14

    With the European Space Agency's Rosetta space mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a gas chromatograph, part of the COmetary Sampling And Composition (COSAC) experiment, travelled for about 10 years in the interplanetary medium before operating at the surface of the cometary nucleus in November 2014. During its journey in space, the instrument was exposed to the constraining conditions of the interplanetary medium, including reduced environmental pressures. In order to estimate the potential influence of this severe condition on the chromatographic capillary columns, their stationary phase and the subsequent separation capability, a set of flight spare columns were kept under reduced environmental pressure in the laboratory for the same duration as the probe sent to the comet. The columns' analytical performances were evaluated recently and compared to the original ones obtained just before the launch of the Rosetta probe. The results presented here show that the chromatographic performances of the spare chromatographic columns were not altered in time. From this result, it can be expected that the flight instrument will perform nominally for the analysis of the first cometary nucleus sample to be collected ever, and that the preparation of the interpretation of the data to be taken at the cometary surface nucleus can be done through calibration of these spare columns, and other spare components of the instrument. PMID:25441355

  8. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of probiotic bacteria against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium 1344 in a common medium under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Marianelli, Cinzia; Cifani, Noemi; Pasquali, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    The importance of probiotics in human nutrition has been gaining recognition in recent years. These organisms have been shown to promote human health by enhancing immunological and digestive functions and fighting respiratory tract infections. We propose an improved in vitro model for the study of probiotic antimicrobial activity against enteropathogens, by attempting to re-create, in a common culture medium, environmental growth conditions comparable to those present in the small intestine. A preliminary experiment was carried out in order to find a culture medium able to support both probiotics and pathogens. This was done with the aim of obtaining correct assessment of the interaction under shared growth conditions. BHI medium was selected as the common culture medium and was therefore used in antimicrobial activity assays. The interactions between Salmonella 1344 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri were then assessed at different pH and oxygen availability conditions mimicking the small intestinal environment. L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) had the strongest antimicrobial effect, in particular under anaerobic conditions and at lower pH levels. Its antagonistic activity involved both lactic acid and secreted non-lactic acid molecules. Our findings suggest that each probiotic strain has an optimum range of action and should therefore be thoroughly investigated to optimize its use. PMID:20600855

  9. Effect of preharvest anti-fungal compounds on Aspergillus steynii and A. carbonarius under fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Cela, E; Gil-Serna, J; Marín, S; Acevedo, H; Patiño, B; Ramos, A J

    2012-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been found in pre-harvest and freshly harvested wheat. Spanish climatic conditions point to Aspergillus species as probably responsible for this OTA. In this study the effectiveness of 5 non-specific antifungal chemicals used on wheat fields (25.9% tebuconazole+60.0% N,N-capramide dimethyl; 12.70% tebuconazole+12.7% prothioconazole+59.5% N,N-amide dimethyldecane; 12.5% epoxiconazole; 12.5% tetraconazole; and 70% thiophanate methyl) and an extract from Equisetum arvense were investigated in vitro on wheat by recording growth (colony size, fungal growth and DNA concentration) and OTA production of two ochratoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus carbonarius and three of A. steynii, simulating current and extreme climatic conditions. Inoculated wheat was incubated under two alternating temperature cycles (20/30°C and 25/35°C) with photoperiod (14/10h lightness/darkness), and two moisture levels (40 and 25%). The Aspergillus species tested seemed to be able to persist in predicted future climatic conditions, in particular, A. steynii, a high OTA producer. Azoles were effective in controlling the growth of A. carbonarius and A. steynii, and this effectiveness may not be compromised by the increase in temperature and decrease of humidity. However, azoles are not useful for the prevention of OTA accumulation, which could be only reduced in A. carbonarius under non-extreme conditions. Although some adjustment will probably be required, further studies should be conducted in the field, since the antifungals used in this study are applied at flowering and not directly on the grain. Moreover, timing of antifungal application may need to be optimized. Finally, Equisetum extract showed promising results as an antifungal, however further work to adjust the applied concentrations is required. PMID:22947301

  10. Environmental conditions affect sex expression in monoecious, but not in male and female plants of Urtica dioica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grit A. Glawe; Tom J. de Jong

    2005-01-01

    Urtica dioica is a sub-dioecious plant species, i.e. males and females coexist with monoecious individuals. Under standard conditions, seed sex ratio (SSR, fraction of males) was found to vary significantly among seed samples collected from female plants originating from the same population (0.05–0.76). As a first step, we investigated the extent to which SSR and sex expression of male, female,

  11. Reference genes for high-throughput quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of gene expression in organs and tissues of Eucalyptus grown in various environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cassan-Wang, Hua; Soler, Marçal; Yu, Hong; Camargo, Eduardo Leal O; Carocha, Victor; Ladouce, Nathalie; Savelli, Bruno; Paiva, Jorge A P; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2012-12-01

    Interest in the genomics of Eucalyptus has skyrocketed thanks to the recent sequencing of the genome of Eucalyptus grandis and to a growing number of large-scale transcriptomic studies. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) is the method of choice for gene expression analysis and can now also be used as a high-throughput method. The selection of appropriate internal controls is becoming of utmost importance to ensure accurate expression results in Eucalyptus. To this end, we selected 21 candidate reference genes and used high-throughput microfluidic dynamic arrays to assess their expression among a large panel of developmental and environmental conditions with a special focus on wood-forming tissues. We analyzed the expression stability of these genes by using three distinct statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and ?Ct), and used principal component analysis to compare methods and rankings. We showed that the most stable genes identified depended not only on the panel of biological samples considered but also on the statistical method used. We then developed a comprehensive integration of the rankings generated by the three methods and identified the optimal reference genes for 17 distinct experimental sets covering 13 organs and tissues, as well as various developmental and environmental conditions. The expression patterns of Eucalyptus master genes EgMYB1 and EgMYB2 experimentally validated our selection. Our findings provide an important resource for the selection of appropriate reference genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data in the organs and tissues of Eucalyptus trees grown in a range of conditions including abiotic stresses. PMID:23161857

  12. Improvement of red pigment/citrinin production ratio as a function of environmental conditions by monascus ruber

    PubMed

    Hajjaj; Blanc; Groussac; Goma; Uribelarrea; Loubiere

    1999-08-20

    The growth and metabolic behaviour of the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber were studied in submerged cultures under various aeration and agitation conditions. Improving the oxygen supply, by increasing either the air input or the agitation speed, resulted in modified metabolism: the biomass yield, the consumption of the nitrogen source (monosodium glutamate), and the production of secondary metabolites (red pigment and citrinin) all increased. However, the citrinin production increased more than that of the red pigment. In consequence, a low oxygen transfer coefficient was required to improve the red pigment/citrinin production ratio. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10397888

  13. Adaptive plasticity of Laguncularia racemosa in response to different environmental conditions: integrating chemical and biological data by chemometrics.

    PubMed

    da Souza, Iara; Bonomo, Marina Marques; Morozesk, Mariana; Rocha, Lívia Dorsch; Duarte, Ian Drumond; Furlan, Larissa Maria; Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Monferrán, Magdalena Victoria; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are dynamic environments under constant influence of anthropic contaminants. The correlation between environmental contamination levels and possible changes in the morphology of plants, evaluated by multivariate statistics helps to highlight matching between these variables. This study aimed to evaluate the uptake and translocation of metals and metalloids in roots and leaves as well as the changes induced in both anatomy and histochemistry of roots of Laguncularia racemosa inhabiting two estuaries of Espírito Santo (Brazil) with different pollution degrees. The analysis of 14 elements in interstitial water, sediments and plants followed by multivariate statistics, allowed the differentiation of studied sites, showing good match between levels of elements in the environment with the corresponding in plants. L. racemosa showed variations in their root anatomy in different collection areas, with highest values of cortex/vascular cylinder ratio, periderm thickness and air gap area in Vitória Bay, the most polluted sampling area. These three parameters were also important to differentiate the mangrove areas by linear discriminant analysis. The development stage of aerenchyma in roots reflected the oxygen availability in the water, being found a negative correlation between these variables. The combined use of chemical and biological analyses responded quite well to different pollution scenarios, matching morphological responses to physical and chemical parameters, measured at different partitions within the estuary. Thus, L. racemosa can be confirmed as a reliable sentinel plant for biomonitoring of estuaries impacted by anthropic pollution. PMID:24445776

  14. Differences between evolution of Titan's and Earth's rivers - further conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiura, Katarzyna; Czechowski, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Titan is the only celestial body, beside the Earth, where liquid is present on the surface. Liquid forms a number of lakes and rivers. In our research we use numerical model of the river to determine differences of evolution of rivers on the Earth and on Titan. We have found that transport of sediments on Titan is more effective than on Earth for the same river geometry and discharge. We have found also the theoretical explanations for this conclusion. 2.Introduction Titan is a very special body in the Solar System. It is the only moon that has dense atmosphere and flowing liquid on its surface. The Cassini-Huygens mission has found on Titan meandering rivers, and indicated processes of erosion, transport of solid material and its sedimentation. This paper is aimed to investigate the similarity and differences between these processes on Titan and the Earth. 3. Basic equations of our model The dynamical analysis of the considered rivers is performed using the package CCHE modified for the specific conditions on Titan. The package is based on the Navier-Stokes equations for depth-integrated two dimensional, turbulent flow and three dimensional convection-diffusion equation of sediment transport. 4. Parameters of the model We considered our model for a few kinds of liquid found on Titan. The liquid that falls as a rain (75% methane, 25% nitrogen) has different properties than the fluid forming lakes (74% ethane, 10% methane, 7% propane, 8.5% butane, 0.5% nitrogen). Other parameters of our model are: inflow discharge, outflow level, grain size of sediments etc. For every calculation performed for Titan's river similar calculations are performed for terrestrial ones. 5. Results and Conclusions The results of our simulation show the differences in behaviour of the flow and of sedimentation on Titan and on the Earth. Our preliminary results indicate that transport of material by Titan's rivers is more efficient than by terrestrial rivers of the same geometry parameters. We also distinguish that suspended load is the main way of transport in simulated Titan's conditions. In future we will do the experimental modelling in sediment basin to confirm results from computer modelling. Acknowledgements We are very grateful to Yaoxin Zhang and Yafei Jia from National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering for providing their program - CCHE2D. This work was partially supported by the National Science Centre (grant 2011/01/B/ST10/06653).

  15. Reconstructing the environmental conditions around the Silurian Ireviken Event using the carbon isotope composition of bulk and palynomorph organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.; Munnecke, Axel; Leng, Melanie J.; Bickert, Torsten; Hints, Olle; Gelsthorpe, David; Maier, Georg; Servais, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The carbon isotope composition (?13C) of bulk organic matter and two palynomorph groups (scolecodonts and chitinozoans) from the Llandovery-Wenlock strata of Gotland (E Sweden) are compared to gain knowledge about carbon cycling in the Silurian (sub)tropical shelf environment. The ?13C values of the palynomorphs are mostly lower than the ?13C values of the bulk organic matter, and the ?13C values of the benthic scolecodonts are lower than those of the planktonic chitinozoans. While the difference between bulk and palynomorph ?13C may be in part a function of trophic state, the lower values of the scolecodonts relative to those of chitinozoans, which are assumed to live in the well-mixed water column, might imply an infaunal mode of life for the polychaetes that carried the scolecodonts. Lower ?13C for the scolecodonts in the middle of the section may represent variations in primary marine productivity (supported by acritarch abundance data), oxidation of organic matter in the bottom waters, or genera effects. In general, however, trends between the three data sets are parallel, indicating similarities in the low frequency, environmentally forced controls. The ?13C data show a decreasing trend from the base of the section, up to a horizon well below the base of the Upper Visby Formation. At this level, and therefore probably several 10 kyr before the ?13C increase in the carbonates, the ?13C organic values increase by ~1‰. This perhaps is an expression of a changed composition of the bulk organic matter associated with the extinction events prior to the Llandovery-Wenlock boundary.

  16. Dynamics of the SAR11 bacterioplankton lineage in relation to environmental conditions in the oligotrophic North Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Eiler, Alexander; Hayakawa, Darin H; Church, Matthew J; Karl, David M; Rappé, Michael S

    2009-09-01

    A quantitative PCR assay for the SAR11 clade of marine Alphaproteobacteria was applied to nucleic acids extracted from monthly depth profiles sampled over a 3-year period (2004-2007) at the open-ocean Station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment; 22 degrees 45'N, 158 degrees 00'W) in the oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean. This analysis revealed a high contribution (averaging 36% of 16S rRNA gene copies) of SAR11 to the total detected 16S rRNA gene copies over depths ranging from the surface layer to 4000 m, and revealed consistent spatial and temporal variation in the relative abundance of SAR11 16S rRNA gene copies. On average, a higher proportion of SAR11 rRNA gene copies were detected in the photic zone (< 175 m depth; mean = 38%) compared with aphotic (> 175 m depth; mean = 30%), and in the winter months compared with the summer (mean = 44% versus 33%, integrated over 175 m depth). Partial least square to latent structure projections identified environmental variables that correlate with variation in the absolute abundance of SAR11, and provided tools for developing a predictive model to explain time and depth-dependent variations in SAR11. Moreover, this information was used to hindcast temporal dynamics of the SAR11 clade between 1997 and 2006 using the existing HOT data set, which suggested that interannual variations in upper ocean SAR11 abundances were related to ocean-climate variability such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation. PMID:19490029

  17. Seasonal variability of infaunal community structures in three areas of the North Sea under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Henning; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2005-10-01

    Infaunal communities were studied on a monthly scale from September 2000 until May 2002 in order to investigate their seasonal variability in different areas of the North Sea: the German Bight, the Oyster Ground and the Dogger Bank. The stations were chosen to reflect a gradient in the hydrographic regime, temperature and organic matter supply. The seasonal variability in mean abundance, diversity and community structure of the infauna was mainly caused by recruitment in spring and summer. It was found to be highest in the German Bight, where fluctuations in environmental parameters were higher than in the Oyster Ground and at the Dogger Bank. Despite the dominant role of recruitment, the seasonal variability of the benthic communities seems to be a result of synergistic effects of numerous factors such as food availability, water temperature, predation and hydrodynamical stress. Among these effects, the input of high quality food to the benthic system seems to be of major importance for the seasonal variability of the benthic communities, since the faunal patterns in the German Bight and the Oyster Ground were correlated significantly with sediment parameters indicating inputs of fresh nitrogen rich organic matter, such as chlorophyll a and C/N ratio (German Bight) and fucoxanthin (Oyster Ground). This role of food quality might be intensified by high bottom water temperatures in areas such as the German Bight, where a mixed water column results in an increase of macrofauna abundance during summer, in contrast to a moderate increase of macrofauna in the Oyster Ground and the Dogger Bank which have a stratified water column. Low water temperatures in winter did not affect the mortality of the juvenile benthic fauna. It is suggested that food limitation and predation pressure caused the decrease in abundance. Thus, depending on the season, a shift from a bottom-up controlled community to a top-down controlled community might be the result at least for the juvenile macrofauna.

  18. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Equipment Failure and Adverse Environmental Effects § 585.816 What must I do if environmental or...

  19. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Equipment Failure and Adverse Environmental Effects § 585.816 What must I do if environmental or...

  20. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINENTAL SHELF Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Equipment Failure and Adverse Environmental Effects § 585.816 What must I do if environmental or...

  1. METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity testing under realistic environmental conditions is a much more complex enterprise than determining the effects of single chemicals on single species under. controlled laboratory conditions. owever, the information obtained in a well-designed, well-executed environmental...

  2. Acoustic mode coupling induced by shallow water nonlinear internal waves: sensitivity to environmental conditions and space-time scales of internal waves.

    PubMed

    Colosi, John A

    2008-09-01

    While many results have been intuited from numerical simulation studies, the precise connections between shallow-water acoustic variability and the space-time scales of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) as well as the background environmental conditions have not been clearly established analytically. Two-dimensional coupled mode propagation through NLIWs is examined using a perturbation series solution in which each order n is associated with nth-order multiple scattering. Importantly, the perturbation solution gives resonance conditions that pick out specific NLIW scales that cause coupling, and seabed attenuation is demonstrated to broaden these resonances, fundamentally changing the coupling behavior at low frequency. Sound-speed inhomogeneities caused by internal solitary waves (ISWs) are primarily considered and the dependence of mode coupling on ISW amplitude, range width, depth structure, location relative to the source, and packet characteristics are delineated as a function of acoustic frequency. In addition, it is seen that significant energy transfer to modes with initially low or zero energy involves at least a second order scattering process. Under moderate scattering conditions, comparisons of first order, single scattering theoretical predictions to direct numerical simulation demonstrate the accuracy of the approach for acoustic frequencies upto 400 Hz and for single as well as multiple ISW wave packets. PMID:19045637

  3. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; von Burg, Simone; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM) crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L.) and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low. PMID:21829479

  4. Geophysical Measurements for Real-time Monitoring of Biogeochemical Processes for Improvement of Soil Engineering Properties and Subsurface Environmental Conditions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of biogeochemical processes, from inorganic mineral precipitation, to bio-film formation, to bio-gas generation, are being investigated as alternative methods to improve soil engineering properties and subsurface environmental conditions. Every process applied in a geotechnical or geoenvironmental application requires the ability to monitor the progression of treatment non-destructively and in real-time. Geophysical methods have been shown effective to monitor temporally and map spatially soil improvement. Results from seismic velocity (compression and shear wave) and resistivity measurements obtained on 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D experiments at scales ranging from bench-top to field scale will be presented. Shear wave velocity will be demonstrated to be most effective in monitoring microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in sands while compression wave velocity will be used to monitor desaturation through bio-gas formation. Finally, the implications of these results for real-time monitoring during field-scale applications will be discussed.

  5. Net ammonium and nitrate fluxes in wheat roots under different environmental conditions as assessed by scanning ion-selective electrode technique.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yangquanwei; Yan, Weiming; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world, its availability affects global food security. In this study, we investigated variations in NH4(+) and NO3(-) fluxes in the fine roots of wheat using a scanning ion-selective electrode technique in the presence of different nitrogen (N) forms, N concentrations, and pH levels as well as under water stress. Our results show that the fine roots of wheat demonstrated maximum NH4(+) and NO3(-) influxes at 20 mm and 25 mm from the root tip, respectively. The maximal net NH4(+) and NO3(-) influxes were observed at pH 6.2 in the presence of a 1/4 N solution. We observed N efflux in two different cultivars following the exposure of roots to a 10% PEG-6000 solution. Furthermore, the drought-tolerant cultivar generally performed better than the drought-intolerant cultivar. Net NH4(+) and NO3(-) fluxes may be determined by plant growth status, but environmental conditions can also affect the magnitude and direction of N flux. Interestingly, we found that NO3(-) was more sensitive to environmental changes than NH4(+). Our results may be used to guide future hydroponic experiments in wheat as well as to aid in the development of effective fertilisation protocols for this crop. PMID:25428199

  6. Non-photoperiodic factors and timing of breeding in blue tits: impact of environmental and social influences in semi-natural conditions

    PubMed Central

    Caro, S.P.; Lambrechts, M.M.; Balthazart, J.; Perret, P.

    2007-01-01

    The seasonal development of life-history traits is influenced by many environmental factors. The impact of photoperiodic and non-photoperiodic factors on nest building and egg laying has been rarely investigated in non-domesticated avian species for which long term field data sets are available. Former investigations showed that blue tits originating from geographically close populations in the Mediterranean region do not respond in the same way to photoperiodic factors in semi-natural outdoor conditions. Here we show experimentally that nest building and onset of egg laying in captive blue tits is also proximately influenced by non-photoperiodic factors, including aspects related to aviary characteristics and social interactions between birds of the two sexes originating from different local Mediterranean study populations. In two successive experiments, we show that 1) increasing the volume of the aviary advanced the egg laying period of one specific population by almost one month, and 2) crossing pairs of birds from different origins strongly reduced the nest building and egg laying behaviours. These results indicate that obtaining biologically relevant breeding results in captivity with wild birds requires the control and experimental manipulation of a wide array of complex environmental cues. PMID:17368964

  7. Influence of soil type and environmental conditions on ZnO, TiO(2) and Ni nanoparticles phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jo?ko, Izabela; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2013-06-01

    Intensive development of nanotechnology will result in releasing nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment including soil. The objective of the study was the evaluation of phytotoxicity of inorganic nanoparticles and their bulk counterparts (ZnO, TiO(2) and Ni) in various soils using Phytotoxkit F™ method. The estimation of toxicity was conducted with relation to Lepidium sativum. The toxicity of NPs was also estimated in relation to contact time between NPs and soil, effect of light and temperature and NPs-NPs interactions. In all tested variants no effect of NPs on seed germination was observed. NPs displayed varied effect on inhibition of plant root growth in relation to soil type. Only in the case of ZnO nanoparticles and their bulk counterparts a dose-effect relationship was observed. That relationship, however, was observed only in OECD soil. In a majority of cases, aging and increase of temperature caused a reduction of toxicity of NPs, while light conditions increased the toxic effect of NPs. The effect of the NPs interaction: ZnO with TiO(2) or Ni had an antagonistic character, that was manifested in a reduction of the toxicity of ZnO. PMID:23541360

  8. Response of phytoplankton photophysiology to varying environmental conditions in the Sub-Antarctic and Polar Frontal Zone.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wee; McMinn, Andrew; Griffiths, F Brian; Westwood, Karen J; Wright, Simon W; Clementson, Lesley A

    2013-01-01

    Climate-driven changes are expected to alter the hydrography of the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) south of Australia, in which distinct regional environments are believed to be responsible for the differences in phytoplankton biomass in these regions. Here, we report how the dynamic influences of light, iron and temperature, which are responsible for the photophysiological differences between phytoplankton in the SAZ and PFZ, contribute to the biomass differences in these regions. High effective photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F'(q)/F'(m)0.4), maximum photosynthesis rate (P(B)(max)), light-saturation intensity (E(k)), maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport (1/[Symbol: see text]PSII), and low photoprotective pigment concentrations observed in the SAZ correspond to high chlorophyll a and iron concentrations. In contrast, phytoplankton in the PFZ exhibits low F'(q)/F'(M) (~ 0.2) and high concentrations of photoprotective pigments under low light environment. Strong negative relationships between iron, temperature, and photoprotective pigments demonstrate that cells were producing more photoprotective pigments under low temperature and iron conditions, and are responsible for the low biomass and low productivity measured in the PFZ. As warming and enhanced iron input is expected in this region, this could probably increase phytoplankton photosynthesis in this region. However, complex interactions between the biogeochemical processes (e.g. stratification caused by warming could prevent mixing of nutrients), which control phytoplankton biomass and productivity, remain uncertain. PMID:23977242

  9. Hydraulic and Vegetative Models of Historic Environmental Conditions Isolate the Role of Riparian Vegetation in Inducing Channel Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manners, R.; Schmidt, J. C.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    An enduring question in geomorphology is the role of riparian vegetation in inducing or exacerbating channel narrowing. It is typically difficult to isolate the role of vegetation in causing channel narrowing, because narrowing typically occurs where there are changes in stream flow, sediment supply, the invasion of non-native vegetation, and sometimes climate change. Therefore, linkages between changes in vegetation communities and changes in channel form are often difficult to identify. We took a mechanistic approach to isolate the role of the invasive riparian shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp) in influencing channel narrowing in the Colorado River basin. Detailed geomorphic reconstructions of two sites on the Yampa and Green Rivers, respectively, in Dinosaur National Monument show that channel narrowing has been progressive and that tamarisk encroachment has also occurred; at the same time, dams have been constructed, diversions increased, and spring snowmelt runoff has been occurring earlier in spring. We simulated hydraulic and sediment transport conditions during the two largest floods of record -- 1984 and 2011. Two-dimensional hydraulic models were built to reflect these conditions and allowed us to perform sensitivity tests to determine the dominant determinants of the observed patterns of erosion and deposition. Channel and floodplain topography were constrained through detailed stratigraphic analysis, including precise dating of deposits based on dating of buried tamarisk plants in a series of floodplain trenches and pits. We also used historical air photos to establish past channel topography. To parameterize the influence of riparian vegetation, we developed a model that links detailed terrestrial laser scan (TLS) measurements of stand structure and its corresponding hydraulic roughness at the patch scale to reach-scale riparian vegetation patterns determined from airborne LiDaR (ALS). This model, in conjunction with maps of the ages and establishment elevation of tamarisk-dominated stands in the study reaches allowed us to temporally and spatially scale the vegetative hydraulic roughness. Flood-event hydrology and sediment rating curves were derived from nearby USGS stream gages. The two flood events, while similar in flood peak magnitude, had strikingly different geomorphic effects. The 1984 flood left extensive fine-grained deposits in the study areas, but the 2011 flood caused significant scour as well as fill, resulting in significant areas of erosion as well as deposition. One reason for this finding is the difference in flood duration. However, other observed differences appear to be a result of the temporal differences in distribution and density of tamarisk stands wherein the density of riparian vegetation increased greatly between 1984 and 2011 . Our integration of sedimentologic, topographic, and vegetation stand structure data with hydraulic modeling also makes it possible to anticipate the style and magnitude of future channel changes in response to future changes in the flow regime, sediment supply, and/or riparian vegetation communities composition.

  10. Morphological and behavioral differences in the gastropod Trophon geversianus associated to distinct environmental conditions, as revealed by a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Federico; Nieto Vilela, Rocío Aimé; Lozada, Mariana; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The gastropod Trophon geversianus exhibits shell polymorphisms along its distribution in subtidal and intertidal habitats. Our hypothesis is that morphological and behavioral patterns of T. geversianus represent habitat-specific constrains; subsequently we expect an association between shell morphology, attachment behavior, and habitat. In order to test this hypothesis we compared individuals from intertidal and subtidal habitats, at three sites in Golfo Nuevo (Argentina). We analyzed shell morphology using classic morphometric variables, 3D geometric morphometrics and computing tomography scan. The results were complemented with field observations of attachment to substrate and turning time behavior, as well as of the number of shell scars produced by crab predation. Our results showed differences in shell size and shape between intertidal and subtidal-collected individuals. Centroid size, total weight and shell weight, as well as shell density and thickness were significantly lower in intertidal individuals than in subtidal ones. Gastropods from intertidal habitats presented a low-spired shell and an expanded aperture which might allow better attachment to the bottom substrate, while subtidal individuals presented a slender and narrower shell shape. The number of crab scars was significantly higher in shells from subtidal individuals. Observations of the behavior of gastropods placed at the intertidal splash zone showed 100% of attachment to the bottom in the intertidal individuals, while subtidal specimens only attached in average in 32% of the cases. These latter took 12 times longer to re-attach to the bottom when faced up. Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene fragments showed no consistent differences among individuals sampled in both habitats. All these results suggest that T. geversianus has developed two ecomorphs with distinct morphological and behavioral responses to physically stressful conditions registered in north Patagonian intertidals, as opposed to lower physical stress but higher predation pressure in the subtidal habitats. The findings of this work constitute a starting point in the study of ecological adaptation processes in gastropods from Patagonian coastal environments.

  11. Thermal and radiation stability of the hydrated salt minerals epsomite, mirabilite, and natron under Europa environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Thomas B.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Teeter, Glenn; Hansen, Gary B.; Sieger, Matthew T.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Van Keulen, Lisa

    2001-02-01

    We report studies on the thermal and radiolytic stability of the hydrated salt minerals epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O), mirabilite (Na2SO4.10H2O), and natron (Na2CO3.10H2O) under the low-temperature and ultrahigh vacuum conditions characteristic of the surface of the Galilean satellite Europa. We prepared samples, ran temperature-programmed dehydration (TPD) profiles and irradiated the samples with electrons. The TPD profiles are fit using Arrhenius-type first-order desorption kinetics. This analysis yields activation energies of 0.90+/-0.10, 0.70+/-0.07, and 0.45+/-0.05eV for removal of the hydration water for epsomite, natron, and mirabilite, respectively. A simple extrapolation indicates that at Europa surface temperatures (<=130 K), epsomite should remain hydrated over geologic timescales (~1011-1014 years), whereas natron and mirabilite may dehydrate appreciably in approximately 108 and 103 years, respectively. A small amount of SO2 was detected during and after 100 eV electron-beam irradiation of dehydrated epsomite and mirabilite samples, whereas products such as O2 remained below detection limits. The upper limit for the 100 eV electron-induced damage cross section of mirabilite and epsomite is ~10-19cm2. The overall radiolytic stability of these minerals is partially due to (1) the multiply charged nature of the sulfate anion, (2) the low probability of reversing the attractive Madelung (mostly the attractive electrostatic) potential via Auger decay, and (3) solid-state caging effects. Our laboratory results on the thermal and radiolytic stabilities of these salt minerals indicate that hydrated magnesium sulfate and perhaps other salts could exist for geologic timescales on the surface of Europa.

  12. Environmental fate of metalaxyl and chlorothalonil applied to a bentgrass putting green under southern California climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Liu, G; Yates, M V; Green, R L; Pacheco, P; Gan, J; Yates, S R

    2002-04-01

    Putting greens usually receive high inputs of fertilizers and pesticides to meet the high demand for visual quality and to overcome the stress from close mowing and traffic. In this study, two commonly used fungicides, metalaxyl (methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate) and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile), were evaluated for their partitioning and persistence in a bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds) putting green under southern California climatic conditions. The putting green site was constructed according to the US Golf Association (USGA) specifications. Lysimeter assemblies installed at the center of each plot were used to monitor the leachate, flux chambers were used to measure volatilization, clippings were collected to determine the residues on grass, and soil cores were sampled to determine residues in the soil profile. Results showed that cumulative volatilization loss accounted for 0.10 and 0.02%, clipping removal 0.11 and 0.13%, and cumulative leaching 0.71 and 0.002% of the applied metalaxyl and chlorothalonil, respectively. The two fungicides were mainly found in the top 10 cm of the soil profile due to the high organic carbon content in the thatch and mat layers. The dissipation half-life was 1.4 days for metalaxyl and 4.9 days for chlorothalonil on grass, shorter than those found in agricultural fields. This study showed that, under normal turf management practices, the offsite transport of the parent fungicides was minimal. Future research should focus on investigating the fate and mobility of the metabolites of the fungicides. PMID:11975181

  13. The distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in marine surface samples of the eastern Indian Ocean in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, I.; Young, M.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Behling, H.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern Indian Ocean is characterised by a complex system of surface currents that move according to the monsoon-dominated wind regime and show a strong seasonality. The Indonesian Throughflow, which originates in the northwestern and tropical Pacific and passes through the Indonesian archipelago into the Indian Ocean, is the only low-latitude oceanic connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and represents a key element in the global thermohaline circulation and hence the global climate system. In recent decades it has become increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanographic processes involved in climate variations. Assemblages of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) from marine surface samples provide insights into the relationship between the spatial distribution of dinocysts and modern local environmental conditions (e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, productivity). These information are of great value for the interpretation of past variations in surface water conditions. We present an extensive data-set of marine surface samples (n=116) from the Eastern Indian Ocean. The conducted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) illustrates the variation of species association between the sites and reveals a geographical affinity of the samples to the regions of (1) Western Indonesia, (2) Java, (3) the Indonesian Throughflow and (4) Western Australia including the Timor Sea. The results of the PCA further indicate the existence of two environmental gradients in the study area, a nutrient gradient increasing from Western Indonesia towards the Indonesian Throughflow region and a temperature gradient increasing from Western Australia towards Western Indonesia. The Redundancy Analysis indicates the presence of three dominating taxa in the sample set, namely Spiniferites spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp., and reveals significant correlations of the three dominant taxa to specific environmental parameter. While Spiniferites spp. strongly correlates with the silicate concentrations of the surface water between April and June, O. centrocarpum, T. vancampoae and Impagidinirum species show a negative correlation with the annual sea surface temperature. Brigantedinium spp. as well as nearly all other heterotrophic cyst species and L. machaerophorum show a positive correlation with the chlorophyll-a concentration between July and September, hence indicating an affinity of these species with seasonal upwelling.

  14. Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental and climatic conditions in the eastern Andean piedmont of Mendoza (33°-34°S, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, A. E.; Zárate, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze the late Quaternary alluvial record of the Andean piedmont between 33° and 34°S (Mendoza, Argentina) reconstructing the prevailing paleoenvironmental conditions and discussing their regional significance. The analysis was carried out along the outcrops of Arroyo La Estacada and its tributary Arroyo Anchayuyo, complementary sections were described at Arroyo Grande and Arroyo Yaucha. The sedimentological, stratigraphical and geochronological (radiocarbon and OSL dating) results as well as the paleoenvironmental interpretation are presented and discussed on the basis of the geomorphological units identified at the piedmont fluvial systems. Late Quaternary deposits of Arroyo La Estacada compose three main geomorphological units consisting of an extensive aggradational plain, a fill terrace and the present floodplain -which is not analyzed in this contribution-. At the aggradational plain a distal alluvial fan lithofacial association was determined, mainly related to overbank sheet fluid overflows and probably temporary inactive channels of sandy-like braided streams between ˜50 ka BP and the early Holocene. The mid-late Holocene fining upward alluvial sequence of the fill terrace corresponds to a sinuous fluvial system lithofacial association. The mid-to late Holocene alluvial sequence exposed at Arroyo Grande banks shows a fining upward sequence probably related to a sinuous fluvial system lithofacial association. Finally, in the Arroyo Yaucha the upper and lower terraces analyzed in this study record a Late Glacial and Holocene fining upward alluvial sequence of a sinuous fluvial system lithofacial association. The late Pleistocene - early Holocene dynamic of the Andean piedmont documents an interval of alluvial aggradation characterized by the occurrence of sandy systems similar to braided rivers in the distal fan environments. The mid-late Holocene is marked by aggradation in sinuous fluvial systems and by two major episodes of degradation registered across the fluvial systems of the study area. This paleoenvironmental reconstruction allowed us to propose an evolutionary scheme and chronology of the major fluvial landscape landforms contributing to the general understanding of the sedimentological and geomorphological dynamic during the late Quaternary.

  15. Stability of dietary polyphenols under the cell culture conditions: avoiding erroneous conclusions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianbo; Högger, Petra

    2015-02-11

    Most data of bioactivity from dietary polyphenols have been derived from in vitro cell culture experiments. In this context, little attention is paid to potential artifacts due to chemical instability of these natural antioxidants. An early degradation time ((C)T10) and half-degradation time ((C)T50) were defined to characterize the stability of 53 natural antioxidants incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. The degree of hydroxylation of flavones and flavonols significantly influenced the stability in order resorcinol-type > catechol-type > pyrogallol-type, with the pyrogallol-type being least stable. In contrast, any glycosylation of polyphenols obviously enhanced their stability. However, the glycosylation was less important compared to the substitution pattern of the nucleus rings. Methoxylation of flavonoids with more than three hydroxyl groups typically improved their stability as did the hydrogenation of the C2?C3 double bond of flavonoids to corresponding flavanoids. There was no significant correlation between the antioxidant potential of polyphenols and their stability. Notably, the polyphenols were clearly more stable in human plasma than in DMEM, which may be caused by polyphenol-protein interactions. It is strongly suggested to carry out stability tests in parallel with cell culture experiments for dietary antioxidants with catechol or pyrogallol structures and pyrogallol-type glycosides in order to avoid artifacts. PMID:25608051

  16. Divergent patterns of impact of environmental conditions on life history traits in two populations of a long-distance migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Balbontín, Javier; Møller, Anders P; Hermosell, Ignacio G; Marzal, Alfonso; Reviriego, Maribel; de Lope, Florentino

    2009-04-01

    Some areas have experienced recent dramatic warming due to climate change, while others have shown no change at all, or even recent cooling. We predicted that patterns of selection on life history would differ between southern and northern European populations of a long-distance migratory bird, the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, because global patterns of weather as reflected by large-scale weather phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have different effects on environmental conditions in different parts of the world frequented during the annual cycle. We investigated relationships between mean arrival date, dispersal rate and yearling survival rate among years, using two long-term population studies in Spain and Denmark. We found evidence of a difference in the effects of normalized difference vegetation index in North and West Africa on mean arrival date of male barn swallows, with the effect differing significantly between populations. Second, there was a significant interaction between ENSO and population on dispersal rate, showing that conditions in Africa during winter differentially affected dispersal in the two populations. Finally, the NAO index in winter had an effect on yearling survival that differed between populations. These findings highlight the divergent patterns of response to climate change among populations, and they suggest that climate change can differentially affect important life history traits with potential implications for maintenance of viable populations and gene flow among populations. PMID:19139919

  17. Hot yoga establishments in local communities serving pregnant women: a pilot study on the health implications of its practice and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Feng, Steven L; Babbar, Shilpa; Rankins, Nicole Calloway; Blando, James D

    2014-10-01

    Hot yoga establishments have been increasing in popularity in local communities. Studios may support participation among pregnant women though no clinical studies currently exist that examine prenatal hot yoga effects. The pilot study described in this article aimed to assess the spread of prenatal hot yoga and to provide information on the environmental conditions and practices of those who engage in hot yoga within a local community. A thermal environment meter was used to measure ambient air conditions during three 90-minute hot yoga classes. Mothers who practiced prenatal hot yoga were more likely than non-hot yoga practitioners to have someone aside from an obstetrician/gynecologist discuss prenatal exercise safety with them. Prenatal public health education campaigns need to be refined. Public health officials and obstetricians/gynecologists need to be aware that those who engage in a hot yoga practice are more likely to trust someone other than their health care provider or public health professional regarding safety of this practice. PMID:25603649

  18. The jumping to conclusions bias in delusions: specificity and changeability.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Tania M; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Rief, Winfried

    2010-02-01

    There are indications that a jumping to conclusions bias (JTC) plays a role in the formation and maintenance of delusions and should be targeted in therapy. However, it is unclear whether (a) JTC is uniquely associated with delusions or simply an epiphenomenon of schizophrenia or impaired intellectual functioning and (b) it can be changed by varying task demands, motivational factors, or feedback. Seventy-one patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and either acute or remitted delusions and 68 healthy controls were included. Patients were assessed with self- and observer-rated symptom measures. All participants were assessed for intellectual ability and performed the classic beads task with a ratio of 80:20. They were then presented with task variations that involved increasing the difficulty of the ratio to 60:40, introducing a rule for which correct decisions were rewarded by monetary gains and false decisions led to financial losses, and providing feedback on the accuracy of the previous decisions. Participants with current delusional symptoms took fewer draws to decision (DTD) than did those in remission and healthy controls. DTD were associated with observer-rated delusions, but controlling for negative symptoms or intelligence rendered this association insignificant. DTD increased after the difficulty of the task increased and after feedback. The study demonstrated that JTC is linked to delusions but that this association is not unique. Patients with delusions are principally able to adapt their decisions to altered conditions but still decide relatively quickly even when decisions have negative consequences. These difficulties might stem in part from impaired intellectual functioning. PMID:20141241

  19. Geochemical anomalies in carbonate lacustrine sediments as seasonal and centennial environmental proxy for continental climate conditions in South Siberia during the last 2450 yrs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, I.; Darin, A.; Tretyakov, G.; Rogozin, D.; Khromykh, S.; Kholodova, L.; Maksimova, N.

    2012-04-01

    Sedimentation history of saline lakes efficiently reflects environmental change in catchment area especially for wet-arid conditions. Different sediment carbonates allows quantitative assessment of physicochemical conditions and bioproduction. Shira lake in South Siberia is a good representative object for detail weather-climate modeling due to it`s local hydroclimatic information and annually laminated bottom sediments. Thermodynamic estimation of rock-water multisystem in conformity with local conditions and source matter gives grounds for interpretation of measured geochemical parameters in sediments as environmental indicators like temperature, salinity, pH etc. At the same time using a modern scanning X-ray fluorescence technique for sub-millimeter microstratigraphic study of varves results quantitative environmental reconstruction year by year. Meromictic Shira Lake is closed shallow (25 m) basin 9,4x5,3 km2 of brackish water (total salinity up to 19 g/l) inflowed by small Son river. Continental climate provides mean July temperature 18o and January -20oC. A long-term waterbody stratification with intra-annual chemocline depth 11-16,2 m is observed as well as level oscillations up to 7 m Sediment has thin laminated structure, where black clay-carbonate organic bearing layers are coupled with white organic free ones. Thickness of rhythms varied from 2 mm in the uppermost 20 cm of core to 0.4 mm close to the bottom. Clastic components quartz, feldspar, micas, chlorite are distributed under dust and flood events but not regularly. Visible 6 light intervals depleted of organics are revealed along the core. They have 45-120 mm in thickness and are repeated every 200-250 mm. Dark and light sediments are different in water content as well as rock-forming element composition. LOI<500oC is rather lower in light components, that confirms lack organic matter. Correspondingly, calcite (18-30%) and monohydrocalcite (13-14%) predominate in black muds coloured by organics and hydrotroilite, but dolomite (54%), less calcite (11%) with a touch of strontianite are concentrated in light layers. To construct depth-age model 137s is measured in upper part subsampled by 5 mm. Coincidence between isotope dating and counting of individual layers corroborates annual origin of them. Then varves with average thickness 0.6 mm were counted for the complete core, and age of bottom is estimated as 2450 yrs BP. Three radiocarbon dates showed the same result on the assumption of 1200 years reservoir effect for each measurement due to input of soluble ancient carbonate from bedrocks. Computer physicochemical simulation in natural rock-water-gas multisystem of Shira lake is executed by "Selector" software used method of thermodynamic potentials minimization under local equilibrium state. Thermodynamic estimations proves that carbonate matter within annual couple is corresponded to cold (winter) conditions, and organic component - to warm season. Inverse temperature dependence for solubility product of strontianite and positive correlation between transpiration and strontianite content in solid phase both contribute to concentrate Sr in sediments during cold season due to decreasing temperature and increasing water salinity through ice cover as well. Also inverse correlation is revealed between Sr content and lake level documented from 1920 year. So light carbonate Sr-enriched layers formed during each cold season as well as at the time of extremely low lake level periods with higher saline water every 450-550 yrs. Sr signal was also measured in similar carbonate sediments of Telmen lake situated in Northern Mongolia ~800 km south-east from Shira.

  20. Tools: Sobol indices and stochastic orders Illustrations and conclusion

    E-print Network

    Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

    Context Tools: Sobol indices and stochastic orders Results Illustrations and conclusion GlobalRisk à Grenoble 24 juin 2014. 1 / 47 #12;Context Tools: Sobol indices and stochastic orders Results Illustrations and conclusion Plan 1 Context 2 Tools: Sobol indices and stochastic orders Sobol indices

  1. Science Sampler : Jumping to the right conclusions, inferences, and predictions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jack Giannattasio

    2005-01-01

    Writing meaningful conclusions, drawing accurate inferences, and making relevant predictions are essential skills that many adolescents lack. The differences among conclusions, inferences, and predictions, although subtle, must be recognized to accurately analyze and interpret lab data. There is much research documenting the difficulties students have acquiring these skills, but little on how to teach them. With this in mind, the following exercises were designed.

  2. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupski, Vladimir N [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-31

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  3. The Repugnant Conclusion and Utilitarianism under Domain Restrictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LESLIE SHIELL

    2008-01-01

    The paper investigates the problem of the repugnant conclusion in variable-population social choice. A choice rule exhibits the repugnant conclusion if, given any alternative in which all individuals enjoy a high quality of life, there is always a better alternative (according to the choice rule) in which the population is larger and each individual has a life which is barely

  4. Utilization of Terse Conclusions in an Industrial Research Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Irving; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Terse conclusions which are concerned with the meaning of a document rather than the subject scope, have replaced abstracts at Hooker Research Center for progress reports. These terse conclusions are circulated to the entire staff and are also intended to aid in management decisions. (9 references) (Author/NH)

  5. Local environmental conditions determine the footprint of municipal effluent in coastal waters: a case study in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Sophia C; Macdonald, Robie W; Burd, Brenda; van Roodselaar, Albert; Bertold, Stan

    2015-03-01

    To predict the likely effects of management action on any point source discharge into the coastal ocean, it is essential to understand both the composition of the effluent and the environmental conditions in the receiving waters. We illustrate a broadly-applicable approach to evaluating the comprehensive environmental footprint of a discharge, using regional geochemical budgets and nearfield monitoring. We take as a case study municipal effluent discharged into the Strait of Georgia (west coast of Canada), where there has been public controversy over the discharge of screened or primary-treated effluent directly into the ocean. Wastewater contributes ? 1% of the nitrogen, organic carbon and oxygen demand in the Strait and is unlikely to cause eutrophication, harmful algal blooms or hypoxia in this region. Metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) are controlled by natural cycles augmented by past mining and urbanization, with 0.3-5% of the flux contributed by wastewater. Wastewater contributes ~5% of PCBs but ? 60% of PBDEs and is likely also important for pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Effects of high organic flux on benthos are measurable in the immediate receiving environment. The availability of particle-active contaminants to enter the food chain depends on how long those contaminants remain in the sediment surface mixed layer before burial. Secondary treatment, slated for completion in Vancouver in 2030, will reduce fluxes of some contaminants, but will have negligible effect on regional budgets for organic carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, metals and PCBs. Removal of PBDEs from wastewater will affect regional budgets, depending on how the sludge is sequestered. PMID:25481251

  6. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; P<0.01), suggesting that a high level of plant water availability is needed for the expression of fertility-restoring genes of revertants. These data show that the fertility-restoring genes for the 9E cytoplasm are dominant in conditions of high water availability and recessive in drought conditions; reversions to male fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that methylation of nuclear genes in sterility-inducing cytoplasm may be one of mechanisms causing the CMS phenomenon. PMID:26027370

  7. Some Conclusions and Recommendations from the McMaster Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, R. J.; Humphreys, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of conclusions from the McMaster Conference in Hamilton, Ontario, June 19-23, 1978, which includes resources needed, curriculum reform, the teaching of introductory chemistry courses at the university and high school. (CS)

  8. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of Constitution and Bylaws for Removal of Officers of Local Labor Organizations § 417.12 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  9. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of Constitution and Bylaws for Removal of Officers of Local Labor Organizations § 417.12 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  10. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of Constitution and Bylaws for Removal of Officers of Local Labor Organizations § 417.12 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  11. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of Constitution and Bylaws for Removal of Officers of Local Labor Organizations § 417.12 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  12. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of Constitution and Bylaws for Removal of Officers of Local Labor Organizations § 417.12 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  13. Optimal Conclusive Sets for Comparator Networks January 25, 2007

    E-print Network

    Even, Guy

    Optimal Conclusive Sets for Comparator Networks Guy Even Tamir Levi Ami Litman January 25, 2007@cs.technion.ac.il Faculty of Computer Science, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel. litman@cs.technion.ac.il 1 #12;for testing

  14. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  15. Significance evaluation of the effects of environmental factors on the lipid accumulation of Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2341 under low-nutrition heterotrophic condition.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Yuan, HongLi; Li, BaoZhen; Yang, JinShui

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a variety of environmental factors on lipid accumulation of Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2341 under low-nutrition conditions were investigated. The growth of UTEX 2341 reached the exponential phase on the 1st day in low-nutrition medium. And the highest biomass productivity of 3.07 g L(-1) d(-1) was achieved on the 2nd day. The optimum pH and temperature for lipid accumulation were 6 and 20 °C respectively. 43.69 g L(-1) of NaCl and 0.11 mmol L(-1) of Fe(III) resulted in higher lipid content, analyzed by Design-Expert. And then under nitrogen starvation stress, the lipid content reached 22.84%. Meanwhile, the lipid yield was 2.5 g L(-1). The yield coefficient against carbon was 0.36 g g(-1), which was 4.68 times as much as that in OM medium. With the high proportion of C16 and C18 in the lipids, C. minutissima UTEX 2341 was proved to be a potential option for renewable biodiesel production. PMID:24291318

  16. Method for simultaneous 90Sr and 137Cs in-vivo measurements of small animals and other environmental media developed for the conditions of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Gaschak, Sergey P; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the 90Sr and 137Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The 90Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1-mm-thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is "thick-layered" and contains a comparable quantity of 137Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The 137Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous 90Sr and 137Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape, and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in this paper, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants. PMID:21878764

  17. Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

  18. The intramolecular ¹³C-distribution in ethanol reveals the influence of the CO? -fixation pathway and environmental conditions on the site-specific ¹³C variation in glucose.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Alexis; Silvestre, Virginie; Segebarth, Nicolas; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Guillou, Claude; Robins, Richard J; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S

    2011-07-01

    Efforts to understand the cause of ¹²C versus ¹³C isotope fractionation in plants during photosynthesis and post-photosynthetic metabolism are frustrated by the lack of data on the intramolecular ¹³C-distribution in metabolites and its variation with environmental conditions. We have exploited isotopic carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (¹³C NMR) spectrometry to measure the positional isotope composition (?¹³C(i) , ‰) in ethanol samples from different origins: European wines, liquors and sugars from C?, C? and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. In C?-ethanol samples, the methylene group was always ¹³C-enriched (?2‰) relative to the methyl group. In wines, this pattern was correlated with both air temperature and ?(18)O of wine water, indicating that water vapour deficit may be a critical defining factor. Furthermore, in C?-ethanol, the reverse relationship was observed (methylene-C relatively ¹³C-depleted), supporting the concept that photorespiration is the key metabolic process leading to the ¹³C distribution in C?-ethanol. By contrast, in CAM-ethanol, the isotopic pattern was similar to but stronger than C?-ethanol, with a relative ¹³C-enrichment in the methylene-C of up to 13‰. Plausible causes of this ¹³C-pattern are briefly discussed. As the intramolecular ?¹³C(i) -values in ethanol reflect that in source glucose, our data point out the crucial impact on the ratio of metabolic pathways sustaining glucose synthesis. PMID:21410708

  19. Mexico City's active photochemistry: conclusions from the MCMA-2003 study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Brune; T. Shirley; R. Lesher; J. Mao; R. Volkamer; L. Molina; M. Molina; E. Velasco; H. Westberg; B. Lamb; T. Jobson; M. Alexander; B. C. Gonzalez

    2004-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area's active photochemistry was studied using an extensive suite of measurements on the CENICA environmental laboratory's roof, as part of the MCMA-2003 field study. Intense morning sunlight photolyzed HONO and HCHO, producing hydrogen oxides (OH and HO2) at high rates. The HOx interacted with rush-hour volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), amplifying the production rate

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy February 2013 The University of Leeds is responsible international class research activity. In carrying out these services this University will contribute to reflect best environmental practice, implement an environmental management system to pursue sustainability

  1. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model shows promise in providing a more consistent, accurate and objective evaluation than is possible with subjective analysis. Recommendations are offered to guide further research on establishing the environmental education - environmental quality link. Ultimately, a research framework for determining which educational strategies are most effectively linked to demonstrable environmental quality outcomes will have utility in both educational and public policy arenas.

  2. Five Years Of Josie: Assessment Of The Performance Of Ecc-ozone Sondes Under Quasi-flight Conditions In The Environmental Simulation Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, H. G. J.; Straeter, W.; Helten, M.; Kley, D.

    Up to an altitude of about 20 km ozone sondes constitute the most important data source with long term data coverage for the derivation of ozone trends with sufficient vertical resolution, particularly in the important altitude region around the tropopause. Furthermore, in the lower/middle stratosphere up to 30-35 km altitude ozone sondes are of crucial importance to validate and evaluate satellite measurements for long term stability assessments. The environmental simulation chamber at the Research Centre Juelich (Germany) en- ables control of pressure, temperature and ozone concentration and can simulate flight conditions of ozone soundings up to an altitude of 35 km, whereby an accurate UV- photometer serves as a reference. The facility is established as World Calibration Cen- tre for Ozone Sondes (WCCOS) as part of the quality assurance plan for ozone sondes that are in routine use in the GAW (=Global Atmosphere Watch) program of the WMO (=World Meteorological Organization). Since 1996 several JOSIE (= Juelich Ozone Sonde Intercomparison Experiment) ex- periments to assess the performance of ECC-ozone sondes from different manufactur- eres have been conducted at the calibration facility. We will present an overview of the results obtained from the different JOSIE experiments. The results will be discussed with regard to the influence of instrumental factors such as background signal, sensing solution concentration, pump efficiency and their uncertainties on the data quality of ozone soundings. Special attention will be paid to the influence of standard operating procedures on the performance of ECC-sondes and its impact on ozone trends derived from long term ozone sonde records.

  3. Suitability of enzymatic markers to assess the environmental condition of natural populations of Gambusia affinis and Daphnia magna--a case study.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Inês; Santos, Cátia S A; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Machado, Luísa; Oliveira, Rhaul; Ferreira, Abel; Lopes, Isabel; Loureiro, Susana; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the use of biochemical markers, especially in the assessment of toxic effects and modes of action, under controlled laboratory conditions has increased. However, transposing their use to in situ monitoring or risk assessment evaluations has encountered barriers, mainly related to the difficulty in interpreting the meaning of biochemical variation. In this work, we aimed at understanding if biochemical marker activities (cholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase) can be used to monitor the health status of natural populations of fish (Gambusia affinis) and daphnids (Daphnia magna). For that, two ponds with different water properties were chosen as study sites, and organisms collected at four sampling periods along the year. The pattern of biochemical marker responses was not the same in the two species, showing higher integrated biochemical marker response values in the winter for G. affinis and in the autumn for D. magna, suggesting specificities that must be taken into account in biomonitoring programmes by including representative species of several trophic levels. In the case of G. affinis, the differences in key physicochemical parameters between the two ponds (especially dissolved oxygen levels) did not seem to affect biochemical marker levels as if organisms were already perfectly adapted to their environment. In general, seasonal variation of water quality seems to have an important role on biochemical marker responses. Several parameters above Environmental Quality Standards were identified such as dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia, nitrites, sulphides and metals, but eventual responses to these stressors could not be discriminated from natural variation except for particular cases. PMID:25805370

  4. The Possible Interplanetary Transfer of Microbes: Assessing the Viability of Deinococcus spp. Under the ISS Environmental Conditions for Performing Exposure Experiments of Microbes in the Tanpopo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yang, Yinjie; Kawashiri, Narutoshi; Shiraishi, Keisuke; Takasu, Masako; Narumi, Issay; Satoh, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Kazumichi; Tanigawa, Yoshiaki; Momoki, Yoh-hei; Tanabe, Maiko; Sugino, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Yuta; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the possible interplanetary transfer of life, numerous exposure experiments have been carried out on various microbes in space since the 1960s. In the Tanpopo mission, we have proposed to carry out experiments on capture and space exposure of microbes at the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experimental Module of the International Space Station (ISS). Microbial candidates for the exposure experiments in space include Deinococcus spp.: Deinococcus radiodurans, D. aerius and D. aetherius. In this paper, we have examined the survivability of Deinococcus spp. under the environmental conditions in ISS in orbit (i.e., long exposure to heavy-ion beams, temperature cycles, vacuum and UV irradiation). A One-year dose of heavy-ion beam irradiation did not affect the viability of Deinococcus spp. within the detection limit. Vacuum (10-1 Pa) also had little effect on the cell viability. Experiments to test the effects of changes in temperature from 80 °C to -80 °C in 90 min (±80 °C/90 min cycle) or from 60 °C to -60 °C in 90 min (±60 °C/90 min cycle) on cell viability revealed that the survival rate decreased severely by the ±80 °C/90 min temperature cycle. Exposure of various thicknesses of deinococcal cell aggregates to UV radiation (172 nm and 254 nm, respectively) revealed that a few hundred micrometer thick aggregate of deinococcal cells would be able to withstand the solar UV radiation on ISS for 1 year. We concluded that aggregated deinococcal cells will survive the yearlong exposure experiments. We propose that microbial cells can aggregate as an ark for the interplanetary transfer of microbes, and we named it `massapanspermia'.

  5. MEP (Mars Environment Package): toward a package for studying environmental conditions at the surface of Mars from future lander/rover missions.

    PubMed

    Chassefière, E; Bertaux, J-L; Berthelier, J-J; Cabane, M; Ciarletti, V; Durry, G; Forget, F; Hamelin, M; Leblanc, F; Menvielle, M; Gerasimov, M; Korablev, O; Linkin, S; Managadze, G; Jambon, A; Manhès, G; Lognonné, Ph; Agrinier, P; Cartigny, P; Giardini, D; Pike, T; Kofman, W; Herique, A; Coll, P; Person, A; Costard, F; Sarda, Ph; Paillou, Ph; Chaussidon, M; Marty, B; Robert, F; Maurice, S; Blanc, M; d'Uston, C; Sabroux, J-Ch; Pineau, J-F; Rochette, P

    2004-01-01

    In view to prepare Mars human exploration, it is necessary to promote and lead, at the international level, a highly interdisciplinary program, involving specialists of geochemistry, geophysics, atmospheric science, space weather, and biology. The goal of this program will be to elaborate concepts of individual instruments, then of integrated instrumental packages, able to collect exhaustive data sets of environmental parameters from future landers and rovers of Mars, and to favour the conditions of their implementation. Such a program is one of the most urgent need for preparing human exploration, in order to develop mitigation strategies aimed at ensuring the safety of human explorers, and minimizing risk for surface operations. A few main areas of investigation may be listed: particle and radiation environment, chemical composition of atmosphere, meteorology, chemical composition of dust, surface and subsurface material, water in the subsurface, physical properties of the soil, search for an hypothesized microbial activity, characterization of radio-electric properties of the Martian ionosphere. Scientists at the origin of the present paper, already involved at a high degree of responsibility in several Mars missions, and actively preparing in situ instrumentation for future landed platforms (Netlander--now cancelled, MSL-09), express their readiness to participate in both ESA/AURORA and NASA programs of Mars human exploration. They think that the formation of a Mars Environment working group at ESA, in the course of the AURORA definition phase, could act positively in favour of the program, by increasing its scientific cross-section and making it still more focused on human exploration. PMID:15934176

  6. Bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in soils covering a wide range of cucumber cropping histories and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Gao, Lihong

    2014-11-01

    Rhizosphere microorganisms in soils are important for plant growth. However, the importance of rhizosphere microorganisms is still underestimated since many microorganisms associated with plant roots cannot be cultured and since the microbial diversity in the rhizosphere can be influenced by several factors, such as the cropping history, biogeography, and agricultural practice. Here, we characterized the rhizosphere bacterial diversity of cucumber plants grown in soils covering a wide range of cucumber cropping histories and environmental conditions by using pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We also tested the effects of compost addition and/or bacterial inoculation on the bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere. We identified an average of approximately 8,883 reads per sample, corresponding to around 4,993 molecular operational taxonomic units per sample. The Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in almost all soils. The abundances of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia varied among the samples, and together with Proteobacteria, these phyla were the six most abundant phyla in almost all analyzed samples. Analyzing all the sample libraries together, the predominant genera found were Flavobacterium, Ohtaekwangia, Opitutus, Gp6, Steroidobacter, and Acidovorax. Overall, compost and microbial amendments increased shoot biomass when compared to untreated soils. However, compost addition decreased the bacterial ?-diversity in most soils (but for three soils compost increased diversity), and no statistical effect of microbial amendment on the bacterial ?-diversity was found. Moreover, soil amendments did not significantly influence the bacterial ?-diversity. Soil organic content appeared more important than compost and microbial amendments in shaping the structure of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of cucumber. PMID:25027276

  7. Exploration Mining in Diabetic Patients Databases: Findings and Conclusions

    E-print Network

    Lee, Mong Li "Janice"

    Exploration Mining in Diabetic Patients Databases: Findings and Conclusions Wynne Hsu Mong Li Lee-life application that we have done is on the diabetic patients databases. Valuable lessons are learnt from application. In this paper, we shall discuss how we carry out knowledge discovery on this diabetic patient

  8. CONFERENCE REPORT AND CONCLUSIONS ON THE LONDON SOMALI YOUTH

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    CONFERENCE REPORT AND CONCLUSIONS ON THE LONDON SOMALI YOUTH IN SEARCH FOR A UNITED VOICE: ESTABLISHING A LONDON SOMALI YOUTH FORUM A SYDRC REPORT Prepared by Mohamed Aden Hassan and Hussein M. Samater of the Somali Youth Development Resource Centre Charity Registration Number: 1092646 Company Registration Number

  9. A mature evolutionary psychology demands careful conclusions about sex differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens B. Asendorpf; Lars Penke

    2005-01-01

    By comparing alternative evolutionary models, the International Sexuality Description Project marks the transition of evolutionary psychology to the next level of scientific maturation. The lack of final conclusions might partly be a result of the composition of the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory and the sampled populations. Our own data suggest that correcting for both gives further support to the strategic pluralism

  10. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  11. Preliminaries Characterizations Algorithms Conclusions Pareto envelopes in R3

    E-print Network

    Chepoi, Victor

    . Our goal : Characterize and efficiently construct the Pareto envelopes Pd1 (T), Pd (T Characterizations Algorithms Conclusions Pareto envelopes in the plane For the same set of terminals T Pd1 (T) Pd2 (T) Pd (T) Pd1 (T) for 4 terminals P0 d1 (T) for 4 terminals #12;Preliminaries Characterizations

  12. When Proofs Reflect More on Assumptions than Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Paul Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how questions of "provability" can help students engaged in reinvention of mathematical theory to understand the axiomatic game. While proof demonstrates how conclusions follow from assumptions, "provability" characterizes the dual relation that assumptions are "justified" when they afford…

  13. Researching Learning Outcomes: Building Confidence in Our Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mary; Pollard, Andrew; Rees, Gareth; Taylor, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme is expected to produce knowledge of high social scientific quality and practical pedagogic value. It faces, in a particularly acute form, the issue of how confidence in its conclusions can be built. This article begins with some conceptual clarification of the notion of a 'warrant' for research…

  14. Psychotherapy outcome: Smith and Glass' conclusions stand up under scrutiny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet T. Landman; Robyn M. Dawes

    1982-01-01

    Selected a sample of the original set of psychotherapy outcome studies analyzed by M. L. Smith and G. V. Glass for reanalysis to address criticisms of the methodological quality of the studies in the original sample. Results uphold the positive conclusions regarding psychotherapeutic efficacy originally drawn by Smith and Glass. (37 ref)

  15. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-03-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict.

  16. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tesifón Parrón; Mar Requena; Antonio F. Hernández; Raquel Alarcón

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence

  17. Impact of environmental enrichment in mice. 1: Effect of housing conditions on body weight, organ weights and haematology in different strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-P. Tsai; U. Pachowsky; H. D. Stelzer; H. Hackbarth

    2002-01-01

    Summary Currently, environmental enrichment is a very common means of improving animal well- being, especially for laboratory animals. Although environmental enrichment seems to be a possible way for improving the well-being of animals, the consideration of housing laboratory animals should not only focus solely on animal well-being, manpower and economics but also on the precision and accuracy of the experimental

  18. Is the radial breathing mode really radial? ReferencesConclusions

    E-print Network

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Is the radial breathing mode really radial? ReferencesConclusions [1] Reich, Thomsen, and Maultzsch,0) (14,0) (15,0) (16,0) 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 12 14 16 d·zRBM [Å 2 ] RBM-HEM couplingRBM frequency Force per of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11011 Belgrade, Serbia The diameter-dependent radial breathing

  19. Cardiff European Council, 15 and 16 June 1998: Presidency Conclusions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Europa, the European Union's server, has recently posted the Presidency Conclusions from the European Council meeting in Cardiff, Wales on June 15-16, 1998. The revolving EU Presidency is currently held by Britain, and the document contains official statements on a number of issues such as Monetary Union, Economic Reform and Public Finances, Developing the Union, and a number of External Issues. The document is also available for download (.pdf format) in nine European languages.

  20. Biogeochemistry of uranium mill wastes program overview and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.R.

    1981-05-01

    The major findings and conclusions are summarized for research on uranium mill tailings for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. An overview of results and interpretations is presented for investigations of /sup 222/Rn emissions, revegetation of tailings and mine spoils, and trace element enrichment, mobility, and bioavailability. A brief discussion addresses the implications of these findings in relation to tailings disposal technology and proposed uranium recovery processes.