Note: This page contains sample records for the topic environmental contaminants encyclopedia from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.

Custer, T. W.

2000-01-01

2

Environmental Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

hemical contamination of the environment is a pervasive, insidious side effect of human population growth and technological develop- ment. Unlike many other environmental stressors, casual observers often become aware of chemical pollutants only after some catastrophic event, such as an oil or chemical spill that kills many animals. Typically, chem- ical discharges that can be seen or smelled—or barren mine

3

Environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies.

2011-01-01

4

[Environmental contamination and children].  

PubMed

Environmental contamination is a growing problem and a major worldwide concern. Industrialization and overpopulation underlie it's first origins. Contamination has severe outcomes for the whole planet, and very particularly for mankind. But these consequences are specially ominous for childhood. Childs are more extensively exposed to contaminants than adults, for a longer period of time, and the effects are more deleterious as they act during the period of growth and development Concerning the risks associated to contaminants there is still a large paucity of data, particularly as referred to low grade exposure. PMID:16463575

Casado de Frías, Enrique

2005-01-01

5

Burns Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provide by Burns Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert Burns reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. Burns Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion area, Burns and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.

Lindsay, Maurice.

6

Environmentally contaminated families: therapeutic considerations  

SciTech Connect

The unique stress for families of exposure to environmental toxins is discussed in terms of the physical characteristics of such contaminants and resultant adaptational dilemmas, the agent or cause of the injury, and institutional responses to the contamination. Recommendations for mental health professionals working with contaminated families are presented.

Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Murphy, B.C.; Reusser, J.W. (Social Research Institute of New England, Newton, MA (United States))

1992-01-01

7

Encyclopedia Reviews 1978  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews thirteen 1978 edition encyclopedias: Book of Art, Britannica Jr., Britannica 3, Childcraft, Collier's, Compton's. Encyclopedia Americana, Funk & Wagnalls, Merit Students, New Caton, Random House, New Standard, and World Book. (SB)|

Minemier, Betty

1978-01-01

8

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Edward N. Zalta, Consulting Associate Professor of Philosophy at Stanford, this site claims to be the first dynamic encyclopedia. Unlike standard reference works or CD-ROMS, each entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia is maintained and kept up to date by experts in the field. As a result, the entries and the Encyclopedia as a whole are responsive to new developments in the field. The Encyclopedia is still very much under development, with many topics awaiting an entry. However, regular users may track new additions via the What's New section. Additional resources include an internal search engine and an archive of the previous three editions of the Encyclopedia.

1999-01-01

9

Forest Encyclopedia Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".

10

Environmental contaminants in human milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants can be stored in the mother's body or can be transiently present from current diet, occupational exposures or personal habits. These chemicals can be transferred prenatally to the developing fetus or postnatally from breast milk to the nursing infant. Exposures through breast milk can be substantial, especially when the mother has significant ongoing exposures or has accumulated an

HENRY A ANDERSON; MARY S WOLFF

2000-01-01

11

The Encyclopedia of Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews a major new subject encyclopedia, the Encyclopedia of Psychology, jointly published by the American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press. This comprehensive and scholarly reference tool encompasses the discipline's theory, research, practice, and history. All of the articles are signed and include bibliographies. The author describes important features of the set, including biographies, articles about psychology in

Barbara Wales

2002-01-01

12

Encyclopedia Roundup 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This second annual encyclopedia summary updates the American Library Association's (ALA) evaluation of 10 sets and analyzes the deletions and additions made to each encyclopedia within the context of each publisher's revision plans. The board looked specifically for significant changes in purpose, arrangement, content style, general quality, and…

American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

13

Jewish Encyclopedia.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standing as a testament to the wide ranging contributions of the Jewish people to world culture and history, this Web site contains the complete contents of the massive 12-volume Jewish Encyclopedia, originally published between 1901-1906 by the Funk & Wagnall's Company. Conceived and funded by the Kopelman Foundation, this compilation is the only free encyclopedia of Judaica available on the Internet. While the encyclopedia obviously does not include such topics as the creation of the state of Israel or the Holocaust, it is a rather fascinating collection that recalls an interesting period in scholarship, and is a helpful historical document. Visitors can browse by the encyclopedia by letter, along with viewing a transcription of each entry and any accompanying images included with each entry. Those who might be interested in helping compile an updated version of the encyclopedia are also invited to join the mailing list.

14

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

15

Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Ohio University Professor Emeritus of History James Chastain, this online encyclopedia contains a large number of articles written by scholars from around the world on topics related to the "Springtime of the Peoples," the popular revolutions that spread across Europe in 1848. Users can browse the encyclopedia by alphabetical entry or by contributor, although the latter is not currently available. Typical entries contain one lengthy or several smaller paragraphs and a bibliography. The site also includes an introduction by Chastain which discusses the study of 1848 and the Encyclopedia's contents. Both scholars and students studying nineteenth-century Europe will find this site a handy reference resource.

Chastain, James.

16

The Canadian Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In December 2000, Historica, a Canadian foundation dedicated to the preservation of Canadian cultural heritage, posted the first online edition of The Canadian Encyclopedia, a massive one-volume reference to Canada authored by over 4,000 Canadians. This searchable edition features more than 10,000 articles written by a broad base of Canadians who are experts in their individual subjects. (An aggressive act of intellectual egalitarianism, the work employs far more authors than the much larger, but more editorially driven, Encyclopedia Britannica.) In addition to entries written in hypertext format with bibliographies, the encyclopedia offers interactive elements, such as statistical graphs, multimedia presentations of key historical events, quizzes and games, student guides, monthly topical features, and more. The encyclopedia is accessible in French and English and has a separate student's edition as well. Note: we did find some brief instances of printer code in the entries; it would appear that another edit of the online version would be beneficial.

2000-01-01

17

The Multimedia Encyclopedias Face Off.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares three electronic encyclopedias offered for young people: Compton's, Encarta, and the new Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Contents, interface, and navigation between articles are discussed; and recommended grade level, computer platforms, price, upgrade costs, documentation, and multimedia elements are compared. (LRW)|

Salpeter, Judy

1993-01-01

18

Environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE. PMID:23115260

Lerner, A; Adler, A; Abu-Hanna, J; Meitus, I; Navon-Venezia, S; Carmeli, Y

2012-10-31

19

Encyclopedia of Terrorism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As recent terrorist attacks on the United States, such as the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing, and the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East have shown, terrorism is an unfortunate reality that can have potentially devastating effects on governments, businesses, and individuals. This encyclopedia provides students, researchers, journalists, and…

Combs, Cindy C.; Slann, Martin

20

Encyclopedia of Terrorism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As recent terrorist attacks on the United States, such as the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing, and the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East have shown, terrorism is an unfortunate reality that can have potentially devastating effects on governments, businesses, and individuals. This encyclopedia provides students, researchers, journalists, and…

Combs, Cindy C.; Slann, Martin

21

The Encyclopedia of Suns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Suns! Many people are interested in astronomical research that touches on the relationship between astronomy and biology, or at least the possibility of biology on planets other than Earth. The popularity of research efforts such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and extrasolar planet discovery, especially among the public, shows how strong a hold these ideas have. Currently, the Encyclopedia of Suns contains over 100 stars within 50 light years (15.3 parsecs) from the Sun. It contains all stars within that distance that meet specific criteria for being plausible locations for Earthlike planets. It also has some stars outside the 50 light year limit: those that are not only Sunlike, but which also have one or more planets orbiting them.

Nash, David

2009-05-22

22

1985 international petroleum encyclopedia  

SciTech Connect

This encyclopedia contains a 141-page oil and gas atlas section. New to the 1985 edition are: special reports detailing busy times in Canada's offshore waters; a special report on heavy oil; the latest action in Alaska's North Slope operations; a special section on the conflict in the Persian Gulf, home of most of the world's production and reserves; a discussion of the many mergers in the industry; and a new country-by-country refinery survey.

Not Available

1985-01-01

23

Electrochemistry Dictionary and Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This dictionary, accompanied by the online Electrochemistry Encyclopedia (http://electrochem.cwru.edu/ed/encycl), provides brief definitions of words and phrases used often in electrochemistry, the branch of chemistry dealing with reactions involving electrical current or potential. For some terms, a second paragraph provides additional, more technically oriented information. Entries are organized in alphabetical order. The online encyclopedia features articles describing many aspects of electrochemistry, the branch of chemistry dealing with reactions involving electrical currents and potentials. The articles are written by leading experts in the field, but in a popular-science style accessible to the non-expert. New articles are added at irregular intervals, and all articles are periodically updated as new developments occur. The collection is browseable by a table of contents, by author, or by subject. It may also be searched by keyword or a string of terms. The Encyclopedia links to the Electrochemistry Dictionary (http://electrochem.cwru.edu/ed/dict.htm) and to other online resources.

Edited by Zoltan Nagy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

24

Measurement of Contamination in Environmental Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contamination of environmental samples and measurement systems can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. During the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specif...

G. F. Simes J. S. Harrington

1993-01-01

25

Environmental Contaminants in Food. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the major findings of the Office of Technology Assessment evaluation of Federal and State efforts to deal with the environmental contamination of food. Undertaken at the request of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerc...

1979-01-01

26

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. Emerging c...

27

Designing a Hypertext Electronic Encyclopedia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies five design requirements for electronic encyclopedias, based on the content and structure of printed encyclopedias and the uses that people make of them. Three existing hypertext programs (Owl International's Guide, HyperCard, and HyperTIES) are compared in terms of their ability to satisfy these design requirements. (CLB)

Glushko, Robert J.

1990-01-01

28

Online Nevada Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nevada is much more than the Hoover Dam and a certain large neon-drenched city, and the Online Nevada Encyclopedia revels in covering aspects of the state that include business, mining, politics, exploration, and the economy of the Silver State. Started in 2007, the Encyclopedia has been developed by the Nevada Humanities organization, with generous support of the U.S. Department of Education and the State of Nevada. It's a good idea to start a tour through the site by looking at one of the exhibit galleries, which include "Civil Rights in Nevada" and "Hoover Dam". All four of the current exhibits bring together primary documents with brief descriptions of each document. After that, visitors should head over to the topical areas to read high-quality articles about various facets of the state. All of the articles are authored by subject experts, and they cover everything from the archaeology of Tule Springs to the spooky world of the state's many ghost towns.

29

Encyclopedia of Chicago History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Somewhere between Los Angeles and New York is a metropolis affectionately referred to by some as the "Second City". Also known as Chicago, this fair city has recently received its due with the publication of this outstanding reference volume. The online version offered on this site is even more authoritative than the print volume, as it contains a number of interactive maps and special features. Produced by the Chicago Historical Society, the Newberry Library and Northwestern University, this online edition allows users to search the entire contents of the Encyclopedia, and even browse digitized versions of the primary historical documents that serve as the research materials for the print articles. From the homepage, visitors can peruse a user's guide to the Encyclopedia. Each entry includes hypertext links, and in some cases, illustrative materials. For additional information, each entry also features some additional readings. Visitors will also want to take a look at the lovely maps produced for the volume, including a rather compelling map of Chicago's blues clubs. Finally, the special features area includes several interpretive digital essays on the Plan of Chicago of 1909 and galleries on such important topics as "How Chicagoans Remember Their History".

30

Environmental geochemistry of radioactive contamination.  

SciTech Connect

This report attempts to describe the geochemical foundations of the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. The information is obtained and applied in three interacting spheres of inquiry and analysis: (1) experimental studies and theoretical calculations, (2) field studies of contaminated and natural analog sites and (3) model predictions of radionuclide behavior in remediation and waste disposal. Analyses of the risks from radioactive contamination require estimation of the rates of release and dispersion of the radionuclides through potential exposure pathways. These processes are controlled by solubility, speciation, sorption, and colloidal transport, which are strong functions of the compositions of the groundwater and geomedia as well as the atomic structure of the radionuclides. The chemistry of the fission products is relatively simple compared to the actinides. Because of their relatively short half-lives, fission products account for a large fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear waste for the first several hundred years but do not represent a long-term hazard in the environment. The chemistry of the longer-lived actinides is complex; however, some trends in their behavior can be described. Actinide elements of a given oxidation state have either similar or systematically varying chemical properties due to similarities in ionic size, coordination number, valence, and electron structure. In dilute aqueous systems at neutral to basic pH, the dominant actinide species are hydroxy- and carbonato-complexes, and the solubility-limiting solid phases are commonly oxides, hydroxides or carbonates. In general, actinide sorption will decrease in the presence of ligands that complex with the radionuclide; sorption of the (IV) species of actinides (Np, Pu, U) is generally greater than of the (V) species. The geochemistry of key radionuclides in three different environments is described in this report. These include: (1) low ionic strength reducing waters from crystalline rocks at nuclear waste research sites in Sweden; (2) oxic water from the J-13 well at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a proposed repository for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in tuffaceous rocks; and (3) reference brines associated with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The transport behaviors of radionuclides associated with the Chernobyl reactor accident and the Oklo Natural Reactor are described. These examples span wide temporal and spatial scales and include the rapid geochemical and physical processes important to nuclear reactor accidents or industrial discharges as well as the slower processes important to the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Application of geochemical information to remediating or assessing the risk posed by radioactive contamination is the final subject of this report. After radioactive source terms have been removed, large volumes of soil and water with low but potentially hazardous levels of contamination may remain. For poorly-sorbing radionuclides, capture of contaminated water and removal of radionuclides may be possible using permeable reactive barriers and bioremediation. For strongly sorbing radionuclides, contaminant plumes will move very slowly. Through a combination of monitoring, regulations and modeling, it may be possible to have confidence that they will not be a hazard to current or future populations. Abstraction of the hydrogeochemical properties of real systems into simple models is required for probabilistic risk assessment. Simplifications in solubility and sorption models used in performance assessment calculations for the WIPP and the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain are briefly described.

Bryan, Charles R.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2003-09-01

31

Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6

Warner, Richard E.

1967-01-01

32

MEASUREMENT OF CONTAMINATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Contamination of environmental samples and measurement system can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. uring the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specification of appropriate blan...

33

Environmental contaminants and learning and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of environmental contaminants are known to cause a reduction in IQ in children exposed prenatally or early in life. These effects are well documented for exposure to lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and cigarette smoke, all of which can reduce IQ by up to 5–7 IQ points. Similar effects may result from exposure to dioxins and some pesticides.

David O. Carpenter

2006-01-01

34

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

35

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wikipedia is a free online, editable encyclopedia that "all Internet users can collaborate on by writing and submitting new articles or improving existing ones." The project, which claims to be "living proof that content and knowledge can also organize themselves," uses a wiki, i.e. software to allow users to revise content. The website encourages community participation by listing Open Tasks, such as copy-editing, merging, and peer reviewing needing to be done for particular entries. The texts and media presented on Wikipedia are available to the public "to process the content further and disseminate it." There are also wikipedias in 50 other languages, including one in Esperanto, the invented international language. Users must create an account to contribute to Wikipedia, but anyone can browse the entries by topic area or search on a specific term. Within each entry are links to related items and some of the more extended entries include a table of contents for ease of navigation. Other sections of the website let you view the most recent changes (within the past seven days) or browse entries related to current events.

36

Liability for Past Environmental Contamination and Privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role ofliability for past environmental contaminationin the privatization processes of Central andEastern Europe. In particular, it establishes alink between a risk-averse investor's amount ofinformation regarding the extent of pastenvironmental contamination (and its cleanupcosts) and the investor's willingness to payfor a particular enterprise, i.e., bid. As theinvestor obtains a more precise estimate of theuncertain cleanup costs, the

Dietrich Earnhart

2004-01-01

37

Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia is an initiative of the CHICO (Cultural Heritage Information and Community Outreach) project at the University of Michigan's School of Information (SI). SI cooperated with the School of Music's Stearns Museum of Musical Instruments to develop this comprehensive resource about instruments from around the world. Users may browse the encyclopedia by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme, by geographic origin, or by four major instrument types: percussion, string, wind, and electronic. Users may also conduct full-text searches, or they may search the encyclopedia by instrument title, origin, maker, materials, or description. In addition, an instrument glossary as well as links to other instrument reference resources are available at the site.

1999-01-01

38

Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

39

2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

40

Encyclopedia of the Cold War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War – a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the Cold War discusses how this state of perpetual

Dijk van R

2008-01-01

41

Wolbachia pipientis - Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Encyclopedia of Life species page offers a comprehensive summary of the biology, ecology, evolution and relevance of Wolbachia pipientis. It includes an interactive media panel with images, videos and distribution maps, as well as a navigable classification structure. The page is supplemented with links to literature references, educational opportunities and additional research links.

Life, Encyclopedia O.

42

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistryâ??s current polic...

43

The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the Western Reserve Historical Society, this excellent online text offers hundreds of articles on the history of Cleveland. There are two categories of articles in the Encyclopedia, general entries -- short articles of 200 to 500 words -- and interpretive essays -- "longer articles of 500 to 4000 words that explore major topics in local history." Both feature numerous hypertext links to related entries as well as photographic images that can be expanded to full screen. (These images may also be examined in a separate gallery on-site.) The encyclopedia features an alphabetical as well as a subject index and can be searched by title, text, and subject. A Reader's Guide and a bicentennial timeline of Cleveland history are also offered as supplementary text. New articles are added on a regular basis.

1998-01-01

44

Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and

S. G. Donaldson; J. Van Oostdam; C. Tikhonov; M. Feeley; B. Armstrong; P. Ayotte; O. Boucher; W. Bowers; L. Chan; F. Dallaire; R. Dallaire; É. Dewailly; J. Edwards; G. M. Egeland; J. Fontaine; C. Furgal; T. Leech; E. Loring; G. Muckle; T. Nancarrow; D. Pereg; P. Plusquellec; M. Potyrala; O. Receveur; R. G. Shearer

2010-01-01

45

Lexical Semantics: Dictionary or Encyclopedia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental issue when building a semantic lexicon for a Natural LanguageUnderstanding (NLU) system hinges on the amount of world knowledge that should beincorporated into the lexicon: the so-called dictionary-encyclopedia controversy. Thisissue can ?nd a itechnicalj solution if the NLU architecture separates a linguistic stepand a domain inference step. In that case, the lexicon can contain purely linguisticelements. This requires

Marc Cavazza; Pierre Zweigenbaum

1994-01-01

46

[The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].  

PubMed

On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution. PMID:22977954

del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

47

Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the UK Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme, this site is designed as a one-stop resource for students and general users who have questions about atmospheric issues and terms. The encyclopedia is divided into sections, each of which contains a number of short definitions for selected terms. As a testament to the international appeal of the Simpsons, definitions for adults or younger users are noted by Mr. Burns and Bart Simpson icons, respectively. Also included are lengthy collections of related links and recommended reading.

United Kingdom. Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme.

2000-01-01

48

Encyclopedia of the NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Highlighting the diverse marine life of America's ocean and Great Lakes treasures, the Encyclopedia of the Sanctuaries offers photos, streaming video and important facts for more than 100 key animal and plant species from each of the National Marine Sanctuaries. The encyclopedia entry for each species includes a photo, quick facts, information about its diet, habitat, distribution and status, and links to outside resources.

49

McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Encyclopedia is thoroughly comprehensive and up to date. The 760 alphabetically arranged articles, written by the leading international authorities on each of the subjects, were selected from the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (5th ed., 1982). The text is supplemented by more than 1000 drawings, graphs, charts, and photographs. All information is readily accessible through a detailed analytical

1983-01-01

50

Globalizing a Race to Publish an Encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1912, Daniel Alexander Payne Murray published a prospectus for his “Historical and Biographical Encyclopedia of the Colored Race throughout the World.” He promised to publish what literary historian Henry Louis Gates Jr., would describe as the “Grail” for black scholars. As Murray planned his encyclopedia in the first decade of the twentieth century, persons of African descent in the

Michael Benjamin

2010-01-01

51

UCLA Plans Online Encyclopedia of Egyptology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) has unveiled plans for what appears to be the world's first online, peer-reviewed encyclopedia devoted to ancient Egypt. The "UCLA Encyclopedia of Egypt," which in April won a $325,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, will include material in Arabic as well as English. The…

Howard, Jennifer

2006-01-01

52

Comprehensive Astronomical Visualization for a Multimedia Encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domain of astronomy contributes a wealth of knowledge to the corpus of any general encyclopedia. Modern multimedia encyclopedias are capable of displaying complex, three-dimensional visualizations in real-time, enabling the integration of a planetarium, a virtual theater presenting astronomical facts in an educational and entertaining way. The manifold peculiarities of astronomical data sets require careful balancing of visual means to

Wolfgang Kienreich; Mario Zechner; Vedran Sabol

2007-01-01

53

Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of an interdisciplinary international effort to take a critical look at the phenomenon of mass violence, the Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence is supported by a number of organizations, including The Center for International Research and Studies and The Foundation for the Memory of the Shoah. The primary purpose of the Encyclopedia Project is "to create a regularly updated electronic database focusing on massacres and genocides of the 20th century." First-time visitors can use the interactive map of the world on the homepage to begin their exploration of the site. Within each region of the world (and by extension, each individual country), visitors can read chronological indexes, case studies, and take a look at scholarly reviews of works related to each region or country's genocides or massacres. Visitors should not miss the "Latest contributions" area, which includes the latest works from the Project. Recently featured items here have included an evaluation of The Boxer Uprising and the Burundi Killings of 1972. Overall, it's a very ambitious project, and one that scholars and members of the general public will want to check up on from time to time.

2008-01-01

54

The Encyclopedia of World History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The good people at Bartleby.com have long prided themselves on providing a host of important works online for the benefit of those seeking online edification. One of the more recent volumes they have placed on their site is The Encyclopedia of World History, edited by Peter N. Stearns and 30 fellow historians. As the preface to this, the sixth edition, announces: "Simply put, this is a volume that has always intended to convey the key features of world history". This is no small order, and this edition represents a substantial revision from previous editions, as it also reflects the growing body of knowledge about the histories of regions outside of Western Europe and North America. The encyclopedia is complemented by a number of illustrative and informative maps, including ones that visualize India before the Muslim conquest and Italy in the 15th century. Users of the volume are welcome to use the search engine to find the information they so desire, or they may browse at their leisure.

55

Project Overview: PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The human health and ecological assessment issues related to environmental contamination by perchlorate are complex and continue to emerge. Perchlorate, ClO4-, is an anion that originates as a contaminant from the solid salts of ammonium, potassium or sodium perchlorate. These ...

56

Impact of Environmental Pollution on Contamination of Locally Grown Roughage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vávrová M., H. Zlámalová Gargo‰ová, E. ·ucman: Impact of Environmental Pollution on Contamination of Locally Grown Roughage. Acta Vet. Brno 2002, 71: 389-400. Contamination of ration components and roughage fed to dairy cows and finishing bulls in two different agricultural ecosystems in the district of Uherské Hradi ‰tû (localities Buchlovice and Stupava) was monitored. Whereas the site Buchlovice was characterised

M. VÁVROVÁ; H. ZLÁMALOVÁ GARGO

57

Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative

S. Roychoudhury; D. Walsh; J. Perry

2004-01-01

58

Emerging Environmental Contaminants: Whatâ??s New  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

59

Environmental Contaminants and Human Infertility: Hypothesis or Cause for Concern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the crude human birth rate (live births per 1000 population) declined, indicating reduced fertility and suggesting a potential decline in fecundity (the potential to conceive). Detection of environmental contaminants in human tissues, together with reports of a global decline in semen quality, further fueled speculation that human infertility rates are increasing and environmental toxicants are

Warren G. Foster; Michael S. Neal; Myoung-Soek Han; Miguel M. Dominguez

2008-01-01

60

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial Review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 20102011. Analytical Chemistry?s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Ev...

61

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells. Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Mathur, Premendu Prakash; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia

2011-01-01

62

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Epoxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the potential environmental and health hazards associated with the commercial use of selected epoxide compounds. Four commercial compounds are discussed in the report: ethylene oxide - primarily used as a chemical intermediate; propyle...

D. A. Bogyo J. Santodonato P. H. Howard S. S. Lande W. M. Meylan

1980-01-01

63

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Haloalcohols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the potential environmental hazard associated with the commercial use of a large group of chemicals that are used mostly as chemical intermediates - haloalcohols. Ten commercial compounds are covered in the report including the followi...

S. S. Lande D. A. Bogyo P. H. Howard J. Santodonato W. M. Meylan

1980-01-01

64

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS), an electronic publication of the MIT Press, is a new comprehensive reference work that encompasses the diverse theories and methodologies of the cognitive and brain sciences. The encyclopedia contains 471 specialized articles by preeminent researchers and scholars; articles include extensive bibliographies and provide multiple cross-references. MITECS spans six major topics: Philosophy; Psychology; Neuroscience; Computational Intelligence; Linguistics and Language; and Culture, Cognition, and Evolution. The introductory essays that precede each major section discuss topics within the larger framework of the cognitive sciences. The encyclopedia may be browsed by an author or a topic index, and the entire work is searchable by keyword. Please note that first-time users of the encyclopedia are required to register at the site; necessary registration information includes email address, full name, and research interests.

2005-11-07

65

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS), an electronic publication of the MIT Press, is a new comprehensive reference work that encompasses the diverse theories and methodologies of the cognitive and brain sciences. The encyclopedia contains 471 specialized articles by preeminent researchers and scholars; articles include extensive bibliographies and provide multiple cross-references. MITECS spans six major topics: Philosophy; Psychology; Neuroscience; Computational Intelligence; Linguistics and Language; and Culture, Cognition, and Evolution. The introductory essays that precede each major section discuss topics within the larger framework of the cognitive sciences. The encyclopedia may be browsed by an author or a topic index, and the entire work is searchable by keyword. Please note that first-time users of the encyclopedia are required to register at the site; necessary registration information includes email address, full name, and research interests.

1998-01-01

66

Persistent Organic Pollutants in Vietnam: Environmental Contamination and Human Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global contamination and toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been an emerging environmental issue and\\u000a have received considerable attention during the past four decades. Although the extent of contamination by POPs has been dominant\\u000a in industrialized nations, an increasing number of recent investigations have highlighted the role of the Asia-Pacific region\\u000a as a potential source of emission for

Tu Binh Minh; Hisato Iwata; Shin Takahashi; Pham Hung Viet; Bui Cach Tuyen; Shinsuke Tanabe

67

Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants.Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who

G E Matt; P J E Quintana; M F Hovell; J T Bernert; S Song; N Novianti; T Juarez; J Floro; C Gehrman; M Garcia; S Larson

2004-01-01

68

Assessment of environmental contaminant-induced lymphocyte dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Although it has been established that environmental contaminants can alter immune function, the mechanisms of action have yet to be determined. This paper reviews the effects of hydrocarbon environmental contaminants on lymphocyte function and presents an approach which may serve to delineate the mechanisms of action. The approach is based on the use of the developmental phases of an immune response and assays which can be used for their functional assessment. Possible interactions between environmental contaminants and lymphocyte function and factors which must be considered in the evaluation of immune status are discussed. In addition, a study on the influence of the chronic exposure to two polyhalogenated hydrocarbons, PCB and HCB, on several parameters of lymphocyte function in mice is presented.

Silkworth, J B; Loose, L D

1981-01-01

69

Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise; for example, potential adverse health effects (e.g., cancer, reproductive and developmental effects, and endocrine disruption), bioaccumulation, an...

70

COMPETING FRAMES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: INFLUENCES ON GRASSROOTS COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an analysis of competing frames of environmental contamination in a working class neighborhood of Buffalo, New York. Through in-depth interviewing, document analysis, and participant observation, I locate and analyze emerging frames presented from local media and government sources. I argue that the most prominent frames emerged by means of local media and government, as residents referred to

Erin E. Robinson

2008-01-01

71

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

72

Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%,

L. Zhang; M. H. Wong

2007-01-01

73

Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic

Christopher J. Griffith; Rifhat Malik; Rose A. Cooper; Nick Looker; Barry Michaels

2003-01-01

74

DOCUMENTING COMPLETION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SITES THROUGH CERTIFICATION DOCKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Management Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for remediation at sites that became contaminated by the DOE or a DOE predecessor agency. When a site is cleaned a Certification Docket, originally intended for the public audience, is compiled to document successful completion and to release the site with or without restrictions. Over several years,

Tonia Vassilowitch

75

DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING AN ELECTROSPRAY INTERFACE COMBINED WITH AN ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development, was interested in determining environmental contaminants using a commercial electrospray which is interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) to analyze contaminants of concern. ptimi...

76

Environmental contamination of groundwater in the Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental problems of groundwater contamination in the Gaza Strip are summarized in this paper. The Gaza Strip is a very narrow and highly populated area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (360 km2). Human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources in the area, while the unconfined nature of some parts of the coastal main aquifer favors groundwater contamination. Recent investigations show contamination of the aquifer with organic substances from detergents, agrochemicals, sewage (cesspools), and waste degradation. These effects enhance each other because there is no recycling industry, sewage system, or any type of environmental protection management at present. Inorganic contamination results from overpumping, which increases the salinity of the groundwater. Seawater intrusion also increases the salinity of the groundwater that are used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Consequently, at present about 80 percent of the groundwater in the Gaza Strip is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Solutions are very urgently needed for these problems in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases.

Al-Agha, M. R.

1995-03-01

77

Reach for Reference: A New Early Encyclopedia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews the new Grolier Student Encyclopedia, intended for grades three through eight. Good middle-level readers might become frustrated with this source, but primary and intermediate students, middle-level students reading below grade level, and English language learners of any age will find the style of information presentation…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2005-01-01

78

Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This encyclopedia is designed to promote bilingualism in a comprehensive and comprehensive manner and to be academically sound while remaining accessible to as wide an audience as possible. Each topic is presented in a clear, understandable style. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Individual Bilingualism" (e.g., bilingualism and the…

Baker, Colin; Jones, Sylvia Prys

79

Summarization of an Online Medical Encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore a knowledge-rich (abstraction) approach to summa- rization and apply it to multiple documents from an online med- ical encyclopedia. A semantic processor functions as the source interpreter and produces a list of predications. A transformation stage then generalizes and condenses this list, ultimately gener- ating a conceptual condensate for a given disorder topic. We provide a preliminary evaluation

Marcelo Fiszman; Thomas C. Rindflesch; Halil Kilicoglu

2004-01-01

80

Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.  

PubMed

Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. PMID:23917738

Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

2013-08-06

81

Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by alkylphenols.  

PubMed

Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE) are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are used in detergents, paints, herbicides, pesticides, emulsifiers, wetting and dispersing agents, antistatic agents, demulsifiers, and solubilizers. Many studies have reported the occurrence of alkylphenols in different environmental matrices, though none of these studies have yet to establish a comprehensive overview of such compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes APE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from the atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrence of compounds has been assessed for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [WWTP], atmosphere, and the natural environment), data are examined in order to understand the fate of APE in the environment and establish their geographical and historical trends. From this database, it is clear that the environment in Europe is much more contaminated by APE compared to North America and developing countries, although these APE levels have been decreasing in the last decade. APE concentrations in the WWTP effluent of developed countries have decreased by a factor of 100 over the past 30 years. This study is aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes that influence the fate and transport of these contaminants in the environment. In industrial countries, the concentrations observed in waterways now represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution in these countries, whereas sediment analyses conducted in developing countries show an increase in APE content over the last several years. Finally, similar trends have been observed in samples drawn from Europe and North America. PMID:22864754

Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

2012-08-05

82

Environmental contaminant–mixture effects on CNS development, plasticity, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants within the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon class have been shown to cross the placenta exposing the fetus to the contaminant body burden of the mother. Consequently, a gestational exposure to environmental contaminants may result in increased adverse health outcomes, possibly affecting cognitive performance. Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and 2,3,7,8, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are two prototypical environmental contaminants.

Deanna D Wormley; Aramandla Ramesh; Darryl B Hood

2004-01-01

83

Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing.  

PubMed

Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic soil), bacterial, and staphylococcal load on ward handwash station surfaces, which could be touched during handwashing, is reported. Hand contact surfaces tested consisted of approximately 620 each of: faucet handles, soap dispenser activator mechanisms, and folded paper-towel dispenser exits. Failure rates in excess of benchmark clean values were higher with adenosine triphosphate assays than microbial counts. This could indicate the presence of a higher level of general organic debris (eg, skin cells) as opposed to microbial contamination or could reflect greater assay sensitivity. Faucet handles were more likely to be contaminated and be in excess of benchmark values than paper-towel dispenser exits. However, the latter are likely to be the final surface touched during the handwashing process and overall nearly 20% were above microbiologic benchmark values. Many of the organisms isolated were staphylococci and the results are discussed within the context of microbial cross-contamination and potential pathogen spread. PMID:12665742

Griffith, Christopher J; Malik, Rifhat; Cooper, Rose A; Looker, Nick; Michaels, Barry

2003-04-01

84

Geostatistics and GIS: tools for characterizing environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Geostatistics is a set of statistical techniques used in the analysis of georeferenced data that can be applied to environmental contamination and remediation studies. In this study, the 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) contamination at a Superfund site in western Maryland is evaluated. Concern about the site and its future clean up has triggered interest within the community because residential development surrounds the area. Spatial statistical methods, of which geostatistics is a subset, are becoming increasingly popular, in part due to the availability of geographic information system (GIS) software in a variety of application packages. In this article, the joint use of ArcGIS software and the R statistical computing environment are demonstrated as an approach for comprehensive geostatistical analyses. The spatial regression method, kriging, is used to provide predictions of DDE levels at unsampled locations both within the site and the surrounding areas where residential development is ongoing. PMID:15366239

Henshaw, Shannon L; Curriero, Frank C; Shields, Timothy M; Glass, Gregory E; Strickland, Paul T; Breysse, Patrick N

2004-08-01

85

Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

Hall, R.J.

1980-01-01

86

Noble metals: a toxicological appraisal of potential new environmental contaminants.  

PubMed Central

The public health benefits expected by reducing known hazardous emissions from mobile sources should not be compromised by increasing levels of other potentially hazardous unregulated emissions. Catalytic converters are going to be used to meet the statutory requirements on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions from light duty motor vehicles. Platinum and palladium metals are the catalytic materials to be used in these emission control devices. Preliminary experimental evidence and analysis of the impact of these control devices on the future use and demand for platinum indicates that this metal may appear at detectable levels in the environment by the end of this decade. At the present time, platinum and palladium are not present in the public environment and represent potentially new environmental contaminants as a consequence of use of this new abatement control technology. There is relatively little information available to adequately assess the potential health hazards that may be associated with exposure to these metals and their compounds. Analysis of the environmental problems and concerns associated with possible new environmental contaminants are discussed. Limited estimates are made on community exposure by use of a meteorological dispersion model. Biodegradation potential and attention is also given to the limited toxicological information available.

Brubaker, P E; Moran, J P; Bridbord, K; Hueter, F G

1975-01-01

87

Quantifying sources of environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs.  

PubMed

A rich body of work has reported levels of infection with Toxocara species in definitive hosts, and the frequency of eggs in the environment, in many different regions and situations. These have greatly increased our understanding of the relationship between egg excretion from companion and wild animals and the risk of human infection by inadvertent ingestion of eggs from soil and other environmental reservoirs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to compare studies directly because of vagaries in sampling and laboratory methods, a preponderance of prevalence rather than abundance data, and a lack of studies that systematically sample different sympatric definitive host populations. Such comparisons could be instructive, for example to determine the relative contributions of different definitive host populations and categories to environmental contamination in specified areas, and hence guide priorities for control. In this article we use estimates of host density and infection levels in the city of Bristol, UK, as a case study to evaluate the relative contribution of sympatric cats, dogs and foxes to overall environmental contamination with eggs. Results suggest that dogs, especially those less than 12 weeks of age, dominate total egg output, but that this is modified by degree of access to public areas and removal of faeces, such that foxes could take over as the primary source of eggs. Results and conclusions are likely to differ among specific locations. The general aim is to show how an improved quantitative framework for epidemiological studies of Toxocara spp. egg contamination can help to advance understanding and the effectiveness of control strategies in future. PMID:23333071

Morgan, E R; Azam, D; Pegler, K

2012-12-22

88

Better Homes and Gardens Home Improvement Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the commercial intentions of the site, this free online guide to home repair is superior to many similar offerings on the Web. Organized in five principle sections (Plumbing, Wiring, Carpentry, Decks, and Masonry & Concrete), the Encyclopedia covers a good variety of subtopics, from selecting and buying lumber to replacing a faucet or water heater to pouring concrete. Generally aimed at users with some skills but not necessarily much experience in home repair, the projects are clearly explained, with generous illustrations and, in some cases, an "Animated How-To." Project information includes estimated time, required skills and tools, cautions, and links to related projects. Additional resources include a glossary, tool encyclopedia, and an internal search engine.

89

Digital Encyclopedia: George Washington's Mount Vernon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was George Washington's life like at Mount Vernon? This frequent question is answered in fine form by this Digital Encyclopedia, compiled by a variety of scholars in collaboration with the Mount Vernon Estate. It is particularly appropriate that there is such a copious compendium of facts on the goings-on at Mt. Vernon, as Washington was enamored of encyclopedias during his life. Drawing on a range of primary sources, this project brings together hundreds of entries divided into over a dozen topics, including Military, Slavery, Food and Drink, and Animals. The Personal area is quite compelling, as it includes entries on Barbados, smallpox and, of course, the celebrated myths surrounding Washington's false teeth.

90

Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When thinking about the Volunteer State, many people's minds may immediately turn to the accomplishments of President Andrew Jackson or the far-reaching impact of the massive public works project that resulted in the formation of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Interested parties can learn about these aspects of the state's history and culture, along with many other facets of the state, at this fine site which is the digital version of The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Originally released in 1998 as a large print volume, the Encyclopedia was placed online in a searchable format in 2002. Here visitors can browse through more than 1500 entries, along with 500 additional images and some audio and video files as well. For those interested in looking at the material by themes, they will be pleased to learn that the materials are also divided into categories, such as medicine, sports, county history, and industry.

91

Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

NONE

1996-10-01

92

[Environmental characterization of the National Contaminated Sites in SENTIERI project].  

PubMed

The concept of "polluted site" was firstly introduced in Italy with the definition of "environmental high risk areas" (Rule 349/86). Later, the decree 471/99 stated that a site is considered polluted if the concentration of even just one index pollutant in anyone of the matrices (soil or subsoil, surface or ground waters) exceeds the allowable threshold limit concentration. The boundaries of Italian polluted sites (IPS) were defined (Decree 152/06) on the basis of health, environmental and social criteria. SENTIERI Project includes 44 out of the 57 sites comprised in the "National environmental remediation program"; they correspond to the largest national industrial agglomerates. For each site, characterization data were collected, classified and arranged in tables. A great part of collected data came also from the environmental remediation programmes planned for the sites. These plans show that characterization and risk assessment activities were mainly undertaken for private industrial areas, as they were considered source of pollution. On the other hand, municipal and/or green and agricultural areas included in IPSs were poorly studied. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the exposure of the populations living inside and/or near the IPSs. The most probable population exposure come from the contamination of ground waters utilized for irrigation, or industrial emissions. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 Supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention devoted to SENTIERI Project. PMID:22166293

Musmeci, L; Bellino, M; Falleni, F; Piccardi, A

93

Environmental contaminants in wild mink in the Northwest Territories, Canada.  

PubMed

As a top trophic level species that readily bioaccumulates environmental pollutants, the mink (Mustela vison) is considered to be a sensitive indicator of ecosystem health. Here we report on the first 2 years of a 4-year program established to examine organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wild mink from western Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Tissue samples taken from up to 24 mink harvested from each of five sites in 1991-92 and 1992-93 were analyzed for residues of a suite of 63 organochlorines in fat and liver samples, including 43 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 20 pesticides, and residues of 10 heavy metals in liver and kidney samples. Overall, contaminant levels were low in comparison with levels in other mink studied in North America. Sigma PCB residues (sum of 43 congeners) ranged from a mean of 5.32 ng/g wet weight in the livers of Inuvik mink (the most northerly collection site) to 27.67 ng/g in mink from Fort Smith (the most southerly collection site). There appeared to be no differences in organochlorine burden between sexes. Heavy metal residues were also comparatively low, with the exception of total mercury, which was at moderate levels (community means of 1.16-3.30 micrograms/g wet wt. in liver samples). There was a distinct trend of decreasing organochlorine contaminant burdens with increasing latitude, but no trend in heavy metal burdens was evident. There was a doubling of mean sigma PCB levels in Inuvik mink from 5.32 ng/g wet weight in 1991-92 to 10.69 ng/g in 1992-93. Population indices derived from age and sex ratios of the harvest, coupled with comparatively low levels of contaminants, suggest little or no effects on mink reproduction or population health as a result of these contaminants. Long-range atmospheric transport is probably the major source of most of the contaminants. Additional collections will further elucidate spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels in NWT mink. PMID:7892580

Poole, K G; Elkin, B T; Bethke, R W

1995-01-15

94

German Encyclopedia Alignment Based on Information Retrieval Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Collaboratively created online encyclopedias have become increasingly popular. Especially in terms of completeness they have\\u000a begun to surpass their printed counterparts. Two German publishers of traditional encyclopedias have reacted to this challenge\\u000a and decided to merge their corpora to create a single more complete encyclopedia. The crucial step in this merge process is\\u000a the alignment of articles. We have developed

Roman Kern; Michael Granitzer

2010-01-01

95

Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.  

PubMed

Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports. PMID:22002748

Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

2011-10-14

96

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, an ongoing project from Kyoto University, has recently updated this collection of molecular interaction information. The Introduction section provides substantial information on the project background and data, as well as user guides and manuals to help users orient themselves to the database. Users can search for information on specific interactions in selected species, or browse to find metabolic pathways or gene sequences of interest. Computational tools include the ability to find similar sequences and generate possible reactions between compounds.

2002-01-01

97

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are thos...

J. McLachlan

1998-01-01

98

Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL\\/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil

J. A. Roybal; R. Conway; B. Galloway; E. Vinsant; P. Slavin; D. Guerin

1998-01-01

99

Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

2011-08-30

100

Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

101

Specifications for Version 1. 0 of the Army Data Encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides a more detailed description of the Army Data Encyclopedia (ADE) Version 1.0, in accordance with the Data Encyclopedia Architecture for Army Information Management. The software and contents of the ADE are key mechanisms that are necessary to achieve interoperability, integration and synchronization of Army information systems. The ADE architecture is intended to provide a global view, long-term

F. Gey; H. Holmes

1988-01-01

102

Answers on the Disc: General Encyclopedias on CD-ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews of Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia, New Grolier's Electronic Encyclopedia, and World Book's Information Finder are based on the 1990 editions. It is noted that all three publishers have announced plans to release annual revisions to their discs. The description of each of the products includes critiques of the search program, the…

Hollens, Deborah; Rible, Jim

1991-01-01

103

Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

104

Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated

P. H. Albers; L. Sileo; B. M. Mulhern

1986-01-01

105

Regulation of Environmental Contaminants in Drinking Water: State Methods and Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment methodologies form the basis for deriving guidelines for environmental contaminants in drinking water. A state may have to set, on an emergency basis, an interim guideline for a drinking water contaminant for which only limited data are available. Additional national drinking water standards will be useful for state regulatory agencies, because maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) are legally enforceable,

Kirpal S. Sidhu

1992-01-01

106

Of Descartes and of train schedules : Evaluating the Encyclopedia Judaica, Wikipedia, and other general and Jewish Studies encyclopedias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the second edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica (2007) within its broader historical context of the production of encyclopedias in the twentieth and the twenty-first centuries. The paper contrasts the 2007 edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica to the Jewish Encyclopedia published between 1901 and 1905, and to the first edition of

Roger S. Kohn

2010-01-01

107

The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture is "to collect and disseminate information on all aspects of the state's history and culture and to provide a comprehensive reference work for historians, teachers, students and individuals for the purpose of promoting the study, understanding, and appreciation of Arkansas's heritage." First-time visitors should check out the This Day in Arkansas History feature, which provides easy access to the lore, culture, history, and geography of the state. Moving on, visitors can use the Browse Entries area to look around the material by category, type, time period, or race & ethnicity. Those persons looking for a bit of audio-visual inspiration will want to click on over to the Browse Media area. Here, they can find songs performed by sons and daughters of Arkansas (including the legendary Al Hibbler), maps, and video clips from films like "Emerson County Shaping Dream" and "Unhooking the Hookworm."

108

CAMEO: Conservation & Art Material Encyclopedia Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Art historians, preservationists, and other types will be most glad to learn about the existence of the Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO). This is, of course, if they don't know about it already. The original CAMEO was first placed online in November 2000, and it has been significantly enlarged and updated over the past several years. This online resource contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials. While some visitors may wish to use the embedded search engine, some may just wish to browse the materials by letter. Visitors can also perform a material search by entering a word, partial word, or a variety of other fields, including composition, density, and boiling point.

109

Encyclopedias of Astronomical Biographies - Status and Prospects --  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple requests for biographies of famous astronomers can easily be satisfied. Short accounts of their lives are to be found in many books and encyclopedias. However, most of these sources are very incomplete, i. e.\\ do not provide information on less famous persons, and are not up to scientific standards. The most comprehensive sources of scientific biographies, Poggendorffs Biographisch-Literarisches Handwoerterbuch and Dictionary of Scientific Biography, are also not complete, partly not up-to-date and for most users not easily accessible. The most recent and most comprehensive dictionary of astronomical biography, containing 500 short entries, was written in Russian. Although a lot of information on biographies is available in publications, these are spread over thousands of volumes. There is no bibliography of these papers and books. During the last three years, short biographies of astronomers were also published in the World Wide Web. Some of these are on a very high scientific level. The author's collection of links to such WWW pages (http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/~pbrosche/hist\\_astr/ ha\\_pers.html}) contains currently several thousand entries for more than 1200 persons related to the history of astronomy. This electronic ``encyclopedia'' in distributed form is now the most comprehensive and concentrated source for astronomical biographies. However, there are several problems arising from the electronic form of publication and from the uncoordinated and not always qualified efforts of the authors. The paper will discuss proposals, plans and first results of filling the gaps and increasing the quality, as well as some principal problems of writing short biographies and making them available to the public.

Dick, W. R.

110

Virtual Knowledge: The Best Buys in 1998 CD-ROM Encyclopedias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses questions to consider and features to look for in selecting a CD-ROM encyclopedia. Reviews Encyclopaedia Britannica CD 98 Multimedia Edition, Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia 1998, Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, and Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1998. Contact information, price, and system requirements are listed. (JAK)|

Burg, Barbara; Kautzman, Amy M.

1998-01-01

111

The contaminated land regime in England and Wales and the corporatisation of environmental lawyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the introduction of a contaminated land regime in England and Wales, the role of the environmental lawyer was limited and focussed on regulatory compliance issues. Even in a transactional setting, this tended to confine the role to one of environmental due diligence. The regime has allowed the ‘corporatisation’ of environmental lawyers bringing them into the heart of transactions

Robert G. Lee; Steven Vaughan

2010-01-01

112

Assessment and control of environmental contamination from trace elements in coal processing wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with discarded refuse from coal cleaning and processing are recognized, including waste-bank instability, acid drainage from disposal areas, and noxious emissions from burning wastes. EPA, and other organizations, support efforts to develop methods for controlling forms of environmental contamination. Attention has turned to the environmental hazards posed by the vast array of potentially harmful trace elements in

E. M. Wewerka; J. M. Williams; P. L. Wanek

1976-01-01

113

An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE)  

PubMed Central

To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

2012-01-01

114

Issue Framing and Citizen Apathy Toward Local Environmental Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapt the frame-alignment perspective in order to demonstrate how institutional framing shapes media coverage of a toxic crisis. This framing activity is described as a new approach to managing public responses to contamination that differs from the approach characterizing contamination episodes at Love Canal and Woburn, MA. Our analysis focuses on the process by which actors responsible for managing

Stephen Zavestoski; Kate Agnello; Frank Mignano; Francine Darroch

2004-01-01

115

A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management.  

PubMed

A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including "residential land" and "industrial land" environmental guidelines under "strict" and "loose" strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management. PMID:23995555

Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-Ya; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Da-Zhou; Li, Yu

2013-08-12

116

Isotope Biomonitoring in Riverine Ecosystems: Tools for Understanding Linkages Between Environmental Contaminants and Basin Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of accumulative environmental contaminants (e.g., metals and organocholoro-pesticides) often exhibit wide temporal variations in riverine systems. Aquatic fauna, however, concentrate these contaminants into their biomass, providing a relatively long-term integrated record of water quality. In order to accurately determine how these contaminants are bioaccumulated within local food webs, it is essential to understand the relative trophic positions of the

C. Kendall; S. D. Wankel; G. Cabana; C. Schmitt

2002-01-01

117

Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils

C. B. Abulencia; D. L. Wyborski; J. Garcia; M. Podar; W. Chen; S. H. Chang; H. W. Chang; D. Watson; E. I. Brodie; T. C. Hazen; M. Keller

2005-01-01

118

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL PREPARATION WASTES. A LITERATURE REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of collecting and evaluating available information on the chemistry and behavior of trace elements in coal preparation wastes, and assessing the potential for environmental contamination from the trace elements in these wastes. Only limited attention has ...

119

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for Coal-Fired Power Plants. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA)...

Y. Onishi S. B. Yabusaki C. R. Cole W. E. Davis G. Whelan

1982-01-01

120

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for Coal-Fired Power Plants. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA)...

Y. Onishi S. B. Yabusaki C. R. Cole W. E. Davis G. Whelan

1982-01-01

121

FINAL REPORT. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, act as hormones or anti- hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major components of the research included: 1)a biotechnology based screening system ...

122

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research is to evaluate health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of plutonium dioxide (PuO2)-contaminated sites. These distributions incorporate variability/uncertainty.

Scott, Bobby R.; Hoover, Mark D.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Schollnberger, Helmut

2000-06-01

123

Emerging Disinfection By-Products and Other Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will cover new research and concerns regarding drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and other emerging environmental contaminants, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), pharmaceuticals, perchlorate, benzotriazoles, fuel additives (e.g., ethylene dibro...

124

Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill.

Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slavin, P. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerin, D. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

125

Catchment-scale environmental controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally river sediment associated contaminants, most notably heavy metals, radionuclides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and phosphorous, constitute one the most significant long-term risks to ecosystems and human health. These can impact both urban and rural areas and, because of their prolonged environmental residence times, are major sources of secondary pollution if contaminated soil and sediment are disturbed by

Mark Macklin

2010-01-01

126

Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils: The environmental restoration of a former railyard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum contamination is a pervasive environmental problem. The common remedial solution has been to excavate and landfill the contaminated soils, which is hampered by high costs and space limitations at traditional disposal facilities. Bioremediation is a more attractive soil remediation alternative. This method is winning favor primarily because the soil can be treated on site, and the bioremediation systems can

D. S. Jackson; P. Scovazzo

1993-01-01

127

Contaminant modeling. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This note provides initial information on contaminant models that are potentially applicable to situations where the presence of toxic materials in sediments complicates Corps of Engineers (CE) dredging activities.

Bird, S.L.; Dortch, M.

1988-03-01

128

State-of-the-Art Multimedia in 1996: The "Big Four" General Encyclopedias on CD-ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews four CD-ROM encyclopedias: Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, 1996 Edition; Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia; the 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia; and World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia 1996. Focuses on multimedia features, their quantity, quality, accessibility, and playability. Discusses each product's novel features and important…

Jacso, Peter

1996-01-01

129

State-of-the-Art Multimedia in 1996: The "Big Four" General Encyclopedias on CD-ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews four CD-ROM encyclopedias: Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, 1996 Edition; Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia; the 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia; and World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia 1996. Focuses on multimedia features, their quantity, quality, accessibility, and playability. Discusses each product's novel features and…

Jacso, Peter

1996-01-01

130

Environmental Conditions Leading to Shellfish Contamination and Related Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human fecal wastes contain a large variety of viruses that can enter the environment through discharge of waste materials\\u000a from infected individuals. Despite the high diversity of viruses that are introduced into the environment by human fecal pollution,\\u000a only a few have been recognized to cause disease in association with consumption of contaminated shellfish. To explain bivalve\\u000a mollusks contamination, several

Haifa Maalouf; Monique Pommepuy; Françoise S. Le Guyader

2010-01-01

131

MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

132

MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

133

Nanostructured Materials for Environmental Remediation of Organic Contaminants in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials have opened new avenues in various scientific fields and are providing novel opportunities in environmental science. The increased surface area-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles, quantum size effects, and the ability to tune surface properties through molecular modification make nanostructures ideal for many environmental remediation applications. We describe herein the fabrication of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications,

Sherine O. Obare; Gerald J. Meyer

2004-01-01

134

UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

135

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

SciTech Connect

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Schuler, C.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-01-01

136

GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children?s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

137

Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) as of mid-2005 produced by the California Air Resources Board and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as part of the process of identifying ETS as a toxic air contaminant. Part A of the report includes information about the chemical composition of secondhand smoke and

2005-01-01

138

Mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon. Environmental and occupational aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) contamination of miners, riparian and Indian populations and fish in the Amazon region, due to gold extracting activities, has been studied. Samples of hair, urine, and blood of Indians and prospectors, and hair from riparian fish-eating population and fishes from Madeira river, respectively, were collected and analyzed by Cold Vapor, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) techniques. The results obtained

A. C. Barbosa; A. A. Boischio; G. A. East; I. Ferrari; A. Gonçalves; P. R. M. Silva; T. M. E. da Cruz

1995-01-01

139

Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control  

Microsoft Academic Search

EUVL tools operate under vacuum conditions to avoid absorption losses. Under these conditions, the MoSi multilayer mirrors are contaminated, resulting in reduced reflection and thus throughput. We report on experiments on MoSi mirrors exposed to EUV radiation from a synchrotron. To mimic the effects of EUV radiation we also exposed samples using an electron gun. The oxidation rate was found

Norbert Koster; Bas Mertens; Rik Jansen; Annemieke van de Runstraat; Frank Stietz; Marco Wedowski; Hans Meiling; Roman Klein; Alexander Gottwald; Frank Scholze; Matthieu Visser; Ralph Kurt; Peer Zalm; Eric Louis; Andrey Yakshin

2002-01-01

140

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BALD EAGLE EGGS FROM THE ALEUTIAN ARCHIPELAGO  

Microsoft Academic Search

N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archi- pelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on

Robert G. Anthony; A. Keith Miles; Mark A. Ricca; James A. Estes

2007-01-01

141

Environmental contaminants in caribou in the Northwest Territories, Canada.  

PubMed

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are strict herbivores with a winter diet consisting primarily of lichen. This simple food chain makes caribou a good species for monitoring changes in arctic terrestrial ecosystem contamination. The defined ranges of herds across the Northwest Territories (NWT) also enables examination of spatial trends in contaminant exposure. Caribou were collected from five locations in the first half of a study designed to examine levels of a broad spectrum of organochlorine, heavy metal, and radionuclide contaminants. A wide range of contaminants were detected, with most compounds found at relatively low levels. In general, organochlorine residues were significantly lower in caribou from the mainland Bathurst and Qamanirjuaq (Arviat) and the Southampton Island herds than in caribou from Cape Dorset and Lake Harbour on southern Baffin Island. Moderate levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) were detected at all five study sites. HCB residues ranged from a lipid corrected mean of 32.83 ng/g in fat of Bathurst caribou to 129.41 ng/g in Lake Harbour animals. Alpha-HCH levels ranged from 8.11 ng/g in Bathurst animals to 37.9 ng/g in Cape Dorset caribou. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma PCB) residues ranged from 6.24 ng/g in fat of Arviat caribou to 31.68 ng/g in Cape Dorset animals. Congeners 153 and 138 were the most dominant of the 43 congeners tested. Metal levels were also relatively low with the exception of cadmium, which had community means of 9.68- 33.87 micrograms/g in kidney tissue and 1.96-4.39 micrograms/g in liver tissue. Moderate levels of cesium-137 were detected, with community means of 33.2-184.1 Bq/kg in muscle tissue. Long-range atmospheric transport appears to be the primary source of the contaminants detected in this study. PMID:7892575

Elkin, B T; Bethke, R W

1995-01-15

142

Experimental studies on environmental contamination with infected blood during haemodialysis.  

PubMed Central

To assess the relative importance of different postulated modes of spread of hepatitis B in dialysis units, blood charged with various tracer organisms was used in simulated haemodialysis runs in four laboratories, and the resulting contamination of equipment and environment was measured semi-quantitatively. Some airborne spread of the tracer organism occurred when tubing containing contaminated blood was needled as the "patient" went on and came off the dialyser. Virtually no small airborne particles could be demonstrated however in simulated emergencies in which a blood line was disconnected, or even when bottles of blood were dropped on to a hard floor from a height of 2 metres. Bacillus globigii spores from contaminated blood leaked in small numbers into the dialysing fluid through apparently intact coils. T3 phage, with a particle size of the same order as hepatitis B virus, passed in small quantities through the membrane of a Kiil dialyser from blood to dialysing fluid and also in the reverse direction when added to the header tank. A number of other dialysers were also permeable to phage. Visual assessment of the appropriate moment for inserting the venous line into the "patient" at the onset of dialysis was shown to be unreliable, as the displaced fluid from the end of the venous line was already contaminated before it contained visible red blood cells. Considerable contamination of exposed surfaces and of the buttons on the proportionating unit cabinet occurred. Minor visible splashing of blood was a common-place of the laboratory experiments and was shown to be also a common event during routine haemodialysis in two of the dialysis units taking part in the studies.

1975-01-01

143

Environmental Measurement While Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used

G. J. Lockwood; R. A. Normann; C. V. Williams

1999-01-01

144

Glutathione-S-transferase activity of Fucus spp. as a biomarker of environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Coastal zones are important areas from both ecological and economical points of view. However, in the last decades, in several regions of the globe, they have been increasingly impacted by complex discharges of contaminants and by marine traffic accidents. The Portuguese Atlantic coast is particularly exposed to these contaminants due to the proximity of important navigation routes. Several rocky shore organisms have been tested and used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. However, to the best of our knowledge Fucus spp., which are key species in rocky shore communities, have not been used as bioindicators in monitoring studies based on biomarkers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity of several Fucus species (Fucus ceranoides, Fucus spiralis var. platycarpus, Fucus spiralis var. spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus var. vesiculosus) to discriminate sites with different contamination levels along the Portuguese Northwestern coast, between the Minho river estuary and the Aveiro's Lagoon, as an environmental biomarker. With the exception of F. spiralis var. spiralis, for which a confusing pattern of activity was found requiring further analysis, all the other species and varieties showed higher GST levels in more contaminated sites than in less contaminated ones, indicating that Fucus spp. are suitable for use as bioindicators and their GSTs as biomarkers of environmental contamination in coastal zones and estuaries. PMID:15588640

Cairrão, E; Couderchet, M; Soares, A M V M; Guilhermino, L

2004-12-20

145

CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

146

Potential of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for remediation of environmental organic contaminants in water: a review.  

PubMed

Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has the potential to degrade different organic contaminants. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) can reduce the contaminants even more rapidly due to its small size and large specific surface area (SSA), compared to granular ZVI. The main objective of this paper is to assess and compare the potential of NZVI for degradation of different contaminants in water under specific environmental conditions. As a first step, the potential reactive functional groups/bonds associated with different contaminants are identified and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. Thereafter, the reaction efficiencies of different organic contaminants with NZVI are compared. Mass of ZVI and reaction time required to transform a certain amount of contaminated water are calculated based on literature data. Sources of contaminants in the environment and their environmental occurrences are discussed to understand the potential locations where NZVI could be applied for removal of different contaminants. Overall it is observed that azo-compounds are readily transformed in the presence of NZVI particles. Reaction efficiencies of ZVI for reduction of nitro-organic compounds are also reasonably high. However, halogenated compounds with high molecular weights or complex structures (i.e., iodinated contrast media, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) show lower reaction rates with NZVI compared to the widely studied chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e., trichloroethylene). PMID:24135090

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Scheytt, Traugott

2013-01-01

147

Uptake and depuration of organic contaminants by blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In addition, concentration factors in the mussels were calculated separately against the dissolved and particulate phase concentrations and the

R. J. Pruell; J. L. Lake; W. R. Davis; J. G. Quinn

1986-01-01

148

Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The

Adeola A. Adenugba; Dena W. McMartin; Angus Beck

2012-01-01

149

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Halogenated Benzenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the potential environmental hazard from use of the halogenated benzenes. Major focus is in the commercially important chlorinated benzenes, though fluorinated, brominated and iodinated benzenes are also discussed as well as mixed halog...

S. A. Ware W. L. West

1977-01-01

150

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Ketonic Solvents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the potential environmental hazard from the commercial use of ketonic solvents with the exception of acetone. Three ketones - cyclohexanone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone - dominate the market. Other commercial ketoni...

D. H. Christopher J. Saxena P. H. Howard P. R. Durkin S. S. Lande

1976-01-01

151

Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

152

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Butadiene and Its Oligomers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a survey and summary of the literature on butadiene and its oligomers. Major aspects of their biological effects, environmental exposure, chemistry, production and use, and regulations are reviewed and assessed. Butadiene is a reactive gas u...

L. M. Miller

1978-01-01

153

Impact on Man of Environmental Contamination Caused by Lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the research was to develop and test an interdisciplinary approach to environmental problems using lead as an example, and to evaluate consequences of lead pollution from traffic exhaust and economic and technological effects of steps ta...

H. W. Edwards M. L. Corrin L. O. Grant L. M. Hartman E. R. Reiter

1971-01-01

154

Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will ...

155

Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).  

PubMed

The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (?PCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 ?g kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks. PMID:22934994

Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

2012-01-01

156

Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida: Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, the Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia is great resource for information and stories about the ancient cycads. The Encyclopedia comprises numerous articles organized under such topics as Cycad Taxonomy, Biology, Evolution, Horticulture, Conservation, and more. Examples of encyclopedia articles include: a 59-frame slide show on Growing and Collecting Cycads; an interactive Key to Cycad Genera; an older article on Pollination Biology of Cycads co-authored by staff at the New York Botanical Garden and the Fairchild Tropical Garden; and a Compiled List of Cycad Genera. The site also contains a Photo Gallery with many good-quality cycad images listed by scientific name. Site visitors will also find a collection of related links, and a list of reference books.

157

The Encyclopedia of Life: Describing Species, Unifying Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Harvard biologist E. O. Wilson affirmed a perennial hope of biologists, taxonomists, and naturalists when in 2003 he wrote, âÂÂAn all-species encyclopedia of life is logically inevitable if for no other reason that the consolidation of biological knowledge is urgently overdue.â Wilson proceeded with his vision of a Web-based encyclopedia in which there is a page devoted to each species on Earth, with links to diverse scientific databases. The species page, as envisaged, would summarize everything known about the species, from its genome and proteome to its distribution, habitat, and ecological relationships, as well as âÂÂits practical importance for humanity.â In May 2007, the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) was officially launched, with support from the Sloan and MacArthur foundations.

Richard Blaustein (freelancer;)

2009-07-01

158

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

159

Environmental legislation and contamination: the gap between theory and reality in South Africa.  

PubMed

Like many areas of its constitution, South Africa has progressive legislation to both prevent and clean up environmental contamination. However, recent research has highlighted a large gap between legislation and practice. This paper presents the context of the intent of environmental waste legislation in South Africa and highlights a case of mercury contamination in a rural area which illustrates the gap between the theory of legislation and the reality on the ground. Mercury contamination in humans poses well known health threats, yet despite attention from the media, non-governmental organisations and academic researchers, a major pollutant remains and contamination levels remain high, two decades after the original polluting incident took place. PMID:20663602

Papu-Zamxaka, Vathiswa; Harpham, Trudy; Mathee, Angela

2010-11-01

160

A Look At Endocrine Disruptors: Assessing the threat of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants to birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volume 2, Number 1 (January 2001) of the Ornithological Council's newsletter BIRDNET includes this issue brief on the influence of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants on birds. The issue brief covers the basics of endocrine disruptors, policy issues, a review of the state of our knowledge about endocrine disruptors and birds, and suggested research topics that would be useful in better determining the effects of these contaminants on wild birds.

161

Assessment of environmental fate and exposure variability of organic contaminants.  

PubMed

Advanced fate assessment and its application/implication for hazardous chemicals is discussed. The spatially resolved fate assessment of chemicals has been performed using a newly developed spatially resolved multimedia environmental fate model (G-CIEMS: Grid-Catchment Integrated Modeling System) based on the geographical information system environment. The G-CIEMS modeling system has roughly 5x5-km resolution on the entire Japanese terrestrial region, combining a gridded-air and catchment-based surface and river geographic structure. A summary of the model description is given and validation results are discussed, which showed generally acceptable agreement between measured and simulated environmental levels for several tested chemicals. By applying the results of spatially resolved environmental concentration, the geographic distribution of exposure to humans is estimated, which showed that the majority of exposure occurred in Japan's land area with higher environmental concentration at the level of 99 percentiles or higher. The impact on the geographic distribution of environmental levels on human exposure from fish is analyzed based on monitoring, modeling, and several social and fisheries statistics. The results of estimation were compared to those of total diet studies. The estimated results are in a range close to the results of the total diet survey and thus basic validation was achieved in this study. However, as the nature of samples differed, more in-depth comparison may be necessary for future study. PMID:17329929

Suzuki, Noriyuki

2007-03-01

162

Standard reference materials (SRMs) for determination of organic contaminants in environmental samples.  

PubMed

For the past 25 years the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed certified reference materials (CRMs), known as standard reference materials (SRMs), for determination of organic contaminants in environmental matrices. Assignment of certified concentrations has usually been based on combining results from two or more independent analytical methods. The first-generation environmental-matrix SRMs were issued with certified concentrations for a limited number (5 to 10) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Improvements in the analytical certification approach significantly expanded the number and classes of contaminants determined. Environmental-matrix SRMs currently available include air and diesel particulate matter, coal tar, marine and river sediment, mussel tissue, fish oil and tissue, and human serum, with concentrations typically assigned for 50 to 90 organic contaminants, for example PAHs, nitro-substituted PAHs, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PMID:17047949

Wise, Stephen A; Poster, Dianne L; Kucklick, John R; Keller, Jennifer M; Vanderpol, Stacy S; Sander, Lane C; Schantz, Michele M

2006-09-19

163

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success--egg hatchability and fry survival--were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1991-08-01

164

Identification of sentinel health events as indicators of environmental contamination.  

PubMed Central

The consensus process was applied to addressing a public health topic; this was a novel endeavor. The following question was addressed: What role, if any, should sentinel health events play in the decision-making process for identifying the effects of environmental exposure? The panel developed three levels of sentinel health events lists: those that are clearly identifiable, those that are potential signs, and those that are indicators of body burdens. Additionally, the panel developed several salient statements regarding the principles of environmental health surveillance and, especially, recommendations for future research.

Rothwell, C J; Hamilton, C B; Leaverton, P E

1991-01-01

165

CNG acid gas removal process isolates environmental contaminants from crude coal gas  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and numerous other undersirable contaminants, can be effectively removed from crude coal gas by current acid gas removal (AGR) technology. However, the separation of absorbed acid gases from the AGR absorbent, and the simultaneous or subsequent sharp separation of sulfur-containing compounds and other contaminants from carbon dioxide which is necessary to prevent objectionable environmental emissions, are difficult to achieve with existing AGR technology. The CNG AGR Process described here concentrates absorbed acid gases and other contaminants, and regenerates pure AGR absorbent, by triplepoint crystallization of carbon dioxide.

Auyang, L.; Cook, W.J.; Liv, Y.C.; Siwajek, L.

1984-08-01

166

Core sediment bacteria drive community response to anthropogenic contamination over multiple environmental gradients.  

PubMed

In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate sediment bacterial community response to contaminant disturbance across six estuaries with differing levels of 'modification'. We observed a significant influence of metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in shaping bacterial community composition, structure and diversity, with metals being the more influential contaminant. An abundant and pervasive 'core' set of bacteria found in every sample were largely responsible for mediating community response to contamination. These 13 core operational taxonomic units were mostly comprised of Gamma-, Delta-, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Sediment silt and metals together explained the most variation in bacterial community composition (19.7%). Following this strong contaminant signature, salinity and temperature represented important environmental variables predicting 10.9% of community variation. While overall network connectivity measures supported the idea of an inherently diverse soil microbiome with some degree of functional redundancy, lower values observed in contaminated sediments indicate potential structural perturbations in the community from fracturing or loss of bacterial associations. The large number of unclassified sequences obtained in this study contribute to improving our understanding of environmentally relevant strains in relation to anthropogenic contamination, which have been overlooked in laboratory studies. PMID:23647974

Sun, Melanie Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Brown, Mark V

2013-05-06

167

[The surveillance of the aeraulic and hydraulic system reduce environmental Aspergillus contamination in hospital].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to value the evolution of environmental Aspergillus contamination in hospital with respect to aeraulic system and bathrooms works. An analysis on levels of air and surface Aspergillus contamination were determined in patient's rooms and various common sites in a ward of an hospital in Genoa in 1999. As high contamination levels were found, in summer 1999 a radical disinfection and revision of the aeraulic system was settled. In spite of these interventions some samples maintained an high contamination level, even if from only two rooms, so a further disinfection of bathrooms and surfaces became necessary. A period of sampling was conducted after this last intervention until November 2002. At the beginning of our surveillance 59% positive samples and about 50% of them with high contamination level (>1000 CFU/m3) were found. After the revision of the aeraulic system the reduction of positive samples was significative (14.2%), besides all the positive samples regarded only two rooms. In the last valuation period, after a further disinfection of bathrooms and surfaces of the above mentioned rooms, all the samples taken resulted with a contamination level lower than 10 CFU/m3. This findings underlines the importance of environmental surveillance looking for all the contaminated sources; in particular the aeraulic and hydraulic system as well as the proximity hospital building yard not sufficiently protected. PMID:15049548

Crimi, P; Panesi, S; Saettone, F; Macrina, G; Bertoluzzo, L; Antola, M; Pizzetto, R R

168

Boyhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia is the first reference work to focus on the life and history of U.S. boyhood through the centuries. Coverage in the encyclopedia spans education, ethnicity, sports, work, religion, and health issues. The encyclopedia's expert contributors approach topics from many disciplines, including history, cultural studies, media studies,…

Clement, Priscilla Ferguson, Ed.; Reinier, Jacqueline S., Ed.

169

Encyclopedia of Youth and War: Young People as Participants and Victims.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This encyclopedia provides comprehensive information on youth and war. Beginning with the 30 Years' War in the 17th century and ending with the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo, the encyclopedia covers children and youth from birth to age 18, with additional materials on young adults from 18 to 24 years of age. The encyclopedia includes over 300…

Sherrow, Victoria

170

Boyhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This encyclopedia is the first reference work to focus on the life and history of U.S. boyhood through the centuries. Coverage in the encyclopedia spans education, ethnicity, sports, work, religion, and health issues. The encyclopedia's expert contributors approach topics from many disciplines, including history, cultural studies, media studies,…

Clement, Priscilla Ferguson, Ed.; Reinier, Jacqueline S., Ed.

171

Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous type...

172

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might

Premendu Prakash Mathur; Shereen Cynthia D'Cruz

2011-01-01

173

Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. An alternative screening technology, Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD), could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real time measurements provided by an EMWD system enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies. The system also enhances worker safety and provides the added flexibility of being able to steer a drill bit in or out of hazardous zones.

Bishop, L.B.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

1999-02-22

174

Use of life cycle assessments to evaluate the environmental footprint of contaminated sediment remediation.  

PubMed

Ecological and human risks often drive the selection of remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments. Traditional human and ecological risk assessment (HERA) includes assessing risk for benthic organisms and aquatic fauna associated with exposure to contaminated sediments before and after remediation as well as risk for human exposure but does not consider the environmental footprint associated with implementing remedial alternatives. Assessment of environmental effects over the whole life cycle (i.e., Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) could complement HERA and help in selecting the most appropriate sediment management alternative. Even though LCA has been developed and applied in multiple environmental management cases, applications to contaminated sediments and marine ecosystems are in general less frequent. This paper implements LCA methodology for the case of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F)-contaminated Grenland fjord in Norway. LCA was applied to investigate the environmental footprint of different active and passive thin-layer capping alternatives as compared to natural recovery. The results showed that capping was preferable to natural recovery when analysis is limited to effects related to the site contamination. Incorporation of impacts related to the use of resources and energy during the implementation of a thin layer cap increase the environmental footprint by over 1 order of magnitude, making capping inferior to the natural recovery alternative. Use of biomass-derived activated carbon, where carbon dioxide is sequestered during the production process, reduces the overall environmental impact to that of natural recovery. The results from this study show that LCA may be a valuable tool for assessing the environmental footprint of sediment remediation projects and for sustainable sediment management. PMID:21520943

Sparrevik, Magnus; Saloranta, Tuomo; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Breedveld, Gijs D; Linkov, Igor

2011-04-26

175

Some scientific judgments in the assessment of the risk of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The assessment of risk due to environmental contaminants depends, in part, on scientific data. When such data are incomplete, as is usually the case, assumptions based on scientific judgments are made to analyze the consequences. Specifically, when health related data needed to assess the risk posed by environmental contaminants are missing or incomplete, it becomes necessary to make assumptions using scientific judgment to estimate the risk. Different scientists can and do make different assumptions, and the resulting differences in opinion can result in controversy. The present discussion presents a few of the consensus judgments of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concerning the health effects and risk for such environmental contaminants as 1,2-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane, para-dichlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls, perchloroethylene, and xylene, as well as the implications of the more likely cancer mechanisms, the exposure routes, and pharmacokinetics to the risk assessment process. In some of these examples, the scientific data have been developed to the extent that specific judgments by groups such as the SAB can result in greater confidence that one is correct in the assessment of risk. Because of the uncertainties in current scientific knowledge for many environmental contaminants, judgments differ and there is no right or wrong opinion.

Cothern, C.R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-05-01

176

Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective.  

PubMed

In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current policy of including only a few streets and houses. PMID:16650884

Lambert, Timothy W; Guyn, Lindsay; Lane, Stephanie E

2006-05-02

177

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants.  

PubMed

Contamination of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic components such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene (BTEX). In this study, a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter for groundwater treatment inoculated with a microbial consortium degrading MTBE was studied. Individual or mixtures of BTEX compounds were transiently loaded in combination with MTBE. The results indicated that single BTEX compound or BTEX mixtures inhibited MTBE degradation to varying degrees, but none of them completely repressed the metabolic degradation in the biotrickling filter. Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a frequent co-contaminant of MTBE had no inhibitory effect on MTBE degradation. The bacterial consortium was stable and showed promising capabilities to remove TBA, ethylbenzene and toluene, and partially degraded benzene and xylenes without significant lag time. The study suggests that it is feasible to deploy a mixed bacterial consortia to degrade MTBE, BTEX and TBA at the same time. PMID:16733621

Wang, Xiaolin; Deshusses, Marc A

2006-05-30

178

Biographial Encyclopedia of Astronomers-A status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is nearing completion and should serve as a valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. The work is expected to be published in two volumes in 2006, and will include approximately 1500 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. This status report will summarize the project, the collective work of about 400 authors

T. R. Williams; T. A. Hockey

2004-01-01

179

An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome. PMID:22889292

Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie1, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

2012-08-13

180

E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) is a comprehensive, fully-integrated approach to in-situ, real-time detection and monitoring of environmental contaminants. E-SMART will provide new class of smart, highly sensitive, chemically-specific, in-situ, multichannel microsensors utilizing integrated optical interferometry technology, large, commercially viable set of E-SMART-compatible sensors, samplers, and network management components, and user-friendly graphical user interface for data evaluation and visualization.

NONE

1996-01-01

181

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and

McLachlan

1998-01-01

182

Environmental politics and science: the case of PBB contamination in Michigan.  

PubMed Central

This article examines how politics and science interacted against a background of uncertainty to shape policy in the case of environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in Michigan. In 1973, between 500 and 1,000 pounds of the flame retardant PBB were accidentally shipped and used instead of the dairy feed additive magnesium oxide, resulting in the widespread contamination of animal feeds, animals, and human food products. The contamination was initially perceived as the private trouble of a single farmer. The problem next became a public issue as public and private institutions grappled with questions of illness, safety, and disposal. To gain influence over those institutions, dissatisfied individuals and groups then turned the PBB contamination into a political controversy. The final section of the present article analyzes how science and politics interacted in: the ways bureaucratic organizations defined the three problems of contamination; the role political controversy played in redefining problems and influencing policy; and the political roles of scientists in controversies over environmental contamination.

Reich, M R

1983-01-01

183

Combined use of environmental data and biomarkers in fish (Liza aurata) inhabiting a eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system - Gills reflect environmental contamination.  

PubMed

An investigative biomonitoring study was carried out in a eutrophic coastal system with a moderate contamination by metals (Obidos lagoon, Portugal), combining the evaluation of exposure concentrations with metals accumulation and oxidative stress responses in gills of the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Two contrasting seasons (winter and summer) were considered at three sites: Barrosa (BB) and Bom-Sucesso (BS) branches; Middle lagoon (ML). Data on the water column pointed to a higher metals and nutrients availability at BB that was reflected in the higher metal concentrations in gills, particularly in winter. Similarly, oxidative stress responses demonstrated a pro-oxidant challenge at BB (winter and summer), which was corroborated by an integrated biomarker response index (IBR). Metal concentrations in gills were higher in summer than winter, reflecting the increased environmental concentrations in combination with elevated metabolic rates. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (GSH(t)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) increases observed in winter at BB were related with metal accumulation, while summer enhancement of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), GST and GSH(t) was associated with other stressors. Inter-site differences on the basis of IBR were more accentuated in winter. Gills can be considered as an important route of entry for contaminants and were demonstrated to reflect water contamination and are therefore useful in the context of environmental assessment. PMID:19783293

Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Mário

2009-08-21

184

Health risk implications from simultaneous exposure to multiple environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Water quality has deteriorated in the upper Olifants River system, South Africa, as a result of land use activities which include mining, agriculture and industries. A health risk assessment was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in the catchment to determine the possible risks local communities face from various pollutants such as microbials, heavy metals and oestrogen in the river water and vegetation. Aluminium and manganese accumulated in plants and vanadium and aluminium concentrations found in selective water samples posed significant health risks when consumed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment revealed that the combined risk of infection ranged from 1 to 26 percent with the Norovirus posing the overall greatest health risk. The anticipated disability adjusted life years resulting from drinking untreated water from these sites are in the order of 10,000 times greater than what is considered acceptable. The oestradiol activity, caused by endocrine disrupting compounds in the water, measured above the trigger value of 0.7ngL(-1). Impoverished communities in the area, who partially depend on river water for potable and domestic use, are exposed to immune-compromising metals that increase their probability of infection from waterborne diseases caused by the excess microbial pathogens in the contaminated surface water. PMID:23669339

Genthe, B; Le Roux, W J; Schachtschneider, K; Oberholster, P J; Aneck-Hahn, N H; Chamier, J

2013-05-10

185

Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant  

SciTech Connect

Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most commonly used plasticizing agent for the widely used plastic polyvinylchloride (PVC). Consequently, this compound is found everywhere in the environment of civilization, where it is in frequent contact with every person. Blood storage bags and tubing, food wrappers, and many children's toys contain appreciable amounts of DEHP. Given this frequency of exposure, the toxic potential of the compound has become a major concern. Many workers have demonstrated its exceedingly low acute toxicity, while results from chronic exposure studies have been mixed. However, in 1982 the National Toxicology Program reported a significantly increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats and mice exposed to high doses of DEHP over a period of two years. The significance of these studies remains in question. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is metabolized extensively by mammals, but reports of the direct study of the toxic effects of its metabolites are few. Efficient methods for analysis of biological samples for DEHP are available, but they are complicated by the constant presence of this compound as a contaminant.

Griffiths, W.C.; Camara, P.; Lerner, K.S.

1985-03-01

186

Environmental contaminants in tissues, foods, and feces of California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two wild California Condors contained moderate to high levels of DDE in their tissues. The levels found could be high enough to cause reproductive problems in adult condors, if the assumption is made that condors are as susceptible to DDE as many other species of birds of prey. Other organochlorines occurred at low levels and probably were not high enough to cause deleterious effects. Metal residues in tissues of one bird were generally low except for copper in liver and lead in bone. Normal background levels of these metals in cathartids are unknown, making interpretation of the results difficult. Organochlorine residues in biopsy samples from a captive condor were low and probably would not have an adverse effect on reproduction if the bird were used for captive breeding. Organochlorines were not detected in food items used in the supplemental feeding program, and mercury and lead residues in these items were generally low. Information is needed on current contaminant levels in natural condor prey throughout the condor range.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Wilbur, S.R.

1983-01-01

187

Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

It is now well established that residues from therapeutic drugs consumed by humans can end up, through the sewage system, in the surface water of populated areas. Given that the global production of major illicit drugs is comparable to that of widely used pharmaceuticals, we tested for the presence of drugs of abuse (cocaine, opioids, amphetamines and cannabis derivatives), some related opioid pharmaceuticals (codeine and methadone) and/or their metabolites in Italian and British surface waters. Having identified residues of all major drugs of abuse in raw and treated urban wastewater, we now measured their levels in several rivers and lakes by a selective multi-residue assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Recoveries in surface water were generally higher than 80%, with overall variability of the method lower than 10%. LODs were generally lower than 0.2 ng/L, and LOQs were lower than 0.6 ng/L, with few exceptions. Many of the tested substances were found in both rivers and lakes, at concentrations ranging from high pg/L to high ng/L, with loads in rivers in the range of tenths to hundreds of grams per day. Our data indicate that residues of drugs of abuse have become widespread surface water contaminants in populated areas. Since most of these residues still have potent pharmacological activities, their presence in the aquatic environment may have potential implications for human health and wildlife. PMID:17935751

Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara; Bagnati, Renzo; Chiabrando, Chiara; Grassi, Paola; Fanelli, Roberto

2007-09-21

188

IDENTIFICATION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR SELECTION OF WATERBORNE ORGANISMS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENY'S CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the revisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to identify contaminants which may have an adverse health effects for inclusion on a Contaminant Candidate List. Contaminants from this list are further reviewed to de...

189

Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

1998-01-01

190

Environmental contamination from trace elements in coal preparation wastes: a literature review and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review of the literature is to collect and evaluate the available information on the chemistry and behavior of trace elements in coal processing wastes, and to utilize this information to assess the potential for environmental contamination from the trace elements in these wastes. Only limited attention has been given previously to the chemistry of trace elements

E. M. Wewerka; J. M. Williams; P. L. Wanek; J. D. Olsen

1976-01-01

191

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. R. Cole; W. E. Davis; G. Whelan

1982-01-01

192

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment (MCEA) methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. R. Cole; W. E. Davis; G. Whelan

1982-01-01

193

IN VITRO METABOLISM AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION FROM THE MUTAGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT 2-NITROFLURORANTHENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The metabolism and DNA adduct formation by the mutagenic environmental contaminant 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFA) was studied. ncubation under aerobic conditions with liver microsomes of rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene yielded 2-NFA tran-7.8-dihydrodiol, 2-NFA tran-9,10-di...

194

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

195

Estrogen-like activity of seafood related to environmental chemical contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A wide variety of environmental pollutants occur in surface waters, including estuarine and marine waters. Many of these contaminants are recognised as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which can adversely affect the male and female reproductive system by binding the estrogen receptor and exhibiting hormone-like activities. In this study the estrogenic activity of extracts of edible marine organisms for human

Sonia Garritano; Barbara Pinto; Marco Calderisi; Teresa Cirillo; Renata Amodio-Cocchieri; Daniela Reali

2006-01-01

196

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors ( Gymnogyps californianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Ronald M. Jurek; John F. Moore

1986-01-01

197

Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport  

SciTech Connect

This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

1998-08-31

198

Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

2001-01-01

199

Osprey: Worldwide Sentinel Species for Assessing and Monitoring Environmental Contamination in Rivers, Lakes, Reservoirs, and Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel

Robert A. Grove; Charles J. Henny; James L. Kaiser

2009-01-01

200

Sr(sup 89) -- An unnecessary contaminant of concern in SRS environmental samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the technical and time bases used to conclude that the fission product, Sr(sup 89), should no longer be considered as a contaminant of concern and an analyte in SRS environmental samples. This conclusion is the basis for hard-dollar ...

H. P. Holcomb

1993-01-01

201

Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. IV. Environmental cocaine contamination and washing effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active cocaine use results in sequestration of parent drug in hair. In addition, hair has unique physicochemical properties that permit absorption of cocaine from the environment. When hair is tested for evidence of cocaine, it is important to consider whether the positive test resulted from active drug use or environmental contamination. In a series of laboratory experiments, it was found

Wen Ling Wang; Edward J. Cone

1995-01-01

202

Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to: assess the impact of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic on human health; identify the data and knowledge gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring; examine how these issues have changed since our first assessment [Van Oostdam, J., Gilman, A., Dewailly, É.,

J. Van Oostdam; S. G. Donaldson; M. Feeley; D. Arnold; P. Ayotte; G. Bondy; L. Chan; É. Dewaily; C. M. Furgal; H. Kuhnlein; E. Loring; G. Muckle; E. Myles; O. Receveur; B. Tracy; U. Gill; S. Kalhok

2005-01-01

203

Use of kriging to estimate spatial patterns and inventories of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Although Kriging was originally devised to deal with ore reserve estimation in the mining industry, in recent years it has been used in several other fields, including several successful applications involving radioactive contaminants in the environment. Kriging assumes that the difference between the data values at two points is a function only of the distance between them. It is suggested that Kriging has use in the evaluation of many different environmental contaminants where the dispersion of that contaminant begins at some point source and then moves through the environment by a mechanism such as wind or water, so that the concentration of the contaminant at any one time over a field of observation is dependent on the distance from the source to the observation points. The theoretical basis of Kriging and the way this technique can be used to obtain estimates of the distribution and inventory of a spatially correlated variable are described.

Simpson, J.C.; Gilbert, R.O.

1981-01-01

204

Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive. Methods: Environmental and mathematical methods were used to identify the population potentially exposed to a point source of airborne pollution emanating from a waste incinerator. Soil sampling was undertaken at 83 sites throughout the city and environs. The concentrations of arsenic and copper were measured at each site. Computer software produced smoothed contour plots of the distribution of arsenic and copper in the soil based on the information derived from the sampling sites. The population at risk was also identified using concentric rings of varying radii, with the source of pollution at the centre. Lastly, we used the sites that had previously been selected and measured the frequency of wind direction, speed and distance from the source of pollution at each site. Theoretical contour plots were constructed using the distance from the source of pollution at each site, with and without incorporating wind frequency as a function of direction. Results: Each method identified different populations at risk from airborne pollution. The use of circles was a very imprecise way of identifying exposed populations. Mathematical modelling that incorporated wind direction was better. Soil sampling at many sites was accurate, as the method is direct; but it is very costly and the close proximity of high and low concentrations hindered interpretation. The smoothed contour plots derived from the soil sampling sites identified an exposed population that was similar to that derived from the spot sampling. Conclusions: Using circles as the only means of identifying the exposed population leads to dilution of the potential health effect. The best approach is to use local knowledge about wind direction and speed to estimate the population likely to be at risk; to back up this estimate by judicious use of soil sampling; to use contour mapping to guide the final selection of exposed and non-exposed populations; and finally, to interpret the populations identified as being at risk by incorporating information about other potential sources of pollution (past and present) in the area.

Williams, F; Ogston, S

2002-01-01

205

Recent Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard as Recorded in Lake Sediments – Synthesis and General Conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major patterns of biostratigraphical and geochemical change detected in a multidisciplinary study on recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on Svalbard are summarised and synthesised. The patterns discussed are changes in sediment accumulation rates, organic matter accumulation rates, atmospheric contaminants, and biological assemblages (diatoms, chrysophyte cysts, chironomids). Possible environmental factors that may have influenced these patterns are discussed, in

H. J. B. Birks; Vivienne J. Jones; N. L. Rose

2004-01-01

206

Environmental contamination during tracheal suction. A comparison of disposable conventional catheters with a multiple-use closed system device.  

PubMed

The extent of airborne environmental bacterial contamination which occurs following tracheal suction has been investigated in patients undergoing intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the intensive therapy unit. Two methods of performing suction, one using a conventional open technique and one using a closed system (Stericath), have been compared. Significantly lower levels of environmental contamination were observed when the closed system was used. PMID:1750600

Cobley, M; Atkins, M; Jones, P L

1991-11-01

207

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities. PMID:18393576

Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

2008-07-01

208

Environmental contamination by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production  

PubMed Central

Background Vancomycin resistant enterococci are a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and their presence among farm animals is unwanted. Using media supplemented with vancomycin an increase in the proportion of samples from Swedish broilers positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci has been detected. The situation at farm level is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline knowledge about environmental contamination with vancomycin resistant enterococci in Swedish broiler production and the association between environmental contamination and colonisation of birds. Methods Environmental samples were taken before, during and after a batch of broilers at three farms. Samples were cultured both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. In addition, caecal content from birds in the batch following at each farm was cultured qualitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. Results The number of samples positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Also the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the positive samples and the proportion of caecal samples containing vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Still, the temporal changes in environmental contamination followed a similar pattern in all farms. Conclusion Vancomycin resistant enterococci persist in the compartments even after cleaning and the temporal changes in environmental contamination were similar among farms. There were however differences among farms regarding both degree of contamination and proportion of birds colonized with vancomycin resistant enterococci. The proportion of colonized birds and the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the compartments seems to be associated. If the factor(s) causing the differences among farms could be identified, it might be possible to reduce both the risk for colonisation by vancomycin resistant enterococci of the subsequent flock and the risk for spread of vancomycin resistant enterococci via the food chain to humans.

2009-01-01

209

Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat (Rattner et al. 2001a) were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa, or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the nonmigratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species as excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle, which is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitats in addition to estuaries and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional, or national environmental quality assessments. PMID:12442504

Golden, Nancy H; Rattner, Barnett A

2003-01-01

210

Role of expandable clays in the environmental fate of trinitrotoluene contamination. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A primary goal of the US military cleanup effort is to develop technologies that can expedite the remediation of explosive contaminants in soils. Nitroaromatic explosives are known to be strongly adsorbed by soils, with as much as 20 to 50 percent of radio-labeled explosives not extractable in controlled degradation studies. This suggests that adsorption of explosives and explosives degradation products onto soil components renders them unavailable to conventional extraction methods. The mechanism of sorption to soil components has been investigated in order to properly address the ultimate fate of explosives contamination. Trinitrotoluene undergoes reductive degradation in which nitro groups are animated to produce aminotoluene compounds. The final compound predicted by this reduction scheme is triaminotoluene. This reaction pathway results in intermediate degradation products of trinitrotoluene which act as weak bases. Protonation of these weak bases produces organic cations which are capable of sorption onto soil components. Sorption experiments were performed to determine the behavior of explosives and explosive by-products on pure clay minerals. X-ray diffraction studies measuring the interlamellar distance of expandable clays show an expansion as contaminants are bound to the clay, indicating displacement of interlayer cations. This intercalation of compounds of environmental interest within the interlamellar regions of expandable clays is an important geochemical event with implications toward a number of environmental disciplines including subsurface contaminant transport, risk assessment, contaminant bioavailability, site remediation, and natural attenuation.

Larson, S.L.; Weiss, C.A.; Martino, M.R.; Adams, J.W.

1998-07-01

211

Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.  

PubMed

Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

2010-09-15

212

Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

2012-01-01

213

Environmental contaminants and the management of bat populations in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food-chain residues of organochlorine pesticides probably have been involved in declines of some U.S. bat populations; examples include free-tailed bats at Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, and the endangered gray bat at sites in Missouri and Alabama. If a long-lived contaminant has not been dispersed in large amounts over large areas, its impact may be controlled by administrative action that stops its use or other environmental discharge, or that results in physical isolation of localized contamination so that it no longer enters food chains

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1988-01-01

214

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01

215

Specifications for Version 1. 0 of the Army Data Encyclopedia  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a more detailed description of the Army Data Encyclopedia (ADE) Version 1.0, in accordance with the Data Encyclopedia Architecture for Army Information Management. The software and contents of the ADE are key mechanisms that are necessary to achieve interoperability, integration and synchronization of Army information systems. The ADE architecture is intended to provide a global view, long-term direction, and the conceptual foundation for further development. In accord with the architecture, the ADE will develop through a sequence of increasingly powerful versions, supporting a series of Army-wide Information Mission Area (IMA) efforts, such as data element standardization. The major components of the ADE Version 1.0 are an ANSI-FIPS Standard Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS) framework, which is implemented using a relational DBMS, a user interface for schema and data maintenance, a user interface for the Data Element search/retrieval/approval process, and the loading of the actual data of the ADE. This paper assumes the reader is familiar with the Data Encyclopedia Architecture document. It provides background for ADE Version 1.0 and a brief status report of ADE related activities in progress. It outlines a software structure for the ADE, functionality to be implemented within the ADE 1.0, structure of the data element approval process and user interface, initial data content of the ADE, documentation needs of the ADE, and remote user access strategies for the ADE. 5 refs., 9 figs.

Gey, F.; Holmes, H.

1988-09-30

216

Discovery of environmental rhodamine B contamination in paprika during the vegetation process.  

PubMed

Recently, rhodamine B (RhB) in paprika and chilli has attracted much attention. Almost all the literature has deemed that the detectable RhB was attributed to malicious intents in the fabrication process. However, the occurrence of increasing cases with ultratrace levels of RhB was difficult to understand on the basis of that statement. Here, we report on the discovery of environmental RhB contamination in paprika during its vegetation process. Samples including paprika, soils, and stems collected from seven fields in the Xinjiang Region, China, were detected by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Far from any anthropogenic addition, the ultratrace RhB concentrations in all the paprika samples provided unambiguous evidence that environmental RhB contamination in paprika had really occurred over its growth period. Further illation suggests that the soil contaminated by RhB is one of the major contamination sources and that there may be a degradation of RhB in paprika during the late maturation stage. The discovery has significant implications for re-evaluating the origin of the RhB in paprika- and chilli-containing products. PMID:22524706

Lu, Qingguo; Gao, Wei; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe

2012-05-04

217

Sea Urchin Embryotoxicity Test for Environmental Contaminants—Potential Role of the MRP Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goals of this study were (1) to standardize a simple and reliable embryotoxicity test for environmental contaminants\\u000a and (2) to evaluate the presence and possible protective role of the multidrug resistance-associated (MRP) protein-mediated\\u000a multixenobiotic defense in two Mediterranean sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula. Toxic end-point used was the success of the first cell division in

Ivana Bošnjak; Tanja Šegvi?; Tvrko Smital; Jasna Franeki?; Ivona Mladineo

2011-01-01

218

Specific Ribosomal DNA Sequences from Diverse Environmental Settings Correlate with Experimental Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones obtained by PCR from uncultured bacteria inhabiting a wide range of environments has increased our knowledge of bacterial diversity. One possible problem in the assessment of bacterial diversity based on sequence information is that PCR is exquisitely sensitive to contaminating 16S rDNA. This raises the possibility that some putative environmental rRNA sequences

MICHAEL A. TANNER; BRETT M. GOEBEL; MICHAEL A. DOJKA; NORMAN R. PACE

1998-01-01

219

Environmental metabolomics: new insights into earthworm ecotoxicity and contaminant bioavailability in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental metabolomics is a growing and emerging sub-discipline of metabolomics. Studies with earthworms have progressed\\u000a from the initial stages of simple contact exposure tests to detailed studies of earthworm responses in soil. Over the past\\u000a decade, a variety of endogenous metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of contaminant exposure. Furthermore,\\u000a metabolomic methods have delineated responses from sub-lethal exposure of

Myrna J. Simpson; Jennifer R. McKelvie

2009-01-01

220

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Not Available

1991-10-01

221

Birth defects in wildlife: the role of environmental contaminants as inducers of reproductive and developmental dysfunction.  

PubMed

The etiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes is not well understood. Wildlife observations provide considerable evidence that environmental contaminants can play a critical role in reproductive and developmental dysfunction. Early evidence leading to a widespread awareness of the impact of environmental chemicals on surrounding wildlife was observed in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A suite of reproductive and congenital defects was identified in birds, reptiles, and mammals alike that were attributed to high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and industrial chemicals. Due to the ubiquitous and persistent nature of many anthropogenic chemicals, these defects, including thyroid dysfunction, hatching success, egg shell thinning, and gross birth deformities, have since been identified in numerous wildlife populations across the world. Certain wildlife taxa such as amphibians are especially vulnerable to chemical perturbation and are suffering alarming population declines. Amphibian field studies have found severe hindlimb and other developmental abnormalities and it has been demonstrated that the greater the agricultural intensity, the greater the number and severity of defects in toad populations. Alligators living in contaminated lakes have shown a significant reduction in penis size and fish exposed to tributyltin have shown tail deformities and abnormal eye development. Physiological and molecular responses to chemical insult are often conserved across vertebrates, alerting scientists and medical professionals alike that greater attention needs to be paid to the roles environmental contaminants play in the etiology of congenital disorders in both humans and wildlife. PMID:20377310

Hamlin, Heather J; Guillette, Louis J

2010-04-01

222

Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the lower Savannah River and on the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, and analyzed them for concentrations of organochlorine chemicals, aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and 13 elemental contaminants: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Residues of DDT (mainly as DDE),trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, Aroclor? 1260, mirex, and petroleum hydrocarbons were common in fish from the lower Savannah River, but concentrations were below those warranting environmental concern. In general, the concentrations of elemental contaminants also were low; however, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium concentrations were elevated in fish from river stations near the city of Savannah, and lead was elevated in samples from the National Wildlife Refuge. Contamination of the lower Savannah River by organic and elemental contaminants, as indicated by concentrations in fishes and fiddler crabs, did not appear to pose a hazard.

Winger, P. V.; Schultz, D. P.; Johnson, W. W.

1990-01-01

223

Isotope Biomonitoring in Riverine Ecosystems: Tools for Understanding Linkages Between Environmental Contaminants and Basin Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of accumulative environmental contaminants (e.g., metals and organocholoro-pesticides) often exhibit wide temporal variations in riverine systems. Aquatic fauna, however, concentrate these contaminants into their biomass, providing a relatively long-term integrated record of water quality. In order to accurately determine how these contaminants are bioaccumulated within local food webs, it is essential to understand the relative trophic positions of the organisms assayed. Several studies have demonstrated that the influence of food-chain length on bioaccumulation of such contaminants can be estimated by using d15N. Comparison of d15N with concentration of these environmental toxins can be used to calculate biomagnification factors, which are useful in understanding toxin exposure pathways. While clear relations between isotopes and contaminants have been made in pelagic food webs, there is almost nothing known about these connections in riverine systems, which are almost certainly more complex. Biota in shallow rivers are significantly affected by active biogeochemical reactions taking place in the hyporheic and riparian zones, which affect the isotopic compositions of in situ productivity. Watershed characteristics, such as drainage basin size, regional climate and land use patterns will also contribute to the isotopic signals seen in these rivers. Additionally, anthropogenic inputs such as sewage effluent and agricultural runoff contribute to the complex nature of the biogeochemistry of these systems. We have piggybacked on several monitoring programs that collected and analyzed fish for metal and organocholoro-pesticide concentrations, and have analyzed archived fish samples for stable isotopic compositions. Our database is comprised of fish samples from 3 separate national-scale studies conducted within the last 15 years, including the BEST (Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends), the NCBP (National Contaminant Bioaccumulation Program) and NAWQA (National Water Quality Assessment) sampling efforts. We have analyzed approximately 1200 individual fish samples for d13C and d15N, and a subset of approximately 300 fish for d34S. We hypothesize that variations in both riverine biogeochemistry and basin characteristics play the primary role in establishing the isotopic compositions of primary producers and ultimately riverine fish. Furthermore, we speculate that the causes of spatial variations in isotopic composition of aquatic biota (biochemical processing of nutrients, land-use differences, basin characteristics, etc.) are closely related to sources of variability in accumulative contaminant concentrations. Preliminary interpretations of this extensive dataset will be discussed.

Kendall, C.; Wankel, S. D.; Cabana, G.; Schmitt, C.

2002-05-01

224

Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

Patrick Matthews (N-I) and Robert Boehlecke (NSO)

2011-03-03

225

Statement of the Committee on Military Environmental Research on the Status of Research into Biological Effects of Environmental Contaminants at Rocky Mountain Arsenal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC) charge to establish environmental quality standards for the reclamation and renovation of contaminated land areas at military installations, and the Committee on Milit...

1977-01-01

226

CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A DOSIMETRY-BASED CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR MIXTURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report, Considerations for Developing a Dosimetry-Based Cumulative Risk Assessment Approach for Mixtures of Environmental Contaminants , addresses the justification for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for cumulative risk assessment....

227

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: Propellants and their co-contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demilitarization of propellants by open burning results in the deposition of residues on soils. Residues can consist of the main ingredients in propellant formulations, namely, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine. Co-contaminants, consisting of plasticizers and stabilizers present in propellant formulations as well as environmental degradation products of the propellants, represent additional soil contaminants. These substances include nitrosoguanidine, dibutylphthlate, diethylphthlate, dipenylamine,

B. Mallon; D. Layton; R. Fish; P. Hsieh; L. Hall; L. Perry; G. Snyder

1988-01-01

228

Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

229

[Water environmental simulation of main contaminations in the Qiantang River at low water period].  

PubMed

Technical framework for water environment simulation of contaminations is established based on visualization and a spatial environmental model is built. The main two contaminations, namely NH: -N and TP, are simulated on the platform of MapInfo and Delft3D in the Qiantang River at the low water period, to analyze its space-time diversity. For NH4+ -N, the measured values are 0.19 mg/L and 0.66 mg/L larger than simulated values at the Lanjiang River mouth and the Yanlingwu, 0.16 mg/L, 0.54 mg/L and 0.49 mg/L smaller at the Zhaixi, the Yushan and the Yuanpu. For TP, the measured values are 0.13 mg/L and 0.14 mg/L higher than simulated values at the Meicheng Water facility and Yanlingwu. However, the measure values are slightly lower than simulated ones at Zhaixi, Yushan, Puyang River mouth and Yuanpu, the trend of which accords with actual situation. The results indicate that the contaminations of the Qiantang Reach mostly come from the Lanjiang River, the Fuchun River and the Puyang River on the upstream, among which the Lanjiang River and the Puyang River have a very high concentration of polluted materials, which means bad water quality, and influence the water downstream. The Lanjiang River becomes the chief contaminative source in the Fuchun River. When the discharge from the Xin'an River Dam is small, the recirculation region may be formed and makes part of the Xin'an Reach contaminated. Otherwise, when the discharge is large, the water quality in the Fuchun River is apparently improved. And the Puyang River, which brings the contaminations from the upstream, along with the polluted water let into it from the industries along the reach, has significant impacts on the water quality in Qiantang Reach. PMID:18290420

Xu, Li-qiang; Tong, Yang-bin; Lou, Zhang-hua; Cao, Fei-feng; Xu, Yue-ping

2007-12-01

230

Altered gonadal expression of TGF-? superfamily signaling factors in environmental contaminant-exposed juvenile alligators.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminant exposure can influence gonadal steroid signaling milieus; however, little research has investigated the vulnerability of non-steroidal signaling pathways in the gonads. Here we use American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) hatched from field-collected eggs to analyze gonadal mRNA transcript levels of the activin-inhibin-follistatin gene expression network and growth differentiation factor 9. The eggs were collected from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, a site with minimal anthropogenic influence, and Lake Apopka, a highly contaminated lake adjacent to a former EPA Superfund site. The hatchling alligators were raised for 13 months under controlled conditions, thus limiting differences to embryonic origins. Our data reveal sexually dimorphic mRNA expression in 13-month-old alligator gonads similar to patterns established in vertebrates with genetic sex determination. In addition, we observed a relationship between lake of origin and mRNA expression of activin/inhibin subunits ? and ?B, follistatin, and growth differentiation factor 9. Our study suggests that embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants can affect future non-steroidal signaling patterns in the gonads of a long-lived species. PMID:21251980

Moore, Brandon C; Milnes, Matthew R; Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Woodruff, Teresa K; Guillette, Louis J

2011-01-18

231

Characterization of complex mineral assemblages: Implications for contaminant transport and environmental remediation  

PubMed Central

Surface reactive phases of soils and aquifers, comprised of phyllosilicate and metal oxohydroxide minerals along with humic substances, play a critical role in the regulation of contaminant fate and transport. Much of our knowledge concerning contaminant-mineral interactions at the molecular level, however, is derived from extensive experimentation on model mineral systems. Although these investigations have provided a foundation for understanding reactive surface functional groups on individual mineral phases, the information cannot be readily extrapolated to complex mineral assemblages in natural systems. Recent studies have elucidated the role of less abundant mineral and organic substrates as important surface chemical modifiers and have demonstrated complex coupling of reactivity between permanent-charge phyllosilicates and variable-charge Fe-oxohydroxide phases. Surface chemical modifiers were observed to control colloid generation and transport processes in surface and subsurface environments as well as the transport of solutes and ionic tracers. The surface charging mechanisms operative in the complex mineral assemblages cannot be predicted based on bulk mineralogy or by considering surface reactivity of less abundant mineral phases based on results from model systems. The fragile nature of mineral assemblages isolated from natural systems requires novel techniques and experimental approaches for investigating their surface chemistry and reactivity free of artifacts. A complete understanding of the surface chemistry of complex mineral assemblages is prerequisite to accurately assessing environmental and human health risks of contaminants or in designing environmentally sound, cost-effective chemical and biological remediation strategies.

Bertsch, Paul M.; Seaman, John C.

1999-01-01

232

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

Petty, J. D.; Orazio, C. E.; Huckins, J. N.; Gale, R. W.; Lebo, J. A.; Meadows, J. C.; Echols, K. R.; Cranor, W. L.

2000-01-01

233

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01

234

A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

2013-11-01

235

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

1994-01-01

236

SYMBOLS.com: Encyclopedia of Western Signs and Ideograms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by HME Media, this site is an online version of Carl G. Liungman's Thought Signs (1995), an encyclopedia of graphic symbols. The site contains more than 2,500 Western signs, arranged into 54 groups according to their graphic characteristics. Ranging from Cro-Magnon carvings in mammoth teeth to hobo signs and subway graffiti, the signs are explained and examined in 1,600 articles. Users may search for the meaning or history of a sign in the Graphic Index or use the Word Index to find an ideogram with a certain meaning.

Liungman, Carl G., 1938-.

1997-01-01

237

The public health response to 2,3,7,8-TCDD environmental contamination in Missouri.  

PubMed Central

In 1971, waste oil containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was sprayed for dust control on a number of residential, recreational, and work areas in Missouri. In several of them, the level and extent of environmental contamination were not known until late 1982 or 1983. Extrapolation from existing toxicological data indicated the potential for substantial adverse health effects in highly exposed populations. As a result, the Missouri Division of Health and the Centers for Disease Control initiated close collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on review and evaluation of environmental data, the development of health advisories to EPA on the need for remedial or preventive actions at specific contaminated sites, a health education effort for the medical community and general public, establishment of a dermatological screening clinic, establishment of a central listing of potentially exposed persons through administration of a health effects survey questionnaire, and a pilot medical study of a "highest risk" cohort. Strategies for additional interventions will continue to be based on findings derived from this first phase of the investigation.

Stehr, P A; Forney, D; Stein, G; Donnell, H D; Falk, H; Hotchkiss, R; Spratlin, W A; Sampson, E; Smith, S J

1985-01-01

238

The public health response to 2,3,7,8-TCDD environmental contamination in Missouri.  

PubMed

In 1971, waste oil containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was sprayed for dust control on a number of residential, recreational, and work areas in Missouri. In several of them, the level and extent of environmental contamination were not known until late 1982 or 1983. Extrapolation from existing toxicological data indicated the potential for substantial adverse health effects in highly exposed populations. As a result, the Missouri Division of Health and the Centers for Disease Control initiated close collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on review and evaluation of environmental data, the development of health advisories to EPA on the need for remedial or preventive actions at specific contaminated sites, a health education effort for the medical community and general public, establishment of a dermatological screening clinic, establishment of a central listing of potentially exposed persons through administration of a health effects survey questionnaire, and a pilot medical study of a "highest risk" cohort. Strategies for additional interventions will continue to be based on findings derived from this first phase of the investigation. PMID:3923536

Stehr, P A; Forney, D; Stein, G; Donnell, H D; Falk, H; Hotchkiss, R; Spratlin, W A; Sampson, E; Smith, S J

239

PCBs as environmental estrogens: Turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, low-level environmental pollutants associated with adverse health effects such as immune suppression and teratogenicity. There is increasing evidence that some PCB compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans, particularly during development. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds act to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, whereby the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. Here we demonstrate the estrogenic effect of some PCBs by reversing gonadal sex in a reptile species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Bergeron, J.M.; Crews, D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); McLachlan, J.A. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1994-09-01

240

Assessing environmental contamination around obsolete pesticide stockpiles in West Africa: using the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination caused by obsolete pesticide stocks was assessed using the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species. Organochlorines and organophosphates were quantified by gas chromatography in abdominal fat and the liver, respectively. Results were compared to those obtained from three other sites, characterized by different histories of contamination. None of the previously stocked pesticides were recovered. Low to moderate levels of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE) were quantified in monitors from all sites. Malathion and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD) also were detected sporadically. Interindividual variability was substantial. Correlations between pesticide loads and individual characteristics were considered. The nondetection of previously stocked pesticides in the monitors' tissues, their contamination by other pesticides, and the value of V. niloticus as a monitoring tool for environmental contamination are discussed. The results indicate a situation of low concern and draw attention to the importance of local conditions in determining environmental dangers associated with potential pollution sources. PMID:22045616

Ciliberti, Alexandre; Berny, Philippe; Vey, Danielle; de Buffrénil, Vivian

2011-12-14

241

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

Not Available

1991-10-01

242

Specifications for Version 1.0 of the Army Data Encyclopedia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a more detailed description of the Army Data Encyclopedia (ADE) Version 1.0, in accordance with the Data Encyclopedia Architecture for Army Information Management. The software and contents of the ADE are key mechanisms that are nec...

F. Gey H. Holmes

1988-01-01

243

Subject Encyclopedias: User Guide, Review Citations, and Keyword Index. Part I and Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This two-volume guide is designed to make subject encyclopedias more accessible. To qualify for inclusion, an encyclopedia must meet the following criteria: new or revised edition published since 1990; coverage by subject (not primarily biographical or geographical); intended audience of high school students, college students, and adults;…

Mirwis, Allan N.

244

From now on, the Encyclopedia Britannica will only be published online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopedia Britannica ends print, goes digitalhttp://www.chicagotribune.com/health/sns-rt-us-encyclopediabritannicabre82c1fs-20120313,0,338011.storyAfter 244 Years, Encyclopaedia Britannica Stops the Presseshttp://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/after-244-years-encyclopaedia-britannica-stops-the-presses/Encyclopedia Britannica to stop printing bookshttp://money.cnn.com/2012/03/13/technology/encyclopedia-britannica-books/?cnn=yes&hpt=hp_t3Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th editionhttp://www.archive.org/details/EncyclopaediaBritannica1911HQDJVUDeath of a Sales Forcehttp://www1.salon.com/media/media960510.htmlBritannica.comhttp://www.britannica.com/The first proto-encyclopedia was created by Pliny the Elder two thousand years ago. Over the course of many years, he created a work that covered art, medicine, geography, geology, and natural history. Since that time, many encyclopedias have come and gone, and one of the most enduring is certainly the Encyclopedia Britannica. First published in 1768, the work began life in Edinburgh and it was considered one of the distinguishing products of the Scottish Enlightenment. This Tuesday it was announced that the Encyclopedia would no longer publish a print edition, but the company will continue to update and offer its digital online version. In a statement released this week to major news outlets, the company's president, Jorge Cauz, commented that "The print edition became more difficult to maintain and wasn't the best physical element to deliver the quality of our database and the quality of our editorial." Of course, the broader story of this transformation involves the rise of various free online encyclopedias, such as Wikipedia. Interested parties may still purchase one of the existing 15th edition printed copies of the Encyclopedia for $1,400.The first link will take visitors to a news article about the Encyclopedia Britannica's decision to go to an all-digital format from this Wednesday's Chicago Tribune. The second link will lead interested parties to a bit of commentary on this development from the New York Times' "Media Decoder" blog. Moving on, the third link will take users to a piece from CNN's Julianne Pepitone about the recent decision made by Encyclopedia Britannica to stop printing physical copies. The fourth link leads to a digitized copy of the celebrated (and rather controversial) 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, published in 1911. The fifth takes visitors to a great archived piece from Salon.com that features an interview with Myron Taxman, one of the last Encyclopedia Britannica salespeople. The final link leads to the homepage of the Encyclopedia Britannica, which offers free access to select articles and information about the company.

Grinnell, Max

2012-03-16

245

Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

1987-01-01

246

Lack of enhanced effect of a chlorine dioxide-based cleaning regimen on environmental contamination with Clostridium difficile spores.  

PubMed

Spores of Clostridium difficile may play a significant role in transmission of disease within the healthcare environment and are resistant to a variety of detergents and cleaning fluids. A range of environmental cleaning agents has recently become available, many of which claim to be sporicidal. We investigated the effect of changing to a chlorine dioxide-based cleaning regimen on C. difficile environmental contamination and patient infection rates. The prevalence of environmental contamination was unaffected with a rate of 8% (9/120) before and 8% (17/212) following the change. Rates of patient infection were also unchanged during these periods. PMID:22795136

Goldenberg, S D; Patel, A; Tucker, D; French, G L

2012-07-12

247

Encyclopedias on CD-ROM: Two Orders of Magnitude More than Any Other Educational Software Has Ever Delivered Before.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three encyclopedias available on CD-ROM: (1) Grolier's Electronic Encyclopedia; (2) World Book's Information Finder; and (3) Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia. Ideas for how they might be used in the classroom are suggested, information retrieval versus motivation is discussed, learning processes are examined, and stand-alone versus…

Becker, Henry Jay

1991-01-01

248

Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, the analysis of these samples is not only expensive, but can take weeks or months when sent to an off-site laboratory. In contrast, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) screening capability could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real-time measurements provided by a MVM system would enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies, enhance worker safety, and provide the added flexibility of being able to ``steer`` the drill bit in or out hazardous zones. During measurement-while-drilling, down-hole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a rapid data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling proceeds, data are collected on the nature and extent of the subsurface contamination in real-time. The down-hole sensor is a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT) gamma radiation detector. In addition to the GMT signal, the MWD system monitors these required down-hole voltages and two temperatures associated with the detector assembly. The Gamma Ray Detection System (GRDS) and electronics package are discussed in as well as the results of the field test. Finally, our conclusions and discussion of future work are presented.

Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Bishop, L.B.; Floran, R.J.; Williams, C.V.

1995-01-01

249

Demilitarization of conventional ordnance: Priorities for data-base assessments of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this study has been to identify a set of environmental by-products from the demilitarization of conventional ordnance that should be the subject of more detailed data-base assessments. In order to rank the by-products according to their potential health risks, estimates were made of the contaminant releases associated with destructive techniques (e.g., open burning, open detonation, and incineration) and nondestructive techniques (e.g., filler recovery and reuse). Estimates of the types and quantities of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics in the demilitarization inventories of various installations in the US were made. To calculate hypothetical doses to man from contaminant releases, a multimedia compartmental model was used to calculate the concentrations of contaminants in water, soils, air, and biota. Based on an analysis of the doses and toxicity data for the compounds, several substances were recommended for further analysis, including DNT, TNT, and RDX and their degradation products in the environment. Other compounds are dibutyl phthalate, diphenylamine, HMX, and tetryl.

Layton, D.W.; McKone, T.E.; Hall, C.H.; Nelson, M.A.; Ricker, Y.E.

1986-02-01

250

Environmental contamination and external radiation dose rates from radionuclides released from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.  

PubMed

To evaluate the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analysed by gamma spectrometry. Six artificial radionuclides ((131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (129m)Te, (95)Nb and (136)Cs) were detected in soil samples around FNPP. Calculated external effective doses from artificial radionuclide contamination in soil samples around FNPP were 1.9-2.9 ?Sv h(-1) (8.7-17.8 mSv y(-1)) in Fukushima city on 22 March 2011. After several months, these calculated external effective doses were 0.25-0.88 ?Sv h(-1) (2.2-7.6 mSv y(-1)) in Fukushima city on 29 June 2011. The present study revealed that the detected artificial radionuclides around FNPP mainly shifted to long-lived radionuclides such as radioactive caesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) even though current levels are decreasing gradually due to the decay of short-lived radionuclides such as (131)I, (129m)Te, (95)Nb and (136)Cs. Thus, radiation exposure potency still exists even though the national efforts are ongoing for reducing the annual exposure dose closer to 1 mSv, the public dose limit. Long-term environmental monitoring around FNPP contributes to radiation safety, with a reduction in unnecessary exposure to the residents. PMID:22504310

Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevitc, Alexander; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Takamura, Noboru

2012-04-13

251

Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses on assessing impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures.

Caskie, Sarah A.

2013-01-01

252

Corynebacterium bovis: Epizootiologic Features and Environmental Contamination in an Enzootically Infected Rodent Room  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium bovis is a common pathogen in athymic nude mouse colonies. Control and eradication of the organism are challenging because depopulation and restricted colony access are often not options within vivaria. We evaluated potential sources and dissemination routes of C. bovis in an enzootically infected colony. Immunocompetent mice and personnel were evaluated for their potential to carry C. bovis, and husbandry and sanitation methods were evaluated for their efficacy in preventing cross-contamination. C. bovis was detected in furred immunocompetent mice previously exposed to infected athymic nude mice and in the nasopharynx of humans. Microisolation cages were not effective in maintaining athymic nude mice C. bovis-free when they were housed in a room known to contain immunodeficient mice with C. bovis infections. A tunnel washer that provided a ?180 °F final rinse provided effective elimination of C. bovis from cage components. Passive and active air sampling techniques showed airborne dispersal of C. bovis despite the use of individually ventilated caging systems and stringent operational standards. Bacterial growth was not observed in settle plates placed inside autoclaved individually ventilated microisolation cages on various ventilated racks for 24-h periods. C. bovis aerosolization was shown to be a means of spread of the bacterium during cage-change procedures inside a class II type A2 biosafety cabinet. Our findings indicate that C. bovis can be a pervasive environmental contaminant in infected rodent holding rooms and successful eradication strategies must include environmental decontamination and attention to air quality.

Burr, Holly N; Wolf, Felix R; Lipman, Neil S

2012-01-01

253

Permeable environmental leaching capsules (PELCAPs) for in situ evaluation of contaminant immobilization in soil.  

PubMed

We encapsulated radioisotope-spiked soil within a water-permeable polyacrylamide matrix cast in a small cylindrical geometry (approximately to 5 cm3) to measure the persistence of immobilized soil contaminants. As a proof-of-principle, soils contained within these permeable environmental leaching capsules (PELCAPs) were labeled with either 85Sr or 134Cs and were leached in both laboratory tests and continuously in situ with ground and streamwaters at two field sites on the Oak Ridge reservation. Groups of PELCAPs were retrieved, assayed nondestructively for radioisotopes via gamma spectroscopy, and then replaced in ground and surface water repeatedly over a 6-month period. PELCAPs that contained no soil readily and quantitatively leached either 85Sr or 134Cs into laboratory extractants or ground or surface water with effective diffusion coefficients (D(eff)) of (1.14 +/- 0.06) and (4.8 +/- 0.2) x 10(-6) cm2/s, respectively. PELCAPs containing untreated soil readily leached > 90% of 85Sr but < 1% of 134Cs during field leaching at both sites, whereas thermally treated soils quantitatively retained both isotopes under all conditions. Permeable polymer encapsulation methods, such as PELCAPs, offer the potential capability to conveniently test large numbers of soils and soil treatments for contaminant release and uptake under actual field environmental conditions. PMID:16323793

Spalding, B P; Brooks, S C

2005-11-15

254

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.  

PubMed

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Changes in immune function were monitored over a 2 1/2-year period. The seals that were fed contaminated Baltic herring developed significantly higher body burdens of potentially immunotoxic organochlorines and displayed impaired immune responses as demonstrated by suppression of natural killer cell activity and specific T-cell responses. During a 2-week fasting experiment performed at the end of the feeding study, mobilization of organochlorines from the blubber did not lead to a strong increase of contaminant levels in the blood, and no enhancement of the existing immunosuppression was observed. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain affects immune function in harbour seals, whereas short-term fasting periods, which are normal for seals, do not seem to pose an additional risk. The seals of this study were not exposed perinatally to high levels of environmental chemicals, and body burdens of organochlorines measured near the end of the study were lower than those generally observed in free-ranging seals inhabiting many contaminated regions. Therefore, it may be expected that environmental contaminants adversely affect immune function of free-ranging seals inhabiting contaminated regions at least as seriously as observed in these studies. PMID:8880005

de Swart, R L; Ross, P S; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D

1996-08-01

255

Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as other peripheral areas that are recovering with pioneering vegetation on their own. This allows us to develop an adaptive management strategy in ecological restoration and inform decisions about managing the trajectory of succession. The Palmerton area could serve as an excellent example of how profoundly contaminated areas can be restored.

Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

2006-12-01

256

Environmental whole-genome amplification to access microbial populations in contaminated sediments  

SciTech Connect

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using {phi}29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2% genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small-subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9% of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and 'clusters of orthologous groups' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

Abulencia, Carl B [Diversa Corporation; Wyborski, Denise L. [Diversa Corporation; Garcia, Joseph A. [Diversa Corporation; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Chen, Wenqiong [Diversa Corporation; Chang, Sherman H. [Diversa Corporation; Chang, Hwai W. [Diversa Corporation; Watson, David B [ORNL; Brodie, Eoin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Keller, Martin [ORNL

2006-05-01

257

MCNP{trademark} simulations for identifying environmental contaminants using prompt gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture reactions  

SciTech Connect

The primary purposes of the Multispectral Neutron Logging Project, (MSN Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy), were to assess the effectiveness of existing neutron- induced spectral gamma-ray logging techniques for identifying environmental contaminants along boreholes, to further improve the technology, and to transfer that technology to industry. Using a pulsed neutron source with a high-resolution gamma-ray detector, spectra from thermal neutron capture reactions may be used to identify contaminants in the borehole environment. Direct borehole measurements such as this complement physical sampling and are useful in environmental restoration projects where characterization of contaminated sites is required and long-term monitoring may be needed for many years following cleanup or stabilization. In the MSN Project, a prototype logging instrument was designed which incorporated a pulsed 14-MeV neutron source and HPGe detector. Experimental measurements to determine minimum detection thresholds with the prototype instrument were conducted in the variable-contaminant test model for Cl, Cd, Sm, Gd, and Hg. We benchmarked an enhanced version of the Monte Carlo N-Particle computer code MCNP{trademark} using experimental data for Cl provide by our collaborators and experimental data from the variable-contaminant test model. MCNP was then used to estimate detection thresholds for the other contaminants used in the variable-contaminant model with the goal of validating the use of MCNP to estimate detection thresholds for many other contaminants that were not measured.

Frankle, S.C.; Conaway, J.G.

1996-12-31

258

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

1992-09-01

259

A meta-analysis of the effect of environmental contamination on non-residential real estate values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to reduce the lack of quantitative research by addressing diminution in value to non-residential property resulting from environmental contamination. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This meta-analysis extracts data from approximately a dozen peer-reviewed articles and 100 case studies from real estate appraisers in the USA. A dataset containing 106 contaminated non-residential observations is examined using Regression (OLS). Forward

Jesse Saginor; Robert Simons; Ron Throupe

2011-01-01

260

The toxicology of climate change: environmental contaminants in a warming world.  

PubMed

Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. This review examines one of the consequences of climate change that has only recently attracted attention: namely, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemical pollutants. A review was undertaken of the scientific literature (original research articles, reviews, government and intergovernmental reports) focusing on the interactions of toxicants with the environmental parameters, temperature, precipitation, and salinity, as altered by climate change. Three broad classes of chemical toxicants of global significance were the focus: air pollutants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including some organochlorine pesticides, and other classes of pesticides. Generally, increases in temperature will enhance the toxicity of contaminants and increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone regionally, but will also likely increase rates of chemical degradation. While further research is needed, climate change coupled with air pollutant exposures may have potentially serious adverse consequences for human health in urban and polluted regions. Climate change producing alterations in: food webs, lipid dynamics, ice and snow melt, and organic carbon cycling could result in increased POP levels in water, soil, and biota. There is also compelling evidence that increasing temperatures could be deleterious to pollutant-exposed wildlife. For example, elevated water temperatures may alter the biotransformation of contaminants to more bioactive metabolites and impair homeostasis. The complex interactions between climate change and pollutants may be particularly problematic for species living at the edge of their physiological tolerance range where acclimation capacity may be limited. In addition to temperature increases, regional precipitation patterns are projected to be altered with climate change. Regions subject to decreases in precipitation may experience enhanced volatilization of POPs and pesticides to the atmosphere. Reduced precipitation will also increase air pollution in urbanized regions resulting in negative health effects, which may be exacerbated by temperature increases. Regions subject to increased precipitation will have lower levels of air pollution, but will likely experience enhanced surface deposition of airborne POPs and increased run-off of pesticides. Moreover, increases in the intensity and frequency of storm events linked to climate change could lead to more severe episodes of chemical contamination of water bodies and surrounding watersheds. Changes in salinity may affect aquatic organisms as an independent stressor as well as by altering the bioavailability and in some instances increasing the toxicity of chemicals. A paramount issue will be to identify species and populations especially vulnerable to climate-pollutant interactions, in the context of the many other physical, chemical, and biological stressors that will be altered with climate change. Moreover, it will be important to predict tipping points that might trigger or accelerate synergistic interactions between climate change and contaminant exposures. PMID:19375165

Noyes, Pamela D; McElwee, Matthew K; Miller, Hilary D; Clark, Bryan W; Van Tiem, Lindsey A; Walcott, Kia C; Erwin, Kyle N; Levin, Edward D

2009-04-16

261

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.  

PubMed

The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research. PMID:22955616

Bernstein, Bradley E; Birney, Ewan; Dunham, Ian; Green, Eric D; Gunter, Chris; Snyder, Michael

2012-09-01

262

A User's Guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)  

PubMed Central

The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome.

2011-01-01

263

A user's guide to the encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE).  

PubMed

The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome. PMID:21526222

2011-04-19

264

Changes in thyroid hormone economy following consumption of environmentally contaminated Great Lakes fish.  

PubMed

Epizootics of thyroid lesions in fish and piscivorous birds that are resident in the Great Lakes region of North America suggest that there are environmental factors present in the Great Lakes ecosystem that act as potent endocrine disruptors, and that they are transferred along the food chain. This paper examines the results of wildlife studies, as well as related studies on fish-eating human populations in the region. It also re-examines the results of experimental studies of the effects of Great Lakes fish diets on the thyroid physiology of rodents and shows that the thyroid responses of fish-fed rats and mice were essentially similar to those found in rats that had been administered specific polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PHAH) congeners or commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures. However, the responses to the Great Lakes fish diets were found at PHAH exposure levels that were commonly several orders of magnitude lower than those applied in the classical toxicology studies. These findings, together with the results of the Great Lakes piscivorous bird studies and one in which captive common seals were fed "environmentally contaminated" fish, suggest that the "environmental" PHAH mixtures accumulated in fish represent a significant threat to the thyroid hormone economy, and the effects are greater than could be predicted by virtue of the known levels of active congeners in this naturally bioaccumulated PHAH mix. PMID:9460169

Leatherland, J F

265

Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus  

PubMed Central

Background Carbohydrates are a primary source of carbon and energy for many bacteria. Accurate projection of known carbohydrate catabolic pathways across diverse bacteria with complete genomes constitutes a substantial challenge due to frequent variations in components of these pathways. To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we combined a subsystems-based comparative genomic approach with experimental validation of selected bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. Results We applied this integrated approach to systematically map carbohydrate utilization pathways in 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators) spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars. Comparison of the reconstructed catabolic pathways with E. coli identified multiple differences that are manifested at various levels, from the presence or absence of certain sugar catabolic pathways, nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes to a different organization of transcription regulatory networks. Conclusions The reconstructed sugar catabolome in Shewanella spp includes 62 novel isofunctional families of enzymes, transporters, and regulators. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics and functional organization of carbohydrate utilization in Shewanella, this study led to a substantial expansion of our current version of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Carbohydrate Utilization. A systematic and iterative application of this approach to multiple taxonomic groups of bacteria will further enhance it, creating a knowledge base adequate for the efficient analysis of any newly sequenced genome as well as of the emerging metagenomic data.

2010-01-01

266

Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: A review.  

PubMed

The objectives of this paper are to: assess the impact of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic on human health; identify the data and knowledge gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring; examine how these issues have changed since our first assessment [Van Oostdam, J., Gilman, A., Dewailly, E., Usher, P., Wheatley, B., Kuhnlein, H. et al., 1999. Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: a review. Sci Total Environ 230, 1-82]. The primary exposure pathway for contaminants for various organochlorines (OCs) and toxic metals is through the traditional northern diet. Exposures tend to be higher in the eastern than the western Canadian Arctic. In recent dietary surveys among five Inuit regions, mean intakes by 20- to 40-year-old adults in Baffin, Kivalliq and Inuvialuit communities exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intakes (pTDIs) for the OCs, chlordane and toxaphene. The most recent findings in NWT and Nunavut indicate that almost half of the blood samples from Inuit mothers exceeded the level of concern value of 5 microg/L for PCBs, but none exceeded the action level of 100 microg/L. For Dene/Métis and Caucasians of the Northwest Territories exposure to OCs are mostly below this level of concern. Based on the exceedances of the pTDI and of various blood guidelines, mercury and to a lesser extent lead (from the use of lead shot in hunting game) are also concerns among Arctic peoples. The developing foetus is likely to be more sensitive to the effects of OCs and metals than adults, and is the age groups of greatest risk in the Arctic. Studies of infant development in Nunavik have linked deficits in immune function, an increase in childhood respiratory infections and birth weight to prenatal exposure to OCs. Balancing the risks and benefits of a diet of country foods is very difficult. The nutritional benefits of country food and its contribution to the total diet are substantial. Country food contributes significantly more protein, iron and zinc to the diets of consumers than southern/market foods. The increase in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been linked to a shift away from a country food diet and a less active lifestyle. These foods are an integral component of good health among Aboriginal peoples. The social, cultural, spiritual, nutritional and economic benefits of these foods must be considered in concert with the risks of exposure to environmental contaminants through their exposure. Consequently, the contamination of country food raises problems which go far beyond the usual confines of public health and cannot be resolved simply by risk-based health advisories or food substitutions alone. All decisions should involve the community and consider many aspects of socio-cultural stability to arrive at a decision that will be the most protective and least detrimental to the communities. PMID:16297438

Van Oostdam, J; Donaldson, S G; Feeley, M; Arnold, D; Ayotte, P; Bondy, G; Chan, L; Dewaily, E; Furgal, C M; Kuhnlein, H; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Myles, E; Receveur, O; Tracy, B; Gill, U; Kalhok, S

2005-11-16

267

Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.  

PubMed

A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products. PMID:19067774

Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

2008-11-29

268

The application of CE-MS in the trace analysis of environmental pollutants and food contaminants.  

PubMed

In this review, selected applications of CE-MS in recent years have been highlighted for the separation, detection and determination of environmental pollutants and food contaminants in selected samples. Trace analysis by CE-MS of analytes such as low molecular mass amines, nitroaromatics, alkylphosphonic acids, azo dyes, antidepressants, and antibiotic drugs, among others, in air, sediment and water samples have been reviewed. The CE-MS analysis of pesticides such as triazolopyrimidine sulphoanilides, different types of antibiotics (sulphonamides, beta-lactones, quinolones and tetracyclines) and other exogenous compounds such as acrylamide and toxic oligopeptides in food samples has also been reviewed. The review gives details on the fragmentations, where available, that the ionic species exhibit in-source and in ion trap, triple quadrupole and ToF MS analysers. A critical evaluation is also given of these recent CE-MS analytical methods for the separation, detection and determination of trace levels of such pollutants and contaminants with analytical information on the treatment of the samples, CE separation conditions, linearity ranges, LODs and recoveries from the different matrices presented. PMID:19378285

Rodríguez Robledo, Virginia; Smyth, William Franklin

2009-05-01

269

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

Not Available

1992-03-01

270

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis within and around a dairy barn under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

To establish environmental contamination in and around a dairy barn, cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were housed in a freestall barn. Fecal samples were collected 15 times at 3-wk intervals, and samples of all animals were cultured by using the Trek Diagnostic Systems culture system (Cleveland, OH) to quantify levels of MAP shedding. In parallel, air and floor dust samples were collected inside and outside the experimental farm and analyzed by IS900 real-time PCR for the presence of MAP DNA. Inside the barn, MAP was detected with equal frequency in samples directly contaminated with feces compared with air dust samples above animal level and in dust samples of the corridor. Dust samples collected within the barn were positive more frequently than outside samples, with exception of the outside sample from the farmer's doormat. The risk of MAP exposure was distributed evenly within the dairy barn. Additionally, footwear should be considered as a high-risk fomite for dispersion of dust-related MAP outside the barn. Prevention of MAP exposure in youngstock may require housing of youngstock in separate barns as an additional management measure. PMID:22939786

Eisenberg, S W F; Nielen, M; Hoeboer, J; Rutten, V; Heederik, D; Koets, A P

2012-08-29

271

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

Not Available

1991-10-01

272

White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed {sup 137}Cs concentrations [> 10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (> 10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h{sup 1} 1 m above the soil surface.

Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

1993-01-01

273

Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called ``garimpagem'', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

2008-08-01

274

Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)  

SciTech Connect

A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may also have contributed to the decline. California least terns are primarily piscivorous during the nesting period, feeding predominantly on jack-smelt, topsmelt, and northern anchovy. Topsmelt had the highest levels of DDE (p,p`-DDE) (up to 3 {mu}g/g wet wt) of fish collected from San Diego Bay. Eggs of Caspian terns (S.caspia) from that study contained up to 56 {mu}g/g DDE, and DDE was associated with a reduction in eggshell thickness as determined by the thickness index. In addition to shell deficiencies, organochlorines can also cause reduced egg production, aberrant incubation behavior, delayed ovulation, embryotoxicosis, and mortality of chicks and adults. Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) have caused decreased hatchability, altered nesting behavior, and embryotoxicosis in birds in field and laboratory studies. Our objective was to evaluate the role of contaminants in the decline of California least terns. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Hothem, R.L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zador, S.G. [San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Newark, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

275

Estrogen-like activity of seafood related to environmental chemical contaminants  

PubMed Central

Background A wide variety of environmental pollutants occur in surface waters, including estuarine and marine waters. Many of these contaminants are recognised as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which can adversely affect the male and female reproductive system by binding the estrogen receptor and exhibiting hormone-like activities. In this study the estrogenic activity of extracts of edible marine organisms for human consumption from the Mediterranean Sea was assayed. Methods Marine organisms were collected in two different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The estrogenic activity of tissues was assessed using an in vitro yeast reporter gene assay (S. cerevisiae RMY 326 ER-ERE). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) in fish tissue was also evaluated. Results Thirty-eight percent of extracts showed a hormone-like activity higher than 10% of the activity elicited by 10 nM 17b-estradiol (E2) used as control. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 0.002 up to 1.785 ng/g wet weight. Chemical analyses detected different levels of contamination among the species collected in the two areas, with the ones collected in the Adriatic Sea showing concentrations significantly higher than those collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea (p < 0.01). Conclusion The more frequent combination of chemicals in the samples that showed higher estrogenic activity was PCB 28, PCB 101, PCB 153, PCB 180. The content of PCBs and estrogenic activity did not reveal any significant correlation.

Garritano, Sonia; Pinto, Barbara; Calderisi, Marco; Cirillo, Teresa; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata; Reali, Daniela

2006-01-01

276

Hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopes of ground water in Jeju volcanic island, Korea: implications for nitrate contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water from springs and public supply wells was investigated for hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes of 3H, 18O and D in Jeju volcanic island, Korea. The wells are completed in a basaltic aquifer and the upper part of hydrovolcanic sedimentary formation. Nitrate contamination is conspicuous in the coastal area where most of the samples have nitrate concentrations well above 1 mg NO3N/l. Agricultural land use seems to have a strong influence on the distribution of nitrate in ground water. Comparison of stable isotopic compositions of precipitation and ground water show that ground water mostly originates from rainy season precipitation without significant secondary modification and that local recharge is dominant. 3H concentration of ground water ranged from nearly zero to 5 TU and is poorly correlated with vertical location of well screens. The occurrence of the 3H-free, old ground water is due to the presence of low permeability layers near the boundary of the basaltic aquifer and the hydrovolcanic sedimentary formation, which significantly limits ground water flow from the upper basaltic aquifer. The old ground water exhibited background-level nitrate concentrations despite high nitrate loadings, whereas young ground water had considerably higher nitrate concentrations. This correlation of 3H and nitrate concentration may be ascribed to the history of fertilizer use that has increased dramatically since the early 1960s in the island. This suggests that 3H can be used as a qualitative indicator for aquifer vulnerability to nitrate contamination.

Koh, Dong-Chan; Chang, Ho-Wan; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Yongje; Park, Won-Bae

2005-07-01

277

Environmental Measurement While Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. Sandia-developed Windows{trademark}-based software is used for data display and storage. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The design includes data assurance techniques to increase safety by reducing the probability of giving a safe indication when an unsafe condition exists. The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide-thallium activated crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The output of the PMT goes to a multichannel analyzer (MCA).The MCA data is transmitted to the surface via a signal conditioning and transmitter board similar to that used with the GMT. The EMWD system is described and the results of the GRS field tests and field demonstration are presented.

Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

1999-02-22

278

Disruption of androgen regulation in the prostate by the environmental contaminant hexachlorobenzene.  

PubMed Central

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has the potential to interfere with steroid hormone regulation. The prostate requires precise control by androgens to regulate its growth and function. To determine if HCB impacts androgen action in the prostate, we used a number of methods. Our in vitro cell-culture-based assay used a firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by an androgen-responsive promoter. In the presence of dihydrotestosterone, low concentrations (0.5-5 nM) of HCB increased the androgen-responsive production of firefly luciferase and high concentrations of HCB (> 10 microM) suppressed this transcriptional activity. Results from a binding assay showed no evidence of affinity between HCB and the androgen receptor. We also tested HCB for in vivo effects using transgenic mice in which the transgene was a prostate-specific, androgen-responsive promoter upstream of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene. In 4-week-old mice, the proportion of dilated prostate acini, a marker of sexual maturity, increased in the low HCB dose group and decreased in the high HCB dose mice. In the 8-week-old mice, there was a significant decrease in both CAT activity and prostate weight upon exposure to 20 mg/kg/day HCB. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo data suggest that HCB weakly agonizes androgen action, and consequently, low levels of HCB enhanced androgen action but high levels of HCB interfered. Environmental contaminants have been implicated in the rising incidence of prostate cancer, and insight into the mechanisms of endocrine disruption will help to clarify their role.

Ralph, Jody L; Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Nelson, Colleen C

2003-01-01

279

Disruption of androgen regulation in the prostate by the environmental contaminant hexachlorobenzene.  

PubMed

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has the potential to interfere with steroid hormone regulation. The prostate requires precise control by androgens to regulate its growth and function. To determine if HCB impacts androgen action in the prostate, we used a number of methods. Our in vitro cell-culture-based assay used a firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by an androgen-responsive promoter. In the presence of dihydrotestosterone, low concentrations (0.5-5 nM) of HCB increased the androgen-responsive production of firefly luciferase and high concentrations of HCB (> 10 microM) suppressed this transcriptional activity. Results from a binding assay showed no evidence of affinity between HCB and the androgen receptor. We also tested HCB for in vivo effects using transgenic mice in which the transgene was a prostate-specific, androgen-responsive promoter upstream of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene. In 4-week-old mice, the proportion of dilated prostate acini, a marker of sexual maturity, increased in the low HCB dose group and decreased in the high HCB dose mice. In the 8-week-old mice, there was a significant decrease in both CAT activity and prostate weight upon exposure to 20 mg/kg/day HCB. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo data suggest that HCB weakly agonizes androgen action, and consequently, low levels of HCB enhanced androgen action but high levels of HCB interfered. Environmental contaminants have been implicated in the rising incidence of prostate cancer, and insight into the mechanisms of endocrine disruption will help to clarify their role. PMID:12676599

Ralph, Jody L; Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Nelson, Colleen C

2003-04-01

280

Transcriptional signature of human macrophages exposed to the environmental contaminant benzo(a)pyrene.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed immunotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminants, known to affect macrophages. In order to identify their molecular targets in such cells, we have analyzed gene expression profile of primary human macrophages treated by the prototypical PAH benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), using pangenomic oligonucleotides microarrays. Exposure of macrophages to BaP for 8 and 24 h resulted in 96 and 1100 genes, differentially expressed by at least a twofold change factor, respectively. Some of these targets, including the chemokine receptor CXCR5, the G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35), and the Ras regulator RASAL1, have not been previously shown to be affected by PAHs, in contrast to others, such as interleukin-1beta and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) repressor. These BaP-mediated gene regulations were fully validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays for some selected genes. Their bioinformatic analysis indicated that biological functions linked to immunity, inflammation, and cell death were among the most affected by BaP in human macrophages and that the AhR and p53 signaling pathways were the most significant canonical pathways activated by the PAH. AhR and p53 implications were moreover fully confirmed by the prevention of BaP-related upregulation of some selected target genes by AhR silencing or the use of pifithrin-alpha, an inhibitor of PAH bioactivation-related DNA damage/p53 pathways. Overall, these data, through identifying genes and signaling pathways targeted by PAHs in human macrophages, may contribute to better understand the molecular basis of the immunotoxicity of these environmental contaminants. PMID:20064835

Sparfel, Lydie; Pinel-Marie, Marie-Laure; Boize, Magali; Koscielny, Serge; Desmots, Sophie; Pery, Alexandre; Fardel, Olivier

2010-01-11

281

Permeable Environmental Leaching Capsules (PELCAPs) for In Situ Evaluation of Contaminant Immobilization in Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We encapsulated radioisotope-spiked soil within a water-permeable polyacrylamide matrix cast in a small cylindrical geometry (~ 5 cm3) to measure the persistence of immobilized soil contaminants. As a proof-of-principle, soils contained within these permeable environmental leaching capsules (PELCAPs) were labeled with either 85Sr or 134Cs and were leached in both laboratory tests and continuously in situ with ground and stream waters at two field sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Groups of PELCAPs were retrieved, assayed nondestructively for radioisotopes via gamma spectroscopy, and then replaced in ground and surface water over a six month period. PELCAPs that contained no soil readily and quantitatively leached either 85Sr or 134Cs into laboratory extractants or ground or surface water with effective diffusion coefficients (Deff) of (1.14 ± 0.06) and (4.8 ± 0.2) × 10-6 cm2/s, respectively. These Deff values are within an order-of-magnitude of those reported for aqueous solutions at 25°C. PELCAPs containing thermally-treated soil quantitatively retained both isotopes in the field tests and in laboratory sequential extractions. PELCAPs containing untreated soil readily leached >90% of 85Sr but <1% of 134Cs during field leaching at both sites. Soils were quantitatively retained in the PELCAP polymer matrix and maintained their cation exchange capacities during the exposure period. Permeable polymer encapsulation methods, such as PELCAPs, offer the potential capability to conveniently test large numbers of soils and soil treatments for contaminant release and uptake under actual field environmental conditions.

Brooks, S. C.; Spalding, B. P.

2006-05-01

282

Levels of Environmental Contaminants in Human Follicular Fluid, Serum, and Seminal Plasma of Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have\\u000a explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore,\\u000a we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending\\u000a an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in

E. V. Younglai; W. G. Foster; E. G. Hughes; K. Trim; J. F. Jarrell

2002-01-01

283

Persistent Salmonella Enteritidis environmental contamination on layer farms in the context of an implemented national control program with obligatory vaccination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to closely examine the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis environmental contamination on persistently positive layer farms in Belgium during successive laying cycles. All of the farms were required to vaccinate their layers under the national control program for Salmonella. Seven farms with previous or current Salmonella Enteritidis contamination were monitored during different stages of the laying period and after cleaning and disinfection (CD). Environmental samples, including from the equipment and vermin, were taken in the henhouse and egg-collecting area. Dilutions were performed to define the degree of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. Eggshells, egg contents, and ceca were also tested for Salmonella. At the end of the first sampled laying period, 41.6% of the environmental samples were contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis. After CD, the prevalence dropped to 11.4%. On average, the prevalence in the second laying period increased again: 17.8, 18.4, and 22.3% at the onset, middle, and end of the lay period, respectively. After CD before the third laying period, the prevalence decreased to 6.6% and stabilized at the onset of lay (6.3%). During lay, as well as after CD, a wide variety of contaminated environmental samples were found; for example, in the henhouse, in the egg-collecting area, on mobile equipment and in or on vermin. In the henhouse during laying, the most recurrent and highly contaminated sites were the overshoes, floor, manure belt, and hen feces. The egg-collecting area had a significantly higher number of contaminated samples compared with that of the henhouse. For both sites, the floor appeared to be the most suitable sampling site to estimate the Salmonella Enteritidis status of the farms. Eggshell and egg content contamination varied between 0.18 and 1.8% and between 0.04 and 0.4%, respectively. In total, 2.2% of the analyzed ceca contained Salmonella Enteritidis. This study revealed that Salmonella Enteritidis is present in the environment of persistently Salmonella Enteritidis-contaminated layer farms, demonstrated that in many cases Salmonella Enteritidis contamination was not eliminated after CD, and identified the egg-collecting area as a critical point on most farms. PMID:22252339

Dewaele, I; Van Meirhaeghe, H; Rasschaert, G; Vanrobaeys, M; De Graef, E; Herman, L; Ducatelle, R; Heyndrickx, M; De Reu, K

2012-02-01

284

Viral contamination of environmental surfaces on a general paediatric ward and playroom in a major referral centre in Riyadh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the incidence of viral contamination of environmental surfaces in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. A 6-month prospective study was carried out on a general paediatric ward in which both enteric and respiratory viruses were screened. Weekly samples were taken between August 1993–February 1994. A total of 155 samples were taken in which 11 (7%) tested positive

J. Akhter; S. Al-Hajjar; S. Myint; S. M. Hussain Qadri

1995-01-01

285

Examining trace metal contamination in an unanthropogenically impacted lake in Algonquin Park: implications for environmental bacterial communities and antibiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the biogeochemical processes influencing the interactions amongst trace metals, microbial communities, pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is key to predicting the emergence, dissemination and maintenance of ABR in the environmental arena. The co-selection of heavy metal resistance and ABR has been documented in metal-contaminated environments. However, as yet, little research has been conducted assessing the metal status of 'pristine'

A. V. Elliott; J. Plach; I. Droppo; L. A. Warren

2009-01-01

286

Environmental relaxation in response to reduced contaminant input: The case of mercury pollution in Haifa Bay, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental relaxation, defined as the rate of return of a polluted environment to an acceptable state following a reduction in the input of contamination, was evaluated for the case of mercury pollution in northern Haifa Bay (Israel) on the basis of the long-term record of mercury levels in sediment cores and biota. Mercury was found to decrease with a half-time

B. Herut; H. Hornung; N. Kress; Y. Cohen

1996-01-01

287

Effect of petroleum oil, pesticides, pCBs and other environmental contaminants on the hatchability of Artemia salina dry eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemia salina Leach is well-known as the brine shrimp used as tropical fish food and its dry eggs are easily obtained at a pet-shop at any season. One or two days after placing the dry eggs into salt water, the nauplius larvae of Artemia begins to hatch. In this paper, the methodlogy on a hatchability test for environmental contaminants and

Katsuyoshi Kuwabara; Akio Nakamura; Takashi Kashimoto

1980-01-01

288

Mother counts: How effects of environmental contaminants on maternal care could affect the offspring and future generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various compounds of anthropogenic origin represent environmental contaminants (EC) that penetrate the food chain and are frequently detected in human milk and maternal blood at the time of delivery. These ECs can affect the development of the fetus and can be transferred to the newborn during lactation. Many studies have used animal models to study the impact of ECs on

J. A. Cummings; L. G. Clemens; A. A. Nunez

2010-01-01

289

Environmental contaminants in prey and tissues of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend Region, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) have been recorded nesting in Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA and other areas of the Chihuahuan Desert since the early 1900s. From 1993 to 1996, peregrine falcon productivity rates were very low and coincided with periods of low rainfall. However, low productivity also was suspected to be caused by environmental contaminants. To evaluate potential impacts

M. Mora; R. Skiles; B. Mckinney; M. Paredes; D. Buckler; D. Papoulias; D. Klein

2002-01-01

290

Environmental Impact Assessment Study: Leaching Of Chemical Contaminants From A Municipal Dump Site Hastsal, DELHI (Capital Of INDIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Environmental Impact Study was carried mainly to assess the extent of groundwater contamination from a sanitary land fill (SLF) site, Hastsal, located in Western part of metropolitan city of Delhi. The characteristic of leachate generated from the site showed that it was acidic and yellowish in colour with very high concentration of dissolved solids, COD and BOD suggesting higher

Inamul Haq

2003-01-01

291

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Selected Methods for Monitoring Chemical Contaminants and Their Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the suite of biological methods of the U.S. Geological Survey-Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends program for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effect on fish. The methods, which were selected by panels of exp...

C. J. Schmitt G. M. Dethloff

2000-01-01

292

Microbiological contamination of cooked meats and environmental sites in premises selling both raw and cooked meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic plate counts and the detection of Escherichia coll and Enterococcus faecalis have been used to investigate microbial contamination of cooked meats and selected environmental sites in butchers’ shops. The performance of butchers who produced ready?cooked meats and those who sold only bought?in meats was compared. The microbiological acceptability of the cooked meats was assessed using the provisional guidelines produced

Grahame M. Tebbutt

1993-01-01

293

Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

2009-01-01

294

Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of

D. J. Nancarrow; M. M. White

2004-01-01

295

Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

NONE

1995-12-01

296

Effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol and environmentally persistent free radicals.  

PubMed

The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs' and the PCP molecules' chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 °C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2-12 × 10(18) spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and line width (?Hp-p) of 2.00311-2.00323 and 4.190-5.472 G, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1-10 × 10(18) spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327-2.00341, and ?Hp-p of 5.209-6.721 G. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 × 10(18) spins/g of soil at 100 °C for open heating and 12 × 10(18) spins/g at 75 °C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2-24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure. PMID:22548284

dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Cook, Robert L; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Dellinger, Barry

2012-05-11

297

Environmental considerations for the disposal of PBB-contaminated animals and wastes.  

PubMed Central

Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal of contaminated carcasses and to prevent any migration of PBBs into ground and surface waters of the area. Materials underneath the site are predominantly sand with layers of silts and clays of glacial origin. The vertical isolation from the surface to the water table is over 90 ft, and the horizontal isolation to the privately owned properties and surface water bodies is well over 1.5 mile in all directions. The site design provides necessary safeguards for minimizing surface water infiltration into disposal trenches and maximizing the protection to the environment. A series of water wells in the direction of flow are established for monitoring groundwater quality for years to come. A 40-acre Gratiot County landfill located near St. Louis, Michigan, has received 269,000 lb of wastes containing 60 to 70% PBBs between 1971 and 1973. PBB wastes are intermixed with general refuse at various depths predominantly in the eastern half of the landfill. Phase I of the hydrogeological investigation shows that the landfill is situated immediately above the groundwater aquifer and a divide. Recently drilled test wells show traces of PBBs in the aquifer in all directions. Additional studies are planned in the near future for corrective measures and monitoring. Images FIGURE 4.

Shah, B P

1978-01-01

298

Tumor suppressors status in cancer cell line Encyclopedia.  

PubMed

Tumor suppressors play a major role in the etiology of human cancer, and typically achieve a tumor-promoting effect upon complete functional inactivation. Bi-allelic inactivation of tumor suppressors may occur through genetic mechanisms (such as loss of function mutation, copy number (CN) loss, or loss of heterozygosity (LOH)), epigenetic mechanisms (such as promoter methylation or histone modification), or a combination of the two. We report systematically derived status of 69 known or putative tumor suppressors, across 799 samples of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. In order to generate such resource we constructed a novel comprehensive computational framework for the assessment of tumor suppressor functional "status". This approach utilizes several orthogonal genomic data types, including mutation data, copy number, LOH and expression. Through correlation with additional data types (compound sensitivity and gene set activity) we show that this integrative method provides a more accurate assessment of tumor suppressor status than can be inferred by expression, copy number, or mutation alone. This approach has the potential for a more realistic assessment of tumor suppressor genes for both basic and translational oncology research. PMID:23639312

Sonkin, Dmitriy; Hassan, Mehedi; Murphy, Denis J; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

2013-04-11

299

Macmillan Encyclopedia of Chemistry (edited by Joseph J. Lagowski)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macmillan: New York, 1997. Four volumes. Figs., tables. lxxi + 1696 pp. 22.0 x 28.5 cm. $400. ISBN 0-02-897225-2. This latest addition to Macmillan's series of comprehensive core science encyclopedias (previous sets dealt with physics and earth sciences) will be of particular interest to readers of this Journal, for it is edited by longtime Journal of Chemical Education editor Joe Lagowski, assisted by a board of five distinguished associate editors. The attractively priced set offers clear explanations of the phenomena and concepts of chemistry and its materials, whether found in industry, the laboratory, or the natural world. It is intended for a broad spectrum of readers-professionals whose work draws on chemical concepts and knowledge (e.g., material scientists, engineers, health workers, biotechnologists, mathematicians, and computer programmers), science teachers at all levels from kindergarten to high school, high school and college students interested in medicine or the sciences, college and university professors, and laypersons desiring information on practical aspects of chemistry (e.g., household cleaning products, food and food additives, manufactured materials, herbicides, the human body, sweeteners, and animal communication).

Kauffman, George B.

1998-11-01

300

Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus  

SciTech Connect

To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we have established a subsystems-based comparative approach and applied it to 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The key stages of our approach include: (i) a homology-based identification of gene candidates using a genomic compilation of ~500 known components of sugar catabolic pathways; (ii) functional assignment of orthologs and prediction of alternative genes and pathway variants based on genomic (operons, regulons) and functional (subsystems, pathways) context analysis; (iii) validation of bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators) spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. The reconstructed catabolic pathways are significantly enriched by nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics, functional organization and evolution of the sugar catabolome, this study confirmed the efficiency of the established approach, which is scalable and applicable to other groups of microorganisms.

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Rodionova, Irina A.; Wang, Yanbing; Obraztsova, Anna; Zagnitko, Olga P.; Overbeek, Ross; Romine, Margaret F.; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Osterman, Andrei L.

2010-09-13

301

THE THREE INTERACTING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS, FOOD CONTAMINATION, AND CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The dietary contribution to an aggregate exposure assessment is potentially an important pathway of exposure especially for young children. Enviornmental contamination appearing in the child's diet can result from contamination in the food as purchased or due to preparing, servin...

302

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: Propellants and their co-contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The demilitarization of propellants by open burning results in the deposition of residues on soils. Residues can consist of the main ingredients in propellant formulations, namely, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine. Co-contaminants, consisting of plasticizers and stabilizers present in propellant formulations as well as environmental degradation products of the propellants, represent additional soil contaminants. These substances include nitrosoguanidine, dibutylphthlate, diethylphthlate, dipenylamine, and ethyl centralite. To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by propellants and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Importantly, information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates species are also addressed. 284 refs.

Mallon, B.; Layton, D.; Fish, R.; Hsieh, P.; Hall, L.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.

1988-08-01

303

Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants,

Theophilus K. Udeigwe; Peter N. Eze; Jasper M. Teboh; Mohammed H. Stietiya

2011-01-01

304

Pulmonary toxicity and environmental contamination: radicals, electron transfer, and protection by antioxidants.  

PubMed

The atmosphere is replete with a mixture of toxic substances, both natural and man-made. Inhalation of toxic substances produces a variety of insults to the pulmonary system. Lung poisons include industrial materials, particulates from mining and combustion, agricultural chemicals, cigarette smoke, ozone, and nitrogen oxides, among a large number of other chemicals and environmental contaminants. Many proposals have been advanced to explain the mode of action of pulmonary toxicants. In this review we focus on mechanisms of pulmonary toxicity that involve ET, ROS, and OS. The vast majority of toxicants or their metabolites possess chemical ET functionalities that can undergo redox cycling. Such recycling may generate ROS that can injure various cellular constituents in the lung and in other tissues. ET agents include quinones, metal complexes, aromatic nitro compounds, and conjugated iminium ions. Often, these agents are formed metabolically from parent toxicants. Such metabolic reactions are often catalytic and require only small amounts of the offending material. Oxidative attack is commonly associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidation of DNA, and it may result in strand cleavage and 8-OH-DG production. Toxicity is often accompanied by depletion of natural AOs, which further exacerbates the toxic effect. It is not surprising that the use of AOs, both natural in fruits and vegetables, as well as synthetic, may provide protection from the adverse effects of toxicant exposure. The mechanistic framework described earlier is also applicable to some of the more prominent pulmonary illnesses, such as asthma, COPD, and cancer. PMID:19484588

Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

2009-01-01

305

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, we collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 ?g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 ?g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J. M.; Karasov, W. H.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K. L.; Hanbidge, B. A.; Giesy, J. P.; Jones, P. D.; Tillitt, D. E.; Verbrugge, D. A.

1996-01-01

306

Environmental contamination and risk assessment of mercury from a historic mercury mine located in southwestern China.  

PubMed

A field survey of mercury pollution in environmental media and human hair samples obtained from residents living in the area surrounding the Chatian mercury mine (CMM) of southwestern China was conducted to evaluate the health risks of mercury to local residents. The results showed that mine waste, and tailings in particular, contained high levels of mercury and that the maximum mercury concentration was 88.50 ?g g(-1). Elevated mercury levels were also found in local surface water, paddy soil, and paddy grain, which may cause severe health problems. The mercury concentration of hair samples from the inhabitants of the CMM exceeded 1.0 ?g g(-1), which is the limit recommended by the US EPA. Mercury concentrations in paddy soil were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in paddy roots, stalks, and paddy grains, which suggested that paddy soil was the major source of mercury in paddy plant tissue. The average daily dose (ADD) of mercury for local adults and preschool children via oral exposure reached 0.241 and 0.624 ?g kg(-1) body weight per day, respectively, which is approaching or exceeds the provisional tolerable daily intake. Among the three oral exposure routes, the greatest contributor to the ADD of mercury was the ingestion of rice grain. Open-stacked mine tailings have resulted in heavy mercury contamination in the surrounding soil, and the depth of appreciable soil mercury concentrations exceeded 100 cm. PMID:22722913

Li, Yonghua

2012-06-22

307

Metal fractionation in soils and assessment of environmental contamination in Vallecamonica, Italy.  

PubMed

Metal contamination was investigated in soils of the Vallecamonica, an area in the northern part of the Brescia province (Italy), where ferroalloy industries were active for a century until 2001. The extent in which emissions from ferroalloy plants affected metal concentration in soils is not known in this area. In this study, the geogenic and/or anthropogenic origin of metals in soils were estimated. A modified Community Bureau of Reference sequential chemical extraction method followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analyses were employed to evaluate the potential bioavailability of Al, Cd, Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Pb in soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the relationships among metal sources in soil samples from different locations. This approach allowed distinguishing of different loadings and mobility of metals in soils collected in different areas. Results showed high concentrations and readily extractability of Mn in the Vallecamonica soils, which may suggest potential bioavailability for organisms and may create an environmental risk and potential health risk of human exposure. PMID:23338992

Borgese, L; Federici, S; Zacco, A; Gianoncelli, A; Rizzo, L; Smith, D R; Donna, F; Lucchini, R; Depero, L E; Bontempi, E

2013-01-22

308

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture carcasses and nearly all raven carcasses at generally moderate concentrations. Other organochlorines occurred infrequently in carcasses and generally at low concentrations. Turkey vulture eggshells were 16% thinner than the pre-DDT mean; there was no change in shell thickness of raven eggs. Vulture eggs contained an average of 6.9 ppm DDE and two contained excessive concentrations of endrin. DDE concentrations were low in raven eggs. Residues of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Se, Tl, and Zn in tissues of vultures and ravens appeared normal when compared with reference values for other species. Lead concentrations in bone of turkey vultures and feathers of condors appeared to be elevated above normal background concentrations in some cases. Current exposure of condors to organochlorines appears low; however, we are concerned about the excessive exposure of turkey vultures to organochlorines, possibly in Central America. Lead exposure to vultures and condors has occurred, but its significance to their populations is unknown.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Jurek, R.M.; Moore, J.F.

1986-01-01

309

Longitudinal study of Salmonella dispersion and the role of environmental contamination in commercial swine production systems.  

PubMed

This study investigated the roles of various environmental sources, such as truck-washing systems, waste-processing lagoons, and other sources, as potential contributors to the exposure and dissemination of Salmonella in commercial swine production systems. Four cohorts of nursery age swine herds which originated from distinct farm flows were selected. In addition, cross-sectional sampling of four truck wash stations selected based on the types of disinfectants and sources of water used for sanitizing trucks were tested. Salmonella isolates were recovered from pigs (feces, cecal contents, and mesenteric lymph nodes) and environmental sources (barn floor, lagoon, barn flush, trucks, and holding pens). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotyping were conducted using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and amplified fragment length polymorphism, respectively. Salmonella prevalence significantly increased with age from late nursery to slaughter for all of the cohorts (P = 0.007). In two of three instances, all three pig holding pens (lairage) sampled at processing were Salmonella positive. The predominant antibiotypes for all sources included ACSSuT (51.8%), SSuT (16.8%), T (6%), and pansusceptible (7.4%). For the isolates obtained at the farms, the ACSSuT phenotype was 5.6 times more likely to be found in the animals than in the environment (95% confidence interval, 4.4 to 7.2 times). Serogroup B was the most common serogroup (79%), followed by serogroup E (10.4%). Despite the fact that the four production flows were independent, 1 of the 11 genotypic clusters (cluster A1) was commonly detected in any type of sample regardless of its origin. Five of the genotypic clusters (clusters A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7) contained isolates that originated from trucks and lairage swabs and also from cecal contents and/or mesenteric lymph nodes. More interestingly, genotypic clusters A3, A4, and A6 (but not clusters A5 and A7) were not detected on the farms. They originated from the trucks and lairage swabs and then were identified from the cecal contents and/or mesenteric lymph nodes. These findings underscore the significance of various environmental factors, including inadequate truck-washing systems, and emphasize the role of lairage contamination by Salmonella that has food safety significance. PMID:19139233

Dorr, Paul M; Tadesse, Daniel A; Zewde, Bayleyegn Molla; Fry, Pamela; Thakur, Siddhartha; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

2009-01-09

310

Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

Fontaine, T.A.

1991-11-01

311

Decline in heavy metal contamination in marine sediments in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia due to increasing environmental regulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 210Pb geochronology, heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, and Pb), and stable Pb isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 207Pb) of three sediment cores collected from Jakarta Bay were analyzed to decipher the history of heavy metal contamination in the period 1900-2006. The chemical and isotopic analyses clearly suggest that anthropogenic metal accumulation in the sediments began in the 1920s and increased greatly from the 1970s until the end of the 1990s. From the end of the 1990s to 2006, accumulation rates were constant or decreased for Zn and Pb near the coastal industrialized area. Comparison of economic data and sociological information suggests that the decline in the concentrations of heavy metals could be attributed to the stricter environmental regulations which were enforced at the end of 1990s. However, metal contamination is currently still an important cause of concern in dealing with environmental preservation and protection in Jakarta Bay.

Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Delinom, Robert; Umezawa, Yu; Toyota, Tomoyo; Kaneko, Shinji; Taniguchi, Makoto

2011-04-01

312

Effects of environmental contaminant exposure on visual brain development: a prospective electrophysiological study in school-aged children.  

PubMed

The Inuit from Nunavik (Northern Québec) are one of the most highly exposed populations to environmental contaminants in North America mainly due to the bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and marine mammals that constitute an important part of their diet. This follow-up study aimed to assess the impact of exposure to contaminants on visual brain development in school-age Inuit children (mean age=10.9 years). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in umbilical cord blood and again in blood samples at the time of testing, reflecting pre- and current exposure, respectively. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were scalp-recorded at the occipital cortex. Visual stimulation consisted of achromatic gratings presented at four visual contrast levels: 95%, 30%, 12% and 4%. The relation between environmental contaminant body burdens and VEPs was examined by regression analysis controlling for confounding variables, including fish nutrients and other toxicants. No significant association was found for PCB exposure after statistical adjustments. Cord blood mercury level was associated with a reduction of the N75 amplitude at the highest contrast level and with a delay of the N75 latency at the 12% contrast level. Prenatal exposure to lead was associated with a delay of the N150 latency at most contrast levels. This study suggests that heavy metal exposure, in particular during the gestational period, can impair the development of visual processing. PMID:22683800

Ethier, Audrey-Anne; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Arfken, Cynthia; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Saint-Amour, Dave

2012-06-07

313

Serum Concentrations of Various Environmental Contaminants and Their Relationship to Sex Steroid Concentrations and Phallus Size in Juvenile American Alligators  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recent studies have reported a number of abnormalities in the hatchling and juvenile alligators of Lake Apopka, FL (USA).\\u000a These abnormalities include modifications of plasma concentrations of sex steroids in males and females as well as abnormalities\\u000a in gonadal morphology, gonadal enzyme activity, and steroidogenesis. Embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants in the\\u000a eggs has been hypothesized to be the

L. J. Guillette Jr.; J. W. Brock; A. A. Rooney; A. R. Woodward

1999-01-01

314

Sources of Organic Contaminants in Solvents and Implications for Geochemistry and Environmental Forensics: An Example from Local Vendors in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two solvents, n-hexane and petroleum ether, commonly used for extract analysis of geological and environmental samples and purchased from chemical suppliers in Nigeria, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantitative determination of organic background contaminants. Series of n-alkanes and n-alk-1-enes in the carbon number range of nC16–nC26, the latter with an even predominance (Cmax 16 and 18) were observed.

Bassey O. Ekpo; Orok E. Oyo-Ita; Daniel R. Oros; Bernd R. T. Simoneit

2012-01-01

315

Effect of petroleum oil, pesticides, PCBs and other environmental contaminants on the hatchability of Artemia salina dry eggs  

SciTech Connect

Artemia salina Leach is well-known as the brine shrimp used as tropical fish food and its dry eggs are easily obtained at a pet-shop at any season. One or two days after placing the dry eggs into salt water, the nauplius larvae of Artemia begins to hatch. In this paper, the methodlogy on a hatchability test for environmental contaminants and their effects on the dry egg hatchabilities are presented.

Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, A.; Kashimoto, T.

1980-07-01

316

SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of

S. Kwong; J. Small; B. Tahar

2007-01-01

317

Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health

S. N. Burman; D. C. Landguth; M. S. Uziel; T. L. Hatmaker; P. F. Tiner

1992-01-01

318

PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate (ClO4-) is an anion that originates as a contaminant in ground water and surface waters when the salts of ammonium, potassium, magnesium, or sodium dissolve in water. One major source of contamination is the manufacture or improper disposal of ammonium perchlorate th...

319

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disrupters. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals an...

320

Aquatic insects as environmental monitors of trace metal contamination: Red River, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discontinuous sampling of water for toxic chemicals is unreliable in lotic ecosystems or in systems subjected to sporadic discharges. Such sampling either fails to detect the contaminants or seriously underestimates their concentrations. This study explored the use of resident aquatic insects as biomonitors of trace metal contamination in a river subjected to episodic spills of Mo mill tailings. Aquatic insects

T. R. Lynch; C. J. Popp; G. Z. Jacobi

1988-01-01

321

Amendments for the in situ remediation of contaminated sediments: Evaluation of potential environmental impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active sediment caps represent a comparatively new technology for remediating contaminated sediments. They are made by applying chemically active amendments that reduce contaminant mobility and bioavailability to the sediment surface. The objective of this study was to determine if active cap amendments including organoclay, apatite, and biopolymers have the potential to harm benthic organisms. Methods included laboratory bioassays of amendment

Michael H. Paller; Anna S. Knox

2010-01-01

322

Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the

Lolita Tsanaclis; John F. C. Wicks

2008-01-01

323

Biomarker-based biomonitoring for evaluating health and ecological effects on environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a research approach for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment. The approach uses wild animals and introduced caged animals near hazardous waste sites as (1) sentinels of bioavailable contaminants, (2) predictors of adverse ecological effects, and (3) surrogates to estimate the potential exposure and risks to humans living near these sites.

J. F. McCarthy; L. R. Shugart; B. D. Jimenez

1991-01-01

324

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Rio Grande Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites in the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998. Four sites were National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. The other six were USGS-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations where water quality is monitored. The objectives were to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative organic and inorganic contaminants in RGB fish and the effects of contaminants on the fish; to continue testing the feasibility of incorporating biomarkers (that is, biochemical, histopathological, and other biological indicators of contaminant exposure or effects) into a monitoring program for large U.S. rivers; and to evaluate the compatibility of monitoring methods based on the analysis of fish with those used to monitor water by NASQAN. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus sp.; bass) were the targeted species; together, they represented 77% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed by instrumental methods for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from stations in the lower RGB contained greater concentrations of some contaminants and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by general gradient of pesticide concentrations and biomarker responses from upstream to downstream. In the upper RGB, a minimal number of altered biomarkers and few or no elevated contaminant concentrations were noted. The exception was elevated concentrations [up to 0.46 ug/g wet-weight (ww)] of total mercury (Hg) in predatory species from Station 63 (Rio Grande at Elephant Butte Reservior, NM), a condition noted in the past.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Coyle, James J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

325

Bioaccumulation and biochemical markers in feral crab (Carcinus maenas) exposed to moderate environmental contamination--the impact of non-contamination-related variables.  

PubMed

Moderate contamination is a challenging scenario for ecotoxicologists because of the occurrence of subtle biomarker responses and the increased relevance of non-contamination related variables. This investigative biomonitoring study was performed in a moderately contaminated coastal system (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal) to examine winter-summer variations on biochemical responses and accumulated metals in Carcinus maenas, searching for associations with environmental and biological factors. Males and females were collected in three sites: Barrosa (BB) and Bom-Sucesso (BS) in upper lagoon, and the middle lagoon (ML), closer to the lagoon inlet. Water and sediment were monitored for metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd). Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione content (GSH(t) ), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), as well as Cu, Mn, Ni, Cr and Cd were measured in the crabs' hepatopancreas. Inter-site differences, though infrequent, pointed to the presence of crab stressors at BB. This was particularly obvious in summer when higher GST as well as lower GSH(t) and EROD were found in females, and accompanied by higher Ni accumulation. Seasonal differences of biochemical responses superimposed spatial variations in line with the contrasting winter-summer conditions regarding water quality and, to a lesser extent, with metal bioaccumulation. CAT, GSH(t) , and LPO were higher in summer, whereas enhancements of GPx and GST were recorded in winter. Winter increases were in agreement with higher availability of metals in water and enhancement of accumulated levels, particularly in females as emphasized by a bioaccumulation index. On the other hand, increases in summer were mainly driven by non-contamination related factors. Males and females exhibited different patterns of metal accumulation and biochemical responses, with females being more responsive, as confirmed by a general stress index (IBR). Results recommend gender separation in biomonitoring programs using crabs. The integration of biochemical responses into IBR substantiated data interpretation. This is particularly relevant under moderate contamination allowing for better site-distinction rather than biochemical responses considered individually. PMID:20725935

Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Subida, Maria Dulce; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Mário

2010-08-19

326

REPORT ON THE PEER REVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA'S "Perchlorate ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION (External Review Draft)" 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the comments made at a two-day independent scientific peer review meeting on the Agency's draft assessment of health and ecotoxicological effects of perchlorate, entitled Perchlorate Environmental Contamination: Toxicological Review and Risk Characteriza...

327

Environmental effects of dredging: Trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The terms bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, trophic transfer, and trophic transfer coefficient are defined to avoid confusion, as they have been used inconsistently throughout the literature (Dallinger and others 1987). Bioconcentration is the uptake of a contaminant by aquatic organisms where water is the sole containment source. Bioaccumulation is the uptake of a contaminent from both water and dietary sources. Biomagnification refers to the processes of both bioconcentration and bioaccumulation that result in increased tissue concentrations of a contaminant as it passes through two or more trophic levels (Macek, Petrocelli, and Sleight 1979). Trophic transfer is defined as the transport of contaminants between two trophic levels (that is, prey to predator) (Swartz and Lee 1980). Trophic transfer coefficient (FTC) is the concentration of contaminant in consumer tissue divided by the concentration of contaminant in food sources (that is, preceding trophic level). A TTC is an approximate measure of the potential for a contaminant to biomagnify. Biomagnification occurs when concentrations of a material increase between two or more trophic levels (that is, TTC>1) and is a sub- set of trophic transfer, which refers to any movement of a material between trophic levels (that is, TTC can be greater than or less than 1). If trophic transfer is determined to be substantially >1, biomagnification is said to occur. If a TTC value is <1%, biomagnification is judged not to take place.

Dillon, T.M.; Suedel, B.C.; Peddicord, R.K.; Clifford, P.A.; Boraczek, J.A.

1995-01-01

328

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

1999-01-01

329

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

Not Available

1991-10-01

330

SLIDE PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

While pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous trace contaminants in the environment, thetypes, concentrations, and relative abundances of individual residues will vary depending on thegeographic locale and time of year, primarily a reflection of differing and varying prescribing andconsum...

331

Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming (Biologically Active Elements Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sediment, water and biota were collected from selected wetlands in Wyoming for the Biologically Active Elements (BAE) Study in 1988, 1989 and 1990 to identify contaminant problems that may warrant further study. This report also will assist in developing ...

P. Ramirez J. Armstrong

1992-01-01

332

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

Not Available

1992-03-01

333

Environmental Effects of Dredging. Regulatory Identification of Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Dredged Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This note summarizes the findings of a workshop convened to assist Corps regulators in the evaluation of hydrocarbon contamination in dredged material. The workshop participants suggested a list of 15 compounds to be used in a tiered testing approach. The...

1987-01-01

334

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01

335

Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China.  

PubMed

In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p<0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:22414496

Alabi, Okunola A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

2012-03-11

336

Alterations in morphometric and organosomatic indices and histopathological analyses indicative of environmental contamination in Mullet, Mugil liza, from Southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Mullet (Mugil liza) were sampled in five different areas along the Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil, classified as non-contaminated, moderately contaminated and contaminated. Morphometric (Fulton condition factor, relative condition factor and weight to length scaling coefficient) and organosomatic (hepatosomatic index) indices of environmental stress were analysed. Fish from the differentially contaminated areas show statistically different Fulton and relative condition factors and hepatosomatic indices, but not the weight to length scaling coefficient. The Kn and the FCF followed the same trend, with fish from São Gonçalo (1.07 ± 0.04 and 0.89 ± 0.03), Itaipu (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.86 ± 0.01) and the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (1.03 ± 0.01 and 0.87 ± 0.20) showing higher FCFs than fish from Magé (0.96 ± 0.01 and 0.81 ± 0.01). Fish from Itaipu showed significantly higher HSI values than the other sampling sites (1.68 ± 0.07), with fish from Olaria and Ipiranga showing the lowest (1.56 ± 0.12 and 1.60 ± 0.07, respectively). PMID:23052584

Hauser-Davis, R A; Lavandier, R C; Bastos, F F; Oliveira, T F; Ribeiro, C A Oliveira; Ziolli, R L; de Campos, R C

2012-10-02

337

An Environmental Health Assessment: Fecal Coliform Contamination in San Francisco Waterbodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria that exists in the digestive system and excrement of warm-blooded animals. It enters aquatic environments through fecal contamination of water. In the urban environment, contamination can occur not only by direct input from warm-blooded animals but also from storm water run-off and municipal sewer overflow. Fecal coliform itself does not cause disease but

K. N. Devillier; M. Devine; R. Negrete; A. L. Rawley; J. Neiss

2007-01-01

338

Effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing the spread of Norovirus contamination via environmental surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay was used to study the transfer of Norovirus (NV) from contaminated faecal material via fingers and cloths to other hand-contact surfaces. The results showed that, where fingers come into contact with virus-contaminated material, NV is consistently transferred via the fingers to melamine surfaces and from there to other typical hand-contact surfaces, such as

J. Barker; I. B. Vipond; S. F. Bloomfield

2004-01-01

339

Contaminant Fate/Transport Modeling for Environmental Consequences of IPET Task 9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents mathematical model studies conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts of Hurricane Katrina. One of the primary environmental concerns associated with Hurricane Katrina was the impacts to ecological resources stemming from contam...

M. S. Dortch M. Zakikhani S. Kim

2006-01-01

340

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Columbia River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project examined and analyzed 560 fish representing eight species from 16 sites in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998. Ten of the 16 sampling locations were historical National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) sites where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. Five sites were co-located at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations at which water quality is monitored. The sampling location at Marine Park in Vancouver, Washington did not correspond to either of the established monitoring programs. Eight of the sampling locations were located on the Columbia River; three were on the Snake River; two were on the Willamette River, and one site was on each of the Yakima, Salmon and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black basses (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) together accounted for 80% of the fish sampled during the study. Fish were weighed and measured then field-examined for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

341

Action Research: Addendum to the Encyclopedia of Distance Education Research in Iowa. Revised 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Action Research" and the "Encyclopedia of Distance Education Research" (1994) are designed as resources for distance education research in Iowa, including information on developing, implementing, and administering distance education systems. This addendum containing an additional seven research studies includes the following papers: "Innovations…

Maushak, Nancy J. Ed.; Manternach-Wigans, Lynn, Ed.

342

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Volume 1, Acadians -- Iranian Americans [and] Volume 2, Irish Americans -- Yupiat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-volume encyclopedia includes essays on distinct ethnic, ethnoreligious, or Native American groups in the United States, arranged in alphabetical order. It is intended as a comprehensive reference source in the area of multiculturalism in the United States. The groups were selected according to the magnitude of the group based on 1990 U.S.…

Vecoli, Rudolph J., Ed.; And Others

343

"Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

Krueger, Karla

2009-01-01

344

Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the view that insights from psychology, sociology, and medicine can enhance our understanding of the history of the family, this two-volume encyclopedia focuses on psychological aspects of the parent-child relationship, parenthood, and child development. Cultural, social, and historical matters and biological concepts are discussed when…

Balter, Lawrence, Ed.

345

Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the view that insights from psychology, sociology, and medicine can enhance our understanding of the history of the family, this two-volume encyclopedia focuses on psychological aspects of the parent-child relationship, parenthood, and child development. Cultural, social, and historical matters and biological concepts are discussed when…

Balter, Lawrence, Ed.

346

Measuring association populations using the Encyclopedia of Associations: Evidence from the field of labor unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying populations of organizations has been a significant methodological challenge for scholars interested in examining various organizational dynamics. A common solution has been to rely upon a prior list or database of organizations. One such database on voluntary national organizations is the Encyclopedia of Associations (EA), a standard tool for sociologists and political scientists interested in associations. This paper compares

Andrew W. Martin; Frank R. Baumgartner; John D. McCarthy

2006-01-01

347

Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Girls, who used to be second-class citizens, are now coming into their own. Still, girls' lives, their experiences, and their roles in the social, cultural, economic, and political history of the United States have been widely overlooked. This reference encyclopedia presents more than 100 signed articles by 98 high-profile interdisciplinary…

Forman-Brunell, Miriam, Ed.

348

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Volume 1, Acadians -- Iranian Americans [and] Volume 2, Irish Americans -- Yupiat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This two-volume encyclopedia includes essays on distinct ethnic, ethnoreligious, or Native American groups in the United States, arranged in alphabetical order. It is intended as a comprehensive reference source in the area of multiculturalism in the United States. The groups were selected according to the magnitude of the group based on 1990…

Vecoli, Rudolph J., Ed.; And Others

349

LOCATION BASED CELL PHONE ACCESS TO THE WIKIPEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA FOR M-LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach to access the content of the free Wikipedia on line encyclopedia with ordinary cell phones. No connection to the mobile Internet is required. Mobile users are able to request Wikipedia articles via SMS or via touch tone input in a voice menu. An audio representation of the requested articles will be generated in real

Andreas Bischoff

350

Efficient Analysis of Non-Polar Environmental Contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS with Graphene as Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Application Note, we describe, for the first time, the rapid analysis of hydrophobic compounds present in environmental\\u000a contaminants, which includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estrogen, by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization\\u000a time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with the use of graphene as matrix. MALDI-TOF MS with conventional matrix\\u000a has limitations in analyzing low-polarity compounds owing to their difficulty in

Jing Zhang; Xiaoli Dong; Jinsheng Cheng; Jinghong Li; Yinsheng Wang

2011-01-01

351

Environmental contamination associated with a marine landfill ('seafill') beside a coral reef.  

PubMed

In Bermuda, bulk waste such as scrap metal, cars, etc., and blocks of cement-stabilized incinerator ash (produced from burning garbage) are disposed of in a foreshore reclamation site, i.e., a seafill. Chemical analyses show that seawater leaching out of the dump regularly exceeds water quality guidelines for Zn and Cu, and that the surrounding sediments are enriched in multiple contaminant classes (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and an organochlorine pesticide), i.e., there is a halo of contamination. When compared against biological effects-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), numerous sediment samples exceeded the low-range values (where biological effects become possible), and for Hg and Zn exceeded the mid-range value (where they become probable). A few metres away from the edge of the 25 acre dump lies a small coral patch reef, proposed here as most contaminated coral reef in the world. PMID:20728189

Jones, Ross

2010-08-21

352

Environmental impacts and metal exposure of aquatic ecosystems in rivers contaminated by small scale gold mining: the Puyango River basin, southern Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold mining in the Portovelo-Zaruma district in southern Ecuador is causing considerable environmental impacts; the most important ones are related to the discharge of cyanide, mercury and metal rich tailings into rivers of the Puyango catchment area. Cyanide and metal levels in rivers regularly exceed environmental quality criteria. The contamination impacts biodiversity, with cyanide causing a direct lethal effect on

N. H Tarras-Wahlberg; A Flachier; O Sangfors

2001-01-01

353

Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment – Forensic applications of environmental data, Part 2: Pharmaceuticals as chemical markers of faecal water contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript is part two of a two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. In this paper pharmaceuticals were investigated as potential chemical indicators of water contamination with sewage. The monitoring program carried out in Wales revealed that some pharmaceuticals are particularly persistent

Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern; Richard M. Dinsdale; Alan J. Guwy

2009-01-01

354

A 90Day Drinking Water Toxicity Study in Rats of the Environmental Contaminant Ammonium Perchlorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate (ClO4 - ), the dissociated anion of perchlorate salts such as ammonium, potassium, and sodium perchlorate, has been recently recognized as a persistent and pervasive contaminant of drinking water supplies in a number of metropolitan areas. Per- chlorate is of concern because of uncertainties in the toxicological database available to address the potential human health effects of low-level exposure.

Joseph C. Siglin; David R. Mattie; Darol E. Dodd; Paul K. Hildebrandt; William H. Baker

2000-01-01

355

Remediation of a large contaminated reactor cooling reservoir: Resolving and environmental\\/regulatory paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of a former reactor cooling water reservoir, PAR Pond, located Savannah River Site. PAR Pond, a 2640 acre, man-made reservoir was built in 1958 and until 1988, received cooling water from two DOE nuclear production reactors, P and R. The lake sediments were contaminated with low levels of radiocesium (CS-137) and transuranics in the

H. M. Hickey; M. P. Jones; H. E. Mackey; J. J. Mayer; A. Doswell

1994-01-01

356

The environmental fate of arsenic in surface soil contaminated by historical herbicide application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils from many industrial sites are contaminated with arsenic because of the historical application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. The strong affinity of aqueous arsenic species for soil components has led to the retention of significant amounts of arsenic in surface soils decades after the original source application. Soil collected from a site which received a one-time surficial application of

Yongqiang Qi; Rona J. Donahoe

2008-01-01

357

Environmental contaminants in four eider species from Alaska and arctic Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population declines in four species of eider; common (Somateria mollissima), king (Somateria spectabilis), spectacled (Somateria fischeri) and Steller's (Polysticta stelleri), have raised concerns about exposure to contaminants. Livers and kidney tissues were collected from eiders in Alaska and Russia for organic and elemental analyses. Results showed that organochlorine and many elemental levels were below toxic thresholds; however, in many cases,

Jordan H Stout; Kimberly A Trust; Jean F Cochrane; Robert S Suydam; Lori T Quakenbush

2002-01-01

358

Role of Expandable Clays in the Environmental Fate of Trinitrotoluene Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A primary goal of the U.S. military cleanup effort is to develop technologies that can expedite the remediation of explosive contaminants in soils. Nitroaromatic explosives are known to be strongly adsorbed by soils, with as much as 20 to 50 percent of ra...

S. L. Larson C. A. Weiss M. R. Martino J. W. Adams

1998-01-01

359

Environmental Sampling Procedures and Methods to Respond to Biological Contamination (White Powder)  

SciTech Connect

This is a contribution to the annual report for the DHS Standards Office. It summarizes statistics-focused work associated with developing validated sampling procedures and methods. The main focus is on the experimental and sampling design constructed for contamination and decontamination field tests conducted during September 2007 in a remote, unused office building on the Idaho National Laboratory site.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

2008-11-01

360

A free-enzyme catalyst for the bioremediation of environmental atrazine contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide contamination from agriculture is a major issue worldwide, and has been identified as a threat to freshwater and marine environments in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area in Australia. The triazine herbicides are of particular concern because of potential adverse effects, both on photosynthetic organisms and upon vertebrate development. To date a number of bioremediation strategies have been

Colin Scott; Steve E. Lewis; Rob Milla; Matthew C. Taylor; Andrew J. W. Rodgers; Geoff Dumsday; Jon E. Brodie; John G. Oakeshott; Robyn J. Russell

2010-01-01

361

Characterization of Environmental Hazard Maps of Metal Contamination in Guadiamar River Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology to account for uncertainties in mapping of the probability of soil contamination by different heavy metals. The methodology is based on a co-simulation technique using direct sequential simulation of a multivariate set of variables, with each variable simulated based on hard data, the heavy-metal concentrations in the soil, and on soft data, consisting of a

C. Franco; A. Soares; J. Delgado-García

362

Environmental contamination associated with a marine landfill (‘seafill’) beside a coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bermuda, bulk waste such as scrap metal, cars, etc., and blocks of cement-stabilized incinerator ash (produced from burning garbage) are disposed of in a foreshore reclamation site, i.e., a seafill. Chemical analyses show that seawater leaching out of the dump regularly exceeds water quality guidelines for Zn and Cu, and that the surrounding sediments are enriched in multiple contaminant

Ross Jones

2010-01-01

363

Association of environmental air contaminants with disease and productivity in swine.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional epidemiologic study associating air quality with swine health was conducted on 28 swine farms in southern Sweden. Correlation of housing air environment to swine diseases and productivity (data collected over the preceding 12 months) were investigated. The most prevalent swine health problems detected at slaughter were pneumonia and pleuritis. In farrowing and nursery operations, the most prevalent problem was neonatal pig mortality. Several air contaminants (dust, ammonia carbon dioxide, and microbes) were found to be correlated with these swine health problems. Maximal safe concentrations of air contaminants were estimated on the basis of dose-response correlation to swine health or human health problems. Recommended maximal concentrations of contaminant were: dust, 2.4 mg/m3; ammonia, 7 ppm; endotoxin, 0.08 mg/m3; total microbes, 10(5) colony-forming units/m3; and carbon dioxide, 1,540 ppm. The overall quality of the ventilation system was correlated with lower concentration of ammonia, carbon dioxide, microorganisms, and endotoxin, but not with dust concentrations. High animal density was related to high ammonia and air microbe concentrations. Animal density measured as kilograms of swine per cubic meter (compared with kilograms of pig weight or swine per square meter) had the highest correlation to animal health and air contaminants. PMID:1767997

Donham, K J

1991-10-01

364

Decision Support Systems for Geo-Environmental Engineering with Specific Reference to Contaminated Land Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site investigation as the first stage of contaminated land remediation is an interdisciplinary, resource demanding operation that involves processes and activities from different fields, encompassing a wide range of professional expertise. Site investigation is a critically important stage as the findings provide the basis of any decision making, and as such any problems not dealt with at this stage affects

A. Bello-Dambatta; A. A. Javadi; J. Martin

365

Statistical Design and Analysis in the Cleanup of Environmental Radionuclide Contamination. DRI Publication No. 45012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cleanup of Eniwetok Island before the return of former residents is discussed. Of the contaminants in the soil of the atoll, the most important for cleanup are Pu-238, 239,240, and Am-241, which are present in sufficient quantities to require cleanup,...

M. G. Barnes

1978-01-01

366

Environmental Contamination with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospital Sewage in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected in samples of sewage obtained downstream of hospitals of the Porto area in Portugal, and in samples from the Douro Estuary. Clonal analysis, Tn1546 typing, and presence of putative virulence traits indicate the clinical origin of these isolates. This observation highlights the importance of hospital sewage in the VRE contamination of the environment.

Novais, Carla; Coque, Teresa M.; Ferreira, Helena; Sousa, Joao Carlos; Peixe, Luisa

2005-01-01

367

Groundwater Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by the Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum presents an interactive module that provides an introduction to groundwater quality issues. The information is presented as a series of slides with text, animations, quiz questions and interactive features. Topics include types of aquifers, groundwater movement, sources of contamination, the concentration and dispersion of contaminants, plumes and remediation.

Babcock, Matthew; Mayer, Alex; Curriculum, Michigan E.

368

Food contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed

G. Kazantzis

1974-01-01

369

Potential hazards of environmental contaminants to avifauna residing in the Chesapeake Bay estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A search of the Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database revealed that 70% of the 839 Chesapeake Bay records deal with avian species. Studies conducted on waterbirds in the past 15 years indicate that organochlorine contaminants have declined in eggs and tissues, although p,p'-DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and coplanar PCB congeners may still exert sublethal and reproductive effects in some locations. There have been numerous reports of avian die-off events related to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. More contemporary contaminants (e.g., alkylphenols, ethoxylates, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are detectable in bird eggs in the most industrialized portions of the Bay, but interpretation of these data is difficult because adverse effect levels are incompletely known for birds. Two moderaterized oil spills resulted in the death of several hundred birds, and about 500 smaller spill events occur annually in the watershed. With the exception of lead, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in eggs and tissues appear to be below toxic thresholds for waterbirds. Fishing tackle and discarded plastics, that can entangle and kill young and adults, are prevalent in nests in some Bay tributaries. It is apparent that exposure and potential effects of several classes of contaminants (e.g., dioxins, dibenzofurans, rodenticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, lead shot, and some metals) have not been systematically examined in the past 15 years, highlighting the need for toxicological evaluation of birds found dead, and perhaps an avian ecotoxicological monitoring program. Although oil spills, spent lead shot, some pesticides, and industrial pollutants occasionally harm Chesapeake avifauna, contaminants no longer evoke the population level effects that were observed in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) through the 1970s.

Rattner, B. A.; McGowan, P. C.

2007-01-01

370

Risk communication: Health risks associated with environmentally contaminated private wells versus chloroform in a public water supply  

SciTech Connect

During March 1988, 16 private wells in Sault St. Marie, Michigan, were found to be contaminated with one or more environmental contaminants. Risk assessments for carcinogens (benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) were formulated. The maximum concentration of chloroform in the city public water supply was 26 [mu]g/L. The relative health risk from the consumption of chlorinated surface water from the public water supply system would be approximately 4.3 times greater compared to that of consuming groundwater from the contaminated private wells. The affected residents were given three options: (a) continue consumption of bottled water; (b) connection to the existing public water supply system; or (c) construction of deep water wells. The citizens voted for the second option of connecting to the public water supply system and voluntarily accepted the relatively higher health risk. The State of Michigan later proposed to further improve the water purity by upgrading the public water supply system by the incorporation of a filtration plant. The project was completed in August 1993.

Sidhu, K.S.; Chadzynski, L. (Michigan Dept. of Public Health, Lansing, MI (United States))

1994-06-01

371

Quantifying volatile organic compounds in porous media: effects of sampling method attributes, contaminant characteristics and environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Understanding how sampling methods can impact the accuracy of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements in samples of soil and subsurface porous media is often critical to sound decision making during characterization and remediation of VOC contaminated sites. In this study, the accuracy of VOC measurements was investigated using an experimental apparatus packed with sandy porous media and contaminated with known levels of VOCs, which could be sampled using different methods under variable, but controlled, conditions. Five sampling methods were examined representing different degrees of porous media disaggregation and duration of atmospheric exposure (MDE) that can occur during sample acquisition and preservation in the field. Three pervasive VOCs were studied (1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene) at low and high concentration levels. Five porous media temperatures were examined ranging from 5 to 80 degrees C to represent ambient or thermal remediation conditions and two water saturation levels were used to mimic vadose zone and groundwater zone conditions. The results of this research demonstrated that sampling method attributes can impact the accuracy of VOC measurements in porous media by causing negative bias in VOC concentration data ranging from near 0 to 90% or more. The magnitude of the negative bias is dependent on the attributes of the sampling method used (i.e., level of MDE) and interactions with key contaminant properties and environmental conditions (i.e., VOC KH, porous media temperature, water saturation level). PMID:19475967

Oesterreich, Ryan C; Siegrist, Robert L

2009-04-15

372

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

373

Efficient Analysis of Non-Polar Environmental Contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS with Graphene as Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Application Note, we describe, for the first time, the rapid analysis of hydrophobic compounds present in environmental contaminants, which includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estrogen, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with the use of graphene as matrix. MALDI-TOF MS with conventional matrix has limitations in analyzing low-polarity compounds owing to their difficulty in ionization. We demonstrate that compared with conventional matrix, graphene displays higher desorption/ionization efficiencies for PAHs, and no fragment ions are observed. The method also holds potential in quantitative analysis. In addition, the ionization signal increases with the increasing number of benzene rings in the PAHs, suggesting that graphene binds to PAHs via ?-? stacking interactions. Furthermore, graphene as adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of coronene from river water sample displays good performance with a detection limit of 10-7 M. This work provides a novel and convenient method for analyzing low-polarity environmental contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS.

Zhang, Jing; Dong, Xiaoli; Cheng, Jinsheng; Li, Jinghong; Wang, Yinsheng

2011-07-01

374

Quantification of human and animal viruses to differentiate the origin of the fecal contamination present in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking). In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples. PMID:23762826

Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina

2013-05-15

375

The role of metadata and strategies to detect and control temporal data bias in environmental monitoring of soil contamination.  

PubMed

It is crucial for environmental monitoring to fully control temporal bias, which is the distortion of real data evolution by varying bias through time. Temporal bias cannot be fully controlled by statistics alone but requires appropriate and sufficient metadata, which should be under rigorous and continuous quality assurance and control (QA/QC) to reliably document the degree of consistency of the monitoring system. All presented strategies to detect and control temporal data bias (QA/QC, harmonisation/homogenisation/standardisation, mass balance approach, use of tracers and analogues and control of changing boundary conditions) rely on metadata. The Will Rogers phenomenon, due to subsequent reclassification, is a particular source of temporal data bias introduced to environmental monitoring here. Sources and effects of temporal data bias are illustrated by examples from the Swiss soil monitoring network. The attempt to make a comprehensive compilation and assessment of required metadata for soil contamination monitoring reveals that most metadata are still far from being reliable. This leads to the conclusion that progress in environmental monitoring means further development of the concept of environmental metadata for the sake of temporal data bias control as a prerequisite for reliable interpretations and decisions. PMID:22189794

Desaules, André

2011-12-23

376

Thyroid disruption in walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to environmental contaminants: cloning and use of iodothyronine deiodinases as molecular biomarkers.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones play a role in the initiation of ovarian maturation in fish. Thus, reports of delayed sexual maturation in female walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to contaminants in the Ottawa River suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of environmental contaminants in the Ottawa River on thyroid hormones of immature walleye and to develop a molecular biomarker of thyroid status. Walleye were sampled in the Ottawa River at Deep River (reference site), at Rivière Blanche (downstream from the Ottawa and Gatineau municipal wastewater treatment plants outflows), and at Plaisance (downstream from a pulp and paper mill). Plasma thyroid hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Walleye at Plaisance had two-fold elevated levels of thyroxine (T(4)) and 1.5-fold elevated levels triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas the molar ratio of T(3):T(4) was reduced by over 50% compared to Deep River. Plasma T(3) levels were also elevated by approximately 1.5-fold at Rivière Blanche. Three iodothyronine deiodinases, a family of enzymes responsible for converting the prohormone T(4) to biologically active T(3), as well as for inactivating these two hormones, were partially cloned in walleye. A real-time PCR assay of deiodinase expression indicated that hepatic mRNA levels of type I and type III deiodinase were not modified between sites, whereas they were increased for type II deiodinase at Rivière Blanche as compared to the other sites. The response of this novel molecular transcript indicates a divergence with that expected based on the effects of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on fish deiodinase expression; additional endpoints are therefore necessary to interpret changes in thyroid hormones levels in fish exposed to environmental contaminants. PMID:17524500

Picard-Aitken, Michelle; Fournier, Henri; Pariseau, Richard; Marcogliese, David J; Cyr, Daniel G

2007-04-22

377

Environmental contaminant hazards to wildlife at National Capital region and Mid-Atlantic National Park Service units  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollutant data for air, water, soil and biota were compiled from databases and internet sources and by staff interviews at 23 National Park Service (NPS) units in 2005. A metric was derived describing the quality and quantity of data for each park, and in combination with known contaminant threats, the need for ecotoxicological study was identified and ranked. Over half of NP units were near Toxic Release Inventory sites discharging persistent pollutants, and fish consumption advisories were in effect at or near 22 of the units. Pesticide and herbicide use was found to be minimal, with the exception of those units with agricultural leases. Only 70 reports were found that describe terrestrial vertebrate environmental contaminant data at or near the units. Of the >75,000 compounds in commerce, empirical exposure data were limited to merely 58 halogenated compounds, insecticides, rodenticides, metals, and some contemporary compounds. Further ecotoxicological monitoring and research is warranted at several units including Shenandoah National Park, Richmond National Battlefield Park, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Valley Forge National Historical Park, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Monocacy National Battlefield, and Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. The types of investigations vary according to the wildlife species present and potential contaminant threats, but should focus on contemporary use pesticides and herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, lead, and perhaps antibiotics, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and surfactants. Other management recommendations include inclusion of screening level contaminant risk assessments into the NPS Vital Signs Program, development of protocols for toxicological analysis of seemingly affected wildlife, alternative methods and compounds for pest management, and use of non-toxic fishing tackle by visitors.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

2008-01-01

378

A free-enzyme catalyst for the bioremediation of environmental atrazine contamination.  

PubMed

Herbicide contamination from agriculture is a major issue worldwide, and has been identified as a threat to freshwater and marine environments in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area in Australia. The triazine herbicides are of particular concern because of potential adverse effects, both on photosynthetic organisms and upon vertebrate development. To date a number of bioremediation strategies have been proposed for triazine herbicides, but are unlikely to be implemented due to their reliance upon the release of genetically modified organisms. We propose an alternative strategy using a free-enzyme bioremediant, which is unconstrained by the issues surrounding the use of live organisms. Here we report an initial field trial with an enzyme-based product, demonstrating that the technology is technically capable of remediating water bodies contaminated with the most common triazine herbicide, atrazine. PMID:20570036

Scott, Colin; Lewis, Steve E; Milla, Rob; Taylor, Matthew C; Rodgers, Andrew J W; Dumsday, Geoff; Brodie, Jon E; Oakeshott, John G; Russell, Robyn J

2010-05-31

379

Effect of environmental factors on the effectiveness of ammoniated bagasse in wicking oil from contaminated wetlands.  

PubMed

Ammoniated bagasse is a plant-derived organic sorbent that can be used for capturing oil and for supplying slow-release nutrients to oil-degrading microorganisms. We investigated the oil-wicking behavior of this sorbent under various conditions for its effectiveness in remediating oil-contaminated wetlands. Abiotic microcosms simulating a wetland environment were used to assess the influence of sand particle sizes (20 x 30 and 60 x 80 U.S. mesh), degrees of oil saturation (25% and 75%), water table levels (on top of the clean sand layer, oiled-sand layer, and sorbent layer), and the presence of sorbent. Results indicated that oil wicking favors higher oil contamination, larger sand particle size, and low water coverage. Water coverage was the predominant factor limiting the effectiveness of sorbent. The most plausible explanation for this limitation was that sorbent captured more water than oil at higher water coverage. PMID:23513677

Chung, Seungjoon; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

2012-01-01

380

Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial biosensor for benzene, toluene, and similar compounds has been constructed, characterized, and field tested on contaminated water and soil. The biosensor is based on a plasmid incorporating the transcrip- tional activator xylR from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The XylR protein binds a subset of toluene-like compounds and activates transcription at its promoter, Pu. A reporter

BARRY M. WILLARDSON; JON F. WILKINS; TIMOTHY A. RAND; JAMES M. SCHUPP; KAREN K. HILL; PAUL KEIM; PAUL J. JACKSON

1998-01-01

381

Environmental contaminants and children's health: Cause for concern, time for action  

PubMed Central

The present paper provides an outline of the developmental and behavioural characteristics that make children, especially the fetus and young child, more vulnerable to contaminants than adults. The major categories of contaminants are briefly described. The evidence for their possible effects on neurobehavioural development; immune, endocrine and respiratory systems; childhood cancer based on research studies with animals; children exposed to catastrophic ‘accidents’ involving overdose exposures; and pregnant women and children from communities with high ‘background’ levels of contamination who participated in studies is reviewed. While the data are worrisome, especially for children living in northern and certain urban communities, much remains to be learned about possible subtle effects and the potential for long term effects of the current background contamination experienced by the majority of Canadian children before its significance to their health can be fully evaluated. The present regulatory processes, which are based on risk assessment, are so cumbersome and costly that the great majority of chemicals in use have not been fully evaluated, and the ingenuity of new chemical production continually exceeds the capacity to test the new chemicals. Moreover, despite past insistence on scientific proof of adverse effects and safety, unanticipated effects have occurred that will threaten the sustainability of human life unless more effective control measures are taken to limit the release of toxic substances and persistent chemicals into the environment. Therefore, the shortcomings of risk assessment are discussed, and the precautionary principle, which is used in some countries and is proposed for use internationally as an alternative measure that may offer improved control for the future, is outlined. Finally, opportunities for physician action are suggested.

Chance, Graham W

2001-01-01

382

LRAD, semiconductor, and other radiation detectors applied to environmental monitoring for alpha and beta contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very short range of alpha particles in air (typically 2 to 3 cm) has severely limited the utility of traditional alpha monitors for detecting and identifying small amounts of alpha-producing contamination in soil, water, and other materials. Monitors based on the traditional alpha detector technology are often hard-pressed to meet continually increasing sensitivity requirements. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD)

D. W. MacArthur; K. E. Bower

1993-01-01

383

Bacterial Indicators and Environmental Factors as Related to Contamination of Oysters by Enteroviruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of studies conducted along the upper Texas Gulf coast, where a substantial amount of quantitative virological data was collected, are compared to bacteriological indicators and other environmental factors on a statistical basis. Presence of viruse...

C. P. Gerba S. M. Goyal I. Cech G. F. Bogdan

1980-01-01

384

Environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.  

PubMed

The presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. Direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. The aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis C virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with measurements of total bacterial count and haemoglobin presence. In total, 114 surface and 62 air samples were collected. Bacterial contamination was very low (<1 cfu/cm(2)) on surfaces, whereas the 'medium' detected value in air was 282 cfu/m(3). Overall, 19 (16.7%) surface samples tested positive for viral nucleic acids: one for norovirus, one for human adenovirus and 17 (14.9%) for torque teno virus (TTV). Only this latter virus was directly detected in 10 air samples (16.1%). Haemoglobin was found on two surfaces. No relationship was found between viral, biochemical or bacterial indicators. The data obtained confirm the difficulty of assessing viral contamination using bacterial indicators. The frequent detection of TTV suggests its possible use as an indicator for general viral contamination of the environment. PMID:21277649

Carducci, A; Verani, M; Lombardi, R; Casini, B; Privitera, G

2011-01-31

385

Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.  

PubMed

Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination. PMID:21860854

del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

2011-08-22

386

Brazilian Sign Language Lexicography and Technology: Dictionary, Digital Encyclopedia, Chereme-based Sign Retrieval, and Quadriplegic Deaf Communication Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the Brazilian Sign language digital encyclopedia, which contains a databank of 5,600 signs glossed in Portuguese and English, along with descriptions and illustrations of their signed form. (Author/VWL)|

Capovilla, Fernando C.; Duduchi, Marcelo; Raphael, Walkiria D.; Luz, Renato D.; Rozados, Daniela; Capovilla, Alessandra G. S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

2003-01-01

387

Amendments for the in situ remediation of contaminated sediments: evaluation of potential environmental impacts.  

PubMed

Active sediment caps represent a comparatively new technology for remediating contaminated sediments. They are made by applying chemically active amendments that reduce contaminant mobility and bioavailability to the sediment surface. The objective of this study was to determine if active cap amendments including organoclay, apatite, and biopolymers have the potential to harm benthic organisms. Methods included laboratory bioassays of amendment toxicity and field evaluations of amendment impacts on organisms held in cages placed within pilot-scale active caps located in Steel Creek, a South Carolina (USA) stream. Test organisms included Hyalella azteca, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Corbicula fluminea to represent a range of feeding modes, burrowing behaviors, and both fresh and saltwater organisms. In addition to the laboratory and field assays, chemical extractions were performed to determine if the amendments contained harmful impurities that could leach into the ambient environment. Laboratory bioassays indicated that 100% apatite had minimal effects on Hyalella in freshwater and up to 25% organoclay was nontoxic to Leptocheirus in brackish water. Field evaluations indicated that pilot-scale caps composed of up to 50% apatite and 25% organoclay did not harm Hyalella, Lumbriculus, or Corbicula. In contrast, organisms in caps containing biopolymers died because of physical entrapment and/or suffocation by the viscous biopolymers. The extractions showed that the amendments did not release harmful concentrations of metals. These studies indicated that apatite and organoclay are nontoxic at concentrations (up to 50% and 25% by weight, respectively) needed for the construction of active caps that are useful for the remediation of metals and organic contaminants in sediments. PMID:20655093

Paller, Michael H; Knox, Anna S

2010-07-22

388

Remediation of a large contaminated reactor cooling reservoir: Resolving and environmental/regulatory paradox  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study of a former reactor cooling water reservoir, PAR Pond, located Savannah River Site. PAR Pond, a 2640 acre, man-made reservoir was built in 1958 and until 1988, received cooling water from two DOE nuclear production reactors, P and R. The lake sediments were contaminated with low levels of radiocesium (CS-137) and transuranics in the late 1950s and early 1960s because of leaking fuel elements. Elevated levels of mercury accumulated in the sediments from pumping water from the Savannah River to maintain a full pool. PAR Ponds` stability, size, and nutrient content made a significant, unique, and highly studied ecological resource for fish and wildlife populations until it was partially drained in 1991 due to a depression in the downslope of the earthen dam. The drawdown, created 1340 acres of exposed, radioactively contaminated sediments along 33 miles of shoreline. This led US EPA to declare PAR Pond as a CERCLA operable unit subject to remediation. The drawdown also raised concerns for the populations of aquatic plants, fish, alligators, and endangered species and increased the potential for off-site migration of contaminated wildlife from contact with the exposed sediments. Applicable regulations, such as NEPA and CERCLA, require wetland loss evaluations, human health and ecological risk assessments, and remediation feasibility studies. DOE is committed to spending several million dollars to repair the dam for safety reasons, even though the lake will probably not be used for cooling purposes. At the same time, DOE must make decisions whether to refill and expend additional public funds to maintain a full pool to reduce the risks defined under CERCLA or spend hundreds of millions in remediation costs to reduce the risks of the exposed sediments.

Bowers, J.A.: Gladden, J.B.; Hickey, H.M.; Jones, M.P.; Mackey, H.E.; Mayer, J.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Doswell, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01

389

Optimization of Environmental Factors for the Biological Treatment of Trinitrotoluene-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In earlier studies (Boopathy et al. 1994a,\\u000a \\u000a 1994b), soil bacteria present in a TNT-contaminated site removed\\u000a \\u000a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). In this study the optimum conditions for the\\u000a \\u000a most efficient removal of TNT is discussed. The results suggest that the soil\\u000a \\u000a bacterial consortium has an optimal pH range of 6–7. Maximum growth was\\u000a \\u000a observed at pH 7. However, the TNT removal

R. Boopathy; J. Manning; C. F. Kulpa

1997-01-01

390

Surface and subsurface characterization of uranium contamination at the Fernald environmental management site  

SciTech Connect

The past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils, and the three-dimensional distribution of the uranium at these sites must be thoroughly characterized before any effective remedial protocols can be established. To this end, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked by the DOE`s Office of Technology Development with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies for the measurement of uranium in surface and subsurface soils at the Fernald Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration site. These studies are detailed in this report.

Schilk, A.J.; Perkins, R.W.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

1993-04-01

391

Human and animal salmonellosis in Scotland associated with environmental contamination, 1973-79.  

PubMed

Twenty-six incidents of salmonellosis occurring in Scotland between 1973 and 1979 and attributed to environmental pollution are reviewed. The apparent sources of pollution were sewage effluent (10 incidents), septic tank effluent (eight), sewage sludge (three), seagulls (three) and abattoir effluents (two). Cattle were the species predominantly affected. Human infection was primary in three incidents and was secondary to bovine infection in another four. Thirteen salmonella serotypes were recovered from infected humans or animals and 17 during related environmental investigations. The factors causing pollutions and possible control measures are discussed. PMID:7303437

Reilly, W J; Forbes, G I; Paterson, G M; Sharp, J C

1981-06-27

392

Plutonium and the Rio Grande: Environmental Change and Contamination in the Nuclear Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium and the Rio Grande begins with an evocative description of the tranquility that prevailed along the Rio Grande in the halcyon days before the Manhattan Project changed the environment of this corner of New Mexico forever. Graf presents a methodology for studying the environmental impacts of the plutonium releases from facilities at Los Alamos. Specifically, he quantifies releases of various isotopes of plutonium and tracks their fate in the sediments and water bodies of the Rio Grande. Despite access to ample reliable data, his task is challenging: it requires regional-scale analysis and applications of techniques from disciplines including geomorphology, hydrology, environmental chemistry, plant physiology, and historical research.

Leipnik, Mark

393

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

394

"U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale Virtual…

Krueger, Karla

2010-01-01

395

Future Haptic Science Encyclopedia: An Experimental Implementation of Networked Multi-Threaded Haptic Virtual Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is presenting the design of a generic architecture that can support both haptic and graphic requirements by proposing a multi-layered architecture that can be used in a networked haptic environment. This architecture has been applied to the new five-fingers haptic interface HIRO-II. Future Haptic Science Encyclopedia (FHSE) was developed and presented as a new potential application that benefit

M. Osama Alhalabi; Vytautas Daniulaitis; Haruhisa Kawasaki; Tetsuya Mouri; Yoshio Ohtuka

2006-01-01

396

The environmental fate of arsenic in surface soil contaminated by historical herbicide application.  

PubMed

Soils from many industrial sites are contaminated with arsenic because of the historical application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. The strong affinity of aqueous arsenic species for soil components has led to the retention of significant amounts of arsenic in surface soils decades after the original source application. Soil collected from a site which received a one-time surficial application of arsenical herbicide in the 1950s was investigated to understand the fate of arsenic under natural leaching conditions. Sequential chemical extraction of the contaminated soil revealed that the majority of the arsenic is in its secondary form. The synthetic acid rain leaching of arsenic from the weathered soil can be divided into two distinct stages. During the first stage, the leachate arsenic concentration underwent a rapid decline which suggests an equilibrium-controlled release event. The second leaching stage was marked by a slow, steady release of arsenic, a signature of a kinetically controlled process. A mathematical approach was employed to identify and describe the two distinct arsenic releasing processes (equilibrium desorption and kinetic desorption). This model considers both desorption processes simultaneously and produces leachate arsenic concentrations in good agreement with the measured data. According to the modeling results, 20% of the arsenic remaining in the soil resides in the herbicide source material after five decades of natural leaching; 25% exists on reversible adsorption sites and 55% is present on irreversible adsorption sites. PMID:18706676

Qi, Yongqiang; Donahoe, Rona J

2008-08-15

397

Erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in wild and caged fish (Liza aurata) along an environmental mercury contamination gradient.  

PubMed

Laranjo basin (Aveiro, Portugal) has been subjected to mercury contamination from a chlor-alkali plant, presenting a well-described mercury gradient. This study aims the assessment of mercury genotoxicity in this area by measuring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) frequency in the mullet Liza aurata, and its relation with total mercury concentration (Hg(t)) in blood. Wild fish were seasonally analysed, and, complementarily, fish were caged for 3 days at three locations differing on their distances to the mercury source. The results from Laranjo were compared with those from a reference area (S. Jacinto). Wild fish from Laranjo showed elevated ENA frequency in summer and autumn in concomitance with increased blood Hg(t). Surprisingly, no ENA induction was found in winter, despite the highest blood Hg(t), which may be explained by haematological dynamics alterations, as supported by a decreased immature erythrocytes frequency. Caged fish displayed ENA induction only at the closest site to the contamination source, also showing a correlation with blood Hg(t). PMID:17920119

Guilherme, S; Válega, M; Pereira, M E; Santos, M A; Pacheco, M

2007-10-24

398

Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in children and environmental contamination of urban areas in Paraná State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contamination by eggs of Toxocara in sandy areas or grass lawns of outdoor recreation areas that are used by children, and the frequency of seroprevalence in children, from three cities of fewer than 45,000 inhabitants in Paraná, Brazil. From May 2005 to December 2007, five samples were taken from each of 13 sandy sites and 18 grass lawns, all from plazas and public schools. Blood samples from children aged 0-12 years were analysed by immunoassay for anti-Toxocara IgG. The soil samples were processed by floatation and sedimentation. Eggs of Toxocara spp. were present in 44.7% (38/85) of the samples from grassed areas and in 21.4% (15/70) of the sand samples. The lawns were 2.16 times more contaminated than the sand (P = 0.0009). However, the epidemiological variables showed no statistically significant difference between seropositive (36.8%; 130/353), and seronegative children. The rate of seropositivity was higher in children aged 0-5 years (P = 0.03), who were 1.94 times more likely to develop persistent wheezing (P = 0.02). PMID:22114910

Mattia, S; Colli, C M; Adami, C M; Guilherme, G F; Nishi, L; Rubinsky-Elefant, G; Marchioro, A A; Gomes, M L; Falavigna-Guilherme, A L

2011-11-25

399

Immunotoxicology: environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls and immune dysfunction among residents of the State of Michigan  

SciTech Connect

In 1973, inadvertent contamination occurred in a special farm feed supplement for lactating cows. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were used in place of magnesium oxide resulting in serious harm to farm animals, including cattle, chickens, geese, ducks. Farm families, accustomed to eating their own products, were most heavily exposed. To study the impact of PBBs, 336 adult Michigan farm residents, 117 general consumers for comparison, 75 dairy farm residents in Wisconsin, who had not eaten PBB-contaminated food, were examined, as were 79 healthy subjects in New York City. Abnormalities in the Michigan groups included hypergammaglobulinemia, exaggerated hypersensitive response to streptococci, significant decrease in absolute numbers and percentage of T and B-lymphocytes, and increased number of lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers (''null cells''). Significant reduction of in vitro immune function was noted in 20-25% of the Michigan farm residents who had eaten food containing PBB. The decreased immune function detected among the PBB-exposed farm residents tended to affect families as a unit and was independent of exposed individuals' age or sex, pointing against the possibility of genetic predisposition.

Bekesi, J.G.; Roboz, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Mason, P.

1987-01-01

400

Premature thelarche in Puerto Rico: A search for environmental estrogenic contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an investigation into the cause of premature thelarche in Puerto Rico, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) conducted various laboratory analyses to screen for estrogenic sources. Samples were obtained from case and control households, children, parents, and environmental sources. Serum samples were analyzed from parents and children and household water samples for chlorinated hydrocarbons and no results

W. Harry Hannon; Robert H. Hill; John T. Bernert; Lillian Haddock; Gloria Lebron; Jose F. Cordero

1987-01-01

401

Degradation of Environmental Contaminants with Water-Soluble Cobalt Catalysts: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present an integrative laboratory investigation incorporating skills from inorganic chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and physical chemistry applied to a laboratory-scale model of the environmental problem of chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. Perchloroethylene (C[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 4], PCE) a common dry cleaning solvent,…

Evans, Alexandra L.; Messersmith, Reid E.; Green, David B.; Fritsch, Joseph M.

2011-01-01

402

Global Climate Change and Environmental Contaminants: A SETAC Call for Research  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change has become a global environmental threat that will impact virtually every ecosystem on the planet for generations to come. The widespread nature of the threat is evident in not only industrialized countries, but in remote locations, such as polar regions and oceani...

403

Longitudinal Study of Salmonella Dispersion and the Role of Environmental Contamination in Commercial Swine Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the roles of various environmental sources, such as truck-washing systems, waste- processing lagoons, and other sources, as potential contributors to the exposure and dissemination of Salmo- nella in commercial swine production systems. Four cohorts of nursery age swine herds which originated from distinct farm flows were selected. In addition, cross-sectional sampling of four truck wash stations selected

Paul M. Dorr; Daniel A. Tadesse; Bayleyegn Molla Zewde; Pamela Fry; Siddhartha Thakur; Wondwossen A. Gebreyes

2009-01-01

404

Geothermal environmental assessment: behavior of selected geothermal brine contaminants in plants and soils. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of selected elements found in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA geothermal fluids was investigated in both plant and soil systems. The kinetics of these potential environmental containments were studied by using soil columns and selected cultivated and native plant species.

Brown, K.W.

1981-06-01

405

GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: BEHAVIOR OF SELECTED GEOTHERMAL BRINE CONTAMINANTS IN PLANTS AND SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The behavior of selected elements found in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA geothermal fluids was investigated in both plant and soil systems. The kinetics of these potential environmental containments were studied by using soil columns and selected cultivated and native plant spec...

406

Toward knowledge-enhanced viewing using encyclopedias and model-based segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make accurate decisions based on imaging data, radiologists must associate the viewed imaging data with the corresponding anatomical structures. Furthermore, given a disease hypothesis possible image findings which verify the hypothesis must be considered and where and how they are expressed in the viewed images. If rare anatomical variants, rare pathologies, unfamiliar protocols, or ambiguous findings are present, external knowledge sources such as medical encyclopedias are consulted. These sources are accessed using keywords typically describing anatomical structures, image findings, pathologies. In this paper we present our vision of how a patient's imaging data can be automatically enhanced with anatomical knowledge as well as knowledge about image findings. On one hand, we propose the automatic annotation of the images with labels from a standard anatomical ontology. These labels are used as keywords for a medical encyclopedia such as STATdx to access anatomical descriptions, information about pathologies and image findings. On the other hand we envision encyclopedias to contain links to region- and finding-specific image processing algorithms. Then a finding is evaluated on an image by applying the respective algorithm in the associated anatomical region. Towards realization of our vision, we present our method and results of automatic annotation of anatomical structures in 3D MRI brain images. Thereby we develop a complex surface mesh model incorporating major structures of the brain and a model-based segmentation method. We demonstrate the validity by analyzing the results of several training and segmentation experiments with clinical data focusing particularly on the visual pathway.

Kneser, Reinhard; Lehmann, Helko; Geller, Dieter; Qian, Yue-Chen; Weese, Jürgen

2009-02-01

407

Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

2003-06-01

408

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report  

SciTech Connect

An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

Not Available

1992-03-01

409

Association of Osteoarthritis With Serum Levels of the Environmental Contaminants Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in a Large Appalachian Population  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation, inflammation, and other factors implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the link between these compounds and OA remains unknown. In this study, the authors investigated the association of OA with PFOA and PFOS in a population of 49,432 adults from 6 PFOA-contaminated water districts in the mid-Ohio Valley (2005–2006). Participants completed a comprehensive health survey; serum levels of PFOA, PFOS, and a range of other blood markers were also measured. Medical history, including physician diagnosis of osteoarthritis, was assessed via self-report. Analyses included adjustment for demographic and lifestyle characteristics, body mass index, and other potential confounders. Reported OA showed a significant positive association with PFOA serum levels (for highest quartile of PFOA vs. lowest, adjusted odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 1.5; P-trend = 0.00001) and a significant inverse association with PFOS (for highest quartile vs. lowest, adjusted odds ratio = 0.8, 95% confidence interval: 0.7, 0.9; P-trend = 0.00005). The relation between PFOA and OA was significantly stronger in younger and nonobese adults. Although the cross-sectional nature of this large, population-based study limits causal inference, the observed strong, divergent associations of reported OA with PFOA and PFOS may have important public health and etiologic implications and warrant further investigation.

Innes, Kim E.; Ducatman, Alan M.; Luster, Michael I.; Shankar, Anoop

2011-01-01

410

Environmental contaminants in prey and tissues of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend Region, Texas, USA.  

PubMed

Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) have been recorded nesting in Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA and other areas of the Chihuahuan Desert since the early 1900s. From 1993 to 1996, peregrine falcon productivity rates were very low and coincided with periods of low rainfall. However, low productivity also was suspected to be caused by environmental contaminants. To evaluate potential impacts of contaminants on peregrine falcon populations, likely avian and bat prey species were collected during 1994 and 1997 breeding seasons in selected regions of western Texas, primarily in Big Bend National Park. Tissues of three peregrine falcons found injured or dead and feathers of one live fledgling also were analyzed. Overall, mean concentrations of DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], a metabolite of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], were low in all prey species except for northern rough-winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx serripennis, mean = 5.1 microg/g ww). Concentrations of mercury and selenium were elevated in some species, up to 2.5 microg/g dw, and 15 microg/g dw, respectively, which upon consumption could seriously affect reproduction of top predators. DDE levels near 5 microg/g ww were detected in carcass of one peregrine falcon found dead but the cause of death was unknown. Mercury, selenium, and DDE to some extent, may be contributing to low reproductive rates of peregrine falcons in the Big Bend region. PMID:11808550

Mora, M; Skiles, R; McKinney, B; Paredes, M; Buckler, D; Papoulias, D; Klein, D

2002-01-01

411

History of mercury use and environmental contamination at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from 2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2010-01-01

412

Remediation of a uranium-contaminated quarry utilizing submersible, remotely operated vehicles. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) Disposal Site on the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation was previously used to treat and dispose of pyrophoric and water-reactive wastes contaminated with small quantities of radioactive materials (almost exclusively uranium and uranium daughters) from processes at the Department of Energy-owned, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes remediation techniques utilizing a small, remotely operated submarine with an attached camera to visually locate waste containers, determine whether containers have been breached, transport small containers, and direct a larger remotely operated grappling machine to move larger waste for shredding operations. Most of the solid waste is reduced under water by a metal shredder. Non-shreddable items (e. g. , gas cylinders and larger structures) are mechanically breached under water to allow the contents to fully react. The waste is then removed from the water, monitored, the material is segregated, and transported to a temporary waste storage area until disposal.

Fleming, K.N.

1992-10-22

413

The selection of mixed microbial inocula in environmental biotechnology: example using petroleum contaminated tropical soils.  

PubMed

The impact of inorganic N and P additions on a tropical soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated using molecular and culture techniques. Microcosms were incubated for 42 days and sampled at 0, 1, 7, 28 and 42 days. Changes in bacterial community structure were determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the rRNA following reverse transcription PCR using primers specific to the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. To identify which components of the microbial community were changing during incubation, PCR amplicons were resolved using DGGE and the banding patterns analyzed using stepwise discriminant function analysis (SDA). SDA showed that the number of bands needed to recover the differences between samples over time could be reduced from the initial 11 bands for the 16S rRNA transcript to 3 bands. Sequences originating from the rRNA gels (16S rRNA transcripts) were recovered in clades containing known cultured isolates of Bacillus marisflavi, Microbacterium oxydans and Pseudomonas oleovorans. Isolation studies on these soils using lubricant oil as a carbon source yielded 317 bacterial isolates, 3 of which showed high sequence similarity (>96%) with the 16S rRNA transcripts identified using SDA as being important in differentiating between bacterial communities over time. These isolates were then tested singly and in combination for their ability to degrade lubricant oil. These analyses demonstrated that the consortium selected using the combined molecular-SDA approach was more effective at degrading the lubricant in both liquid media and in contaminated sand than the single isolates. PMID:16226327

Supaphol, Savaporn; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Tungkananuruk, Nipon; Roughjanajirapa, Pinnapar; O'Donnell, Anthony Gerard

2005-10-12

414

Diffuse PAH contamination of surface soils: environmental occurrence, bioavailability, and microbial degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to recognize the scientific and environmental importance of diffuse pollution with polycyclic\\u000a aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Diffuse PAH pollution of surface soil is characterized by large area extents, low PAH concentrations,\\u000a and the lack of point sources. Urban and pristine topsoils receive a continuous input of pyrogenic PAHs, which induces a microbial\\u000a potential for PAH

Anders R. Johnsen; Ulrich Karlson

2007-01-01

415

[The study of congenital anomalies in contaminated sites of interest for environmental remediation].  

PubMed

SENTIERI Project (Mortality study of residents in Italian polluted sites) studies mortality of residents in 44 sites of national interest for environmental remediation (Italian polluted sites, IPSs). A development of the Project is the investigation of adverse reproductive effects. This issue is of the utmost importance in the field of environmental epidemiology, both in analytical studies and in surveillance activity. An environmental factor can be at play either as a preconception mutagen (maternal or paternal exposure) or as a postconceptional teratogen. The US-Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the US-Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), indicate as a priority the study of congenital anomalies (CA) and reproductive disorders. The choice of congenital anomalies to be included in the study is mainly based on the results of the evaluation of the epidemiological evidence completed for SENTIERI Project. The epidemiological knowledge on congenital anomalies in polluted sites is lacking, therefore main groups of CA will also be included for descriptive purposes. Data on CA are produced by seven registers located in Italy, either in regional or sub-regional areas, which are included in the National Committee of Congenital Malformations Registers hosted by the National Center for Rare Diseases at Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The study periods are: a) 1995-2002 (1996-2002 for the Region Campania), namely the same years as SENTIERI mortality study; b) for the years 2003-2008 different time windows will be chosen on the basis of data availability in single registers. Registers of CA are active in 16 out of 44 polluted sites included in SENTIERI, for a total of 119 municipalities. In each polluted site the number of expected cases for each CA will be estimated from the prevalence at birth of the same anomaly as from regional registers active in the polluted site at study. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 Supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention devoted to the Project. PMID:22166303

Bianchi, F

416

Investigation of selected potential environmental contaminants: ethylene glycol, propylene glycols and butylene glycols. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews aspects of production, use, environmental exposure and biological effects of ethylene glycol, two isomers of propylene glycol (1,2- and 1,3-propanediol) and four isomers of butylene glycol (1,3-, 1,4-, 2,3-, and 1,2- butanediol). Annual production of ethylene glycol is about 3.7 billion pounds for use primarily in antifreeze and polyester fiber. About 0.5 billion pounds of 1,2-propanediol are

1979-01-01

417

Effects of Toxic Environmental Contaminants on Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Function: From Past to Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are targets of the number of naturally occurring toxins, therapeutic agents as well as environmental toxicants. Because of similarities of their chemical structure to Ca2+ in terms of hydrated ionic radius, electron orbital configuration, or other chemical properties, polyvalent cations from aluminum to zinc variously interact with multiple types of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. These nonphysiological metals have

William D. Atchison

2003-01-01

418

Hepatic mercury, cadmium, and lead in mink and otter from New York State: monitoring environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many non-linear processes link atmospheric emissions to the bioavailability of metals; consequently, the monitoring of metals\\u000a in ecosystem components is required to model their ecodynamics. American mink (Neovison vison) and river otter (Lontra canadensis) have the potential to serve as an upper-level-consumer component in monitoring metals bioavailability. However, the relationship\\u000a of bioaccumulated metals to various environmental factors has not been

David T. Mayack

419

Environmental contamination and human exposure to manganese – contribution of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organomanganese compound MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), an antiknock additive in unleaded gasoline,\\u000a has been used in Canada since 1976. Indeed, Canada is the only country where MMT is almost exclusively used. In October 1995,\\u000a by court decision the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) granted Ethyl's waiver for the use of MMT in the United States.\\u000a Paradoxically, in 1997 the federal

Joseph Zayed; Adolf Vyskocil; Greg Kennedy

1999-01-01

420

The trans\\/cis ratio of unsaturated fatty acids is not applicable as biomarker for environmental stress in case of long-term contaminated habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids is a crucial adaptive reaction of Pseudomonas and Vibrio species to toxic organic compounds or other environmental stress factors. In order to test the long-term performance of this\\u000a adaptive mechanism as well as to assess its application as biomarker for environmental contamination studies were performed\\u000a in batch cultures and in continuously running sand columns,

Janett Fischer; Frieder Schauer; Hermann J. Heipieper

2010-01-01

421

Evaluation of Environmental Contamination and Estimated Radiation Doses for the Return to Residents' Homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42–7.2 µSv/h (3.7–63.0 mSv/y) within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011–0.38 µSv/h (0.010–3.3 mSv/y) within the 20–30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents’ homes after the FNPP accident.

Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Endo, Yuukou; Takamura, Noboru

2012-01-01

422

Assessment of base-excision repair activity in fish cell lines: toward a new biomarker of exposure to environmental contaminants?  

PubMed

Amongst DNA-repair processes, base-excision repair (BER) is the major mechanism for removal of DNA-base lesions caused by environmental genotoxicants. BER has been proven to exist in fish but has not been investigated in fish cell-lines, although these constitute increasingly important tools in eco-toxicological assessment. The present study aims at highlighting BER capacity of RTL-W1 and RTG-W1, two trout cell lines used in eco-genotoxicity studies. This is realized by following the kinetics of strand-break repair after a short exposure to model genotoxicants-leading predominantly to BER-specific lesions-by means of the standard alkaline and Fpg-modified comet assays. Results show that both cell lines efficiently repair single-strand breaks and base-alkylation damages within 4h and 24h, respectively. Then, the study shows that after minor modifications of the protocol, the cell extract-based BERc assay can be used to evaluate the base-incision capacity of the cell lines and its variation after exposure of the cells to a model inhibitor of BER (3-aminobenzamide) and to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and tributyltin. This work provides a basis for the further development of DNA-repair activity in fish cell-lines as a new biomarker of genotoxicity. PMID:23506740

Kienzler, Aude; Bony, Sylvie; Tronchère, Xavier; Devaux, Alain

2013-03-15

423

Evaluation of environmental contamination and estimated radiation doses for the return to residents' homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima prefecture.  

PubMed

To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were (134)Cs and (137)Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42-7.2 µSv/h (3.7-63.0 mSv/y) within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011-0.38 µSv/h (0.010-3.3 mSv/y) within the 20-30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents' homes after the FNPP accident. PMID:23049869

Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Endo, Yuukou; Takamura, Noboru

2012-09-26

424

Analyses of uranium and actinium gamma spectra: an application to measurements of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

A system for the reduction of the complex gamma spectra of nuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series, tailored to calculation of line intensities, analyses of errors, and identification of nuclides is described. This system provides an efficient technique for characterizing contamination in the environs of uranium mines and mills. Identification of the nuclides and calculation of their concentrations require accurate knowledge of gamma energies and absolute quantum intensities. For some spectral lines, there are no reported measurements of absolute quantum intensities and in some cases where reports are available the measured intensities are not in agreement. In order to improve this data base, the spectra of gamma rays (of nuclides in the uranium and actinium series) with energies between 40 and 1400 keV were measured using high-resolution germanium detectors. A brief description of the spectroscopy system, computational algorithms for deconvolution, and methods of calibration for energy and efficiency, are described. The measured energies and absolute quantum intensities are compared with those reported in the literature.

Momeni, M.H.

1981-01-01

425

Environmental monitoring and ecological risk assessment for pesticide contamination and effects in Lake Pamvotis, northwestern Greece.  

PubMed

Monitoring of pesticide residues in water and sediments was conducted as a basis for subsequent ecotoxicological risk assessment for the shallow eutrophic Lake Pamvotis, northwestern Greece. During a one-year study period, atrazine, desethylatrazine (DEA), simazine, diazinon, malathion, oxamyl, carbofuran, and ethion were detected in water and atrazine, desethylatrazine, diazinon, and s-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) in sediments, all at ppb concentration level. Temporal variation in pesticide concentrations was observed. Highest residue levels for most pesticides in both water and sediment matrices occurred in the May to July period with the exception of atrazine and DEA, which show highest levels in water during the September to November period. The ecological risk associated with pesticide contamination was assessed using two different methods: The toxic unit method, which provides a first indication of the relative contribution of detected pesticides to the total toxicity and a probabilistic approach, and the inverse method of Van Straalen and Denneman, which is used to quantify the ecological risk. The maximum percentage of the ecological risk was 10.3 and 51.8% for water and 17.2 and 70.6% for sediment, based on acute and chronic level, respectively. These results show that pesticides exert a significant pressure on the aquatic system of Lake Pamvotis, especially for the chronic-effect level. Simple quotient methods should be coupled with higher-tier risk assessment, especially if restoration activities on lake ecosystems are to be undertaken for sustainable development. PMID:16117136

Hela, Dimitra G; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Konstantinou, Ioannis K; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

2005-06-01

426

Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

427

Hormetic effect(s) of tetracyclines as environmental contaminant on Zea mays.  

PubMed

Animal wastes from intensive pig farming as fertilizers may expose crops to antimicrobials. Zea mays cultivations were carried out on a virgin field, subjected to dressing with pig slurries contaminated at 15 mg L(-1) of Oxy- and 5 mg L(-1) of Chlor-tetracycline, and at 8 mg L(-1) of Oxy and 3 mg L(-1) of Chlor, respectively. Pot cultivation was performed outdoor (Oxy in the range 62.5-1000 ng g(-1) dry soil) and plants harvested after 45 days. Tetracyclines analyses on soils and on field plants (roots, stalks, and leaves) did not determine the appreciable presence of tetracyclines. Residues were found in the 45-day pot corn only, in the range of 1-50 ng g(-1) for Oxy in roots, accounting for a 5% carry-over rate, on average. Although no detectable residues in plants from on land cultivations, both experimental batches showed the same biphasic growth form corresponding to a dose/response hormetic curve. PMID:19695752

Migliore, Luciana; Godeas, Feliciana; De Filippis, Stefania Paola; Mantovi, Paolo; Barchi, Davide; Testa, Cecilia; Rubattu, Nicolino; Brambilla, Gianfranco

2009-08-20

428

Comparative sensitivity of harbour and grey seals to several environmental contaminants using in vitro exposure.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), mercury chloride (HgCl(2)), methylmercury chloride (CH(3)HgCl), and PCBs on lymphocyte proliferation in phocids. PBMCs isolated from harbour and grey seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of contaminants. A reduction of viability occurred when cells were exposed to 10(-4)M HgCl(2) or CH(3)HgCl or to 50ppm of Aroclor 1254. In both grey and harbour seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was suppressed when their cells were incubated with 5 x 10(-5)M CdCl(2) or 10(-4)M HgCl(2). An inhibition of proliferation occurred with CH(3)HgCl from 10(-6)M in grey seals and from 10(-5)M in harbour seals. In grey seals, Aroclor 1254 reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 15ppm. In both harbour and grey seals, CH(3)HgCl was ten times more immunotoxic that HgCl(2). From IC(50), chemicals were ranked in terms of toxicity as followed: CH(3)HgCl>CdCl(2)>HgCl(2)>Aroclor 1254. PMID:19945719

Dufresne, M M; Frouin, H; Pillet, S; Lesage, V; De Guise, S; Fournier, M

2009-11-28

429

Installation restoration general environmental technology development. Task 2. Incineration test of explosives contaminated soils at Savanna Army Depot activity, Savanna, Illinois. Final report Sep 82-Jan 84  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a comprehensive study which successfully demonstrates the effectiveness of incineration as a decontamination method for explosives contaminated soils. The project included: incineration equipment and test site selection, soil characterization and reactivity testing, development of a detailed test plan and site plan safety submission, environmental permitting, evaluation of materials handling procedures, incineration testing, and evaluation of results.

Noland, J.W.; Marks, J.R.; Marks, P.J.

1984-04-01

430

Installation restoration general environmental technology development. Task 2. Incineration test of explosives contaminated soils at Savanna Army Depot activity, Savanna, Illinois. Final report Sep 82Jan 84  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a comprehensive study which successfully demonstrates the effectiveness of incineration as a decontamination method for explosives contaminated soils. The project included: incineration equipment and test site selection, soil characterization and reactivity testing, development of a detailed test plan and site plan safety submission, environmental permitting, evaluation of materials handling procedures, incineration testing, and evaluation

J. W. Noland; J. R. Marks; P. J. Marks

1984-01-01

431

Monitoring temporal and spatial trends of legacy and emerging contaminants in marine environment: results from the environmental specimen bank (es-BANK) of Ehime University, Japan.  

PubMed

The Environmental Specimen Bank (es-BANK) for Global Monitoring at the Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Japan has more than four decades of practical experience in specimen banking. Over the years, es-BANK has archived specimens representing a wide range of environmental matrices, i.e. fishes, reptiles, birds, aquatic mammals, terrestrial mammals, human, soils, and sediments. The samples have been collected as part of the various monitoring programs conducted worldwide. The current review is a summary of selected studies conducted at the Center for Marine Environmental Studies, on temporal and spatial trends of legacy and emerging contaminants in the marine environment. One of the major conclusions drawn from the studies is that environmental problems are no more regional issues and, thus, environmental specimen banking should not be limited to national boundaries, but should have a global outlook. PMID:22704146

Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ramu, Karri

2012-06-14

432

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to improve capabilities for evaluating health risks to humans associated with inhaling plutonium (Pu). Two key DOE issues are being addressed: (1) the need to improve capabilities for evaluating plutonium dioxide (PuO2)-associated health risks for DOE workers involved in decommissioning/decontamination (D&D) activities; and (2) the need to improve capabilities for evaluating health risks for public exposures arising from residual PuO2 in soil at remediated (cleaned-up) DOE sites. The scientific goal of this project is to improve capabilities for assessing health risk distributions for DOE workers and the public associated with inhaling Pu. The focus of our work has been on DOE worker and public exposure scenarios related to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado, commonly called Rocky Flats.

Scott, Bobby R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Zhou, Yue; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.

2001-06-01

433

Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPAR? activation.  

PubMed

Eleven environmental relevant chemicals were investigated for their ability to affect adipogenesis in vitro, biomarker release from adipocytes and PPAR? and ? activation. We found that butylparaben stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased release of leptin, adiponectin and resistin from the cells. Butylparaben activated PPAR? as well, which may be a mediator of the adipogenic effect. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)153 also stimulate adipogenesis and biomarker release, but did not affect PPARs. The data indicates that PPAR? activating chemicals often stimulate adipocyte differentiation although PPAR? activation is neither a requirement nor a guarantee for stimulation. Four out of the eleven chemicals (bisphenol A, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, butylparaben, PCB 153) caused increased adipogenesis. The release of adipocyte-secreted hormones was sometimes but not always correlated with the effect on adipocyte differentiation. Eight chemicals were able to cause increased leptin release. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that chemicals can interfere with pathways related to obesity development. PMID:22526026

Taxvig, Camilla; Dreisig, Karin; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine; Schelde, Ane Blicher; Pedersen, Dorthe; Boergesen, Michael; Mandrup, Susanne; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

2012-04-14

434

Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee  

PubMed Central

An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP) conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits.

Greene, Natasha A.; White, Jason D.; Morris, Vernon R.; Roberts, Stephanie; Jones, Kimberly L.; Warrick, Cynthia

2006-01-01

435

Environmental contaminants in liver and kidney of free-ranging northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from three regions of Germany.  

PubMed

The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a top predator in the terrestrial food web of large parts of the Holarctic. Due to its sedentary nature and well-investigated feeding ecology, it represents the most suitable bird of prey species in continental Europe for monitoring environmental pollutants. We analyzed the levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and nonessential heavy metals in organ samples of 62 free-ranging northern goshawks found dead or injured in Germany from 1995 to 2001. Our results indicate significant differences in the contaminant burden of northern goshawks between three regions in Germany. Presumably, these differences were caused by different application periods and legislative restrictions before the German reunion, especially for the use of DDT in agriculture and forestry. Extraordinarily high residues of PCBs and DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, were found mainly in livers of northern goshawks inhabiting Berlin. Body condition is highly negatively correlated with the contamination level of the individual, especially for the persistent and lipophilic organochlorines and for mercury. PCB concentrations in hepatic tissue increase rapidly with age, and birds in their first summer had significantly lower levels than birds in their first winter or older. Adult female northern goshawks from Berlin had significantly higher hepatic concentrations of most of the higher-chlorinated PCBs and of cadmium than males from the same region. Cadmium residues were in general higher in renal tissue than in hepatic tissue, and cadmium levels in kidneys increased with age. Lead concentrations indicative of acute lead poisoning were detected in one bird and suggested in two others. All other heavy metal concentrations were low and represent background levels for birds of prey in Germany. PMID:12948182

Kenntner, N; Krone, O; Altenkamp, R; Tataruch, F

2003-07-01

436

Using a site visit to a contaminated location as a focus for environmental health education for academic and public health nurses.  

PubMed

We describe a conference initiative that is distinguished by the use of a "community case study" to increase the knowledge and skills of nursing faculty and public health nurses in environmental health and to provide networking support to facilitate infusion of environmental health into nursing curricula and public health nursing practice. The Institute of Medicine's (1995) general environmental health competencies for nurses provided the conference framework. Woburn, Massachusetts, a Superfund site, served as the community case study to illustrate a complex environmental health problem. Over an extended period of time, Woburn was contaminated with multiple chemicals that eventually contaminated the drinking water supply; a cluster of childhood leukemia cases was linked subsequently to the Superfund site contaminants. A 6-hr interpreted walking and bus tour of the Superfund site enabled us to visit the premises of responsible parties, the vapor extraction fields, the capped Well H in the wooded wetlands, and to tour the affected neighborhood. This intensive, hands-on approach to learning environmental health content and skills that incorporated multiple learning strategies serves as a model for developing future conferences for public health nurses and nursing faculty. PMID:16961561

Backus, Ann S N; Hewitt, Jeanne Beauchamp; Chalupka, Stephanie M

437

Screening and monitoring of metal contamination in soils of environmental disaster areas: available techniques and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of metals in the environment is well advanced technically and analytically, though the sustainable development requirements induce the need of new methods of metal assessment in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. The current metal monitoring in soil is based on the total content that does not allow for assessment of their environmental mobility and bioavailability. The new techniques should enable metal partitioning with respect to susceptibility to migrate and exert the toxic effect on the target organisms. This statement is exemplified in the screening survey for metals of the area impacted by the catastrophic flood of 1997 in the Odra River valley in Poland. Metals enrichment of soils due to river sediments deposition, as well as their mobility in soils of the affected area were assessed in view of potential risk to the receptors. Sampling cells positioning by GPS and the assessment of the post-flood changes in metal spatial distribution with use of the Geographical Information System (GIS) were most helpful, while the sequential extraction analytical procedure for evaluation of binding strength and major chemical forms of metals was conducted manually and thus was very laborious. Automation of metal partitioning, and bioavailable forms assessment by DGT technique would have given the most valuable information and reduce the time needed for the manual analysis.

Twardowska, Irena; Janta-Koszuta, Krystyna; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Kyziol, Joanna

2004-10-01

438

Environmental contamination of heavy metals from zinc smelting areas in Hezhang County, western Guizhou, China.  

PubMed

Total heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste, soil, crop and moss samples collected from the Hezhang artisanal zinc smelting areas, Guizhou, China. Soil samples from the cornfield near the smelting sites contained extremely high Cd (5.8-74 mg kg(-1)), Pb (60-14,000 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (260-16,000 mg kg(-1)) concentrations. Elevated heavy metal concentrations were also found in corn plants and total Pb (0.80-1.5 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.05-0.76 mg kg(-1)) concentrations in corn grain have totally or partially exceeded the national guidance limits for foodstuff. Thus, the soil-to-crop transfer of heavy metals might pose a potential health risk to the local residents. Similar to the high heavy metal levels in soil and corn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in moss samples collected from the smelting sites ranged from 10 to 110, 10 to 55, 26 to 51, 400 to 1200 and 330 to 1100 mg kg(-1), respectively, exhibiting a local spatial pattern of metals deposition from the atmosphere. Based on examination of Zn/Cd and Pb/Cd ratios of the analyzed samples, we have distinguished between the flue gas dust derived and smelting waste derived metals in different environmental compartments. PMID:16806473

Bi, Xiangyang; Feng, Xinbin; Yang, Yuangen; Qiu, Guangle; Li, Guanghui; Li, Feili; Liu, Taoze; Fu, Zhiyou; Jin, Zhisheng

2006-06-27

439

Contaminant concentration in environmental samples using LIBS and CF-LIBS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with the detection and quantification of toxic heavy metals like Cd, Co, Pb, Zn, Cr, etc. in environmental samples by using the technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS). A MATLABTM program has been developed based on the CF-LIBS algorithm given by earlier workers and concentrations of pollutants present in industrial area soil have been determined. LIBS spectra of a number of certified reference soil samples with varying concentrations of toxic elements (Cd, Zn) have been recorded to obtain calibration curves. The concentrations of Cd and Zn in soil samples from the Jajmau area, Kanpur (India) have been determined by using these calibration curves and also by the CF-LIBS approach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the combination of LIBS and CF-LIBS is very useful for the study of pollutants in the environment. Some of the results have also been found to be in good agreement with those of ICP-OES.

Pandhija, S.; Rai, N. K.; Rai, A. K.; Thakur, S. N.

2010-01-01

440

Examining trace metal contamination in an unanthropogenically impacted lake in Algonquin Park: implications for environmental bacterial communities and antibiotic resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying the biogeochemical processes influencing the interactions amongst trace metals, microbial communities, pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is key to predicting the emergence, dissemination and maintenance of ABR in the environmental arena. The co-selection of heavy metal resistance and ABR has been documented in metal-contaminated environments. However, as yet, little research has been conducted assessing the metal status of 'pristine' area lakes and associated environmental bacterial communities. As part of a larger project evaluating metal-bacterial-ABR-pathogen interactions, a field survey of 6 variably contaminated aquatic systems was conducted in the summer of 2008, including Brewer Lake -a highly organic, circumneutral, Fe stained lake in Algonquin Park. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess metal concentrations for the suite of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn amongst the water column, suspended floc and bed sediments for this lake. The characterization and sampling protocol included 1) in situ characterization of overlying water column physicochemical parameters and 2) collection of water samples, suspended flocs (by field flow centrifugation) and bed sediment samples (by core; surficial and at depth) for subsequent metal analysis. Floc- and sediment-associated metals were partitioned into 6 operationally defined solid matrix fractions by sequential extraction: the exchangeable (loosely bound); carbonate; reducible amorphous Fe/Mn hydrous oxides; reducible crystalline Fe/Mn oxides; and residual fractions. Results indicate that the partitioning of metals between solid (floc, sediments) and dissolved compartments is largely element- dependent. Mean total metal concentrations in the sediments ranged from nM (Ag,Se, Cd) to ?M (As, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) with only Cu and Co (nM) and Zn ( ?M) being detected in the water column. However in all cases floc-associated metal concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than in any other compartment (with the exception of Cd), indicating the role of floc as a metal-sink in this system. Moreover, within the floc, metal retention and affinities for the solid matrix fractions were in general different than those observed within the bed sediments (surficial and at depth) indicating differing suspended vs bed sediment controls in metal sequestration. These results will be discussed in the context of metal distributions within Brewer Lake as well as the possible implications for microbial community and ABR dynamics.

Elliott, A. V.; Plach, J.; Droppo, I.; Warren, L. A.

2009-05-01

441

Environmental effects of dredging. Procedures for examining the relationship between sediment geochemistry and biological impacts of contaminants. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between sediment-bound contaminants and biological uptake of these contaminants is complex because of the many physical, chemical, and biological factors that can affect the relationship (McElroy and Means 1988). Operational and procedural problems encountered in determining how a sediment- associated contaminant affects aquatic organisms cause additional complications. If sediment quality criteria (SQC) are to be used to regulate dredged material disposal, prediction of biological responses based on changes in sediment geochemistry, i.e., sediment physical and chemical properties, and sediment contaminant levels must be possible. Radioactive tracers can be used to evaluate the effects of changing concentrations of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms if the assumption can be made that the contaminant does not degrade during the study. Spiking a sediment with contaminants has generally been accomplished by the addition of organic solvent carriers containing the contaminant to the soil or sediment (Adams, pg1 2.)

Brannon, J.M.; McFarland, V.; Pennington, J.C.; Price, C.B.; Reilley, F.J.

1989-12-01

442

Hepatic mercury, cadmium, and lead in mink and otter from New York State: monitoring environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Many non-linear processes link atmospheric emissions to the bioavailability of metals; consequently, the monitoring of metals in ecosystem components is required to model their ecodynamics. American mink (Neovison vison) and river otter (Lontra canadensis) have the potential to serve as an upper-level-consumer component in monitoring metals bioavailability. However, the relationship of bioaccumulated metals to various environmental factors has not been explored nor have the effects of demographic factors been resolved. To address these limitations, mink and otter, collected throughout New York State during 1998-2002, were analyzed for hepatic concentrations of total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Relationships were investigated between metals concentrations and landscape-level factors (physiographic zone, hydrologic unit, and elevation) and demographic factors (gender and age). Considerable variation in Hg and Cd concentrations was observed relative to both physiographic zone and hydrologic unit for both species. In contrast with Hg, Cd concentration increased predictably with increasing elevation. Mercury concentrations were greater, but for Cd less, in otter than mink. Lead concentrations showed little landscape heterogeneity and were independent of elevation. Age-related bioaccumulation was evident for Hg and Cd, but not for Pb, in both species. Mercury and Cd concentrations were greater in female than male mink; however, Pb concentrations were greater in males than females. Inverse relationships of relative growth (weight/length) to metals concentrations explained gender differences in Hg and Cd in mink. For otter, no gender-related differences in metals concentrations were apparent. The suitability of mink and otter for monitoring programs is discussed. PMID:21743989

Mayack, David T

2011-07-09

443

Fluorotelomer ethoxylates: sources of highly fluorinated environmental contaminants part I: biotransformation.  

PubMed

Polyethoxylated 2-perfluoroalkylethanols ('fluorotelomer ethoxylates', F-(CF(2)-CF(2)-)(x)-(CH(2)-CH(2)-O)(y)-H, FTEO) are an important class of non-ionic fluorinated surfactants, which have been disregarded as potential source of per- and polyfluorinated organic pollutants despite their high production and application amounts. A commercial mixture of FTEO with a perfluoroalkyl chain length between 6 and 10 carbon atoms and an ethoxymer distribution between 0 and 13 was subjected to a biodegradation test. Monitoring of the aerobic biotransformation process by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS showed that FTEO are rapidly transformed with a half-life of approximately 1d. Structural elucidation of the biotransformation products with the help of hybrid quadrupole--linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry revealed oxidation to the respective carboxylic acid followed by sequential shortening of ethoxylate units which led to FTEO carboxylates (FTEOC). The conversion rate of FTEOC was found to diminish with decreasing number of ethoxylate units and virtually ceased for compounds with seven intact ethoxy units. These short-chain FTEOC were not further degraded within 48d. Nonetheless, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected, whose formation is ascribed to degradation of residual fluorotelomer alcohols present in the commercial product. This article represents the first of two parts of a series concerning FTEO. Whilst this part is clearly focused on results of a biodegradation study of FTEO, part two will pinpoint analytical aspects, synthesis of biotransformation products and first evidence of environmental presence of the biotran