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1

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

2005-11-29

2

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

1998-01-01

3

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.

Custer, T.W.

2000-01-01

4

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

2001-01-01

5

Environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies. PMID:22332111

2011-01-01

6

Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: Decisions under Risk and Uncertainty [Prepared for Encyclopedia of Environmental and Resource Economics  

E-print Network

for Encyclopedia of Environmental and Resource Economics] W. Douglass Shaw, Professor Department of Agricultural-9769 (fax) e-mail: wdshaw@tamu.edu #12;2 Glossary Risk A situation with outcomes which can

Shaw, W. Douglass

7

Field Analytic Technologies Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Environmental Protection Agency maintains the Field Analytic Technologies Encyclopedia Web site. The online encyclopedia is \\"intended to provide information about technologies that can be used in the field to characterize contaminated soil and groundwater, monitor progress of remedial efforts, and in some cases, for confirmation sampling and analysis for site close-out.\\" The technologies link contains information on analytics such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and test kits; geophysics such as ground penetrating radar; and delivery systems including direct-push platforms, groundwater samplers, and soil-gas samplers. Other links include resources, references, and online training modules for field-based technologies. The site is a great informational resource and training aide for hazardous waste professionals working directly in the field.

2005-12-08

8

Encyclopedias Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides brief company profiles and describes sales methods and electronic publishing ventures for six encyclopedia publishers: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.; World Book; Grolier; the P.F. Collier encyclopedia division of Macmillan Publishing; Funk & Wagnalls; and Standard Educational Corp. (MES)

Whiteley, Sandy

1992-01-01

9

Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species\\u000a varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across\\u000a Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). ?PCB\\u000a and ?DDT followed by ?CHL were most

Birgit M. Braune; David G. Noble

2009-01-01

10

Environmental contaminants in human milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants can be stored in the mother's body or can be transiently present from current diet, occupational exposures or personal habits. These chemicals can be transferred prenatally to the developing fetus or postnatally from breast milk to the nursing infant. Exposures through breast milk can be substantial, especially when the mother has significant ongoing exposures or has accumulated an

HENRY A ANDERSON; MARY S WOLFF

2000-01-01

11

Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

Banwell, John G.

1979-01-01

12

Environmental contaminants in California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five wild Califorinia condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumably of cyanide (CN) poisoning, and 1 nestling of handling shock. Organochlorine concentrations were low in 4 condors that were analyzed for these contaminants. Blood samples from 14 wild and 14 captive condors were analyzed primarily for Pb. Five of 14 wild condors sampled had elevated (> 0.70 ppm) concentrations of Pb in blood whereas Pb concentrations in all captive condors were low. Lead levels in individual birds often fluctuated over time. Lead exposure, especially poisoning, was a major factor affecting the wild California condor population during 1982-86. The probable source of Pb was bullet fragments in carrion on which condors were feeding.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Scott, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.; Bloom, P.H.; Stafford, C.J.

1988-01-01

13

Environmental Contamination by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE. PMID:23115260

Lerner, A.; Adler, A.; Abu-Hanna, J.; Meitus, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.

2013-01-01

14

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

1 23 Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology ISSN 0090-4341 Volume 61 Number 3 Arch metal and organic contaminant concentrations at three areas in the lower Cape Fear River system, North considered safe for human consumption by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the North

Mallin, Michael

15

Holocaust Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) has some tremendous online resources, and the recent addition of the Holocaust Encyclopedia continues in this tradition. The interactive Encyclopedia includes hundreds of articles that cover topics like the Third Reich, refugees, ghettos, and the liberation of Nazi camps. Each entry contains hypertext links to other entries and relevant resources, including timelines, photo galleries, and primary source documents. Visitors can use the "Browse Articles" to get started, and they should also note that the articles are available in French, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Turkish, Arabic, and six other languages. In the "Additional Resources" section, visitors will find a link to "The Holocaust: A Learning Site for Students" and a complete "A-Z" list of all the articles.

16

Encyclopedia Mythica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encompassing mythology, folklore, and legend, the Encyclopedia Mythica--a collaborative reference resource with over 150 contributors--contains more than 4400 definitions of mythical and legendary figures and almost 200 images. Users may search the entire work by keyword or browse by topic areas. The browseable index is available in both a frames and non-frames version. The unique Miscellanea section compliments the numerous entries on gods, creatures, and heroes with pronunciation guides, maps, genealogy tables, brief histories of ancient peoples, lists of deities and ancient feast days, and the linguistic origins for the names of days, months, and celestial bodies. Contributions to the encyclopedia are encouraged. All submissions are reviewed by editor Micha F. Lindemans.

17

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

1 23 Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology ISSN 0090-4341 Arch Environ Contam the value of examining weathering and aging of chemicals for the best determination of environmental impact to minimize environmental impacts (Williams et al. 2005; Quist et al. 2003). One training activity includes

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

18

Pet dogs as sentinels for environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of environmental contaminants in air, water and food may pose significant health risks to the exposed human population. However, problems associated with assessing chronic exposure to low doses of environmental chemicals, multiple exposure routes, diseases with long latency periods, and non-specific health outcomes make it difficult to conduct the appropriate human epidemiologic studies. It may be useful to

Lorraine C Backer; Carol B Grindem; Wayne T Corbett; Laura Cullins; J. Lee Hunter

2001-01-01

19

Encyclopedia Mythica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the 2004 Athens Olympic Summer Games are now just a not-so-distant memory, the world's fascination with Greek mythology and the ancient world continues to reverberate with the public, scholars of antiquity, and other interested parties. To pique their interest, there is the lovely Encyclopedia Mythica which was founded and edited by Micha Lindemans. Here visitors can peruse areas devoted to mythology, folklore, bestiary, heroes, and take a look at some genealogy tables, which tend to be quite helpful. The featured items section is quite nice, as visitors can read the full text of a book on witchcraft, learn about the great Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, and read the 1898 edition of the Arabian Nights. The site has a number of other features, including a place for visitor feedback and a search feature. Rounding out the site are lists of feast days from the ancient world, along with a list of Roman deities and their Greek counterparts.

20

1Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series 1Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs  

E-print Network

1Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series 1Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs ISpringer Science. Fairbridge Water Balance of the Laurentian Great Lakes Vincent Fortin1 ~ and Andrew D. Gronewold2 ~ (1) Meteorological Research Division, Environment Canada, Dorval (Quebec), Canada (2) Great Lakes Environmental

21

Encyclopedia Reviews 1978  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews thirteen 1978 edition encyclopedias: Book of Art, Britannica Jr., Britannica 3, Childcraft, Collier's, Compton's. Encyclopedia Americana, Funk & Wagnalls, Merit Students, New Caton, Random House, New Standard, and World Book. (SB)

Minemier, Betty

1978-01-01

22

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths  

PubMed Central

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

2014-01-01

23

Environmental contaminants in raccoons in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants are a continuing source of concern. In an effort to monitor the presence of these substances and assess the threats they present to wildlife, a joint study was conducted in 1985 between the Kansas Fish and Game Commission and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) were selected as the study animal because this species

William G. Layher; Lloyd B. Fox; Russell Broxterman

1987-01-01

24

Effect of environmental contaminants on male reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of evidence has accumulated in recent years that consistently indicate various adverse effects of environmental contaminants on human health. Decreasing trend of male fertility in terms of sperm counts and sperm quality, along with other changes in male reproductive health, including congenital malformations and testicular cancer in humans, and similar problems in wildlife has been correlated to

B. Saradha; P. P. Mathur

2006-01-01

25

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

26

DERMAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb in ground water, dioxins...

27

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer

S. S. Talmage; B. T. Walton

1991-01-01

28

Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Covers the complex issue of how to evaluate contaminants in wildlife. This comprehensive resource deals with the question: 'How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?' Features: Authoritative and sound advice is provided on many environmental contaminants, including what the contaminants are and how to interpret the data on them. Each chapter includes a review of the literature on a specific chemical, followed by a clear technical summary that provides research guidance. Direction is given on how to interpret data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient. Data are presented in easy to use tables. Primary attention is given to toxic concentrations of contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, and fluorides.

1996-01-01

29

Forest Encyclopedia Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".

30

Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

31

Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.  

PubMed Central

For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimulate an immune response, are associated with the occurrence of these diseases. We reviewed the epidemiologic data that addressed whether environmental contaminants might cause type 1 or type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, higher intake of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, as well as higher serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with increased risk. Overall, however, the data were limited or inconsistent. With respect to type 2 diabetes, data on arsenic and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin relative to risk were suggestive of a direct association but were inconclusive. The occupational data suggested that more data on exposure to N-nitroso compounds, arsenic, dioxins, talc, and straight oil machining fluids in relation to diabetes would be useful. Although environmental factors other than contaminants may account for the majority of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the etiologic role of several contaminants and occupational exposures deserves further study. PMID:11744505

Longnecker, M P; Daniels, J L

2001-01-01

32

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between contaminant exposure and trophic level emerged. Insectivores (shrews) had the highest levels of contaminants, followed by omnivores (cricetid mice) with intermediate levels, and herbivores (voles) with the lowest levels. A substantial number of these biomonitoring studies using small mammals collectively point to the importance of food habits and habitat of small mammals, and their availability and abundance as factors that should influence species selection for monitoring studies. The type of contaminants under consideration as well as the appropriateness of the endpoints selected are important factors to consider when deciding whether or not to include small mammals in biomonitoring studies. PMID:1992495

Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

1991-01-01

33

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

34

Methods for Estimating Economic Damages from Environmental Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

While significant attention has been given to the decrease in property values associated with environmental contamination (i.e., stigma effects), little attention has been given to the stigma impacts on the local community as a whole. In addition, most estimates of stigma damages have been performed within a community, using distance from contamination or comparing contamination and non contamination areas in

David W. Shideler; Michael R. Dicks

2011-01-01

35

Encyclopedia Roundup 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second annual encyclopedia summary updates the American Library Association's (ALA) evaluation of 10 sets and analyzes the deletions and additions made to each encyclopedia within the context of each publisher's revision plans. The board looked specifically for significant changes in purpose, arrangement, content style, general quality, and…

American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

36

BERKSHIRE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SUSTAINABILITY  

E-print Network

BERKSHIRE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SUSTAINABILITY V O L U M E S 1-10 A ground-breaking interdisciplinary@berkshirepublishing.com | Tel +1 413 528 0206 19 April, 2012 In the 10-volume Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, experts, regional sustainability issues, and resource and ecosystem management. The ten volumes are available

Kammen, Daniel M.

37

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico University of A Coruña, Spain of artificial intelligence / Juan Ramon Rabunal Dopico, Julian Dorado de la Calle, and Alejandro Pazos Sierra) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-850-5 (ebook) 1. Artificial intelligence--Encyclopedias. I. Rabunal, Juan Ramon, 1973

Liang, Faming

38

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

Ware, G. (ed.)

2007-07-01

39

Jewish Encyclopedia.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standing as a testament to the wide ranging contributions of the Jewish people to world culture and history, this Web site contains the complete contents of the massive 12-volume Jewish Encyclopedia, originally published between 1901-1906 by the Funk & Wagnall's Company. Conceived and funded by the Kopelman Foundation, this compilation is the only free encyclopedia of Judaica available on the Internet. While the encyclopedia obviously does not include such topics as the creation of the state of Israel or the Holocaust, it is a rather fascinating collection that recalls an interesting period in scholarship, and is a helpful historical document. Visitors can browse by the encyclopedia by letter, along with viewing a transcription of each entry and any accompanying images included with each entry. Those who might be interested in helping compile an updated version of the encyclopedia are also invited to join the mailing list.

40

Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

41

2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

42

Mapping Environmental Contaminants at Ray Mine, AZ  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data was collected over Ray Mine as part of a demonstration project for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through the Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI). The overall goal of AMI is to accelerate adoption and application of advanced measurement technologies for cost effective environmental monitoring. The site was selected to demonstrate the benefit to EPA in using advanced remote sensing technologies for the detection of environmental contaminants due to the mineral extraction industry. The role of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in this pilot study is to provide data as well as performing calibration, data analysis, and validation of the AVIRIS results. EPA is also interested in developing protocols that use commercial software to perform such work on other high priority EPA sites. Reflectance retrieval was performed using outputs generated by the MODTRAN radiative transfer model and field spectra collected for the purpose of calibration. We are presenting advanced applications of the ENVI software package using n-Dimensional Partial Unmixing to identify image-derived endmembers that best match target materials reference spectra from multiple spectral libraries. Upon identification of the image endmembers the Mixture Tuned Match Filter algorithm was applied to map the endmembers within each scene. Using this technique it was possible to map four different mineral classes that are associated with mine generated acid waste.

McCubbin, Ian; Lang, Harold

2000-01-01

43

Nanomaterials in Environmental Contamination, Their Nanotoxicological Peculiarities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-nanothreat arises from a lack of knowledge about new states of matter (spheroidal molecules of carbon, nanostructures, nanoparticles and nanophases). Newly discovered nanomaterials are likely to have different behavior and properties than their predecessors. New approaches for creating nanotechnologies are developed by using nanomaterials. Nanotechnology is considered as a panacea for resolving global problems that may affect the duration and quality of life. However, progress in technology historically leads to positive and negative consequences, thus the same can be expected from nanotechnology. Several un-researched threats may arise from uncontrolled development of nanotechnology. Some scientists foresee nanotechnological and nanodemocratic threats connected to possible undesirable self-replication of different nanosystems, and uncontrolled application of cheap ubiquitous personal nanosensors for permanent surveillance of individuals. In addition, little research is aimed to study how nanomaterials may attribute to environmental contamination. Finally, the influence of nanoparticles and nanostructures on the human organism may also be threatening in certain circumstances.

Kharlamova, G.; Kirillova, N.

44

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues, 2008 Review  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2006-2007. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2008 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

45

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

46

Advancing passive sampling of contaminants in environmental science  

E-print Network

Advancing passive sampling of contaminants in environmental science Philipp Mayer,a Frank Waniab of legacy contaminants. Most of the presented methods were operated in the kinetic uptake regime contaminants including POCIS, Chemcatcher and o- DGT. The understanding of uptake kinetics and sorption

Mosegaard, Klaus

47

Civil and Environmental Engineering CSU Center for Contaminant Hydrology  

E-print Network

Civil and Environmental Engineering CSU ­ Center for Contaminant Hydrology Coordinator The Center for Contaminant Hydrology (CCH) ( HYPERLINK "http://www.engr.colostate.edu/CCH/" www.engr.colostate.edu/CCH/) in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Colorado State University (CSU) has an opening

48

Congenital Malformations and Birthweight in Areas with Potential Environmental Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern exists about the potential for reproductive damage that may result from exposures to environmental contaminants. Therefore, the authors sought to determine if there was an association between a child's congenital malformation or a child's lowered weight at birth and his or her mother's residence in a census tract where a site of environmental contamination had been documented. Exposure

Gary M. Shaw; Jane Schulman; Jonathan D. Frisch; Susan K. Cummins; John A. Harris

1992-01-01

49

Congenital malformations and birthweight in areas with potential environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern exists about the potential for reproductive damage that may result from exposures to environmental contaminants. Therefore, the authors sought to determine if there was an association between a child's congenital malformation or a child's lowered weight at birth and his or her mother's residence in a census tract where a site of environmental contamination had been documented. Exposure

G. M. Shaw; J. Schulman; J. D. Frisch; J. A. Harris; S. K. Cummins

2009-01-01

50

Concise encyclopedia of bioresource technology: a review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Journal of Environmental Quality requested a review of the book “The Concise Encyclopedia of Biotechnology” from the perspective of a scientist. Biotechnology is an emerging field and has rapidly become a buzzword in popular culture and politics today, yet it is not possible to be an expert in ...

51

Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Medical Encyclopedia To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia includes over 4,000 articles about diseases, ...

52

Environmental Response Team Standard Operating Procedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations  

E-print Network

Environmental Response Team Standard Operating Procedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations Environmental Response Team Standard OperatingEnvironmental Response Team Standard Operating Procedures for Contaminated Water Diving OperationsProcedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations AAUS March 2010 Meeting

Sura, Philip

53

Quantitative determination of emerging contaminants, solvent stabilizers and fullerene nanomaterials, in biological and environmental systems.  

E-print Network

??To determine the impact of emerging environmental contaminants on human and environmental health, quantitative analytical methods are required. Analysis of emerging contaminants is hampered by… (more)

Isaacson, Carl W.

2007-01-01

54

High Throughput Screening For Hazard and Risk of Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

High throughput toxicity testing provides detailed mechanistic information on the concentration response of environmental contaminants in numerous potential toxicity pathways. High throughput screening (HTS) has several key advantages: (1) expense orders of magnitude less than an...

55

Data-Mining and Informatics Approaches for Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

New and emerging environmental contaminants are chemicals that have not been previously detected or that are being detected at levels significantly different from those expected in both biological and ecological arenas (that is, human, wildlife, and environment). Many chemicals c...

56

Project Overview: PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The human health and ecological assessment issues related to environmental contamination by perchlorate are complex and continue to emerge. Perchlorate, ClO4-, is an anion that originates as a contaminant from the solid salts of ammonium, potassium or sodium perchlorate. These ...

57

Encyclopedia of Birth Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

Rengel, Marian

58

Encyclopedia of Rose Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural industries. A team of internationally renowned experts has contributed scores of articles,

A. Roberts; T. Debener; S. Gudin; D. B. Byrne; T. Cairns; Vries de D. P; L. A. M. Dubois; G. Forkmann; M. Fruchter; J. P. F. G. Helsper; R. K. Horst; M. Jay; T. A. M. Kwakkenbosch; B. Pemberton; H. M. C. Put; S. Rajapakse; M. Reid; A. Schum; J. D. Shorthouse; Y. Ueda; A. Vainstein; Pol van de P. A; N. Zieslin

2003-01-01

59

Concise Encyclopedia of Sociolinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides comprehensive information on all aspects of sociolinguistics. It includes 285 articles, of which 80 are short biographical entries. Fifty of the biographies and 42 other articles are entirely new, while the remaining entries are revised and updated from the "Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics." The book provides access to…

Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

60

The Encyclopedia of Islam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Covers the current revision of the "Encyclopedia of Islam," a major research tool in the study of Islamic civilization. Changes include the addition of new topics such as social and economic history, and new ideas such as freedom, constitutions, and agriculture. The revision includes more articles written by Middle Eastern and Indian scholars. (LS)

Taylor, Caroline

1989-01-01

61

Encyclopedia of Multicultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia contains over 400 terms, phrases, concepts, U.S. Supreme Court decisions, significant contributors to the American macroculture from the country's various racial and/or ethnic backgrounds, key events, and court cases related to multicultural education. Arranged alphabetically, each entry is defined and discussed in keeping with…

Mitchell, Bruce M.; Salsbury, Robert E.

62

Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

63

Environmental Contaminants and Human Infertility: Hypothesis or Cause for Concern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the crude human birth rate (live births per 1000 population) declined, indicating reduced fertility and suggesting a potential decline in fecundity (the potential to conceive). Detection of environmental contaminants in human tissues, together with reports of a global decline in semen quality, further fueled speculation that human infertility rates are increasing and environmental toxicants are

Warren G. Foster; Michael S. Neal; Myoung-Soek Han; Miguel M. Dominguez

2008-01-01

64

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial Review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 20102011. Analytical Chemistry?s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Ev...

65

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells. Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:21706039

Mathur, Premendu Prakash; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia

2011-01-01

66

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function.  

PubMed

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells. Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:21706039

Mathur, Premendu Prakash; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia

2011-07-01

67

The Encyclopedia of Suns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Suns! Many people are interested in astronomical research that touches on the relationship between astronomy and biology, or at least the possibility of biology on planets other than Earth. The popularity of research efforts such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and extrasolar planet discovery, especially among the public, shows how strong a hold these ideas have. Currently, the Encyclopedia of Suns contains over 100 stars within 50 light years (15.3 parsecs) from the Sun. It contains all stars within that distance that meet specific criteria for being plausible locations for Earthlike planets. It also has some stars outside the 50 light year limit: those that are not only Sunlike, but which also have one or more planets orbiting them.

Nash, David

68

Electrochemistry Dictionary and Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This dictionary, accompanied by the online Electrochemistry Encyclopedia (http://electrochem.cwru.edu/ed/encycl), provides brief definitions of words and phrases used often in electrochemistry, the branch of chemistry dealing with reactions involving electrical current or potential. For some terms, a second paragraph provides additional, more technically oriented information. Entries are organized in alphabetical order. The online encyclopedia features articles describing many aspects of electrochemistry, the branch of chemistry dealing with reactions involving electrical currents and potentials. The articles are written by leading experts in the field, but in a popular-science style accessible to the non-expert. New articles are added at irregular intervals, and all articles are periodically updated as new developments occur. The collection is browseable by a table of contents, by author, or by subject. It may also be searched by keyword or a string of terms. The Encyclopedia links to the Electrochemistry Dictionary (http://electrochem.cwru.edu/ed/dict.htm) and to other online resources.

Edited by Zoltan Nagy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

69

Assessment of environmental contaminant-induced lymphocyte dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Although it has been established that environmental contaminants can alter immune function, the mechanisms of action have yet to be determined. This paper reviews the effects of hydrocarbon environmental contaminants on lymphocyte function and presents an approach which may serve to delineate the mechanisms of action. The approach is based on the use of the developmental phases of an immune response and assays which can be used for their functional assessment. Possible interactions between environmental contaminants and lymphocyte function and factors which must be considered in the evaluation of immune status are discussed. In addition, a study on the influence of the chronic exposure to two polyhalogenated hydrocarbons, PCB and HCB, on several parameters of lymphocyte function in mice is presented. PMID:7016518

Silkworth, J B; Loose, L D

1981-01-01

70

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bald Eagle eggs (1968-84) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury. DDE declined in WI, ME and the Chesapeake Bay. DDE was most closely related to shell thickness and reproduction at sampled breeding areas. Sixteen ppm DDE (wet weight) was associated with 15% shell thinning. Reproduction was normal when eggs at sampled breeding areas contained <3.6 ppm DDE; success was nearly halved between 3.6 and 6.3 ppm and halved again when concentrations exceeded 6.3 ppm. Other contaminants were associated with poor reproduction and eggshell thinning; however, their impact appeared secondary to that of DDE.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Bunck, C.M.; Stafford, C.J.

1991-01-01

71

HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2011-01-01

72

The toll of toxics: Investigating environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On Earth Day of this year, the British Petroleum-operated Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, 41 miles off the Louisiana coast. The blast killed 11 workers, injured 17, launched a massive oil spill, and triggered an environmental catastrophe—the full impact of which may not be realized for years.

Sparling, Donald W.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Barclay, John S.

2010-01-01

73

How To Choose an Encyclopedia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews CD-ROM encyclopedias to guide librarians and teachers in decision making. Encyclopedias are divided into two groups: mass market for ages 9 and up, and academic for ages 14 and above. A table lists products with addresses and Web sites, as well as information on price, minimum specs, number of articles, Internet connection, strengths, and…

Valenza, Joyce Kasman

1997-01-01

74

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

75

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

76

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

These are the first and second volumes under the new Editor of the series that is a continuation of Residue Reviews. The nine reviews in them are as follows: Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils; Maleic hydrazide residues in tobacco and their toxicological implications; Fate and persistence of aquatic herbicides; Organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables; Biological half-lives of chemicals in fishes; Propylene chlorohydrins; toxicology, metabolism and environmental fate; The pyrolysis of cannabinoids; Pesticide fate from vine to wine; Transport and transformation of organic chemicals in the soil-air-water ecosystem.

Ware, G.W. (ed.)

1987-01-01

77

Environmental Contamination, Public Hygiene, and Human Health Concerns in the Third WorldThe Case Of Nigerian Environmentalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination is directly related to high morbidity and mortality rates in the Third World. This paper addresses environmental contamination exacerbated by environmental imperialism and international dumping of hazardous wastes in the Third World, specifically in Nigeria. Environmental hygiene, human health problems, and establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and its policy frameworks hitherto are presented. Furthermore, theoretical

Francis O. Adeola

1996-01-01

78

Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits. PMID:20587072

2010-01-01

79

Biodegradation of environmental contaminants using white rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi are a common, naturally-occurring class of wood-degrading fungi that evolved to degrade lignin. Extensive research conducted since the early 1980s has shown that many of the same mechanisms used by the fungi for lignin degradation also promote the degradation of several carbon-based environmental contaminants. These contaminants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, wood preservatives, chlorinated solvents, PCBs, explosives, cyanide, dyes and others. The fungi use an extra-cellular, free-radical, nonspecific mode of degradation, which allows them to degrade both soluble and insoluble contaminants, whether they are absorbed or in solution. The extra-cellular substances secreted by the fungi include several enzymes (which catalyze the initial oxidation of contaminant molecules), hydrogen ions (to maintain a slightly acidic pH), electrons (to maintain a charge balance and to reduce contaminant through the breaking of chemical bonds), and the fungi secrete veratryl alcohol (a free-radical mediator that catalyzes reductions) and oxalate (an organic acid that is a highly effective reductant). Application of white rot fungi for the remediation of contaminated soils involves mixing fungal-inoculated substrates with the soil. The materials are moistened during mixing to provide an environment that is conducive to fungal growth. The soil/substrate mixture is then placed in a biocell and aerated to promote contaminant degradation. Case histories of bench-scale tests and field applications are presented.

White, R.B.; Aust, S.D. (Utah State Univ., Midvale, UT (United States))

1994-08-01

80

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants  

E-print Network

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic, a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter for groundwater treatment inoculated with a microbial consortium

81

FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT DATA: A FORENSIC TOOL FOR EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have been conducted on behalf of the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify detection monitoring parameters for specific industries.1,2,3,4,5 One outcome of these studies was the evolution of an empirical multi-variant contaminant fingerprinting p...

82

Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

83

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, Len

1992-01-01

84

The New Georgia Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Georgia Humanities Council, in partnership with the Office of the Governor and the University of Georgia Press, the New Georgia Encyclopedia represents an ambitious effort to create an authoritative online resource for literally hundreds of topics about the state of Georgia. It would seem that they are well on their way to reaching their goal of 1600 original articles by January 2006, as visitors can select from a number of broad topics to browse through, including: folklife, education, religion, and transportation. Within each topic, there are numerous subtopics, leading the way to individual articles. One rather nice feature of the Encyclopedia is that each article is accompanied by a list of suggested reading, and in many cases, there are hyperlinks to relevant external sites. The site also provides links to basic Quick Facts about the state, galleries featuring the works of prominent museums through the state, and a Features area, which each month hones-in on any number of topics, such as Creek Leaders of Georgia and Twelve Great Works of Georgia Fiction. From Hank Aaron to the Yazoo Land Fraud, this site is a fine fountain of information about the people, places, and traditions of the Peach State.

85

Encyclopedia of Chicago History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Somewhere between Los Angeles and New York is a metropolis affectionately referred to by some as the "Second City". Also known as Chicago, this fair city has recently received its due with the publication of this outstanding reference volume. The online version offered on this site is even more authoritative than the print volume, as it contains a number of interactive maps and special features. Produced by the Chicago Historical Society, the Newberry Library and Northwestern University, this online edition allows users to search the entire contents of the Encyclopedia, and even browse digitized versions of the primary historical documents that serve as the research materials for the print articles. From the homepage, visitors can peruse a user's guide to the Encyclopedia. Each entry includes hypertext links, and in some cases, illustrative materials. For additional information, each entry also features some additional readings. Visitors will also want to take a look at the lovely maps produced for the volume, including a rather compelling map of Chicago's blues clubs. Finally, the special features area includes several interpretive digital essays on the Plan of Chicago of 1909 and galleries on such important topics as "How Chicagoans Remember Their History".

86

Online Nevada Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nevada is much more than the Hoover Dam and a certain large neon-drenched city, and the Online Nevada Encyclopedia revels in covering aspects of the state that include business, mining, politics, exploration, and the economy of the Silver State. Started in 2007, the Encyclopedia has been developed by the Nevada Humanities organization, with generous support of the U.S. Department of Education and the State of Nevada. It's a good idea to start a tour through the site by looking at one of the exhibit galleries, which include "Civil Rights in Nevada" and "Hoover Dam". All four of the current exhibits bring together primary documents with brief descriptions of each document. After that, visitors should head over to the topical areas to read high-quality articles about various facets of the state. All of the articles are authored by subject experts, and they cover everything from the archaeology of Tule Springs to the spooky world of the state's many ghost towns.

87

DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING AN ELECTROSPRAY INTERFACE COMBINED WITH AN ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development, was interested in determining environmental contaminants using a commercial electrospray which is interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) to analyze contaminants of concern. ptimi...

88

A database for environmental contaminants in traditional foods in northern and arctic Canada: Development and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential health effects of environmental contaminants in traditional food has become a concern among northern communities because of the presence of environmental contaminants in the Arctic ecosystem. Exposure assessments are needed but they require comprehensive dietary information and contaminant data. Over the last 10 years, there has been considerable effort to monitor the level of contaminants in fish and

Hing Man Chan

1998-01-01

89

Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers.  

PubMed Central

Due to the use of a limited number of species and subchronic exposures, current ecological hazard assessment processes can underestimate the chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants resulting in adverse responses of sentinel species. Several incidences where sentinel species have responded to the effects of chronic exposure to ambient levels of environmental contaminants are discussed, including the development of neoplasia in fish, immunosuppression in marine mammals, pseudohermaphrodism in invertebrates, teratogenicity in amphibians, and aberrations in the sexual development of fish and reptiles. Biomarkers of chronic toxicity, including DNA mutations, alterations in specific protein and mRNA levels, and perturbations in metabolism, are presented. The incorporation of appropriate surrogate species and biomarkers of chronic toxicity into standard toxicity characterizations is proposed as a means of significantly refining the ecological hazard assessment process. PMID:9114278

LeBlanc, G A; Bain, L J

1997-01-01

90

Environmental contamination of groundwater in the Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental problems of groundwater contamination in the Gaza Strip are summarized in this paper. The Gaza Strip is a very narrow and highly populated area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (360 km2). Human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources in the area, while the unconfined nature of some parts of the coastal main aquifer favors groundwater contamination. Recent investigations show contamination of the aquifer with organic substances from detergents, agrochemicals, sewage (cesspools), and waste degradation. These effects enhance each other because there is no recycling industry, sewage system, or any type of environmental protection management at present. Inorganic contamination results from overpumping, which increases the salinity of the groundwater. Seawater intrusion also increases the salinity of the groundwater that are used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Consequently, at present about 80 percent of the groundwater in the Gaza Strip is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Solutions are very urgently needed for these problems in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases.

Al-Agha, M. R.

1995-03-01

91

Plant sentinels and molecular probes that monitor environmental munitions contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Plants accumulate TNT and similar compounds from soil. Their sessile nature requires that plants adapt to environmental changes by biochemical and molecular means. In principle, it is possible to develop a monitoring capability based on expression of any gene that is activated by specific environmental conditions. The authors have identified plant genes activated upon exposure to TNT. Partial gene sequences allow design of DNA probes that measure TNT-induced gene activity. These will be used to develop sensitive assays that monitor gene expression in plants growing in environments possibly contaminated with explosives.

Jackson, P.J.; DeWitt, J.G.; Hill, K.K.; Kuske, C.R.; Kim, D.Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Genomics and Structural Biology Group

1994-08-01

92

Encyclopedia of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Alabama Humanities Foundation and Auburn University, the Encyclopedia of Alabama (EOA) is a veritable cornucopia of material about the Yellowhammer State. The EOA draws on the work of many trustworthy and learned authors, and as a statement of the homepage notes, "Alabama's problems are not glossed over, nor are its accomplishments and successes overlooked." Visitors who might not be familiar with the state in the least are encouraged to read historian Wayne Flynt's fine essay on Alabama featured on the homepage. After that, visitors can look over the entries alphabetically, or they can use of the thematic headings (such as "Peoples" and "Religion") to start their journey. The "Features" articles are a treat as well, and they include "Alabama and the Civil War" and "College Football in Alabama". The site also includes several photo galleries, a glossary, and some educational resources for teachers.

93

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance, or encycogov for short, is created and maintained by Henrik Mathiesen, a PhD candidate at the Department of International Economics and Management at the Copenhagen Business School. Content on the site is divided into two sections: Specific Topics and General Topics. Topics in both sections begin with a paragraph explaining the overarching definition of the principle, and link to a variety of tables, "exhibitions," and models that further illustrate the definition. For example, the Bankruptcy Systems section begins with the definition and is followed up by two tables: "Effects of bankruptcy systems on corporate performance and other kinds of institutions of relevance for corporate governance" and "International corporate governance- Tentative characterizations of legal and empirical state of large firm bankruptcy systems in various countries as of 1980-95: 1) Developing countries. 2)Germany. 3) Japan. 4) Anglo-American countries. 5) Denmark." Also included on the site are references and site users information.

94

Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi  

SciTech Connect

Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

Grigoriev, Igor

2012-08-10

95

Approaches to detecting immunotoxic effects of environmental contaminants in humans.  

PubMed Central

Experimental animal studies indicate that environmental contaminants can have adverse effects on several organs and tissues of the immune system. Such effects are known to lead to increased host susceptibility to microbial infections and to compromised immunosurveillance mechanisms normally instrumental in the elimination of neoplastic cells and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Evaluation of the potential risk environmental contaminants pose to the human immune system is currently accomplished via extrapolation of experimentally derived animal data to humans. Presently, this process requires that uncertainty factors such as interspecies differences and genetic variability be considered. Naturally, the process of risk assessment would be greatly facilitated if it were based on clinically relevant data derived from studying humans known to be exposed to environmental contaminants. However, the existing human data are scarce and often described as very limited in scope. To generate the much-needed human data we need to identify a set of clinically relevant immunologic end points that, when adequately standardized, can be incorporated easily into the design of prospective epidemiologic studies. PMID:11744506

Tryphonas, H

2001-01-01

96

Observations on environmental contamination in a microbiological laboratory.  

PubMed Central

Contamination of a laboratory environment with pathogenic or non-pathogenic micro-organisms may be relevant to safety of technicians and quality of technical performance. Two widely separated incidents in 1968 and 1974 initiated a study of aspects of the laboratory environment. Water-baths, water of syneresis and portions of salmonella cultures spurting out of the sterilizing flame were examined. The water of water-baths was shown to be contaminated from the fluid cultures incubated in them. This raised questions of potential cross-contamination and reporting of false positives. Water of syneresis was sometimes contaminated with salmonellas. A few quantitative counts were made. The range of counts varied between 16 salmonellas per ml. and 13,000,000 salmonellas per ml. Five hundred portions of salmonella cultures and 571 portions of Shigella sonnei cultures which had spurted from the sterilizing flame were examined. All these samples failed to grow salmonellas or shigellas. Precautions necessary to avoid environmental contamination are briefly discussed. PMID:1107415

Harvey, R. W.; Price, T. H.; Joynson, D. H.

1976-01-01

97

Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); thesemeshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit is eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype sorber device for simultaneous CO2 and trace contarninant removal and its attendant weight and energy savings.

Roychoudhury, S.; Perry, J.

2004-01-01

98

Environmental contaminant–mixture effects on CNS development, plasticity, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants within the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon class have been shown to cross the placenta exposing the fetus to the contaminant body burden of the mother. Consequently, a gestational exposure to environmental contaminants may result in increased adverse health outcomes, possibly affecting cognitive performance. Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and 2,3,7,8, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are two prototypical environmental contaminants.

Deanna D Wormley; Aramandla Ramesh; Darryl B Hood

2004-01-01

99

Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to neurodevelopment, there is less information regarding the consequences of modest degrees of thyroid. The impact of low level TH disruptions induced by environmental contaminants has not been defined. This paper is a synopsis from four invited speakers who presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association meeting held in Xi'an, China during the summer of 2011. An overview of the role of TH in brain development and a review of human and animal data on the neurological sequelae of disruption of the thyroid axis in the pre- and early post-natal periods were presented by Mary Gilbert and Joanne Rovet. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of TH insufficiency and mental retardation in many countries, including China, was addressed by Zupei Chen. In this presentation the current incidence of iodine deficiency and neurological outcome in China and the efficacy of recently implemented iodinization programs to eliminate this cause of mental retardation were reviewed. Joanne Rovet described the impact of TH disruption during pregnancy and under conditions of congenital hypothyroidism. Children born with normal thyroid function, but who experienced TH insufficiency in the womb, display subtle cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain imaging. Despite early detection and treatment, deficiencies also exist in children born with thyroid disorders. Different patterns of cognitive effects result from prenatal versus postnatal TH insufficiency. Mary Gilbert reported on the effects of environmental contaminants with thyroid disrupting action on brain development in animals. Results of neurophysiological, behavioral, structural and molecular alterations that accompany modest perturbations of the thyroid axis were reviewed. Noriyuki Koibuchi described molecular targets of TH-mediated signalling accompanying exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are prevalent environmental contaminants that disrupt TH signalling at the receptor level. This action by these chemical classes could contribute to the negative impact of these chemicals on brain function. In summary, epidemiological, preclinical and animal research has clearly identified the critical role of TH in brain development. Additional work is required to understand the impact of low level perturbations of the thyroid axis to evaluate the risk associated with environmental contaminants with thyroid action. PMID:22138353

Gilbert, Mary E; Rovet, Joanne; Chen, Zupei; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

2012-08-01

100

Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

Hall, R.J.

1980-01-01

101

Environmental Research 105 (2007) 156174 Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants in  

E-print Network

Environmental Research 105 (2007) 156­174 Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants, and levels of contamination covary with other environmental factors, such as freshwater inflow or sediment Concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary exist at levels that have been

102

Encyclopedia of Software Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

103

Encyclopedia of software components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

Vanwarren, Lloyd (inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (inventor)

1991-01-01

104

Dicofol (Kelthane) as an environmental contaminant: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dicofol is persistent in soil and on plants. No compelling evidence exists that dicofol breaks down or is metabolized to DDTr in nature. Dicofol does not accumulate in birds as rapidly as DDE, and it has reproductive effects that are less harmful than DDE. Fish, birds, and mammals are reproductively sensitive to dicofol products, but levels presently found in wildlife are below levels shown experimentally to cause significant harm. Eggs of fish-eating wild birds from citrus, cotton, and apple-growing areas should be analyzed for dicofol residues. Nest success of fish-eating birds in the most contaminated populations should be studied to evaluate the environmental effects of dicofol.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1990-01-01

105

Environmental Science and Pollution Research Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.  

E-print Network

by phthalates. --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript Number: Full Title: Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates. Article Type: Review Article Keywords: phthalates; DEHP; review; state-of-the-art Corresponding, Ph.D Regis Moilleron, Ph.D Order of Authors Secondary Information: Abstract: Introduction: Phthalate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

NONE

1996-10-01

107

Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From William Howard Taft to Toledo, the Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia is a veritable cornucopia of material about the places, events, and other elements of the Buckeye state's history and lore. As noted on the site's homepage, this encyclopedia �"is an evolving, dynamic online encyclopedia that includes information about Ohio's natural history, prehistory and history.� That is certainly a tall order to fill, and the site does so admirably. Visitors can click on over to the built-in search engine on the homepage, or just browse along through such broad categories as "History", "Natural History", and "State Symbols". Visitors to this last category may be intrigued to learn that the state's beverage is tomato juice, or that the state's official insect is the ladybug, a peaceful creature best known for its voracious appetite for aphids.

2006-01-01

108

Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

Moody, R P; Chu, I

1995-01-01

109

Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.  

PubMed

Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

2010-10-01

110

Assessment of doses and and environmental contamination from decommissioning of the  

E-print Network

Assessment of doses and and environmental contamination from decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø Assessment of doses and and environmentalAssessment of doses and and environmental contamination from decommissioning of thecontamination from decommissioning of the nuclear facilities

111

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental

R. L. Smith; Y. H. Schukken; A. K. Pradhan; J. M. Smith; R. H. Whitlock; J. S. Van Kessel; D. R. Wolfgang; Y. T. Grohn

2011-01-01

112

Wolbachia pipientis - Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Encyclopedia of Life species page offers a comprehensive summary of the biology, ecology, evolution and relevance of Wolbachia pipientis. It includes an interactive media panel with images, videos and distribution maps, as well as a navigable classification structure. The page is supplemented with links to literature references, educational opportunities and additional research links.

Life, Encyclopedia O.

113

Encyclopedia of Smoking and Tobacco.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia presents an extensive listing of current and historical information relating to tobacco. It aims to provide accurate, current, and balanced information to people of all viewpoints and on both sides of the smoking debate. The A-to-Z format makes a vast amount of current information easily accessible. Over 600 entries are complied…

Hirschfelder, Arlene B.

114

Environmental contaminants: Is male reproductive health at risk?  

PubMed

Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies. PMID:22332111

Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

2011-10-01

115

Effect of environmental contaminants on Beta cell function.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern that chemicals in the environment are contributing to the global rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is limited evidence for direct effects of these chemicals on beta cell function. Therefore, the goals of this study were (1) to test the hypothesis that environmental contaminants can directly affect beta cell function and (2) examine mechanistic pathways by which these contaminants could affect beta cell function. Using mouse beta TC-6 cells, we examined the acute effects of 6 substances (benzo[a]pyrene, bisphenol A [BPA], propylparaben, methylparaben, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctyl sulfone) on insulin secretion. Only BPA treatment directly affected insulin secretion. Furthermore, chronic exposure to BPA altered the expression of key proteins in the cellular and endoplasmic reticulum stress response. These data suggest that long-term BPA exposure may be detrimental to beta cell function and ultimately be an important contributor to the etiology of T2D. PMID:21705745

Makaji, Emilija; Raha, Sandeep; Wade, Michael G; Holloway, Alison C

2011-08-01

116

Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils.  

PubMed

Estonia is currently one of the leading producers of shale oils in the world. Increased production, transportation and use of shale oils entail risks of environmental contamination. This paper studies the behaviour of two shale fuel oils (SFOs)--'VKG D' and 'VKG sweet'--in different soil matrices under natural climatic conditions. Dynamics of SFOs' hydrocarbons (C10-C40), 16 PAHs, and a number of soil heterotrophic bacteria in oil-spiked soils was investigated during the long-term (1 year) outdoor experiment. In parallel, toxicity of aqueous leachates of oil-spiked soils to aquatic organisms (crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri) and terrestrial plants (Sinapis alba and Hordeum vulgare) was evaluated. Our data showed that in temperate climate conditions, the degradation of SFOs in the oil-contaminated soils was very slow: after 1 year of treatment, the decrease of total hydrocarbons' content in the soil did not exceed 25 %. In spite of the comparable chemical composition of the two studied SFOs, the VKG sweet posed higher hazard to the environment than the heavier fraction (VKG D) due to its higher mobility in the soil as well as higher toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species. Our study demonstrated that the correlation between chemical parameters (such as total hydrocarbons or total PAHs) widely used for the evaluation of the soil pollution levels and corresponding toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms was weak. PMID:24865504

Kanarbik, Liina; Blinova, Irina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

2014-10-01

117

Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.  

PubMed

Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports. PMID:22002748

Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

2011-11-01

118

Relationships Between Environmental Factors and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination at Campbell Cove Beach  

E-print Network

contaminated with sewage. (Largier & Taggart 2006). filling sample bottles from ankle deep beach water of most animals, and are used to indicate fecal contamination in water and sediment (R T Noble el alRelationships Between Environmental Factors and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination at Campbell

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

119

Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated

P. H. Albers; L. Sileo; B. M. Mulhern

1986-01-01

120

Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental  

E-print Network

Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental effects presented extends these measurements to nonpristine condi- tions, including materials contaminated with sand and water. The relationship between reflectance and area coverage of the contaminant is reported and found

Salvaggio, Carl

121

National Status and Trends Program for Marine Environmental Quality Chemical Contaminants in the Coral Porites astreoides  

E-print Network

National Status and Trends Program for Marine Environmental Quality Chemical Contaminants. R. Whitall, S. I. Hartwell, A. L. Mason, and J. D. Christensen. 2009. Chemical Contaminants/NOS/NCCOS/Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment. 32pp. #12;Chemical Contaminants in the Coral Porites astreoides from

122

Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

Wang, J.

2013-12-01

123

Some scientific judgments in the assessment of the risk of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of risk due to environmental contaminants depends, in part, on scientific data. When such data are incomplete, as is usually the case, assumptions based on scientific judgments are made to analyze the consequences. Specifically, when health related data needed to assess the risk posed by environmental contaminants are missing or incomplete, it becomes necessary to make assumptions using

Cothern

1989-01-01

124

Effectiveness of an antimicrobial polymer to decrease contamination of environmental surfaces in the clinical setting.  

PubMed

We performed a real-world, controlled intervention to investigate use of an antimicrobial surface polymer, MSDS Poly, on environmental contamination. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 18 (90%) of 20 observations in treated rooms and 19 (83%) of 23 observations in untreated rooms (P = .67). MSDS Poly had no significant effect on environmental contamination. PMID:25026625

Thom, Kerri A; Standiford, Harold C; Johnson, J Kristie; Hanna, Nader; Furuno, Jon P

2014-08-01

125

The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sitting on the banks of Lake Erie, the city of Cleveland has been an industrial powerhouse for over a century, and its history is a fascinating one. This online encyclopedia of Cleveland history was created with the cooperation of the history department at Case Western Reserve University, along with the assistance of other scholars. David D. VanTassel and John J. Grabowski compiled the encyclopedia, and visitors can perform a full-text search across all of the articles here as well as the image gallery. Visitors may wish to start by taking a look at the "Foreword" and the "Readers' Guide", both of which can be found in the "Supplementary Text" area. Visitors who wish to browse around in a thematic fashion will want to consult the "Subjects" area, which organizes the articles from "African American History" to "Zoo".

126

Encyclopedia of Law and Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conceived by the University of Ghent, Belgium, the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics Website is a broad-based collection of resources pertaining to economic and legal issues throughout the world. Showcasing a comprehensive index of searchable bibliographic resources, this site also includes abstracts of recent law and economics reviews. The hefty Law and Economics Web Resources section features working papers, bibliographies, and mailing lists. In addition, the site links to law and economics academic programs, associations, and an array of relevant Websites.

2005-12-15

127

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry Free Sample Articles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From publishers John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, considered the "most comprehensive analytical chemistry reference available," is due for publication in October 2000. In anticipation of the release of this fifteen-volume set, the publisher has posted a teaser: seventeen articles are freely available on the encyclopedia's Website. By completing a simple form, users may access representative articles (in .pdf format) from encyclopedia sections such as Peptides and Proteins; Electroanalytic Methods; Infrared, X-ray, and Mass Spectroscopy; Remote Sensing; and more. Libraries or wealthy individuals interested in ordering the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry ($4,800) may do so at the site.

128

Contaminant Transport in Groundwater for Environmental Performance Assessment  

E-print Network

L E Y Contaminant Transport in Groundwater for Environmentalcontaminant transport models. The increasing complexity of environmentalenvironmental Reviews of the organization of this report provides a review of the regulatory perspective on contaminant

Rubin, Yoram N

1997-01-01

129

Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for young coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel). The report provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian subacute dietary toxicity tests and is primarily intended for use in ranking toxicities by a standard method that has a reasonable degree of environmental relevance. Findings are presented in two parts: Part I is a critique of selected drugs that includes discussion of subacute toxicity in relation to chemical class and structure, pesticide formulation, and age of animals; Part II is a summary of toxicologic findings for each test substance and provides a statistically basis for comparing toxicities. Data presented include the median lethal concentration (LC50), slope of the probit regression curve (dose-response curve), response chronology, and food consumption. We observed that: 1) fewer than 15% of the compounds were classed 'very' or 'highly' toxic (i.e, LC50 < 200 ppm) and all of these were either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, or organometallics; 2) subacute toxicity may vary widely among structurally similar chemicals and between different formulations of the same chemical; therefore, conclusions about lethal hazard must be made cautiously until the actual formulation of inset has been tested: 3) inclusion of a general standard in each battery of tests is useful for detection of atypical trials and monitoring population changes but should not be used indiscriminantly for adjusting LC50's for intertest differences unless the chemicals of concern and the standard elicit their toxicities through the same action; 4) although other species have been tested effectively under the subacute protocol, coturnix were ideal for the stated purpose of this research because they are inexpensive, well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and yield good intertest reproducibility of response.

Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.

1986-01-01

130

Prospective evaluation of environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile in isolation side rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined prospectively the frequency, persistence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile environmental contamination after detergent-based cleaning in side rooms used to isolate patients with C. difficile diarrhoea. Approximately one-quarter of all environmental sites in side rooms sampled over four-week periods were contaminated with C. difficile. The overall side room prevalence of environmental C. difficile declined from 35% initially, to

P. Verity; M. H. Wilcox; W. Fawley; P. Parnell

2001-01-01

131

Which coastal and marine environmental contaminants are truly emerging?  

PubMed

To better understand the past and present impact of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal and marine ecosystems, archived samples were analyzed for a broad suite of analytes, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), flame retardants (including PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and current-use pesticides. Surface sediment, mussels (Mytilus spp.) and sediment core samples collected from the California (USA) coast were obtained from environmental specimen banks. Selected CECs were detected in recent surface sediments, with nonylphenol (4-NP), its mono- and di-ethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO), triclocarban, and pyrethroid insecticides in the greatest abundance. Alkylphenols, triclocarban, and triclosan were present in sediment core segments from the 1970s, as well as in Mytilus tissue collected during the 1990s. Increasing concentrations of some CECs (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) were observed in the surface layers (ca. 2007) of a sediment core, in contrast to peak concentrations of 4-NP and triclocarban corresponding to input during the 1970s, and an apparent peak input for PBDEs during the 1990s. These results suggest that chemicals sometimes referred to as "emerging" (e.g., alkylphenols, triclocarban) have been present in the aquatic environment for several decades and are decreasing in concentration, whereas others (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) are increasing. PMID:24743956

Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Tang, Chi-Li; Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David

2014-04-18

132

Environmental contaminant studies by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of the effects of environmental contaminants on wildlife is geared to interpreting events in the field, especially population effects, and both field and laboratory studies are planned for this purpose; procedures are adapted to specific problems and therefore do not include strict protocols or routine testing. Field evaluations include measurements of cholinesterase inhibition in brain or blood, search for dead or disabled animals, study of nesting success of birds, and general ecological observations. Residue analyses are used in evaluating organochlorine chemicals; samples may include whole bodies for determining level of exposure, brains for mortality diagnosis, whole blood for certain special studies, and eggs to help in evaluation of possible reproductive effects. Bird counts, singing-male census counts, small mamrnal trapping, and cage-in-field tests have proven to be ineffective or misleading and are not considered suitable for field evaluations under most circumstances. Usefulness of simulated field trials is limited to very special situations. Experimental studies that help predict and interpret field effects include determinations of lethal diagnostic levels, comparative lethal dietary toxicity tests, tests of secondary poisoning measurement of residue loss rates, measurement of blood enzymes, tests of behavioral effects, and studies of reproductive effects.

Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.

1979-01-01

133

Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

First awareness that direct topical application of xenobiotics to bird eggs could be harmful to avian development dates back to the turn of the century. The most widely documented evidence of embryotoxicity following direct exposure comes from petroleum contaminant studies, conducted with at least 10 different avian species. Many petroleum crude oils, refined oils, and waste oils are embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic to different species; LD50s are often less than 5 iL of oil per egg. Toxicity is generally dependent upon the PAH concentration and composition (presence of higher weight PAHs). Five of seven industrial effluents caused significant reduction of embryonic growth in mallards following brief immersion of the eggs. Of the insecticides, organophosphates have been the most widely studied with respect to potential for direct embryotoxicity and teratogenicity following spraying or immersion of eggs. Phenoxy herbicides including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T have been the most widely studied class of herbicides with respect to potential embryotoxicity of spray application. However, more recent evaluations have indicated that this is not the most toxic class of herbicides. Paraquat was found to be highly toxic in at least three species. Herbicides with LC50s that occurred at ten times the field level of application or less for mallard embryos included bromoxynil with MCPA, methyldiclofop, paraquat, prometon, propanil, and trifluralin. Of different gaseous and particulate air pollutants, ozone and particulates rich in PAH content appeared to be potentially embryotoxic, based on laboratory studies. Environmental contaminants in all classes reviewed have been shown to cause physiological and biochemical disturbances in embryos or hatchlings indicative of contaminant exposure, organ damage, or delayed development. Residue studies have shown the presence of DDT, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, decamethrin, petroleum hydrocarbons, and methylmercury after direct exposure of eggs. Ability of xenobiotics to pass across the shell and its membranes as well as embryo uptake appear to be dependent both on the compound and the vehicle. Pesticides in aliphatic (nontoxic oil) vehicle were generally more toxic than ones in aqueous emulsion due to better penetration. Field studies have documented the embryotoxicity of petroleum following transfer from plumage of adult birds to their eggs. Few attempts to measure effects of spraying pesticides near bird nests have been documented. However, application of pesticide mixtures including organophosphate insecticides and fungicides to orchards resulted in embryo ic mortality in mourning dove nests. Future studies are needed to focus on field exposures in multiple species. Comparative laboratory studies are needed taking into consideration shell thickness and porosity to determine whether species such as passerines may be more sensitive. Additive and possibly synergistic effects may occur where xenobiotics may be only slightly to moderately toxic alone. Therefore, further studies examining the effects of pesticides routinely applied in combinations of two or more are needed, as are air pollution studies examining multiple contaminants and species.

Hoffman, D.J.

1990-01-01

134

Application of solid phase microextraction to the analysis of chlorinated contaminants in environmental matrices  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of aquatic and terrestrial systems with organic contaminants is an increasing toxicological problem. In both the monitoring of such contamination and the determination of the success of remediation methods, straightforward and inexpensive analytical methodology increases the ease of environmental assessment and facilitates regulatory enforcement. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) technology is a recently developed solvent less extraction system with the potential for application to the analysis of a wide range of compounds. Application of SPME, in combination with gas chromatography and GC-MS, will be described for the analysis of chlorinated environmental contaminants such as pesticides and selected PCBs, dioxins, and furans in soils, sediments, and water.

Webster, G.R.B.; Sarna, L.P.; Anderson, K.L.; Graham, K.N. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

1994-12-31

135

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,  

E-print Network

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist of environmental chemicals can interfere with thyroid function or, perhaps of greater concern, with TH action cognitive deficits (7). An important implication of these studies is that environmental chemicals

Zoeller, R. Thomas

136

Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Landrum, P.F. [Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

137

Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

1985-01-01

138

The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will complete 450 entries, which will populate the E3 collection to a level that fully spans earthquake science and engineering. Scientists, engineers, and educators who have suggestions for content to be included in the Encyclopedia can visit www.earthquake.info now to complete the "Suggest a Web Page" form.

Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

2003-12-01

139

Association between indoor environmental contamination by Salmonella enterica and contamination of eggs on layer farms.  

PubMed

This study involves longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella carriage and environmental contamination on two commercial cage layer farms positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (flock A age, 32 weeks; flock B age, 34 weeks). Salmonella-positive fecal, egg belt, and dust samples were all unconditionally associated with eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. The odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella were 91.8, 61.5, and 18.2 times higher when fecal, egg belt, and dust samples, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella. The agreement between the culture-based methods and real-time PCR on preenriched broths for detecting Salmonella was almost perfect for eggshell (observed agreement, 99.19%; kappa coefficient, 0.94) and egg belt samples (observed agreement, 95%; kappa coefficient, 0.88), and it was substantial for fecal (observed agreement, 87.14%; kappa coefficient, 0.47) and floor dust samples (observed agreement, 80.61%; kappa coefficient, 0.58). A 1-log increase in the load of Salmonella detected in the fecal, egg belt, and floor dust samples resulted in 35%, 43%, and 45% increases, respectively (P < 0.001), in the odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella. The multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) patterns of the S. Typhimurium strains isolated from flock A were distinct from those of flock B. S. Typhimurium strains detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited an MLVA pattern similar to those of the strains isolated from flocks A and B. PMID:24966362

Gole, Vaibhav C; Torok, Valeria; Sexton, Margaret; Caraguel, Charles G B; Chousalkar, Kapil K

2014-09-01

140

Studies in Avian Biology No. 26:168176, 2003. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN SURROGATE BIRDS AND  

E-print Network

. SFERRA, AND KIRKE KING Abstract. Several deformed Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii, Empidonax traillii extimus, inorganic elements, insectiv- orous birds, PCBs, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). Environmental contaminants

Mora, Miguel A.

141

FINAL REPORT. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, act as hormones or anti- hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major components of the research included: 1)a biotechnology based screening system ...

142

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL PREPARATION WASTES. A LITERATURE REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of collecting and evaluating available information on the chemistry and behavior of trace elements in coal preparation wastes, and assessing the potential for environmental contamination from the trace elements in these wastes. Only limited attention has ...

143

Dermal absorption of environmental contaminants from soil and sediment: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment of hazardous wastes sites may require characterization of the dermal availability of chemical contaminants in soil and\\/or sediment. Current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance for assessment of dermal exposures to contaminants in water and soil was finalized in 2004 as a supplement (Part E) to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). The soil protocol presented in RAGS

Elizabeth W Spalt; John C Kissel; Jeffry H Shirai; Annette L Bunge

2009-01-01

144

The Accumulation and Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Snakes: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any ecological risk assessment, afull complement of the relevant members of theecosystems being studied should be considered. Reptiles in general, and snakes in particular, areimportant although often neglected components ofterrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and should beincluded in any study on environmental contamination. By neglecting reptiles, the risks posed by aparticular contaminant cannot be fully assessed. Since all snakes are

Kym Rouse Campbell; Todd S. Campbell

2001-01-01

145

Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental  

E-print Network

Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma Open-File Report 2007-1055 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations

146

A review of environmental contamination during outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) commonly cause outbreaks of gastroenteritis in hospitals and can result in major disruption of services. It is considered that contamination of the environment can be a cause of transmission and prolonged or recurring outbreaks. In order to control outbreaks it is important to establish the role of environmental contamination in transmission and the decontamination measures required to

J. Dalling

2004-01-01

147

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (phoca vitulina) fed environmentally contaminated herring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, mass mortalities among seals and dolphins have been attributed to infections with different morbilliviruses. In all cases, these marine top predators were exposed to high levels of persistent lipophilic environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain. This observation led to the hypothesis that a contaminant?related suppression of the immune system might have contributed to the severity of

R. L. de Swart; P. S. Ross; J. G. Vos; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

1996-01-01

148

Muskrat populations in Virginia's Elizabeth River: Physiological condition and accumulation of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the physiological condition and environmental contaminant concentrations in muskrats inhabiting the contaminated lower region of the Elizabeth River, Virginia, (USA). Muskrats trapped in the lower region of the Elizabeth River weighed less, had lower mean fat indexes, lower relative spleen weights, greater relative adrenal weights, and an increased incidence of disease and parasitism compared to muskrats trapped

Richard S. Halbrook; Roy L. Kirkpatrick; Patrick F. Scanlon; Michael R. Vaughan; Hugo P. Veit

1993-01-01

149

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane ( Grus canadensis pulla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained

Donald H. White; Clifford P. Rice; David J. Hoffman; George F. Gee

1994-01-01

150

EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS OF NON POINT SOURCE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION USING DAIS SENSOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abandoned mining sites cause environmental problems all over the world, in Europe as well. The point source heavy-metal contamination, which later becomes diffuse pollution endangers the envi- ronment in the long term. With the use of hyperspectral remote sensing the spatial distribution of certain contaminants can be determined. Due to the acidification of the environment caused by the pyritic decay\\/

János Tamás; Péter Kardeván; Elemér Kovács; Elza Kovács; Péter Takács

2005-01-01

151

The induction of alkoxyresorufin metabolism: A potential indicator of environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of biochemical monitoring of individual animals for exposure to environmental contaminants are of great potential use. The hepatic metabolism of various alkoxyresorufins, which are highly specific substrates for certain forms of cytochrome(s) P450, is highly induced by a variety of environmental contaminants. Thus, theO-deal-kylation of pentoxy- or benzyloxyresorufin was induced greater than 20-fold in the rat bya-hexachlorocyclohexane, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, DDT

Ronald A. Lubet; F. Peter Guengerich; Raymond W. Nims

1990-01-01

152

Halogenated environmental contaminants in perch ( Perca fluviatilis) from Latvian coastal areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental contamination situation in coastal areas of the former Soviet Union has up to now been more or less unknown. This study on perch (Perca fluviatilis), collected at three locations along the coast of Latvia during 1994 and 1995, provides concentrations of several ubiquitous environmental contaminants (PCBs, HCB, HCHs, 4,4?-DDT, 4,4?-DDE, 4,4?-DDD, trans-Nonachlor, 2,2?,4,4?-tetrabromodiphenyl ether). The concentrations of total

Anders Olsson; Maris Vitinsh; Maris Plikshs; Åke Bergman

1999-01-01

153

Patient colonization and environmental contamination by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a rehabilitation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trick WE, Temple RS, Chen D, Wright MO, Solomon SL, Peterson LR. Patient colonization and environmental contamination by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a rehabilitation facility. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:899-902. Objectives: To determine the frequency of environmental contamination in patient and common-use rooms and patient colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A 146-bed rehabilitation facility. Participants: Rectal cultures

William E. Trick; Randy S. Temple; David Chen; Marc O. Wright; Steven L. Solomon; Lance R. Peterson

2002-01-01

154

Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of an interdisciplinary international effort to take a critical look at the phenomenon of mass violence, the Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence is supported by a number of organizations, including The Center for International Research and Studies and The Foundation for the Memory of the Shoah. The primary purpose of the Encyclopedia Project is "to create a regularly updated electronic database focusing on massacres and genocides of the 20th century." First-time visitors can use the interactive map of the world on the homepage to begin their exploration of the site. Within each region of the world (and by extension, each individual country), visitors can read chronological indexes, case studies, and take a look at scholarly reviews of works related to each region or country's genocides or massacres. Visitors should not miss the "Latest contributions" area, which includes the latest works from the Project. Recently featured items here have included an evaluation of The Boxer Uprising and the Burundi Killings of 1972. Overall, it's a very ambitious project, and one that scholars and members of the general public will want to check up on from time to time.

2008-01-01

155

PPCPS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large, diverse array of contaminants that can enter the environment from the combined activities, actions, and behaviors of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http:...

156

MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

157

MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

158

MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

159

MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

160

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry over the period of 2000-2001. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2002 are also included. The previous Environmental Mass Spectrometry review was very comprehensive, including...

161

Environmental Contaminants in Hospital Settings and Progress in Disinfecting Techniques  

PubMed Central

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36°C/22°C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22°C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

162

Environmental contaminants in hospital settings and progress in disinfecting techniques.  

PubMed

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36°C/22°C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22°C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Messina, Gabriele; Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

163

Breeding in a contaminated world: do environmental pollutants promote mistiming of reproduction and limit the breeding success of farmland  

E-print Network

Breeding in a contaminated world: do environmental pollutants promote mistiming of reproduction the dramatic decline of many bird populations remains unknown, but mistiming of reproduction with environmental in European Starlings exposed to `biosolids' has become mismatched with important environmental factors

Guo, Zaoyang

164

UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

165

The psychological dimensions of health care for patients exposed to radiation and the other invisible environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invisible environmental contaminants are those contaminants that possess environmental and\\/or medical invisibility. Recent studies indicate: (1) that these contaminants can and do have traumatic psychological effects on those individuals who have been exposed to them and (2) that there is a remarkable uniformity to these traumatic affects as they have been found in the various invisible exposures that have been

Henry M. Vyner

1988-01-01

166

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

SciTech Connect

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Schuler, C.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-01-01

167

Economic Costs of Childhood Diseases and Disabilities Attributable to Environmental Contaminants in Washington State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the economic costs associated with childhood diseases and disabilities attributable to environmental contaminants in Washington State, USA, including asthma, cancer, lead exposure, birth defects, and neurobehavioral disorders. The estimates are based on “cost of illness” models that include direct healthcare costs and indirect costs. The estimates are also based on an “environmentally attributable fraction” model which quantifies

Kate Davies

2006-01-01

168

An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor  

E-print Network

LETTER An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, Ã?canaries in a coal mineÃ?, because, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative

Storfer, Andrew

169

Robust decision analysis for environmental management of groundwater contamination sites  

E-print Network

In contrast to many other engineering fields, the uncertainties in subsurface processes (e.g., fluid flow and contaminant transport in aquifers) and their parameters are notoriously difficult to observe, measure, and characterize. This causes severe uncertainties that need to be addressed in any decision analysis related to optimal management and remediation of groundwater contamination sites. Furthermore, decision analyses typically rely heavily on complex data analyses and/or model predictions, which are often poorly constrained as well. Recently, we have developed a model-driven decision-support framework (called MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov) for the management and remediation of subsurface contamination sites in which severe uncertainties and complex physics-based models are coupled to perform scientifically defensible decision analyses. The decision analyses are based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT). We demonstrate the MADS capabilities by solving a decision problem related to optimal monitoring ...

Vesselinov, Velimir V; Katzman, Danny

2013-01-01

170

Biological markers of environmental and ecological contamination: an overview  

SciTech Connect

An approach, using biomarkers (biological responses) for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment is described. Living organisms integrate exposure to contaminants in their environment and respond in some measurable and predictable way. Responses are observed at several levels of biological organization from the biomolecular level, where pollutants can cause damage to critical cellular macromolecules and elicit defensive strategies such as detoxication and repair mechanisms, to the organismal level, where severe disturbances are manifested as impairment in growth, reproduction, developmental abnormalities, or decreased survival. Biomarkers can provide not only evidence of exposure to a broad spectrum of anthropogenic chemicals, but also a temporally integrated measure of bioavailable contaminant levels. A suite of biomarkers are evaluated over time to determine the magnitude of the problem and possible consequences. Relationships between biomarker response and adverse ecological effects are determined from estimates of animal health and population structure.19 references.

Shugart, L.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S. (Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

1992-09-01

171

Using model-based screening to help discover unknown environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use, only a small fraction have been analyzed in environmental samples. To effectively identify environmental contaminants, methods to prioritize chemicals for analytical method development are required. We used a high-throughput model of chemical emissions, fate, and bioaccumulation to identify chemicals likely to have high concentrations in specific environmental media, and we prioritized these for target analysis. This model-based screening was applied to 215 organosilicon chemicals culled from industrial chemical production statistics. The model-based screening prioritized several recognized organosilicon contaminants and generated hypotheses leading to the selection of three chemicals that have not previously been identified as potential environmental contaminants for target analysis. Trace analytical methods were developed, and the chemicals were analyzed in air, sewage sludge, and sediment. All three substances were found to be environmental contaminants. Phenyl-tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane was present in all samples analyzed, with concentrations of ?50 pg m(-3) in Stockholm air and ?0.5 ng g(-1) dw in sediment from the Stockholm archipelago. Tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethyl-cyclotrisiloxane and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane were found in sediments from Lake Mjøsa at ?1 ng g(-1) dw. The discovery of three novel environmental contaminants shows that models can be useful for prioritizing chemicals for exploratory assessment. PMID:24869768

McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Radke, Michael; Sobek, Anna; Malmvärn, Anna; Alsberg, Tomas; Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; Xu, Shihe

2014-07-01

172

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

2007-01-01

173

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.  

PubMed

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

2007-09-01

174

The Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published from time to time from 1914 to 1967, The Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography was the product of the Lewis Publishing Company. These massive tomes profiled a range of persons who had risen to prominence in the Keystone State. Recently, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries digitized the first volumes published before 1923 and placed them online here. Visitors can search through all of the volumes, and they are also encouraged to type in keywords like "Drexel", "Franklin", and "Furness" to get started. The site also includes the "Who's Who in Pennsylvania" books from 1904 and 1908. These works feature notable personages from the early 20th century, and they can also be read as historical documents that offer a portrait of the movers and shakers of their era.

175

Encycogov: Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance, or encycogov for short, is created and maintained by Henrik Mathiesen, a PhD candidate at the Department of International Economics and Management at the Copenhagen Business School. Content on the site is divided into two sections: Specific Topics and General Topics. Topics in both sections begin with a paragraph explaining the overarching definition of the principle, and link to a variety of tables, "exhibitions," and models that further illustrate the definition. For example, the Bankruptcy Systems section begins with the definition and is followed up by two tables: "Effects of bankruptcy systems on corporate performance and other kinds of institutions of relevance for corporate governance" and "International corporate governance- Tentative characterizations of legal and empirical state of large firm bankruptcy systems in various countries as of 1980-95: 1) Developing countries. 2)Germany. 3) Japan. 4) Anglo-American countries. 5) Denmark." Also included on the site are references and site users information.

2010-01-05

176

Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online encyclopedia explains the terms and principles of laser physics and technology. It also includes content from other topics such as general optics and optoelectronics, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, fiber optics, ultrashort pulses, and optical communications.

Paschotta, Rãâ¼diger

2010-05-05

177

The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)

Martin, Ron

1994-01-01

178

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS), an electronic publication of the MIT Press, is a new comprehensive reference work that encompasses the diverse theories and methodologies of the cognitive and brain sciences. The encyclopedia contains 471 specialized articles by preeminent researchers and scholars; articles include extensive bibliographies and provide multiple cross-references. MITECS spans six major topics: Philosophy; Psychology; Neuroscience; Computational Intelligence; Linguistics and Language; and Culture, Cognition, and Evolution. The introductory essays that precede each major section discuss topics within the larger framework of the cognitive sciences. The encyclopedia may be browsed by an author or a topic index, and the entire work is searchable by keyword. Please note that first-time users of the encyclopedia are required to register at the site; necessary registration information includes email address, full name, and research interests.

1998-01-01

179

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and

T. C. Michot; T. W. Custer; A. J. Nault; C. A. Mitchell

1994-01-01

180

The immunotoxicity of environmental contaminants to marine wildlife: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-associated mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations inhabiting industrialized coastal areas have generated an interest in wildlife immunotoxicology. Despite the isolation of previously uncharacterized viruses from victims, a contribution of immunotoxic contaminants to the severity of the outbreaks could not be ruled out. Fish-eating marine mammals, including seals, occupy high trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and accumulate

Peter S. Ross; Rik L. De Swart; Henk Van Loveren; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus; Joseph G. Vos

1996-01-01

181

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: Monitoring environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (PMustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from

R. S. Halbrook; J. H. Jenkins; P. B. Bush; N. D. Seabolt

1994-01-01

182

Environmental factors influencing the microbiological contamination of commercially harvested shellfish.  

PubMed

Filter-feeding bivalve molluscs (such as oysters, clams, mussels and cockles) can concentrate contaminants from the water column. The extent of faecal contamination in shellfish is usually estimated by determining the concentration of faecal coliforms and/or Escherichia coli. Three sample points in each of three geographically separate commercial shellfisheries were selected for analysis for the effect of season, spring/neap and high/low tidal cycles, rainfall and wind direction on the results of routine E. coli monitoring. General linear modelling was used for the analyses. The principle factors affecting the contamination of shellfisheries were season, high/low tidal cycle and rainfall. The effects varied between harvesting areas and between individual sampling points within harvesting areas. Undertaking such analyses for all harvesting areas would contribute to the management of monitoring programmes and assist in the evaluation of potentially contaminating sources, such as sewage discharges. The type of analyses undertaken on E. coli monitoring data would also be pertinent for the analysis of putative viral indicators, such as F+ coliphage, and could be extended to data on bacterial and viral pathogens. PMID:12639007

Lee, R J; Morgan, O C

2003-01-01

183

A comparison of human toxics exposure and environmental contamination by census division  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) data and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) STORET data were used to test for relationships between human exposure and environmental contamination according to census division. Regions were ranked according to the mean concentration of 43 toxic substances (pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, semi-volatiles, and volatiles) in human adipose tissue and environmental media (sediment, fish tissue,

Linda J. Phillips

1992-01-01

184

A longitudinal study of environmental Salmonella contamination in caged and free-range layer flocks.  

PubMed

The environmental contamination by salmonella was examined over a 12-month period in 74 commercial layer flocks from eight farms in the UK, which previously had been identified as being contaminated with salmonella. Samples of faeces, dust, litter, egg belt spillage and wildlife vectors were taken, plus swabs of cages, feeders, drinkers, floors, egg belts and boots. Some sampling was performed in each month of the year. Numerous serovars were detected but Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was the only persistent serotype found among single-age flocks. There was a significant correlation between qualitative environmental samples and semi-quantitative faeces samples. The level of environmental contamination increased significantly over time. There were significant temperature and seasonal effects upon contamination. Wildlife vectors proved to be sensitive samples for the detection of salmonella. The efficacy of cleaning and disinfection upon residual salmonella contamination, and upon subsequent flock contamination, was highly variable between and within premises. The variability between detected prevalences over time and between flocks indicates a need for regular, sensitive monitoring of flocks for salmonella to permit targeting of control measures aimed at eliminating contamination of the layer environment by salmonella. There is substantial scope for improvement of cleaning and disinfection procedures. PMID:17497330

Wales, Andrew; Breslin, Mark; Carter, Ben; Sayers, Robin; Davies, Robert

2007-06-01

185

CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

186

Potential of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for remediation of environmental organic contaminants in water: a review.  

PubMed

Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has the potential to degrade different organic contaminants. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) can reduce the contaminants even more rapidly due to its small size and large specific surface area (SSA), compared to granular ZVI. The main objective of this paper is to assess and compare the potential of NZVI for degradation of different contaminants in water under specific environmental conditions. As a first step, the potential reactive functional groups/bonds associated with different contaminants are identified and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. Thereafter, the reaction efficiencies of different organic contaminants with NZVI are compared. Mass of ZVI and reaction time required to transform a certain amount of contaminated water are calculated based on literature data. Sources of contaminants in the environment and their environmental occurrences are discussed to understand the potential locations where NZVI could be applied for removal of different contaminants. Overall it is observed that azo-compounds are readily transformed in the presence of NZVI particles. Reaction efficiencies of ZVI for reduction of nitro-organic compounds are also reasonably high. However, halogenated compounds with high molecular weights or complex structures (i.e., iodinated contrast media, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) show lower reaction rates with NZVI compared to the widely studied chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e., trichloroethylene). PMID:24135090

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Scheytt, Traugott

2013-01-01

187

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses.

R. G. Anthony; M. G. Garrett; C. A. Schuler

1993-01-01

188

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

1993-01-01

189

Assessment of environmental contamination associated with a mammalian cell transformation assay.  

PubMed

To estimate worker exposures to, and environmental contamination from, test chemicals and organic solvents used in an in vitro assay to assess the carcinogenic potential of chemicals, sodium fluorescein, a noncarcinogenic fluorescent material, was dissolved in tissue culture medium used to maintain early passage hamster embryo cells. Personal an environmental samples were taken over a 14-d period. The assay was performed according to standard procedures in a ventilated glove box or laminar flow safety cabinet. Considerably more than 99% of the chemical contamination found was recovered from the interiors of the glove box and hood and from disposable equipment. Contamination outside the containment units (less than 1 microgram) resulted from intralaboratory transport of chemicals, treated cultures, and contaminated equipment. We conclude that the standard operating particles and procedures provided adequate safeguards for personnel and the environment. PMID:7298058

Sansone, E B; Losikoff, A M; Lebherz, W B; Poiley, J A

1981-09-01

190

Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will ...

191

Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

192

A Look At Endocrine Disruptors: Assessing the threat of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants to birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volume 2, Number 1 (January 2001) of the Ornithological Council's newsletter BIRDNET includes this issue brief on the influence of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants on birds. The issue brief covers the basics of endocrine disruptors, policy issues, a review of the state of our knowledge about endocrine disruptors and birds, and suggested research topics that would be useful in better determining the effects of these contaminants on wild birds.

193

Environmental effects of dredging. Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants; subcellular effects  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the first in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants for causing mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. This technical note describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the subcellular level.

NONE

1995-07-01

194

Delineation of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils and Sediments With Environmental Magnetic Methods: Laboratory and Field Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon contamination of soils and sediments is a worldwide environmental problem. The present research focuses on the study of magnetic properties of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments using environmental magnetic methods both on field sites as well as in laboratory batch experiments. The main objectives of this research are i) to determine a possible application of magnetic proxies for the delineation of organic contamination in soils and sediments and ii) to examine the role of bacteria in changing soil magnetic properties after hydrocarbon contamination. A former oil field and a former military site which are heavily contaminated with hydrocarbons were studied. Additionally, three different types of natural clean soils were investigated in laboratory experiments by simulating hydrocarbon contamination in sterile and microbial active setups. Magnetic properties, soil properties, iron bioavailability, iron redox state and hydrocarbon content of samples were measured. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility (MS) was monitored weekly in laboratory batch set-ups during several months. Results from the field sites showed that there is an increase of MS and a good correlation between MS and hydrocarbon content. A weekly monitored MS result from the laboratory study clearly indicated~~10% change (increase as well as decrease) of initial MS of respective soils only in microbial active set-ups with saturation after a few weeks of experimental period. This depicts that there is a change of MS caused by microbial iron mineral transformation in presence of hydrocarbon contamination in soils. The results from the field study demonstrate that magnetic proxies can be used to localize hydrocarbon contamination. However, more field sites with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments need to be investigated by using environmental magnetic methods for better understanding the factors driving such changes in magnetic properties.

Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Kappler, A.; Blaha, U.; Petrovsky, E.

2008-12-01

195

Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:25491153

Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

2014-01-01

196

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: an epidemiological approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success - egg hatchability and fry survival - were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.

1991-01-01

197

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success--egg hatchability and fry survival--were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1991-08-01

198

Carbon nanomaterials in clean and contaminated soils: environmental implications and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exceptional sorptive ability of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) is driven by their characteristically large reactive surface areas and highly hydrophobic nature. Given these properties, it is possible for CNMs to impact on the persistence, mobility and bioavailability of contaminants within soils, either favourably through sorption and sequestration, hence reducing their bioavailability, or unfavourably through increasing contaminant dispersal. This review considers the complex and dynamic nature of both soil and CNM physicochemical properties to determine their fate and behaviour, together with their interaction with contaminants and the soil microflora. It is argued that assessment of CNMs within soil should be conducted on a case-by-case basis and further work to assess the long-term stability and toxicity of sorbed contaminants, as well as the toxicity of CNMs themselves, is required before their sorptive abilities can be applied to remedy environmental issues.

Riding, M. J.; Martin, F. L.; Jones, K. C.; Semple, K. T.

2015-01-01

199

Using Nestling Bald Eagles to Assess Spatial and Temporal Trends of Environmental Contaminants, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota.  

E-print Network

??Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are a avian species used to monitor environmental contaminants such as mercury (Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides… (more)

Pittman, Henry

2010-01-01

200

Core sediment bacteria drive community response to anthropogenic contamination over multiple environmental gradients.  

PubMed

In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate sediment bacterial community response to contaminant disturbance across six estuaries with differing levels of 'modification'. We observed a significant influence of metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in shaping bacterial community composition, structure and diversity, with metals being the more influential contaminant. An abundant and pervasive 'core' set of bacteria found in every sample were largely responsible for mediating community response to contamination. These 13 core operational taxonomic units were mostly comprised of Gamma-, Delta-, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Sediment silt and metals together explained the most variation in bacterial community composition (19.7%). Following this strong contaminant signature, salinity and temperature represented important environmental variables predicting 10.9% of community variation. While overall network connectivity measures supported the idea of an inherently diverse soil microbiome with some degree of functional redundancy, lower values observed in contaminated sediments indicate potential structural perturbations in the community from fracturing or loss of bacterial associations. The large number of unclassified sequences obtained in this study contribute to improving our understanding of environmentally relevant strains in relation to anthropogenic contamination, which have been overlooked in laboratory studies. PMID:23647974

Sun, Melanie Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Brown, Mark V

2013-09-01

201

Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

1994-01-01

202

Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. An alternative screening technology, Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD), could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real time measurements provided by an EMWD system enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies. The system also enhances worker safety and provides the added flexibility of being able to steer a drill bit in or out of hazardous zones.

Bishop, L.B.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

1999-02-22

203

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

1994-01-01

204

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n = 70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

1994-01-01

205

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might

Premendu Prakash Mathur; Shereen Cynthia D'Cruz

2011-01-01

206

Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous type...

207

Epidemiological Surveillance on Environmental Contaminants in Poultry Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: A total of 416 environmental samples (litter, water, swabs and air) were collected from commercial poultry farms located in Ismailia and Zagazig Governorates during the period January through July of 2008. These samples were tested by conventional cultural methods and then were confirmed biochemically. The bacterial isolates that were identified included: Citrobacter spp., E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus

S. Essam Soliman; P. G. Reddy; A. A. Mohamed Sobeih; H. Busby; E. Sara Rowe

2009-01-01

208

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2004 REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry over the period of 2002-2003. A few significant references that appeared between January and March 2004 are also included. This review is in keeping with a current approach of Analytical Chemistry to include onl...

209

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry over the period of 2004-2005. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2006 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 100-200 s...

210

Some scientific judgments in the assessment of the risk of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The assessment of risk due to environmental contaminants depends, in part, on scientific data. When such data are incomplete, as is usually the case, assumptions based on scientific judgments are made to analyze the consequences. Specifically, when health related data needed to assess the risk posed by environmental contaminants are missing or incomplete, it becomes necessary to make assumptions using scientific judgment to estimate the risk. Different scientists can and do make different assumptions, and the resulting differences in opinion can result in controversy. The present discussion presents a few of the consensus judgments of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concerning the health effects and risk for such environmental contaminants as 1,2-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane, para-dichlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls, perchloroethylene, and xylene, as well as the implications of the more likely cancer mechanisms, the exposure routes, and pharmacokinetics to the risk assessment process. In some of these examples, the scientific data have been developed to the extent that specific judgments by groups such as the SAB can result in greater confidence that one is correct in the assessment of risk. Because of the uncertainties in current scientific knowledge for many environmental contaminants, judgments differ and there is no right or wrong opinion.

Cothern, C.R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-05-01

211

Endocrine disruptor activity of multiple environmental food chain contaminants.  

PubMed

Industrial chemicals, antimicrobials, drugs and personal care products have been reported as global pollutants which enter the food chain. Some of them have also been classified as endocrine disruptors based on results of various studies employing a number of in vitro/vivo tests. The present study employed a mammalian reporter gene assay to assess the effects of known and emerging contaminants on estrogen nuclear receptor transactivation. Out of fifty-nine compounds assessed, estrogen receptor agonistic activity was observed for parabens( n = 3), UV filters (n = 6), phthalates (n = 4) and a metabolite, pyrethroids (n = 9) and their metabolites (n = 3). Two compounds were estrogen receptor antagonists while some of the agonists enhanced 17b-estradiol mediated response.This study reports five new compounds (pyrethroids and their metabolites) possessing estrogen agonist activity and highlights for the first time that pyrethroid metabolites are of particular concern showing much greater estrogenic activity than their parent compounds. PMID:25449125

Wielogórska, E; Elliott, C T; Danaher, M; Connolly, L

2015-02-01

212

Environmental contaminants in canvasbacks wintering on San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of 11 trace elements, 21 organochlorines, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 13 aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined in canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering on San Francisco Bay, California during 1988. With the exception of Se, concentrations of potentially toxic elements were low. Similarly, concentrations of most organic compounds were near or below detection limits. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and DDE were common, but at levels lower than those known to be harmful to waterfowl. Innocuous trace elements (Cu, Fe, and Zn), which are often associated with anthropogenic contamination, occurred at high levels. Concentrations of toxic elements were several times lower and those of benign elements were similar or greater than concentrations reported for surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) or greater scaup (Aythya marila) from San Francisco Bay.

Miles, A.K.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

1993-01-01

213

Specific ribosomal DNA sequences from diverse environmental settings correlate with experimental contaminants.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones obtained by PCR from uncultured bacteria inhabiting a wide range of environments has increased our knowledge of bacterial diversity. One possible problem in the assessment of bacterial diversity based on sequence information is that PCR is exquisitely sensitive to contaminating 16S rDNA. This raises the possibility that some putative environmental rRNA sequences in fact correspond to contaminant sequences. To document potential contaminants, we cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments obtained at low levels in the absence of added template DNA. 16S rDNA sequences closely related to the genera Duganella (formerly Zoogloea), Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Escherichia, Leptothrix, and Herbaspirillum were identified in contaminant libraries and in clone libraries from diverse, generally low-biomass habitats. The rRNA sequences detected possibly are common contaminants in reagents used to prepare genomic DNA. Consequently, their detection in processed environmental samples may not reflect environmentally relevant organisms. PMID:9687486

Tanner, M A; Goebel, B M; Dojka, M A; Pace, N R

1998-08-01

214

Specific Ribosomal DNA Sequences from Diverse Environmental Settings Correlate with Experimental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones obtained by PCR from uncultured bacteria inhabiting a wide range of environments has increased our knowledge of bacterial diversity. One possible problem in the assessment of bacterial diversity based on sequence information is that PCR is exquisitely sensitive to contaminating 16S rDNA. This raises the possibility that some putative environmental rRNA sequences in fact correspond to contaminant sequences. To document potential contaminants, we cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments obtained at low levels in the absence of added template DNA. 16S rDNA sequences closely related to the genera Duganella (formerly Zoogloea), Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Escherichia, Leptothrix, and Herbaspirillum were identified in contaminant libraries and in clone libraries from diverse, generally low-biomass habitats. The rRNA sequences detected possibly are common contaminants in reagents used to prepare genomic DNA. Consequently, their detection in processed environmental samples may not reflect environmentally relevant organisms. PMID:9687486

Tanner, Michael A.; Goebel, Brett M.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.

1998-01-01

215

Planning dredging services in contaminated sediments for balanced environmental and investment costs.  

PubMed

Dredging of contaminated sediments has shown to be a harmful activity for the environment, because a number of contaminants can be resuspended and become available to the organisms. Furthermore, dredged contaminated sediments may cause significant damages in the dumping site. In order to avoid the drawbacks of this activity, better techniques have to be developed and the present article presents a new procedure for the planning of dredging that reduces the environmental impacts by reducing the amount of dredged sediments and, at the same time, reduces costs. The new technique uses screening of contaminant concentrations in the sediments that are normally part of the environmental impact assessment for dredging activity. A detailed mapping of the contamination, layer by layer is carried out and the areas where the action levels are reached are outlined with polygons, establishing limits within which sediments have to be dredged with safe procedures. In the case presented, construction of a harbor in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the safe procedure is cutter/suction dredging and pumping into a sub-aquatic confined disposal facility (CDF). A detailed evaluation of costs showed that if the whole layers of sediment were to be dumped into the CDF, the cost of the activity would be at least 63.82% more expensive than the proposed procedure, constituting an attractive advantage. Furthermore, as the size of the CDF is significantly smaller, less dredging is necessary, causing smaller environmental impact. PMID:23524396

Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Barros, Sérgio Ricardo; Lima, Gilson Brito Alves

2013-05-30

216

Environmental politics and science: the case of PBB contamination in Michigan.  

PubMed Central

This article examines how politics and science interacted against a background of uncertainty to shape policy in the case of environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in Michigan. In 1973, between 500 and 1,000 pounds of the flame retardant PBB were accidentally shipped and used instead of the dairy feed additive magnesium oxide, resulting in the widespread contamination of animal feeds, animals, and human food products. The contamination was initially perceived as the private trouble of a single farmer. The problem next became a public issue as public and private institutions grappled with questions of illness, safety, and disposal. To gain influence over those institutions, dissatisfied individuals and groups then turned the PBB contamination into a political controversy. The final section of the present article analyzes how science and politics interacted in: the ways bureaucratic organizations defined the three problems of contamination; the role political controversy played in redefining problems and influencing policy; and the political roles of scientists in controversies over environmental contamination. PMID:6297323

Reich, M R

1983-01-01

217

Catchment-scale environmental controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally river sediment associated contaminants, most notably heavy metals, radionuclides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and phosphorous, constitute one the most significant long-term risks to ecosystems and human health. These can impact both urban and rural areas and, because of their prolonged environmental residence times, are major sources of secondary pollution if contaminated soil and sediment are disturbed by human activity or by natural processes such as water or wind erosion. River catchments are also the primary source of sediment-associated contaminants to the coastal zone, and to the ocean, and an understanding of the factors that control contaminated sediment fluxes and delivery in river systems is essential for effective environmental management and protection. In this paper the catchment-scale controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal are reviewed, including climate-related variations in flooding regime, land-use change, channel engineering, restoration and flood defence. Drawing on case studies from metal mining impacted catchments in Bolivia (Río Pilcomayo), Spain (Río Guadiamar), Romania (River Tisa) and the UK (River Swale) some improved methodologies for identifying, tracing, modelling and managing contaminated river sediments are proposed that could have more general application in similarly affected river systems worldwide.

Macklin, Mark

2010-05-01

218

Combined use of environmental data and biomarkers in fish (Liza aurata) inhabiting a eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system - Gills reflect environmental contamination.  

PubMed

An investigative biomonitoring study was carried out in a eutrophic coastal system with a moderate contamination by metals (Obidos lagoon, Portugal), combining the evaluation of exposure concentrations with metals accumulation and oxidative stress responses in gills of the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Two contrasting seasons (winter and summer) were considered at three sites: Barrosa (BB) and Bom-Sucesso (BS) branches; Middle lagoon (ML). Data on the water column pointed to a higher metals and nutrients availability at BB that was reflected in the higher metal concentrations in gills, particularly in winter. Similarly, oxidative stress responses demonstrated a pro-oxidant challenge at BB (winter and summer), which was corroborated by an integrated biomarker response index (IBR). Metal concentrations in gills were higher in summer than winter, reflecting the increased environmental concentrations in combination with elevated metabolic rates. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (GSH(t)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) increases observed in winter at BB were related with metal accumulation, while summer enhancement of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), GST and GSH(t) was associated with other stressors. Inter-site differences on the basis of IBR were more accentuated in winter. Gills can be considered as an important route of entry for contaminants and were demonstrated to reflect water contamination and are therefore useful in the context of environmental assessment. PMID:19783293

Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Mário

2010-03-01

219

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the

Jill M. Larson; William H. Karasov; Louis Sileo; Kenneth L. Stromborg; J. P. Giesy; P. D. Jones; D. E. Tillitt; D. A. Verbrugge; B. A. Hanbidge

1996-01-01

220

Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to: assess the impact of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic on human health; identify the data and knowledge gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring; examine how these issues have changed since our first assessment [Van Oostdam, J., Gilman, A., Dewailly, É.,

J. Van Oostdam; S. G. Donaldson; M. Feeley; D. Arnold; P. Ayotte; G. Bondy; L. Chan; É. Dewaily; C. M. Furgal; H. Kuhnlein; E. Loring; G. Muckle; E. Myles; O. Receveur; B. Tracy; U. Gill; S. Kalhok

2005-01-01

221

Toxicological pathology in laboratory fish: an evaluation with two species and various environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the studies carried out in small laboratory fish species to investigate the usefulness of histopathology as a tool in aquatic toxicology. The studies were performed with medaka (Oryzias latipes) and guppy (Poecilia reticulata) that were exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants for one and three months. Besides the measurement of routine toxicological parameters,

P. W. Wester; J. G. Vos

1994-01-01

222

The sea of environmental risk assessment: A navigational guide for hydrocarbon contamination  

SciTech Connect

Federal and many state regulations governing hydrocarbon-contaminated site remediation and closure require environmental risk assessment activities for developing remediation systems. and site closure strategies protective of human and ecological populations. Environmental risk assessment activities are normally foreign to many petroleum industry professionals. This paper is intended to provide those professionals with sufficient knowledge to achieve environmental risk assessment success. Classic environmental risk assessment process consists of data collection and evaluation, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment and risk characterization. These steps ultimately result in identifying what contaminants were released, evaluating which contaminants pose a threat to humans and ecosystems and quantifying how harmful each of the contaminants are to certain human and ecological populations. The physicochemical nature of hydrocarbons relevant to remediation is relevant to risk assessment. The facts that most hydrocarbons are not easily miscible in water, volatilize in the presence of air, readily sorb to clays and are actively bioremediated in the subsurface enable one to avoid risk assessment barriers often encountered with inorganic chemicals. The very unique way hydrocarbons behave in the environment should be used by the petroleum professional turned risk assessment/site closure manager to eliminate chemical exposure scenarios based on little more than organic chemistry. This technique allows petroleum industry professionals to use their realm of expertise to familiarize otherwise unknown waters.

Hippensteel, D.L. [Department of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-12-31

223

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the great lakes: An epidemiological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush,) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success—egg hatchability and fry survival?were used in the evaluation.

Michael J. Mac; Carol C. Edsall

1991-01-01

224

Quantifying diminution in value due to detrimental conditions: An application to environmentally contaminated properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying damages in a case involving diminution in value is an involved process, particularly when environmentally contaminated properties are involved. This article reviews the standard categories of detrimental conditions and the various fundamental issues that must be addressed in any assignment involving detrimental conditions. Next, the basic components of measuring diminution in value are introduced in formula form, along with

Randall Bell

1996-01-01

225

Environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. Eggs in a rural settlement in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In order to study the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural community from the Pontal do Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, soil samples from 31 out of 121 plots were collected in eight different places on each house. The samples were submitted to flotation technique in sodium nitrate (d = 1.20g\\/cm 3 ). Eggs of

Vamilton Alvares Santarém; Elisabeth da Cunha Franco; Fernanda Torres Kozuki; Danila Fini; Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro

2008-01-01

226

Nondigestible Oligosaccharides Do Not Increase Accumulation of Lipid Soluble Environmental Contaminants by Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementing diets with nondigestible fibers that are fermented by the gastrointestinal tract bacteria increases the dimension and absorptive capacities of the small intestine; we hypothesized that this would increase the accumulation of environmental contaminants. This was tested by feeding mice for 6 - 8 wk diets with fiber at two levels (0 and 100 g\\/kg) and from different sources (cellulose,

Yasuhiro Kimura; Yasuo Nagata; Carron W. Bryant; Randal K. Buddington

227

The sea of environmental risk assessment: A navigational guide for hydrocarbon contamination  

SciTech Connect

Federal and many state regulations governing hydrocarbon-contaminated site remediation and closure require environmental risk assessment activities for developing remediation systems. and site closure strategies protective of human and ecological populations. Environmental risk assessment activities are normally foreign to many petroleum industry professionals. This paper is intended to provide those professionals with sufficient knowledge to achieve environmental risk assessment success. Classic environmental risk assessment process consists of data collection and evaluation, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment and risk characterization. These steps ultimately result in identifying what contaminants were released, evaluating which contaminants pose a threat to humans and ecosystems and quantifying how harmful each of the contaminants are to certain human and ecological populations. The physicochemical nature of hydrocarbons relevant to remediation is relevant to risk assessment. The facts that most hydrocarbons are not easily miscible in water, volatilize in the presence of air, readily sorb to clays and are actively bioremediated in the subsurface enable one to avoid risk assessment barriers often encountered with inorganic chemicals. The very unique way hydrocarbons behave in the environment should be used by the petroleum professional turned risk assessment/site closure manager to eliminate chemical exposure scenarios based on little more than organic chemistry. This technique allows petroleum industry professionals to use their realm of expertise to familiarize otherwise unknown waters.

Hippensteel, D.L. (Department of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States))

1996-01-01

228

D.M. Whitacre (ed) Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 214, 87-124  

E-print Network

D.M. Whitacre (ed) Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 214, 87-124 DOI 10 and Toxicology 214 (2011) p. 87 - p. 124" DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4614-0668-6_5 #12;physiological characteristics the importance of reinforcing the ecological relevance of toxicological studies to improve ecotoxicological risk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

2001-01-01

230

A systems biology approach to understanding impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past decade, our research team at the US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division has employed systems biology approaches to examine and understand impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction. Our systems biology approach is one in which iterations of model cons...

231

DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF VULNERABILITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The susceptibility of the developing nervous system to damage following exposure to environmental contaminants is believed to be based upon the critical nature of the organizational events that occur in both a regionally- and temporally-dependent manner. The age-related susceptib...

232

Recent Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard as Recorded in Lake Sediments – an Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an interdisciplinary project on recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (76°30'N–80°30'N). It describes the rationale and aims of the project and summarises the location, climate, geology, vegetation, and land-use of Svalbard.

H. J. B. Birks; Vivienne J. Jones; N. L. Rose

2004-01-01

233

Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the impact on human health of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic, and identifies the data gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring. The concept of health in indigenous groups of the Arctic includes social, cultural, and spiritual dimensions. The harvesting, sharing and consumption of traditional

J Van Oostdam; A Gilman; E Dewailly; P Usher; B Wheatley; H Kuhnlein; S Neve; J Walker; B Tracy; M Feeley; V Jerome; B Kwavnick

1999-01-01

234

IN VITRO METABOLISM AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION FROM THE MUTAGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT 2-NITROFLURORANTHENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The metabolism and DNA adduct formation by the mutagenic environmental contaminant 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFA) was studied. ncubation under aerobic conditions with liver microsomes of rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene yielded 2-NFA tran-7.8-dihydrodiol, 2-NFA tran-9,10-di...

235

Epidemiologic Evidence of Relationships Between Reproductive and Child Health Outcomes and Environmental Chemical Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and\\/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures.

Donald T. Wigle; Tye E. Arbuckle; Michelle C. Turner; Annie Bérubé; Qiuying Yang; Shiliang Liu; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

236

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors ( Gymnogyps californianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Ronald M. Jurek; John F. Moore

1986-01-01

237

USING GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS TO DIAGNOSE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Advances in molecular biology allow the use of cutting-edge genomic and proteomic tools to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic organisms. Techniques are available to measure changes in expression of single genes (quantitative real-time PCR) or to measure g...

238

Impact of Emergent Contaminants in the Environment: Environmental Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human pharmaceuticals enter the environment mainly through regular domestic use. Their presence in\\u000a the aquatic environment has been recorded in the range ng?L?1 to\\u000a ?g?L?1. Knowledge of the risk associated with the use of pharmaceuticals\\u000a involves establishing the ratio between predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) and predicted no effect\\u000a concentration (PNECs). The European Union (EMEA) and USA (FDA) have implemented two-tiered

Julián Blasco; Angel DelValls

239

Diminution in property value arising from the stigma of environmental contamination: A phantom injury in search of actual damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

From all appearances, societal attitudes toward environmental contamination have evolved over the past ten years or more to become far more informed and, some would say, more realistic. For those of us who litigate environmental contamination cases, the hysteria of the 1970s and early 1980s has largely (and thankfully) waned, as society has developed a better — and more empirical—understanding

William J. Stack Esq; Terri Jacobsen Esq

1998-01-01

240

Analysis of risk assessment and risk management processes in the derivation of maximum levels for environmental contaminants in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants originate from diverse sources and, owing to their ubiquitous presence in the environment, may appear in foods. Setting standards in food is increasingly important within the European Union and world-wide to protect consumers’ health and to avoid trade barriers. This paper analyses how maximum levels for environmental contaminants in food were derived by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, by

Klaus Schneider; Inga Ollroge; Martin Clauberg; Ulrike Schuhmacher-Wolz

2007-01-01

241

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated

Swart de R. L; P. S. Ross; J. G. Vos; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

1996-01-01

242

Health risk implications from simultaneous exposure to multiple environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Water quality has deteriorated in the upper Olifants River system, South Africa, as a result of land use activities which include mining, agriculture and industries. A health risk assessment was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in the catchment to determine the possible risks local communities face from various pollutants such as microbials, heavy metals and oestrogen in the river water and vegetation. Aluminium and manganese accumulated in plants and vanadium and aluminium concentrations found in selective water samples posed significant health risks when consumed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment revealed that the combined risk of infection ranged from 1 to 26 percent with the Norovirus posing the overall greatest health risk. The anticipated disability adjusted life years resulting from drinking untreated water from these sites are in the order of 10,000 times greater than what is considered acceptable. The oestradiol activity, caused by endocrine disrupting compounds in the water, measured above the trigger value of 0.7ngL(-1). Impoverished communities in the area, who partially depend on river water for potable and domestic use, are exposed to immune-compromising metals that increase their probability of infection from waterborne diseases caused by the excess microbial pathogens in the contaminated surface water. PMID:23669339

Genthe, B; Le Roux, W J; Schachtschneider, K; Oberholster, P J; Aneck-Hahn, N H; Chamier, J

2013-07-01

243

Environmental contaminants in tissues, foods, and feces of California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two wild California Condors contained moderate to high levels of DDE in their tissues. The levels found could be high enough to cause reproductive problems in adult condors, if the assumption is made that condors are as susceptible to DDE as many other species of birds of prey. Other organochlorines occurred at low levels and probably were not high enough to cause deleterious effects. Metal residues in tissues of one bird were generally low except for copper in liver and lead in bone. Normal background levels of these metals in cathartids are unknown, making interpretation of the results difficult. Organochlorine residues in biopsy samples from a captive condor were low and probably would not have an adverse effect on reproduction if the bird were used for captive breeding. Organochlorines were not detected in food items used in the supplemental feeding program, and mercury and lead residues in these items were generally low. Information is needed on current contaminant levels in natural condor prey throughout the condor range.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Wilbur, S.R.

1983-01-01

244

Vitellogenin as a potential biomarker for environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The authors have recently obtained N-terminal amino acid sequences for the egg protein vitellogenin (Vtg) from phylogenetically diverse teleost fish ranging from rainbow trout to the striped bass. Using the striped bass sequence as a template, the other teleost fish showed at least an 87% identity through the region of amino acids 7--20. The amino acid sequence was not as well conserved for other fishes; white sturgeon (60%) and brook lamprey (47%), the clawed frog Xenopus (47--60%) or the domestic chicken (40%). The authors synthesized a consensus peptide to this highly conserved region and have raised a polygonal antibody from rabbit. This antibody shows wide cross-reactivity to Vtg from many species of teleost fish. The authors have found that serum Vtg levels are elevated in both male and female brown bullheads with liver tumors from an area contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Serum levels of Vtg were also elevated in rainbow trout with liver tumors induced with aflatoxin B-1. The authors also describe an in-vitro system of plated hepatocytes to screen for estrogenic and antiestrogenic xenobiotic chemicals in the environment and using Vtg as a screening tool to establish structure-activity relationships for reproductive failure in female fish.

Denslow, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Molecular Biology; Folmar, L.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Sullivan, C.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1994-12-31

245

Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitat types in addition to estuaries, and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional or national environmental quality assessments.

Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

2003-01-01

246

Role of expandable clays in the environmental fate of trinitrotoluene contamination. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A primary goal of the US military cleanup effort is to develop technologies that can expedite the remediation of explosive contaminants in soils. Nitroaromatic explosives are known to be strongly adsorbed by soils, with as much as 20 to 50 percent of radio-labeled explosives not extractable in controlled degradation studies. This suggests that adsorption of explosives and explosives degradation products onto soil components renders them unavailable to conventional extraction methods. The mechanism of sorption to soil components has been investigated in order to properly address the ultimate fate of explosives contamination. Trinitrotoluene undergoes reductive degradation in which nitro groups are animated to produce aminotoluene compounds. The final compound predicted by this reduction scheme is triaminotoluene. This reaction pathway results in intermediate degradation products of trinitrotoluene which act as weak bases. Protonation of these weak bases produces organic cations which are capable of sorption onto soil components. Sorption experiments were performed to determine the behavior of explosives and explosive by-products on pure clay minerals. X-ray diffraction studies measuring the interlamellar distance of expandable clays show an expansion as contaminants are bound to the clay, indicating displacement of interlayer cations. This intercalation of compounds of environmental interest within the interlamellar regions of expandable clays is an important geochemical event with implications toward a number of environmental disciplines including subsurface contaminant transport, risk assessment, contaminant bioavailability, site remediation, and natural attenuation.

Larson, S.L.; Weiss, C.A.; Martino, M.R.; Adams, J.W.

1998-07-01

247

Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.  

PubMed

Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

2011-01-01

248

Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

2012-01-01

249

Environmental contaminants and the management of bat populations in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food-chain residues of organochlorine pesticides probably have been involved in declines of some U.S. bat populations; examples include free-tailed bats at Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, and the endangered gray bat at sites in Missouri and Alabama. If a long-lived contaminant has not been dispersed in large amounts over large areas, its impact may be controlled by administrative action that stops its use or other environmental discharge, or that results in physical isolation of localized contamination so that it no longer enters food chains

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1988-01-01

250

Fiber contamination of vermiculites: a potential occupational and environmental health hazard  

SciTech Connect

Vermiculite ores from Montana, Virginia, and South Africa have been analyzed for the presence of amphibole contamination. Fibrous actinolite was found in unexpanded Montana vermiculite ore at a maximum concentration of 0.2%. The fibers persisted in the expanded ore at a maximum concentration of 0.6%. Actinolite was also found in the Virginia vermiculite ore but at a lower concentration and mostly as cleavage fragments with low length-to-width ratios. South African ore contained rare anthophyllite fibers also with low length-to-width ratios. Vermiculite ores have the potential for amphibole contamination and can represent potential health hazards without proper occupational and environmental control measures.

Moatamed, F.; Lockey, J.E.; Parry, W.T.

1986-10-01

251

Fiber contamination of vermiculites: a potential occupational and environmental health hazard.  

PubMed

Vermiculite ores from Montana, Virginia, and South Africa have been analyzed for the presence of amphibole contamination. Fibrous actinolite was found in unexpanded Montana vermiculite ore at a maximum concentration of 2.0%. The fibers persisted in the expanded ore at a maximum concentration of 0.6%. Actinolite was also found in the Virginia vermiculite ore but at a lower concentration and mostly as cleavage fragments with low length-to-width ratios. South African ore contained rare anthophyllite fibers also with low length-to-width ratios. Vermiculite ores have the potential for amphibole contamination and can represent potential health hazards without proper occupational and environmental control measures. PMID:3019658

Moatamed, F; Lockey, J E; Parry, W T

1986-10-01

252

Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  

PubMed

Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

2014-07-01

253

CONTRIBUTORS' PROOFCHECKING INSTRUCTIONS FOR ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INSECTS  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTORS' PROOFCHECKING INSTRUCTIONS FOR ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INSECTS PROOFREADING The text content the image quality of the final printed publication and is for content checking only. Please keep alterations learns color, pattern, and odor components of its insect host's microhabitat. A grasshopper avoids

Papaj, Daniel

254

A chrestomathy Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia  

E-print Network

A chrestomathy on fishes Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia of Ichthyology, Ecology and Evolution by Daniel Pauly Cambridge University Press: 2004. 366 pp. £55, $80 John C. Avise Charles Darwin is renowned. For exam- ple,in his commentary on how Darwin (and laterevolutionists)grappledwithexplaining the evolution

Avise, John

255

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MITECS) brings together 471 brief articles on a very wide range of topics within cognitive science. The general editors worked with advisory editors in six contributing fields, including Gennaro Chierchia on Lin- guistics and Language and Michael I. Jordan and Stuart Russell on Computational Intelligence. MITECS opens with excellent overview articles by each

Robert A. Wilson; Frank C. Keil; John Nerbonne

1999-01-01

256

Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia is designed to promote bilingualism in a comprehensive and comprehensive manner and to be academically sound while remaining accessible to as wide an audience as possible. Each topic is presented in a clear, understandable style. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Individual Bilingualism" (e.g., bilingualism and the…

Baker, Colin; Jones, Sylvia Prys

257

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant hazards (e.g., Blue Ridge Parkway, George Washington National Forest, Shenandoah National Park) had no recent avian ecotoxicological data. Contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from such efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

2007-01-01

258

Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

1994-12-31

259

A fugacity based multimedia environmental fate model of organic contaminants in Massachusetts Bay  

SciTech Connect

A new sewage outfall is being constructed in Massachusetts Bay as part of the pollution abatement program in Boston Harbor. Previous models of potential environmental impact from the new sewage outfall in Massachusetts Bay have either relied upon hydrodynamic transport models that assume conservative behavior of the contaminants or on non-quantitative conceptual models of non-conservative behavior. The authors have found that a more quantitative mass balance model is necessary to better predict contaminant exposure resulting from effluent discharge through the new outfall. Hence, the authors have developed a time-variant, multimedia environmental model of organic contaminants in the air, water, and sediment phases of Massachusetts Bay. This model is based on the fugacity approach developed by Donald Mackay and is a level 4 unsteady-state model that includes flows through the system. Advection, reaction, and intermedia transport processes are incorporated into the model as first order rate processes and parameters for the model include environmental parameters, physical-chemical properties, contaminant loading estimates from major sources, and transport parameters. The model was applied to several organic contaminants found in Massachusetts Bay water and sediment: naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, dieldrin, 4,4{prime}-DDT, and the polychlorinated biphenyl C16(153). Model output includes a steady-state bay-wide average of water and sediment concentrations, relative distribution of mass after one month at steady state, time to reach steady-state, and residence times. The calculated steady-state concentrations were compared to recent observed values. In addition, sensitivity analysis of the model was performed to indicate which model parameters are most sensitive to perturbation.

Keys, D.; Shea, D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1995-12-31

260

Alterations in steroidogenesis in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) exposed naturally and experimentally to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed Central

Many environmental contaminants alter the reproduction of animals by altering the development and function of the endocrine system. The ability of environmental contaminants to alter the endocrine system of alligators was studied both in a descriptive study in which juvenile alligators from a historically contaminated lake were compared to animals from a control lake and in an experimental study in which hatchling control alligators were exposed in ovo to several endocrine-disrupting standards and two modern-use herbicides. Endocrine status was assessed by examining plasma hormone concentrations, gonadal-adrenal mesonephros (GAM) aromatase activity, and gonadal histopathology. In the descriptive study, juvenile alligators from the contaminated lake had significantly lower plasma testosterone concentrations (29.2 pg/ml compared to 51.3 pg/ml), whereas plasma 17 beta-estradiol concentrations did not vary when compared to controls. GAM aromatase activity was significantly decreased n the alligators from the contaminated lake (7.6 pmol/g/hr compared to 11.4 pmol/g/hr). In the experimental study, the endocrine-disrupting standards had the expected effects. 17 beta-Estradiol and tamoxifen caused sex reversal from male to female, with a corresponding increase in aromatase activity. Vinclozolin had no apparent effect on male or female alligators. Among the herbicides tested, atrazine induced GAM aromatase activity in male hatchling alligators that was neither characteristic of males nor females, although testicular differentiation was not altered. Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid had no effect on the endocrine parameters that were measured. Together, these studies show that exposure to some environmental chemicals (such as atrazine) can alter steroidogenesis in alligators, but the endocrine alterations previously noted for Lake Apopka, Florida, alligators can not be fully explained by this mechanism. Images Figure 1. PMID:9222139

Crain, D A; Guillette, L J; Rooney, A A; Pickford, D B

1997-01-01

261

Current challenges in compound-specific stable isotope analysis of environmental organic contaminants.  

PubMed

Compound-specific stable-isotope analysis (CSIA) has greatly facilitated assessment of sources and transformation processes of organic pollutants. Multielement isotope analysis is one of the most promising applications of CSIA because it even enables distinction of different transformation pathways. This review introduces the essential features of continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and highlights current challenges in environmental analysis as exemplified for the isotopes of nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine, and oxygen. Strategies and recent advances to enable isotopic measurements of polar contaminants, for example pesticides or pharmaceuticals, are discussed with special emphasis on possible solutions for analysis of low concentrations of contaminants in environmental matrices. Finally, we discuss different levels of calibration and referencing and point out the urgent need for compound-specific isotope standards for gas chromatography-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) of organic pollutants. PMID:22302163

Elsner, Martin; Jochmann, Maik A; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Hunkeler, Daniel; Bernstein, Anat; Schmidt, Torsten C; Schimmelmann, Arndt

2012-07-01

262

Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

2014-04-01

263

Contaminants at the sediment-water interface: implications for environmental impact assessment and effects monitoring.  

PubMed

Many contaminants in aquatic environments are associated with loosely packed aggregates of particulate material called flocs. Flocculation allows contaminants to accumulate at the sediment-water interface and it packages them in a form that is readily available for ingestion by filter feeding organisms. Unfortunately, most samplers being used for environmental assessment and monitoring suspend this material on impact and fail to sample this critical component of the seabed. In this study we use a slo-corer to collect seabed samples with an undisturbed surface layer and a Gust microcosm erosion chamber to erode the surface of the cores at increasing shear stresses. Results from two different sites, one impacted by tailings from historic gold mining and the other by open-pen salmon aquaculture, showed the levels of metals suspended at stresses below 0.24 Pa were greater than in the underlying sediment. Sampling this highly mobile surface layer is critical for determining the total contaminant load in bottom sediments and, more importantly, this layer represents the most readily available material for suspension. The loss of this layer during sampling could lead to inaccurate measurements of contaminant levels during environmental assessment and effects monitoring. A re-evaluation of the ISO standard for bottom sediment sampling is recommended. PMID:23647260

Milligan, T G; Law, B A

2013-06-01

264

Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

2007-01-01

265

Erasmus Joint doctorate programme in Environmental Technology for Contaminated Solids, Soils and Sediments (ETeCoS3  

E-print Network

Erasmus Joint doctorate programme in Environmental Technology for Contaminated Solids, Soils and Sediments (ETeCoS3 ) Joint PhD degree in Environmental Technology Docteur de l'Université Paris of Doctor in Environmental Technology Thèse - Tesi di Dottorato - PhD thesis Emmanuel MOUSSET INTEGRATED

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Assessment of the environmental contamination with long-lived radionuclides around an operating RBMK reactor station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of man-made gamma emitting radionuclides in the region within 32km radius of the Ignalina NPP\\/Lithuania has been investigated during the period 2001–2004, prior to the closure of the first of the two operating RBMK 1500-type reactors. Gamma spectrometric measurements of various terrestrial and aquatic plants as well as of soil samples showed moderate environmental contamination with the fission

Diana Adlien?; Christopher Rääf; Åsa Magnusson; Jon Behring; Mohamad Zakaria; Gediminas Adlys; Göran Skog; Kristina Stenström; Sören Mattsson

2006-01-01

267

An assessment of collection efficiency of some environmental contaminants on activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection efficiency of twelve airborne environmental contaminants (organic solvent vapors) on activated carbon was assessed indirectly. The collection efficiency values of the solvents were excellent; the mean collection efficiency was 99.5±0.31%. There was no statistical difference (p>0.10) between the mean collection efficiency value vs the theoretically possible value of 100.0%. The results indicated that losses during collection of solvents

K. S. Sidhu

1983-01-01

268

Environmental contaminants and biochemical responses in flatfish from the Hvaler Archipelago in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of several environmental contaminants, including selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organochlorines (DDT\\/DDE, hexachlorobenzene), 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF\\/PCDD), and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, and As) were analyzed in muscle and liver of three different flatfish species (dab,Limanda limanda; flounder,Platichthys flesus; plaice,Pleuronectes platessa) caught by gill netting at different sites in the Hvaler

Anders Goksøyr; Astrid-Mette Husøy; Hfivard E. Larsen; Jarle Klungsøyr; Svein Wilhelmsen; Amund Maage; Einar M. Brevik; Tommy Andersson; Malin Celander; Maija Pesonen; Lars Förlin

1991-01-01

269

Specific Ribosomal DNA Sequences from Diverse Environmental Settings Correlate with Experimental Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones obtained by PCR from uncultured bacteria inhabiting a wide range of environments has increased our knowledge of bacterial diversity. One possible problem in the assessment of bacterial diversity based on sequence information is that PCR is exquisitely sensitive to contaminating 16S rDNA. This raises the possibility that some putative environmental rRNA sequences

MICHAEL A. TANNER; BRETT M. GOEBEL; MICHAEL A. DOJKA; NORMAN R. PACE

1998-01-01

270

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg\\/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05–9.2 mg\\/kg) was recorded in urban

H. Taylor; J. d. Appletonsupasu; R. Lister; B. Smith; D. Chitamweba; O. Mkumbo; J. F. Machiwa; A. L. Tesha; C. Beinhoff

2005-01-01

271

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Not Available

1991-10-01

272

Quantification of the effects of spatially varying environmental contaminants into a cost model for soil remediation  

SciTech Connect

In this study the authors investigated the effects of spatial variability of soil contaminants on cost calculations for soil remediation. Most cost models only provide a single figure, whereas spatial variability is one of the sources to contribute to the uncertainty. A cost model is applied to a study site of 19 ha containing a former gasworks in the Rotterdam harbor. The site was contaminated by heavy metals, PAH and mineral oil. Two sets of environmental thresholds were applied, one for identifying the severeness of contamination and one to decide upon the future use of excavated soil. Three remediation scenarios were compared. Geostatistical simulations were applied, both on individual contaminants and on indicator variables derived from these. As it turns out, spatial uncertainty causes 2--5% uncertainty in the final cost estimates. Another source of uncertainty is the direction of application of the cost model: a least-case approach starts with the lowest threshold value, followed by increasingly higher values, whereas a worst-case approach starts with the highest threshold value followed by decreasing values. Using a worst-case approach yielded cost estimates that were 6--8% higher than cost estimates by a least-case approach. The authors concluded that 8--13% of the uncertainty in cost estimates could be explained by spatial variation of soil contaminants and lithology.

Broos, M.J.; Stein, A. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Sciences] [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Aarts, L.; Tooren, C.F. tan [Public Works Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Public Works Rotterdam (Netherlands)

1999-06-01

273

Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants.

Albers, P.H.; Sileo, L.; Mulhern, B.M.

1986-01-01

274

Possible mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants on St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).  

PubMed Central

A small isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that are highly contaminated by pollutants, mostly of industrial origin, resides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada. Overhunting in the first half of the century was the probable cause for this population to dwindle from several thousand animals to the current estimate of 500. The failure of the population to recover might be due to contamination by organochlorine compounds, which are known to lead to reproductive failure and immunosuppression in domestic and laboratory animals and seals. Functional and morphological changes have been demonstrated in thyroid gland and adrenal cortex in many species exposed to organochlorinated compounds, including seals. Morphological lesions, although different, were also found in belugas. Functional evaluation of thyroid and adrenal glands of contaminated (St. Lawrence) versus much less contaminated (Arctic) belugas is currently under way. Necropsy of St. Lawrence belugas showed numerous severe and disseminated infections with rather mildly pathogenic bacteria, which suggests immunosuppression. Organochlorine compounds and other contaminants found in beluga whales cause immunosuppression in a variety of animal species including seals. Thirty-seven percent of all the tumors reported in cetaceans were observed in St. Lawrence beluga whales. This could be explained by two different mechanisms: high exposure to environmental carcinogens and suppression of immunosurveillance against tumors. Overall, St. Lawrence belugas might well represent the risk associated with long-term exposure to pollutants present in their environment and might be a good model to predict health problems that could emerge in highly exposed human populations over time. PMID:7556028

De Guise, S; Martineau, D; Béland, P; Fournier, M

1995-01-01

275

Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

A bacterial biosensor for benzene, toluene, and similar compounds has been constructed, characterized, and field tested on contaminated water and soil. The biosensor is based on a plasmid incorporating the transcriptional activator xylR from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The XylR protein binds a subset of toluene-like compounds and activates transcription at its promoter, Pu. A reporter plasmid was constructed by placing the luc gene for firefly luciferase under the control of XylR and Pu. When Escherichia coli cells were transformed with this plasmid vector, luminescence from the cells was induced in the presence of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and similar molecules. Accurate concentration dependencies of luminescence were obtained and exhibited K1/2 values ranging from 39.0 ± 3.8 ?M for 3-xylene to 2,690 ± 160 ?M for 3-methylbenzylalcohol (means ± standard deviations). The luminescence response was specific for only toluene-like molecules that bind to and activate XylR. The biosensor cells were field tested on deep aquifer water, for which contaminant levels were known, and were able to accurately detect toluene derivative contamination in this water. The biosensor cells were also shown to detect BETX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) contamination in soil samples. These results demonstrate the capability of such a bacterial biosensor to accurately measure environmental contaminants and suggest a potential for its inexpensive application in field-ready assays. PMID:9501440

Willardson, Barry M.; Wilkins, Jon F.; Rand, Timothy A.; Schupp, James M.; Hill, Karen K.; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J.

1998-01-01

276

Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the lower Savannah River and on the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, and analyzed them for concentrations of organochlorine chemicals, aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and 13 elemental contaminants: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Residues of DDT (mainly as DDE),trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, Aroclor? 1260, mirex, and petroleum hydrocarbons were common in fish from the lower Savannah River, but concentrations were below those warranting environmental concern. In general, the concentrations of elemental contaminants also were low; however, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium concentrations were elevated in fish from river stations near the city of Savannah, and lead was elevated in samples from the National Wildlife Refuge. Contamination of the lower Savannah River by organic and elemental contaminants, as indicated by concentrations in fishes and fiddler crabs, did not appear to pose a hazard.

Winger, P.V.; Schultz, D.P.; Johnson, W.W.

1990-01-01

277

Three-dimensional data interpolation for environmental purpose: lead in contaminated soils in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Monitoring of heavy metal contamination plume in soils can be helpful in establishing strategies to minimize its hazardous impacts to the environment. The objective of this study was to apply a new approach of visualization, based on tridimensional (3D) images, of pseudo-total (extracted with concentrated acids) and exchangeable (extracted with 0.5 mol L(-1) Ca(NO3)2) lead (Pb) concentrations in soils of a mining and metallurgy area to determine the spatial distribution of this pollutant and to estimate the most contaminated soil volumes. Tridimensional images were obtained after interpolation of Pb concentrations of 171 soil samples (57 points × 3 depths) with regularized spline with tension in a 3D function version. The tridimensional visualization showed great potential of use in environmental studies and allowed to determine the spatial 3D distribution of Pb contamination plume in the area and to establish relationships with soil characteristics, landscape, and pollution sources. The most contaminated soil volumes (10,001 to 52,000 mg Pb kg(-1)) occurred near the metallurgy factory. The main contamination sources were attributed to atmospheric emissions of particulate Pb through chimneys. The large soil volume estimated to be removed to industrial landfills or co-processing evidenced the difficulties related to this practice as a remediation strategy. PMID:24865382

Piedade, Tales Campos; Melo, Vander Freitas; Souza, Luiz Cláudio Paula; Dieckow, Jeferson

2014-09-01

278

Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina.  

PubMed

Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the lower Savannah River and on the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, and analyzed them for concentrations of organochlorine chemicals, aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and 13 elemental contaminants: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Residues of DDT (mainly as DDE), trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, Aroclor 1260, mirex, and petroleum hydrocarbons were common in fish from the lower Savannah River, but concentrations were below those warranting environmental concern. In general, the concentrations of elemental contaminants also were low; however, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium concentrations were elevated in fish from river stations near the city of Savannah, and lead was elevated in samples from the National Wildlife Refuge. Contamination of the lower Savannah River by organic and elemental contaminants, as indicated by concentrations in fishes and fiddler crabs, did not appear to pose a hazard. PMID:2331144

Winger, P V; Schultz, D P; Johnson, W W

1990-01-01

279

Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

Patrick Matthews (N-I) and Robert Boehlecke (NSO)

2011-03-03

280

Fundulus heteroclitus: ovarian reproductive physiology and the impact of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Fundulus heteroclitus, the mummichog or Atlantic killifish, is the dominant small-bodied fish species of the east coast estuaries and salt marshes of Canada and the USA, where it is present as two subspecies, the northern F. h. macrolepidotus and the southern F. h. heteroclitus. Recently identified as the premier teleost model in environmental biology, the species has long been of value in understanding evolved tolerance to toxicants and more lately in adding to our knowledge about reproductive effects of environmental endocrine disruptors. The body of literature on F. heteroclitus ovarian physiology and reproduction, from both field and laboratory studies, provides the foundation for present work focused on understanding the reproductive effects and modes of action of environmental toxicants. In this paper, we review the environmental and endocrine factors controlling ovarian and reproductive cycling in F. heteroclitus, noting specifics related to field and laboratory studies on the two subspecies as well as key research gaps compared to other fish species. We also summarize recent development of methodologies to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrine signalling and egg production in F. heteroclitus. Continued efforts to progress both our fundamental understanding of reproductive physiology in mummichog, coupled with studies focused on the modes of action of environmental contaminants, have high potential to further develop this teleost model. While the model may presently lag behind those based on other species of fish, the unique biochemical and physiological adaptations which allow F. heteroclitus to adapt to changing environmental and toxic conditions provide a valuable experimental system for comparative physiologists, ecotoxicologists and evolutionary biologists. PMID:21771666

Lister, Andrea L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Rutherford, Robert; MacLatchy, Deborah

2011-11-01

281

Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Soled Phase Microextraction: Janusz Pawliszyn's Legacy in the Environmental Arena  

EPA Science Inventory

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has revolutionized the way samples are extracted, enabling rapid, automated, and solventless extraction of many different sample types, including air, water, soil, and biological samples. As such, SPME is widely used for environmental, food, fo...

282

New trends in the analytical determination of emerging contaminants and their transformation products in environmental waters.  

PubMed

Since the so-called emerging contaminants were established as a new group of pollutants of environmental concern, a great effort has been devoted to the knowledge of their distribution, fate and effects in the environment. After more than 20 years of work, a significant improvement in knowledge about these contaminants has been achieved, but there is still a large gap of information on the growing number of new potential contaminants that are appearing and especially of their unpredictable transformation products. Although the environmental problem arising from emerging contaminants must be addressed from an interdisciplinary point of view, it is obvious that analytical chemistry plays an important role as the first step of the study, as it allows establishing the presence of chemicals in the environment, estimate their concentration levels, identify sources and determine their degradation pathways. These tasks involve serious difficulties requiring different analytical solutions adjusted to purpose. Thus, the complexity of the matrices requires highly selective analytical methods; the large number and variety of compounds potentially present in the samples demands the application of wide scope methods; the low concentrations at which these contaminants are present in the samples require a high detection sensitivity, and high demands on the confirmation and high structural information are needed for the characterisation of unknowns. New developments on analytical instrumentation have been applied to solve these difficulties. Furthermore and not less important has been the development of new specific software packages intended for data acquisition and, in particular, for post-run analysis. Thus, the use of sophisticated software tools has allowed successful screening analysis, determining several hundreds of analytes, and assisted in the structural elucidation of unknown compounds in a timely manner. PMID:23456948

Agüera, Ana; Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2013-06-01

283

The Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Mating Dynamics and Population Viability in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish  

E-print Network

natural selection processes, such as viability and reproduction, their effect on sexual selection processes is not as clear. The goal of this dissertation was to address how environmental contaminants impact sexual selection processes in a sex...

Partridge, Charlyn G.

2010-07-14

284

EFFECTS OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS ON MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY TROPHIC STRUCTURE IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Macrobenthic communities from estuaries throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico were studied to assess the influence of sediment contaminants and natural environmental factors on macrobenthic community trophic structure. Community trophic data were also used to evaluate whether re...

285

REVIEW IV: SCIENCE LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURES WITH FERTILITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IMPACTS IN THE ADULT FEMALE  

EPA Science Inventory

Design: Reviewed articles indexed in PubMed from 1999-2007 addressing environment and puberty, menstrual and ovarian function, fertility, and menopause. Results: The strongest evidence of environmental contaminant exposures interfering with healthy reproductive function in adu...

286

Pacific Rim environmental contamination issues-present and future trends (North American region)  

SciTech Connect

This review paper will provide an overview of important environmental contamination issues within the North American Region (West Coast of the US and Canada). At the present time many existing environmental laws and regulations are going through proposed changes. These changes will effect legislative frameworks, regulatory actions and the level of environmental protection if they are passed into law at the national and state levels in the United States. The West Coast of Canada is also faced with many environmental challenges. It is against this rapidly changing legislative background that the current issues must be reviewed and the future outcome of these changes placed into perspective. This presentation will review the methods and approaches currently being used to address the major contamination issues in both countries; the legislative frameworks of the major laws (i.e., Rare and Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act) that cover each issue; and how these laws are applied and enforced. Future trends in legislative action, technology and research needs and emerging issues will also be presented and discussed.

Smith, E.H.

1995-12-31

287

Environmental contamination and human exposure to manganese--contribution of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline.  

PubMed

The organomanganese compound MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), an antiknock additive in unleaded gasoline, has been used in Canada since 1976. Indeed, Canada is the only country where MMT is almost exclusively used. In October 1995, by court decision the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) granted Ethyl's waiver for the use of MMT in the United States. Paradoxically, in 1997 the federal government of Canada adopted a law (C-29) that banned both the interprovincial trade and the importation for commercial purposes of manganese-based substances, including MMT. However, MMT is currently widely used in Canada because of substantial stockpiling, and six Canadian provinces are challenging the law in the courts. Moreover, MMT has been approved for use in Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Russia, and conditionally, in New Zealand. It has been suggested by some scientists that combustion of MMT may be a significant source of exposure to inorganic Mn in urban areas. The crucial question is whether Mn contamination from industrial sources combined with the additional contamination that would result from the widespread use of MMT would lead to toxic effects. Our research efforts have attempted to assess the environmental/ecosystem Mn contamination arising from the combustion of MMT in abiotic and biotic systems as well as human exposure. The experimental evidence acquired so far provides useful information on certain environmental consequences of the use of MMT as well as raising a number of questions. Our results gave evidence indicating that roadside air, soils, plants, and animals may be contaminated by Mn. As well, some specific groups of the population could have a higher level of exposure to Mn. Nevertheless, the levels of exposure remain below international guide values. Further studies and further characterization of dose-response relationships are thus needed to provide successful implementation of evidence-based risk-assessment approaches. PMID:10029224

Zayed, J; Vyskocil, A; Kennedy, G

1999-01-01

288

Thyroid disruption in walleye ( Sander vitreus) exposed to environmental contaminants: Cloning and use of iodothyronine deiodinases as molecular biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormones play a role in the initiation of ovarian maturation in fish. Thus, reports of delayed sexual maturation in female walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to contaminants in the Ottawa River suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of environmental contaminants in the Ottawa River on thyroid hormones of immature

Michelle Picard-Aitken; Henri Fournier; Richard Pariseau; David J. Marcogliese; Daniel G. Cyr

2007-01-01

289

Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

290

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can

B. G. Blaylock; M. L. Frank; F. O. Hoffman; L. A. Hook; G. W. Suter; J. A. Watts

1992-01-01

291

Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

Bengelsdorf, I.

1988-01-01

292

An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (?6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (?6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants. PMID:22692364

Lampa, Erik; Lind, Lars; Hermansson, Anna Bornefalk; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P Monica

2012-09-01

293

Encyclopedia of the NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Encyclopedia of the Sanctuaries offers photos, streaming video and important facts for more than 100 key animal and plant species from each of the national marine sanctuaries. It allows users to search for their favorite species or browse the wildlife of each sanctuary by category, ranging from spiny lobster to killer whales and from white-tipped reef sharks to sea anemones. The encyclopedia entry for each species includes a photo, quick facts, information about its diet, habitat, distribution and status, and links to outside resources. Many of the entries also offer engaging, high-quality video clips of species in their natural habitats, making this an entertaining and informative resource for educators, students of all ages, zoos and aquaria, science and technology centers, and natural history museums.

2005-10-10

294

Better Homes and Gardens Home Improvement Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the commercial intentions of the site, this free online guide to home repair is superior to many similar offerings on the Web. Organized in five principle sections (Plumbing, Wiring, Carpentry, Decks, and Masonry & Concrete), the Encyclopedia covers a good variety of subtopics, from selecting and buying lumber to replacing a faucet or water heater to pouring concrete. Generally aimed at users with some skills but not necessarily much experience in home repair, the projects are clearly explained, with generous illustrations and, in some cases, an "Animated How-To." Project information includes estimated time, required skills and tools, cautions, and links to related projects. Additional resources include a glossary, tool encyclopedia, and an internal search engine.

295

Digital Encyclopedia: George Washington's Mount Vernon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was George Washington's life like at Mount Vernon? This frequent question is answered in fine form by this Digital Encyclopedia, compiled by a variety of scholars in collaboration with the Mount Vernon Estate. It is particularly appropriate that there is such a copious compendium of facts on the goings-on at Mt. Vernon, as Washington was enamored of encyclopedias during his life. Drawing on a range of primary sources, this project brings together hundreds of entries divided into over a dozen topics, including Military, Slavery, Food and Drink, and Animals. The Personal area is quite compelling, as it includes entries on Barbados, smallpox and, of course, the celebrated myths surrounding Washington's false teeth.

296

Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When thinking about the Volunteer State, many people's minds may immediately turn to the accomplishments of President Andrew Jackson or the far-reaching impact of the massive public works project that resulted in the formation of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Interested parties can learn about these aspects of the state's history and culture, along with many other facets of the state, at this fine site which is the digital version of The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Originally released in 1998 as a large print volume, the Encyclopedia was placed online in a searchable format in 2002. Here visitors can browse through more than 1500 entries, along with 500 additional images and some audio and video files as well. For those interested in looking at the material by themes, they will be pleased to learn that the materials are also divided into categories, such as medicine, sports, county history, and industry.

297

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Claude Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth, this online encyclopedia is an excellent resource for information about many aspects of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender culture. From the main page, users can search the encyclopedia by keyword, or move through one of the thematic sections offered here, such as literature or the arts. Each of these sections contains an alphabetical subject guide and a popular topics section. Also featured is a Spotlight section that, in March 2003, features an extended essay on lesbian photography before Stonewall. The site also has a lively, monitored discussion area, featuring commentaries on literature, a suggestion area, and feedback on technical issues related to the site. Finally, the site has a list of all contributors to the project, with links to each of their entries.

298

Relationships of environmental contaminants to reproductive success in red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) from Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1977 and 1978, we studied red-breasted mergansers Mergus serrator nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan to determine whether environmental contaminants were having effects on reproduction. Seventeen contaminants were measured in randomly chosen eggs from 206 nests under study. Using a variety of statistical approaches, we looked for effects of individual contaminants and combinations of contaminants on reproductive measurements such as nest desertion, failure of eggs to hatch, death of newly hatched ducklings, percentage hatching success, number of ducklings leaving the nest and eggshell thickness. We also looked for relationships between the levels of some contaminants in blood samples of 39 incubating females and reproductive success. A small degree of eggshell thinning was attributed to DDE and a few other statistical tests were significant, but no contaminant or combination of contaminants we measured seemed to have a pronounced effect on the aspects of reproduction we followed.

Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Reichel, W.L.; Hensler, G.L.

1983-01-01

299

Encyclopedia of artificial intelligence: 2 Vol. set  

SciTech Connect

Drawing on the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, linguistics, mathematics, philosophy, psychology, and physiology, this one-volume encyclopedia brings together the core of knowledge on artificial intelligence. It provides an overview of how to program computers to emulate human behavior, offering a wide range of techniques for speech and visual generation, problem-solving and more. Over 250 entries are organized alphabetically, cross-referenced and indexed.

Shapiro, S.C.

1987-01-01

300

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Gale, R.W.; Lebo, J.A.; Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Cranor, W.L.

2000-01-01

301

Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

302

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01

303

Environmental Contaminants and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Effects on Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The desire of resource managers, risk assessors, and the general public to better understand the consequences of environmental contamination has produced a strong and growing need for information on the effects of contaminants on populations and groups of species, and over moderate to large areas of land or water. However, the problems associated with research involving populations and groups of species or large and complex geographic areas, especially in terrestrial environments, are well known within the scientific community. With the previous thoughts in mind, an interactive symposium was held at the University of Maryland in October 1998. The purpose of the symposium was to review and critically evaluate our understanding of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at levels of organization above that of the individual. Invited background and technical presentations provided a common baseline of information for symposium participants. Discussion groups were then asked to critically evaluate the topics of two technical sessions. Several presentations of recent or ongoing research provided participants with examples of current approaches to assessments of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at the population or higher level of organization. The book consists of 10 chapters written by presenters at the symposium and three chapters conveying the reports of discussion group.

2000-01-01

304

Possible environmental contaminant effects in neotropical migrants nesting at a Superfund site  

SciTech Connect

Forest fragmentation, insularization, and tropical deforestation have been named as significant factors in the decline of many neotropical migrant bird species, however, contamination of breeding grounds also may be of concern. Additionally, neotropical migrants may serve as a route of transport of contaminants from breeding grounds in North America to wintering grounds in the tropics. Accumulation and effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and heavy metal concentrations in avian species were evaluated at a Superfund site (Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois) using the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) as a model. Starlings were monitored at 12 nest boxes constructed at each of 3 study and 2 reference sites. Behavior of adult starlings was observed in the field to assess possible contaminant effects on nest attentiveness and reproductive success was recorded as the number of chicks surviving to 15 days post-hatch. Effects included a significant reduction in nest attentiveness behavior and increased chick mortality between PCB and reference sites. There were no significant differences among study and reference sites in number of eggs laid and percent of eggs hatched. Because Crab Orchard NWR serves as breeding ground for approximately 80 neotropical migrant species, the results suggest that species with feeding habits similar to starlings also may have greater body burdens of metals and PCBs and may suffer similar reductions in nesting success. The potential exists for transport and incorporation of environmental contaminants into the food chain at sites along the migration route.

Arenal, C.; Halbrook, R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

1995-12-31

305

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ANIMAL RIGHTS AND  

E-print Network

Regan (Ed.), Earthbound: New Introductory Essaysin Environmental Ethics (New York: Random House, 1984Viromnental EthicS (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988); Wilson, E. 0., The DIVersity of Life (Cambridge MA producing the sounds of cnckets m an otter exhibit and providing means by which the otters. could .hunt

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

306

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PHOSPHATE-BASED REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGY IN METAL CONTAMINATED URBAN AND MINING AREAS IN A SELECTED MISSOURI SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project provided important data on fundamental processes responsible for health and environmental risk reductions and environmental safety of the phosphate-based treatments in metal, specifically Pb, contaminated soils. By an integrated approach of environmental risk asse...

307

Risk ranking priority of carcinogenic and/or genotoxic environmental contaminants in food in Belgium.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the risks of environmental carcinogenic and/or genotoxic contaminants in food. It describes, for each contaminant studied, the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, the toxicological reference values, the exposure and the risk characterisation. The compounds studied were classified into 3 categories based on a risk assessment. Effects others than carcinogenicity and/or genotoxicity (e.g. endocrine disruption activity) were also taken into account for the classification. Given the low margin of exposure values for arsenic and lead, these two compounds are classified as priority 1 (high concern) for food safety and as a first priority to take actions to reduce exposure. Cadmium, methylmercury, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), non-dioxin-like PCB and toxaphene are classified as priority 2 (medium concern). Polybrominated biphenyls, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane included), polychlorophenols and their salts are classified as priority 3 (low concern). PMID:24471940

Vromman, V; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Vleminckx, C; Saegerman, C; Pussemier, L; Huyghebaert, A

2014-01-01

308

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla).  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants. PMID:24213965

White, D H; Rice, C P; Hoffman, D J; Gee, G F

1994-07-01

309

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

1994-01-01

310

A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

2013-11-01

311

The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species.  

PubMed Central

Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 microgram/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 micrograms/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant (p less than 0.001) increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced in males (5-fold increase in median sum of species concentration over control group) than in females (2-fold increase in median sum of species concentration over control group) and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption. PMID:2088741

Kalman, D A; Hughes, J; van Belle, G; Burbacher, T; Bolgiano, D; Coble, K; Mottet, N K; Polissar, L

1990-01-01

312

Prenatal exposure of the northern Québec Inuit infants to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed Central

The Inuit population residing in Nunavik (northern Québec, Canada) relies on species from the marine food web for subsistence and is therefore exposed to high doses of environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury and to a lesser extent lead. In view of the neurotoxic properties of these substances following developmental exposure, we initiated a study on infant development in this remote coastal population. Here we report the magnitude of prenatal exposure to these contaminants and to selective nutrients in Inuit mothers and their newborns who were recruited on the Hudson Bay coast. We conducted interviews during the women's pregnancies and at 1 and 11 months postpartum and collected biological samples for mercury, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides analyses as well as selenium and N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA). Cord blood, maternal blood, and maternal hair mercury concentrations averaged 18.5 microg/L, 10.4 microg/L, and 3.7 microg/g, respectively, and are similar to those found in the Faroe Islands but lower than those documented in the Seychelles Islands and New Zealand cohorts. Concentrations of PCB congener 153 averaged 86.9, 105.3, and 131.6 microg/kg (lipids) in cord plasma, maternal plasma, and maternal milk, respectively; prenatal exposure to PCBs in the Nunavik cohort is similar to that reported in the Dutch but much lower than those in other Arctic cohorts. Levels of n3-PUFA in plasma phospholipids and selenium in blood are relatively high. The relatively low correlations observed between organochlorine and methylmercury concentrations may make it easier to identify the specific developmental deficits attributable to each toxicant. Similarly, the weak correlations noted between environmental contaminants and nutrients will facilitate the documentation of possible protective effects afforded by either n3-PUFA or selenium against neurotoxic contaminants. PMID:11748038

Muckle, G; Ayotte, P; Dewailly E, E; Jacobson, S W; Jacobson, J L

2001-01-01

313

Thyroid Hormone Levels of Pregnant Inuit Women and Their Infants Exposed to Environmental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing number of studies have shown that several ubiquitous environmental contaminants possess thyroid hormone–disrupting capacities. Prenatal exposure to some of them, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has also been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental effects in infants. Objectives In this study we examined the relationship between exposure to potential thyroid hormone–disrupting toxicants and thyroid hormone status in pregnant Inuit women from Nunavik and their infants within the first year of life. Methods We measured thyroid hormone parameters [thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)] and concentrations of several contaminants [PCB-153, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (HO-PCBs), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in maternal plasma at delivery (n = 120), in umbilical cord plasma (n = 95), and in infant plasma at 7 months postpartum (n = 130). Results In pregnant women, we found a positive association between HO-PCBs and T3 concentrations (? = 0.57, p = 0.02). In umbilical cord blood, PCB-153 concentrations were negatively associated with TBG levels (? = ?0.26, p = 0.01). In a subsample analysis, a negative relationship was also found between maternal PCP levels and cord fT4 concentrations in neonates (? = ?0.59, p = 0.02). No association was observed between contaminants and thyroid hormones at 7 months of age. Conclusion Overall, there is little evidence that the environmental contaminants analyzed in this study affect thyroid hormone status in Inuit mothers and their infants. The possibility that PCP may decrease thyroxine levels in neonates requires further investigation. PMID:19590699

Dallaire, Renée; Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Sandau, Courtney D.; Ayotte, Pierre

2009-01-01

314

Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

Siegel, S. M.

1973-01-01

315

PCBs as environmental estrogens: Turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, low-level environmental pollutants associated with adverse health effects such as immune suppression and teratogenicity. There is increasing evidence that some PCB compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans, particularly during development. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds act to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, whereby the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. Here we demonstrate the estrogenic effect of some PCBs by reversing gonadal sex in a reptile species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Bergeron, J.M.; Crews, D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); McLachlan, J.A. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1994-09-01

316

PCBs as environmental estrogens: turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, low-level environmental pollutants associated with adverse health effects such as immune suppression and teratogenicity. There is increasing evidence that some PCB compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans, particularly during development. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds act to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, whereby the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. Here we demonstrate the estrogenic effect of some PCBs by reversing gonadal sex in a reptile species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:9657710

Bergeron, J M; Crews, D; McLachlan, J A

1994-09-01

317

Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

1987-01-01

318

P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.  

PubMed

Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

2014-04-01

319

Mixed poly-brominated/chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs): widespread food and environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Mixed poly-brominated/chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs) are a new class of emerging contaminants. Their environmental occurrence is confirmed by the reported occurrence in foods and human tissues, and the patterns of occurrence suggest that different sources may be contributing to food occurrence in different parts of the world. Important sources of PXBs are thought to include emissions from the combustion of bromine and chlorine containing waste and consumer products and inadvertent contamination in industrial chemicals. Of specific interest are the dioxin-like-PXBs. These are the 62 non-ortho-substituted PXBs with eight congeners of 3,3',4,4'-substitution type (#77A-H), ten of 3,4,4',5-type (#81A-J), twenty four of 3,4,5,3',4'-type (#126A-Z) and twenty of 3,4,5,3',4',5'-type (#169A-V) and many mono-ortho substituted compounds. The toxicological clarification on these contaminants continues, with reports confirming dioxin-like effects at low concentrations, suggesting a greater toxicological significance than PCBs. PMID:22483842

Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Fernandes, Alwyn R

2012-09-01

320

Evaluating Determinants of Environmental Risk Perception for Risk Management in Contaminated Sites  

PubMed Central

Understanding the differences in the risk judgments of residents of industrial communities potentially provides insights into how to develop appropriate risk communication strategies. This study aimed to explore citizens’ fundamental understanding of risk-related judgments and to identify the factors contributing to perceived risks. An exploratory model was created to investigate the public’s risk judgments. In this model, the relationship between laypeople’s perceived risks and the factors related to the physical nature of risks (such as perceived probability of environmental contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences) were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological factors, such as the ability to control the risks, concerns, experiences, and perceived benefits of industrial development were also included in the analysis. The Maptaphut industrial area in Rayong Province, Thailand was selected as a case study. A survey of 181 residents of communities experiencing different levels of hazardous gas contamination revealed rational risk judgments by inhabitants of high-risk and moderate-risk communities, based on their perceived probability of contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and perceived catastrophic consequences. However, risks assessed by people in low-risk communities could not be rationally explained and were influenced by their collective experiences. PMID:24937530

Janmaimool, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

2014-01-01

321

Anticipating the fate and impact of organic environmental contaminants: a new approach applied to the pharmaceutical furosemide.  

PubMed

The presence of trace levels of organic contaminants in the environment is currently an environmental concern. When these contaminants are subjected to environmental transformations, environmental transformation products (ETPs) are obtained, whose structures often remain unknown. The absence of information concerning these new compounds makes them unavailable and consequently makes their environmental detection as well as their (eco)toxicological study impossible. This report describes a multidisciplinary approach that seeks to both anticipate the fate and evaluate the impact of organic environmental contaminants. Our approach consists of three steps. First, isolated and fully characterized transformation products (TPs) of the parent molecule are obtained. In the second step, the parent molecule is subjected to environmentally relevant transformations to identify plausible ETPs. The detection of previously characterized TPs allows the concomitant identification of plausible ETPs. The third step is devoted to the toxicological evaluation of the identified plausible ETPs. Such an approach has recently been applied to furosemide and has allowed the identification of its main TPs. This report now seeks to identify and evaluate toxicologically plausible ETPs of this drug, which is also known as an environmental contaminant. PMID:25065810

Laurencé, Céline; Rivard, Michael; Martens, Thierry; Morin, Christophe; Buisson, Didier; Bourcier, Sophie; Sablier, Michel; Oturan, Mehmet A

2014-10-01

322

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.  

PubMed Central

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Changes in immune function were monitored over a 2 1/2-year period. The seals that were fed contaminated Baltic herring developed significantly higher body burdens of potentially immunotoxic organochlorines and displayed impaired immune responses as demonstrated by suppression of natural killer cell activity and specific T-cell responses. During a 2-week fasting experiment performed at the end of the feeding study, mobilization of organochlorines from the blubber did not lead to a strong increase of contaminant levels in the blood, and no enhancement of the existing immunosuppression was observed. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain affects immune function in harbour seals, whereas short-term fasting periods, which are normal for seals, do not seem to pose an additional risk. The seals of this study were not exposed perinatally to high levels of environmental chemicals, and body burdens of organochlorines measured near the end of the study were lower than those generally observed in free-ranging seals inhabiting many contaminated regions. Therefore, it may be expected that environmental contaminants adversely affect immune function of free-ranging seals inhabiting contaminated regions at least as seriously as observed in these studies. PMID:8880005

de Swart, R L; Ross, P S; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D

1996-01-01

323

Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed

It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to be heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon polychlorinated (PCB) mixture. The microarray was able to distinguish dolphins by sex, geographic location, and corroborate previously published health irregularities for the Georgia dolphins. Genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, development/differentiation and oncogenic pathways were found to be differentially expressed in GA dolphins. The report bridges the advancements in dolphin genome sequencing to the first step towards providing a cost-effective means to screen for indicators of chemical toxin exposure as well as disease status in top level predators. PMID:25479946

Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

2014-11-17

324

Corynebacterium bovis: Epizootiologic Features and Environmental Contamination in an Enzootically Infected Rodent Room  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium bovis is a common pathogen in athymic nude mouse colonies. Control and eradication of the organism are challenging because depopulation and restricted colony access are often not options within vivaria. We evaluated potential sources and dissemination routes of C. bovis in an enzootically infected colony. Immunocompetent mice and personnel were evaluated for their potential to carry C. bovis, and husbandry and sanitation methods were evaluated for their efficacy in preventing cross-contamination. C. bovis was detected in furred immunocompetent mice previously exposed to infected athymic nude mice and in the nasopharynx of humans. Microisolation cages were not effective in maintaining athymic nude mice C. bovis-free when they were housed in a room known to contain immunodeficient mice with C. bovis infections. A tunnel washer that provided a ?180 °F final rinse provided effective elimination of C. bovis from cage components. Passive and active air sampling techniques showed airborne dispersal of C. bovis despite the use of individually ventilated caging systems and stringent operational standards. Bacterial growth was not observed in settle plates placed inside autoclaved individually ventilated microisolation cages on various ventilated racks for 24-h periods. C. bovis aerosolization was shown to be a means of spread of the bacterium during cage-change procedures inside a class II type A2 biosafety cabinet. Our findings indicate that C. bovis can be a pervasive environmental contaminant in infected rodent holding rooms and successful eradication strategies must include environmental decontamination and attention to air quality. PMID:22776119

Burr, Holly N; Wolf, Felix R; Lipman, Neil S

2012-01-01

325

Environmental contamination and hospital-acquired infection: factors that are easily overlooked.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing debate about the reasons for and factors contributing to healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Different solutions have been proposed over time to control the spread of HAI, with more focus on hand hygiene than on other aspects such as preventing the aerial dissemination of bacteria. Yet, it emerges that there is a need for a more pluralistic approach to infection control; one that reflects the complexity of the systems associated with HAI and involves multidisciplinary teams including hospital doctors, infection control nurses, microbiologists, architects, and engineers with expertise in building design and facilities management. This study reviews the knowledge base on the role that environmental contamination plays in the transmission of HAI, with the aim of raising awareness regarding infection control issues that are frequently overlooked. From the discussion presented in the study, it is clear that many unknowns persist regarding aerial dissemination of bacteria, and its control via cleaning and disinfection of the clinical environment. There is a paucity of good-quality epidemiological data, making it difficult for healthcare authorities to develop evidence-based policies. Consequently, there is a strong need for carefully designed studies to determine the impact of environmental contamination on the spread of HAI. PMID:25346039

Beggs, C; Knibbs, L D; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

2014-10-27

326

Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.  

PubMed

There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. PMID:24875868

Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

2014-07-01

327

The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility as a barrier to environmental contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

1989-01-01

328

Contaminant exposures in various environmental media: How can toxicity comparisons be made?  

SciTech Connect

Environmental protection is usually based upon guidelines or standards expressed as chemical values in environmental media such as air, sediment, soil, and water. The basis for such guidelines is laboratory toxicity test data, often time-dependent LC50 values (e.g., 96-h LC50s), where toxicity is expressed in terms of the concentration of chemical contaminant in the exposure medium. This preoccupation with exposure-based estimates of toxic dose has led to many difficulties when attempting to compare the relative toxicity of compounds between species and under various modifying conditions in the same medium. Furthermore, viable comparisons of toxic potencies between organisms inhabiting different environmental media has been all but impossible. This paper exploits the relationship between body residues and adverse biological effects to compare the effects of certain modifying factors (e.g., temperature) on expressed toxicity and toxic potency both within and between different species in one medium. As well, this approach is used to make comparisons of toxic potency between different species in different environmental media. Such comparisons are made by standardizing toxic responses to time-independent toxicity thresholds and using the critical body residue at the chosen biological response endpoint as the dose surrogate rather than the concentration of chemical in the exposure medium. Comparisons of exposure-based and organism residue-based toxicity between fish, and invertebrates in soil (earthworms) and sediment (amphipods) are presented. Recommendations to facilitate such comparisons are reviewed.

Lanno, R.P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology; McCarty, L.S. [L.S. McCarty Scientific Research and Consulting, Oakville, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

329

MCNP{trademark} simulations for identifying environmental contaminants using prompt gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture reactions  

SciTech Connect

The primary purposes of the Multispectral Neutron Logging Project, (MSN Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy), were to assess the effectiveness of existing neutron- induced spectral gamma-ray logging techniques for identifying environmental contaminants along boreholes, to further improve the technology, and to transfer that technology to industry. Using a pulsed neutron source with a high-resolution gamma-ray detector, spectra from thermal neutron capture reactions may be used to identify contaminants in the borehole environment. Direct borehole measurements such as this complement physical sampling and are useful in environmental restoration projects where characterization of contaminated sites is required and long-term monitoring may be needed for many years following cleanup or stabilization. In the MSN Project, a prototype logging instrument was designed which incorporated a pulsed 14-MeV neutron source and HPGe detector. Experimental measurements to determine minimum detection thresholds with the prototype instrument were conducted in the variable-contaminant test model for Cl, Cd, Sm, Gd, and Hg. We benchmarked an enhanced version of the Monte Carlo N-Particle computer code MCNP{trademark} using experimental data for Cl provide by our collaborators and experimental data from the variable-contaminant test model. MCNP was then used to estimate detection thresholds for the other contaminants used in the variable-contaminant model with the goal of validating the use of MCNP to estimate detection thresholds for many other contaminants that were not measured.

Frankle, S.C.; Conaway, J.G.

1996-12-31

330

Environmental contaminants perturb fragile protein assemblies and inhibit normal protein function.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms whereby small molecules that contaminate our environment cause physiological effects are largely unknown, in terms of both targets and mechanisms. The essential human enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (HsPBGS, a.k.a. 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase, ALAD) functions in heme biosynthesis. HsPBGS catalytic activity is regulated allosterically via an equilibrium of inactive hexamers and active octamers, and we have shown that certain drugs and drug-like small molecules can inhibit HsPBGS in vitro by stabilizing the hexamer. Here we address whether components of the National Toxicology Program library of environmental contaminants can stabilize the HsPBGS hexamer and inhibit activity in vitro. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to screen the library (1,408 compounds) for components that alter the oligomeric distribution of HsPBGS. Freshly purchased samples of 37 preliminary hits were used to confirm the electrophoretic results and to determine the dose-dependence of the perturbation of oligomeric distribution. Seventeen compounds were identified which alter the oligomeric distribution toward the hexamer and also inhibit HsPBGS catalytic activity, including the most potent HsPBGS inhibitor yet characterized (Mutagen X, IC 50 = 1.4 ?M). PBGS dysfunction is associated with the inborn error of metabolism know as ALAD porphyria and with lead poisoning. The identified hexamer-stabilizing inhibitors could potentiate these diseases. Allosteric regulation of activity via an equilibrium of alternate oligomers has been proposed for many proteins. Based on the precedent set herein, perturbation of these oligomeric equilibria by small molecules (such as environmental contaminants) can be considered as a mechanism of toxicity. PMID:25045409

Lawrence, Sarah H; Selwood, Trevor; Jaffe, Eileen K

2013-01-01

331

Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.  

PubMed

Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization. PMID:24430250

Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

2014-03-01

332

Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as other peripheral areas that are recovering with pioneering vegetation on their own. This allows us to develop an adaptive management strategy in ecological restoration and inform decisions about managing the trajectory of succession. The Palmerton area could serve as an excellent example of how profoundly contaminated areas can be restored.

Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

2006-12-01

333

Distribution and uptake of environmental contaminants in the lower Calcasieu estuary, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

The lower Calcasieu estuary, located in southwest Louisiana, has received industrial, municipal, and agricultural discharge for the last several decades, resulting in the contamination of distinct regions of the system. This paper coordinates existing environmental data from the analyses of surface waters, sediments, and tissues of higher trophic level aquatic organisms collected by several state and federal agencies, attempting to detect spacial trends in contaminant distribution. Selected industrial facilities were examined with respect to process, effluent parameters, and wastewater treatment equipment. Surface water quality in areas has been impacted by the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and sediment contaminants detected include chlorinated benzenes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates. State analyses of both edible portions and whole body samples of seventeen aquatic species show a very wide spacial distribution of individuals carrying elevated body burdens of hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), two of the more prevalent chlorinated hydrocarbons found in the system. While found in animals from throughout the system, HCB and HCBD were detected in only a very limited spacial range in sediments and surface waters of the system. In an attempt to understand potential mechanisms of uptake in various species, middle trophic level organisms were collected and analyzed for whole body burden concentrations of HCB and HCBD. Dialysis tubing filled with isooctane was employed as a biological surrogate to determine relative bioavailability of water-solubilized HCB and HCBD from various regions in the system. Detectable levels of both compounds were found in areas downstream, upstream, and lateral to the area of known sediment contamination.

Norriss, D.D.

1991-01-01

334

Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

2005-12-10

335

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, an ongoing project from Kyoto University, has recently updated this collection of molecular interaction information. The Introduction section provides substantial information on the project background and data, as well as user guides and manuals to help users orient themselves to the database. Users can search for information on specific interactions in selected species, or browse to find metabolic pathways or gene sequences of interest. Computational tools include the ability to find similar sequences and generate possible reactions between compounds.

2002-01-01

336

Virtual Knowledge: The Best Buys in 1998 CD-ROM Encyclopedias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses questions to consider and features to look for in selecting a CD-ROM encyclopedia. Reviews Encyclopaedia Britannica CD 98 Multimedia Edition, Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia 1998, Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, and Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1998. Contact information, price, and system requirements are listed. (JAK)

Burg, Barbara; Kautzman, Amy M.

1998-01-01

337

Partitioning of trace elements in contaminated estuarine sediments: the role of environmental settings.  

PubMed

Estuarine sedimentary environments safeguard aquatic ecosystem health by attenuating and transforming catchment-derived contaminants. Currently these environments are under severe stress from trace element contamination due to urbanization. Sediments of Sydney estuary (Australia) are highly elevated in a range of metals due to a long period of intense urbanization and industrialization, which has had a considerable influence on coastal ecosystem health and functioning. A three-stage sequential procedure following Bureau Communautaire de Référence (Community Bureau of Reference-BCR) technique was applied to sediments collected from Sydney estuary to determine their quality, elemental partitioning and ecosystem risk in three human-impacted environmental settings (i.e., mangrove-dominated, stormwater-dominated and industrial-dominated sites) and a control site in this coastal ecosystem. In all three environmental settings, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines-High (ISQG-High) values and were mostly associated with the reducible and acid soluble fractions, respectively. Copper and Cr also exceeded ISQG-High values (especially in the industrial-dominated site), however the majority of these metals were associated with the oxidizable fraction. Arsenic and Ni concentrations were mostly below ISQG-High values (except one of the stormwater-dominated sites) and were associated with the residual fraction. These results suggest that the most easily mobilized metal was Zn followed by Pb and these metals together presented a risk to estuarine ecosystems in the three selected environmental settings. However, these metals are not always the most abundant in tissue of mangroves, oysters or prawns suggesting other mechanisms are important in a complex uptake process. PMID:25265026

Shaike, Mohmmad M; Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin F

2014-12-01

338

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

339

Assessing noxious effects of dietary exposure to methylmercury, PCBs and Se coexisting in environmentally contaminated rice in male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury are two of the most ubiquitous environmental contaminants in Guizhou province. Rice is eaten with almost every meal and provides more calories than any single food in Guizhou province. The estimated tolerable daily intake of total mercury, MeHg, Se and PCBs from Guizhou contaminated rice by Chinese people showed that MeHg and\\/or PCBs exceeded the corresponding

Jinping Cheng; Yichen Yang; Jing Ma; Wenhua Wang; Xiaojie Liu; Mineshi Sakamoto; Yiya Qu; Wei Shi

2009-01-01

340

Environmental assessment on electrokinetic remediation of multimetal-contaminated site: a case study.  

PubMed

In this study, an environmental assessment on an electrokinetic (EK) system for the remediation of a multimetal-contaminated real site was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool. The entire EK process was classified into major four phases consisting of remedial investigations (RIs), remedial action construction (RAC), remedial action operation (RAO), and long-term monitoring (LTM) for environmental assessment. The environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, total energy used, air emissions of criteria pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, and PM10, and water consumption, were calculated, and the relative contribution in each phase was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In the RAC phase, the relative contribution of the GHG emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases because the material consumption and equipment used for system construction were high. In the RAO phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases, because the water and electricity consumption required for system operation was high. In the RIs and LTM phases, the environmental footprints were negligible because the material and energy consumption was less. In conclusion, the consumable materials and electrical energy consumption might be very important for GSR in the EK remediation process, because the production of consumable materials and electrical energy consumption highly affects the GHG emissions, total energy used, and air emissions such as NOx and SOx. PMID:24515871

Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

2014-05-01

341

The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Widely considered to be one of the crowning achievements of the Enlightenment, the Encyclopedia edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert in the 18th century has proved to be fertile ground for those who have sought to classify and chronicle the various branches of knowledge. This highly ambitious project was published during the period 1751 to 1777, and included 32 volumes amply illustrated with engraved plates. Close to 150 years later, a group of talented individuals sought to create an online version of the Encyclopedia translated into English, with links to the original French versions. The project is based at the University of Michigan Library, although contributors to the project are scattered across the world. Visitors to the site can search the currently available articles or browse by title, French title, or subject. Finally, visitors will want to take a look at the famous "Map of the System of Human Knowledge" that is immediately identified with this most celebrated human endeavor.

342

Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

2014-11-01

343

Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants. This research will form the foundation for future experiments into the genetic manipulation of plants to potentially promote greater or more specific symbiotic relationships between plant and Rhizobium allowing this biological phenomenon to be used in a greater number of crop types. Future technology developments could include the genetic engineering of crops suitable for in situ vadose zone 2 bioremediation (via microbes) and phytoremediation (through the crop, itself) in contaminated DOE sites.

McLachlan, John A.

2000-06-01

344

Tolerance and genetic relatedness of three meiobenthic copepod populations exposed to sediment-associated contaminant mixtures: Role of environmental history  

SciTech Connect

Meiobenthic copepod populations (Microarthridion littoral) were collected from three South Carolina, USA, estuaries having different pollution stress histories (i.e., pristine sediments, high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [PAH] sediments, high metals/moderate PAH sediments) and then assayed for survival and reproductive output in 14-d exposures to pristine and heavily PAH/metals-contaminated sediment mixture exhibited differential survival and reproductive outputs as a function of previous environmental histories and whether genetic relatedness among populations measured as DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome apoenzyme b, were linked to copepod contaminant tolerance. Overall, adult survival and reproductive success in contaminated sediments were significantly reduced relative to controls for all three populations irrespective of environmental histories. Differential resistance to sediment-contaminant mixtures by the two copepod populations inhabiting the contaminated sites was not found, despite their previous exposures to mixed contaminants at {Sigma}PAH and {Sigma}Metal concentrations of 7,287 to 2,467 ng/g dry wt and 461 to 3,497 {micro}g/g, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation, however, was found between copepod populations from the control and the two contaminated sites. Generally, cross-population survival and reproductive outputs were not significantly different and could not be linked to genetic differentiation at the population level.

Kovatch, C.E.; Schizas, N.V.; Chandler, G.T.; Coull, B.C.; Quattro, J.M.

2000-04-01

345

Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle is influenced by the level of environmental contamination.  

PubMed

SUMMARY A pen infection-transmission experiment was conducted to elucidate the role of pathogen strain and environmental contamination in transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECO157) in cattle. Five steers were inoculated with a three-strain mixture of ECO157 and joined with five susceptible steers in each of two experimental replicates. Faecal and environmental samples were monitored for ECO157 presence over 30 days. One ECO157 strain did not spread. Transmission rates for the other two strains were estimated using a generalized linear model developed based on a modified 'Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible' mathematical model. Transmission rates estimated for the two strains (0·11 and 0·14) were similar. However, the rates significantly (P = 0·0006) increased 1·5 times for every 1-unit increase in the level of environmental contamination measured as log10 c.f.u. Depending on the level of environmental contamination, the estimated basic reproduction numbers varied from <1 to 8. The findings indicate the importance of on-farm measures to reduce environmental contamination for ECO157 control in cattle that should be validated under field conditions. PMID:24731271

Gautam, R; Kulow, M; Park, D; Gonzales, T K; Dahm, J; Shiroda, M; Stasic, A J; Döpfer, D; Kaspar, C W; Ivanek, R

2015-01-01

346

The occurrence of organic contaminants in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Poland: an environmental quality assessment.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to provide information on the levels of pollutants in the tissues of eels caught in Polish waters. The contaminants included in the study are those which have not yet been widely studied in eel stocks, but which arouse concern in relation to the environment. An overview of the pollutant levels in eels caught in other European waters was also conducted. The results are evaluated in terms of environmental quality and consumer health. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs and ?HBCDs in muscles of eels sampled in Polish waters were between 1 and 2 ng g(-1) ww. The mean TBT concentrations were between 2 and 4 ng g(-1)ww with the exception of samples from the Szczecin Lagoon, in which the mean TBT concentration was about tenfold higher. PMID:25113214

Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Ruczynska, Wies?awa; Nermer, Tomasz; Usydus, Zygmunt; Robak, Stanis?aw

2014-11-01

347

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

2007-12-14

348

Assessment of the environmental contamination with long-lived radionuclides around an operating RBMK reactor station.  

PubMed

The presence of man-made gamma emitting radionuclides in the region within 32km radius of the Ignalina NPP/Lithuania has been investigated during the period 2001-2004, prior to the closure of the first of the two operating RBMK 1500-type reactors. Gamma spectrometric measurements of various terrestrial and aquatic plants as well as of soil samples showed moderate environmental contamination with the fission product (137)Cs and with the neutron activation products (60)Co and (54)Mn. Traces of the activation products (65)Zn and (110m)Ag were found in the nearest vicinity of the NPP. Activity concentrations were inhomogeneously distributed in the area of interest. Moss and algae samples showed the highest uptake of radionuclides. In addition to the gamma spectrometric measurements, the levels of (14)C were determined in the same bio-indicator samples using accelerator mass spectrometry. PMID:16860912

Adliene, Diana; Rääf, Christopher; Magnusson, Asa; Behring, Jon; Zakaria, Mohamad; Adlys, Gediminas; Skog, Göran; Stenström, Kristina; Mattsson, Sören

2006-01-01

349

State-of-the-Art Multimedia in 1996: The "Big Four" General Encyclopedias on CD-ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews four CD-ROM encyclopedias: Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, 1996 Edition; Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia; the 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia; and World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia 1996. Focuses on multimedia features, their quantity, quality, accessibility, and playability. Discusses each product's novel features and important…

Jacso, Peter

1996-01-01

350

TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM- AND URANIUM-CONTAMINATED OIL FROM ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE  

SciTech Connect

A removal method for plutonium and uranium has been tested at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This alternative treatment technology is applicable to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with actinides. In our studies, greater than 70% removal of the actinides was achieved. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder consisting of a surface modified mesoporous material. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and actinides in water and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1, 2]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide support provides a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. The testing described in this report was conducted on a small scale but larger-scale testing of the technology has been performed on mercury-contaminated oil without difficulty [3].

Klasson, KT

2002-12-05

351

Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) as biomonitors of environmental metal contamination.  

PubMed

We live-trapped 40 northern pocket gophers across two years from the Anaconda Smelter Superfund Site, Anaconda, Montana, USA, to determine their exposure to five metal contaminants and effects of exposure on selected measurements. Soil, gopher blood, liver, kidney, and carcass samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. Hematological parameters, kidney and liver porphyrins, and red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity were also measured. Micronutrients Cu and Zn were detected in all tissues analyzed, and Cd, Pb, and As were detected less frequently. We report differences in metal distribution among different tissues and differences in bioaccumulation for different metals within the same tissue. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of Zn or Cu in any tissue across the study site, but relationships between lead in soil and lead in carcass proved especially strong (r2 = 0.80; p < 0.001; n = 18). Among biomarker data, we observed a negative relationship between concentration of lead in the soil and ALAD activity in gophers with detectable concentrations of lead in their blood (r2 = 0.45; p = 0.006; n = 15). Results of this study suggest that northern pocket gophers are useful biomonitors of environmental Pb, Cd, and As contamination, and their broad geographic range across North America could allow them to be an important component of site-specific metals assessments. PMID:16519307

Reynolds, Kevin D; Schwarz, Matthew S; McFarland, Craig A; McBride, Toby; Adair, Blakely; Strauss, Richard E; Cobb, George P; Hooper, Michael J; McMurry, Scott T

2006-02-01

352

Estrogen-like activity of seafood related to environmental chemical contaminants  

PubMed Central

Background A wide variety of environmental pollutants occur in surface waters, including estuarine and marine waters. Many of these contaminants are recognised as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which can adversely affect the male and female reproductive system by binding the estrogen receptor and exhibiting hormone-like activities. In this study the estrogenic activity of extracts of edible marine organisms for human consumption from the Mediterranean Sea was assayed. Methods Marine organisms were collected in two different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The estrogenic activity of tissues was assessed using an in vitro yeast reporter gene assay (S. cerevisiae RMY 326 ER-ERE). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) in fish tissue was also evaluated. Results Thirty-eight percent of extracts showed a hormone-like activity higher than 10% of the activity elicited by 10 nM 17b-estradiol (E2) used as control. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 0.002 up to 1.785 ng/g wet weight. Chemical analyses detected different levels of contamination among the species collected in the two areas, with the ones collected in the Adriatic Sea showing concentrations significantly higher than those collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea (p < 0.01). Conclusion The more frequent combination of chemicals in the samples that showed higher estrogenic activity was PCB 28, PCB 101, PCB 153, PCB 180. The content of PCBs and estrogenic activity did not reveal any significant correlation. PMID:16573822

Garritano, Sonia; Pinto, Barbara; Calderisi, Marco; Cirillo, Teresa; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata; Reali, Daniela

2006-01-01

353

Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)  

SciTech Connect

A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may also have contributed to the decline. California least terns are primarily piscivorous during the nesting period, feeding predominantly on jack-smelt, topsmelt, and northern anchovy. Topsmelt had the highest levels of DDE (p,p`-DDE) (up to 3 {mu}g/g wet wt) of fish collected from San Diego Bay. Eggs of Caspian terns (S.caspia) from that study contained up to 56 {mu}g/g DDE, and DDE was associated with a reduction in eggshell thickness as determined by the thickness index. In addition to shell deficiencies, organochlorines can also cause reduced egg production, aberrant incubation behavior, delayed ovulation, embryotoxicosis, and mortality of chicks and adults. Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) have caused decreased hatchability, altered nesting behavior, and embryotoxicosis in birds in field and laboratory studies. Our objective was to evaluate the role of contaminants in the decline of California least terns. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Hothem, R.L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zador, S.G. [San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Newark, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

354

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

Not Available

1992-03-01

355

Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). College of Pharmacy; Hartley, W. [Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-31

356

An Environmental Health Assessment: Fecal Coliform Contamination in San Francisco Waterbodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria that exists in the digestive system and excrement of warm-blooded animals. It enters aquatic environments through fecal contamination of water. In the urban environment, contamination can occur not only by direct input from warm-blooded animals but also from storm water run-off and municipal sewer overflow. Fecal coliform itself does not cause disease but it is an indicator of the presence of pathogens that exist in the wastes of humans and animals that are a hazard to human health. We examined 12 locations in San Francisco for fecal coliform and recorded the types of human contact with water at each location. We found low levels of coliform in areas open to the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean and high levels of coliform in inland lakes and ponds. Using Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for fecal coliform concentrations, we found all sites at acceptable levels for the recreational and human activities we observed.

Devillier, K. N.; Devine, M.; Negrete, R.; Rawley, A. L.; Neiss, J.

2007-12-01

357

Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

2008-08-01

358

Environmental contaminant exposure data and monitoring priorities for wild terrestrial vertebrates at national parks in coastal and estuarine habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on select species and habitats in the United States. One of the many BEST Project activities entails the development of decision-support tools to assist in the identification of chemical threats to species and lands under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior. Although there are many ecotoxicological monitoring programs that focus on aquatic species and habitats, there are currently no large-scale efforts that are focused on terrestrial vertebrates in the United States. Nonetheless, organochlorine contaminants, metals, and new pollutants continue to pose hazards to terrestrial vertebrates at many spatial scales (ranging from small hazardous-waste-site point sources to entire watersheds). To evaluate and prioritize pollutant hazards for terrestrial vertebrates, a ?Contaminant Exposure and EffectsTerrestrial Vertebrates? (CEE-TV) database (www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online) was developed. The CEE-TV database has been used to conduct simple searches for exposure and biological effects information for a given species or location, identification of temporal contaminant exposure trends, information gap analyses for national wildlife refuge and national park units, and ranking of terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological information needs based on data density and water quality problems. Despite widespread concerns about environmental contamination, during the past decade only about one-half of the coastal National Park units appear to have terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data. Based upon known environmental contaminant hazards, it is recommended that regionalized monitoring programs or efforts focused on lands managed by the Department of the Interior should be undertaken to prevent serious natural resource problems.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.; Eisenreich, K.M.; McKernan, M.A.

2006-01-01

359

Disruption of androgen regulation in the prostate by the environmental contaminant hexachlorobenzene.  

PubMed Central

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has the potential to interfere with steroid hormone regulation. The prostate requires precise control by androgens to regulate its growth and function. To determine if HCB impacts androgen action in the prostate, we used a number of methods. Our in vitro cell-culture-based assay used a firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by an androgen-responsive promoter. In the presence of dihydrotestosterone, low concentrations (0.5-5 nM) of HCB increased the androgen-responsive production of firefly luciferase and high concentrations of HCB (> 10 microM) suppressed this transcriptional activity. Results from a binding assay showed no evidence of affinity between HCB and the androgen receptor. We also tested HCB for in vivo effects using transgenic mice in which the transgene was a prostate-specific, androgen-responsive promoter upstream of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene. In 4-week-old mice, the proportion of dilated prostate acini, a marker of sexual maturity, increased in the low HCB dose group and decreased in the high HCB dose mice. In the 8-week-old mice, there was a significant decrease in both CAT activity and prostate weight upon exposure to 20 mg/kg/day HCB. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo data suggest that HCB weakly agonizes androgen action, and consequently, low levels of HCB enhanced androgen action but high levels of HCB interfered. Environmental contaminants have been implicated in the rising incidence of prostate cancer, and insight into the mechanisms of endocrine disruption will help to clarify their role. PMID:12676599

Ralph, Jody L; Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Nelson, Colleen C

2003-01-01

360

Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (?10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., environmental contaminants. PMID:24038072

Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

2014-03-01

361

Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.  

PubMed

A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1-14. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:25376148

Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline

2015-02-01

362

Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.  

PubMed

The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/?l of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/?l in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. PMID:24484767

Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

2014-03-17

363

Levels of Environmental Contaminants in Human Follicular Fluid, Serum, and Seminal Plasma of Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have\\u000a explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore,\\u000a we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending\\u000a an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in

E. V. Younglai; W. G. Foster; E. G. Hughes; K. Trim; J. F. Jarrell

2002-01-01

364

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants; cellular and organ/organism effects. Technical Notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the second in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants for causing mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. This technical note describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/ organism level.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

365

Forms and prevalence of intersexuality and effects of environmental contaminants on sexuality in cricket frogs (Acris crepitans).  

PubMed Central

Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) from several different sites in Illinois were collected to assess the effects of environmental contamination on the prevalence of intersex gonads. Of 341 frogs collected in 1993, 1994, and 1995, 2.7% were intersex individuals. There was no statistically significant relationship between the chemical compounds detected and cricket frog intersexuality. However, there was an association approaching significance (p = 0.07) between the detection of atrazine and intersex individuals. A comparison of reference sites with sites that had point polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) contamination revealed a significant relationship between sex-ratio reversal and contamination with PCBs and PCDFs. The sex ratio of juvenile frogs studied from three sites with PCB and PCDF point contamination favored males over females, which was the opposite of the sex ratio in control ponds (p = 0.0007). The statistically significant correlation between organochlorine contamination and sex-ratio reversal suggests PCBs and PCDFs can influence cricket frog sexual differentiation. The current study suggests that in cricket frogs, sex ratios and the prevalence of intersex gonads are altered by environmental contamination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9647894

Reeder, A L; Foley, G L; Nichols, D K; Hansen, L G; Wikoff, B; Faeh, S; Eisold, J; Wheeler, M B; Warner, R; Murphy, J E; Beasley, V R

1998-01-01

366

Application of hydrophilic interaction chromatography for the analysis of polar contaminants in food and environmental samples.  

PubMed

For the analysis of highly hydrophilic and polar compounds, Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) has been established as a valuable complementary approach to reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Moreover, the use of mobile phases with a high percentage of organic solvent in HILIC separation is beneficial for mass spectrometric (MS) detection, because of enhanced ionization which results in an increased sensitivity. In this review, various applications of HILIC are described for a number of environmental and food contaminants together with detailed methodological descriptions and the advantages or drawbacks of HILIC compared to other LC methods are critically discussed. In the first part of the review, an overview is given of the work that has been carried out with HILIC for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in environmental samples. HILIC has shown its applicability for polar pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics, estrogens and their metabolites, drugs of abuse, cytostatics, metformin and contrast agents. In the pesticide group, HILIC chromatography was helpful for polar phenylurea and organophosphorus pesticides. The second part of the review focuses on the analysis of antibiotic residues in food and feed with HILIC, while in the pesticide group, HILIC experiments have been reported for dithiocarbamates and quaternary ammonium compounds. The last chapter gives an overview of the analysis by HILIC of miscellaneous analytes in aquatic and food/feed samples. PMID:21316059

van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Covaci, Adrian

2011-09-01

367

Biosupported bimetallic Pd-Au nanocatalysts for dechlorination of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichlorethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L(-1) and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H(2), the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au. PMID:21877727

De Corte, Simon; Hennebel, Tom; Fitts, Jeffrey P; Sabbe, Tom; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; Verschuere, Stephanie; van der Lelie, Daniel; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

2011-10-01

368

DNA damage and repair in haemolymph cells of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) exposed to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The development of methodologies for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems is of particular relevance in view of the serious problem of aquatic environmental pollution. The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) was chosen to be tested as a biomonitor organism based on its population data and distribution. L. fortunei individuals were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, and in vivo to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), with the aim of standardizing comet assay and micronucleus test methodologies and evaluating the potential of this organism as a biomonitor. Haemolymph cells immobilized in agarose on slides exposed to UV radiation showed a dose-response relationship with maximum damage at 4.2J/m(2). For the chemical tests, individuals were exposed for 2h for the comet assay and 24 and 48h for the micronucleus test. A dose-response relationship was observed for both chemicals. 3x10(-5)M CuSO(4) induced high genotoxicity, also producing some toxicity after 48h of exposure. PCP induced maximum damage in both assays at 150mug/L. Individuals exposed to PCP showed 100% repair 2h after the exposure period, as assessed by the comet assay. Exposure to an environmental sample over 7 days confirmed the mussel sensitivity to water contaminants, detected both by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The results allow us to suggest the golden mussel as a potential biomonitor organism. PMID:16697250

Villela, Izabel Vianna; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

2006-06-16

369

DiracDelta Science & Engineering Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featuring dozens of categories â from Algebra to Audio, from Thermodynamics to Trigonometry â this science and engineering encyclopedia by the consulting firm DiracDelta wonâÂÂt disappoint. For a fun jaunt, click the Read More Quotes link, which displays famous extracts from scientists and philosophers. For instance, this quip from Niels Bohr: âÂÂAn expert is a person who has made all the mistakes that can be made in a very narrow field.â Then browse the site for Subjects (listed in alphabetical order), Calculations, and Conversions. This last section is particularly helpful when considering complex conversions to and from metric measurements. The Links page is another helpful facet of the site and offers resources from around the web, arranged by alphabetized category. Last listed in the Scout Report back in 2007, this is a timeless resource for the engineer in all of us.

370

CAMEO: Conservation & Art Material Encyclopedia Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Art historians, preservationists, and other types will be most glad to learn about the existence of the Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO). This is, of course, if they don't know about it already. The original CAMEO was first placed online in November 2000, and it has been significantly enlarged and updated over the past several years. This online resource contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials. While some visitors may wish to use the embedded search engine, some may just wish to browse the materials by letter. Visitors can also perform a material search by entering a word, partial word, or a variety of other fields, including composition, density, and boiling point.

371

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome  

E-print Network

The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of ...

Altshuler, Robert Charles

372

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05-9.2 mg/kg) was recorded in urban soils and vegetable plot soils where these are impacted by Hg-contaminated water and sediment derived from mineral processing activities. Hg in vegetable and grain samples is mostly below the detection limit of 0.004 mg/kg Hg, apart from 0.007 and 0.092 mg/kg Hg in two yam samples and 0.011 to 0.013 mg/kg Hg in three rice samples. The standardized (i.e., standardized to 10 cm length) Hg concentrations in Clarias spp. increase from about 0.01 mg Hg/kg for the River Malagarasi delta to 0.07, 0.2, and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa 'background', moderately and most contaminated sites. For piscivorous (Lates, Brycinus, and Hydrocynus spp.), insectivorous (Barbus spp.), and planktivorous (Haplochromis spp.) fish species, the 10-cm standardized Hg concentrations increase from about 0.006 mg/kg for the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika area to 0.5 and 3.5 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa moderately and most contaminated sites. The low concentrations of Hg in fish from the Malagarasi River delta and Lake Tanganyika indicate that Hg contamination from the Rwamagasa area does not have a readily discernible impact on the biota of Lake Tanganyika. Many of the fish samples from Rwamagasa exceed guidelines for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg) as well as the WHO recommended limit for vulnerable groups (0.2 mg/kg). Tissue total Hg (THg) of all fish collected from the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika subarea is well below these guidelines. Potential human exposure through consumption of 300 g/day of rice grown on Hg-contaminated soils is 5.5 microg/week. Consumption of 250 g Nile perch (Lates spp.), 500 g tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), and 250 g of catfish (Clarias spp.) each week would result in an intake of 65 microg Hg/week for people consuming only fish from the Mara and Mwanza regions of Lake Victoria and 116 microg Hg/week for people in the Rwamagasa area consuming tilapia and Nile perch from Lake Victoria and catfish from mining-impacted streams. This is lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 300 microg for Hg in the diet set by the WHO and the FAO. Inadvertent ingestion of soil containing 9 mg Hg/kg at a rate of 80 mg/day would give an additional estimated weekly intake of 5 microg THg, whereas the persistent and purposeful consumption of soil (geophagia) at a rate of 26 g soil/day would produce an additional chemical exposure of 230 microg Hg/day. PMID:15862840

Taylor, H; Appleton, J D; Lister, R; Smith, B; Chitamweba, D; Mkumbo, O; Machiwa, J F; Tesha, A L; Beinhoff, C

2005-05-01

373

Chromosome Aberrations and DNA Strand Breaks in Glaucous Gull (Larus Hyperboreus) Chicks Fed Environmentally Contaminated Gull Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull

Åse Krøkje; Chris Bingham; Ruth Husmo Tuven; Geir Wing Gabrielsen

2006-01-01

374

Cytochrome P4501A induction and DNA adduct formation in glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus), fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study indicates that complex mixtures of pollutants found in the Arctic marine environment have genotoxic effects in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). DNA adducts were quantified, by the 32P-postlabeling technique, in liver samples from gulls fed with hen eggs (controls) and from gulls fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed). All birds were grown and fed under laboratory conditions. Hepatic

Lene Østby; Geir Wing Gabrielsen; Åse Krøkje

2005-01-01

375

Environmental contamination site risk assessment and ranking in Michigan: Revision of the Site Assessment System model. (Volumes I and II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) promulgated the Site Assessment System model (1983 SAS) for the evaluation and ranking of environmental contamination sites as required by Michigan Act 307 of the Public Acts of 1982. This study undertakes review of the model, builds upon the recommendations made by a public committee, and revises and tests the model.

1991-01-01

376

Effect of petroleum oil, pesticides, pCBs and other environmental contaminants on the hatchability of Artemia salina dry eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemia salina Leach is well-known as the brine shrimp used as tropical fish food and its dry eggs are easily obtained at a pet-shop at any season. One or two days after placing the dry eggs into salt water, the nauplius larvae of Artemia begins to hatch. In this paper, the methodlogy on a hatchability test for environmental contaminants and

Katsuyoshi Kuwabara; Akio Nakamura; Takashi Kashimoto

1980-01-01

377

Author-produced version of the article published in Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2007, 53, 57-65.  

E-print Network

and Toxicology, 2007, 53, 57-65. The original publication is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/ doi : 10 of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53 (2007) p. 57 - p. 65" DOI : 10.1007/s00244-006-0046-y #12 exposure in larvae. However, it must be take care to the "fault control" due to toxicological effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

ReproducedfromJournalofEnvironmentalQuality.PublishedbyASA,CSSA,andSSSA.Allcopyrightsreserved. Simulation of Phytoremediation of a TNT-Contaminated Soil  

E-print Network

JournalofEnvironmentalQuality.PublishedbyASA,CSSA,andSSSA.Allcopyrightsreserved. Simulation of Phytoremediation of a TNT-Contaminated Soil Using the CTSPAC Model Y. Ouyang,* D. Shinde, and L- ate the success of phytoremediation practices. This study investigated centrations of target Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate further reveal that no TNT was found in the stem and leaves

Ma, Lena

379

Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

380

Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

2009-01-01

381

Multi-residue analysis of 80 environmental contaminants in honeys, honeybees and pollens by one extraction procedure followed by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the factors that may explain nowadays honeybees’ colonies losses is the increasing presence of chemicals in the environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a global view of the presence of environmental contaminants in beehives and, develop a fast, cheap and sensitive tool to analyze environmental contaminants in apiarian matrices. A multi residue analysis was developed

Laure Wiest; Audrey Buleté; Barbara Giroud; Cédric Fratta; Sophie Amic; Olivier Lambert; Hervé Pouliquen; Carine Arnaudguilhem

2011-01-01

382

In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically

Gregory G. Miller; Leonard I. Sweet; Jean V. Adams; Geneva M. Omann; Dora R. Passino-Reader; Peter G. Meier

2002-01-01

383

Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n?=?461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p?=?.002) and after using the toilet (p?=?.001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n?=?367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. PMID:24312303

Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

2013-01-01

384

Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

NONE

1995-12-01

385

Environmental forensics evaluation of sources of sediment hydrocarbon contamination in Milford Haven Waterway.  

PubMed

Current and historic petroleum-related activities in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW; Wales, UK) contribute to hydrocarbon contamination of surficial sediments. Three main hydrocarbon components of sediments were analyzed: (1) aliphatic hydrocarbons of predominantly biogenic origin, representing about 5-15% of total hydrocarbons (THC); (2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from recent petrogenic and mainly older pyrogenic sources, representing about 2-6% of THC; (3) unresolved complex mixture from spill-related and heavily-weathered petrogenic sources, representing as much as 70-85% of THC. Environmental forensics evaluation of the data demonstrate that although 72?000 tonnes (t) crude oil spilled from the Sea Empress in 1996, the Forties blend cargo was not identified in 2010. However, using biomarkers, heavy fuel oil (HFO) from Sea Empress' bunkers (480 t spilled) was detected further upstream and more widely than previously. Iranian crude (100 t) spilled by the El Omar in 1988 and fuel (130?000 t) lost during bombing in 1940 also were tentatively identified. The PAH source ratios demonstrate that the historic pyrogenic PAHs come mainly from biomass and coal combustion. The distribution pattern of PAHs appeared more pyrogenic in 2012 than in 1996, as if recovering from the more petrogenic signature, in places, of the Sea Empress. The heavier PAH distributions were pyrogenic at most stations, and similar to those in sediments from oil terminal berths up to 2006, when dredging operations peaked. Partly as a result of this, in 2007 the concentrations of PAHs peaked throughout the waterway. Apart from effluent, atmospheric and runoff inputs, most of the identified inputs to the surficial sediments are historic. Therefore, likely processes include disturbance by construction (e.g. pile-driving) and dredging of contaminants sequestered in sediments, followed by their wide redistribution via suspended sediment transport. PMID:25536472

Little, David I; Galperin, Yakov; Bullimore, Blaise; Camplin, Mike

2015-02-11

386

Environmental considerations for the disposal of PBB-contaminated animals and wastes.  

PubMed Central

Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal of contaminated carcasses and to prevent any migration of PBBs into ground and surface waters of the area. Materials underneath the site are predominantly sand with layers of silts and clays of glacial origin. The vertical isolation from the surface to the water table is over 90 ft, and the horizontal isolation to the privately owned properties and surface water bodies is well over 1.5 mile in all directions. The site design provides necessary safeguards for minimizing surface water infiltration into disposal trenches and maximizing the protection to the environment. A series of water wells in the direction of flow are established for monitoring groundwater quality for years to come. A 40-acre Gratiot County landfill located near St. Louis, Michigan, has received 269,000 lb of wastes containing 60 to 70% PBBs between 1971 and 1973. PBB wastes are intermixed with general refuse at various depths predominantly in the eastern half of the landfill. Phase I of the hydrogeological investigation shows that the landfill is situated immediately above the groundwater aquifer and a divide. Recently drilled test wells show traces of PBBs in the aquifer in all directions. Additional studies are planned in the near future for corrective measures and monitoring. Images FIGURE 4. PMID:209986

Shah, B P

1978-01-01

387

Cell signalling during sea urchin development: a model for assessing toxicity of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The early development of sea urchins has been thoroughly studied since the beginning of the 20th century thanks to the particular features of the model involving cell signalling, making it easy to follow the complex cell-to-cell interactions that lead to development. In this chapter, the prominent role of cell-to-cell communication in developmental events is discussed, as well as the role of intracellular ion changes that are in turn regulated by signal molecules belonging to the cholinergic system. The results seem to indicate that the zygote stage is the most suitable to study the role of the cholinergic system, as at this stage, a calcium spike can be evoked by exposure to acetylcholine (ACh) or to muscarinic drugs, at any time before the nuclear breakdown. The described outcomes also open a path to a new way of considering biomarkers. In fact, most environmental factors have the capacity to interfere with the cholinergic system: stress, wounds, inflammation and pollution in general. In particular, this offers a way to investigate the presence in the environment and the degree of aggressiveness of neurotoxic contaminants, such as organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, largely used in European countries for many purposes, including agricultural pest control and medical treatment. These drugs exert their function by interfering with the regulation of the cholinergic system and the consequent electrical events. Thus, the sea urchin zygote could represent a reliable model to be used in biosensors with the capacity to translate the effect of neurotoxic pesticides, and generally of stress-inducing contaminants, in living cell responses, such as electrical responses. PMID:17152693

Angelini, C; Aluigi, M G; Sgro, M; Trombino, S; Thielecke, H; Falugi, C

2005-01-01

388

Effect of Low Temperature Thermal Treatment on Soils Contaminated with Pentachlorophenol and Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals  

PubMed Central

The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs’ and the PCP molecules’ chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 300 °C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2–12 × 1018 spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and linewidth (?Hp-p) of 2.00311 – 2.00323 and 4.190 – 5.472 Gauss, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1–10 × 1018 spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327 – 2.00341, and ?Hp-p of 5.209 – 6.721 Gauss. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 × 1018 spins/g of soil at 100 °C for open heating and 12 × 1018 spins/g at 75 °C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2 – 24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure. PMID:22548284

dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Cook, Robert L.; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Dellinger, Barry

2012-01-01

389

A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Furlong, E.T.

2004-01-01

390

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: Propellants and their co-contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The demilitarization of propellants by open burning results in the deposition of residues on soils. Residues can consist of the main ingredients in propellant formulations, namely, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine. Co-contaminants, consisting of plasticizers and stabilizers present in propellant formulations as well as environmental degradation products of the propellants, represent additional soil contaminants. These substances include nitrosoguanidine, dibutylphthlate, diethylphthlate, dipenylamine, and ethyl centralite. To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by propellants and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Importantly, information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates species are also addressed. 284 refs.

Mallon, B.; Layton, D.; Fish, R.; Hsieh, P.; Hall, L.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.

1988-08-01

391

Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.  

PubMed

Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. PMID:23845936

Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

2013-09-01

392

Transcriptional response of hepatic largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) mRNA upon exposure to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Microarrays enable gene transcript expression changes in near-whole genomes to be assessed in response to environmental stimuli. We utilized oligonucleotide microarrays and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to assess patterns of gene expression changes in male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) hepatic tissues after a 96?h exposure to common environmental contaminants. Fish were exposed to atrazine, cadmium chloride, PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 3.0, 0.00067, 2.5, 50 and 100?µg?g(-1), respectively. This was conducted in an effort to identify potential biomarkers of exposure. The expressions of 4, 126, 118, 137 and 58 mRNA transcripts were significantly (P ? 0.001, fold change ?2×) affected by exposure to atrazine, cadmium chloride, PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene exposures, respectively. GSEA revealed that none, four, five, five and three biological function gene ontology categories were significantly influenced by exposure to these chemicals, respectively. We observed that cadmium chloride elicited ethanol metabolism responses, and along with PCB 126 and phenanthrene affected transcripts associated with protein biosynthesis. PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene also influenced one-carbon compound metabolism while PCB 126 and phenanthrene affected mRNA transcription and mRNA export from the nucleus and may have induced an antiestrogenic response. Atrazine was found to alter the expression of few hepatic transcripts. This work has highlighted several biological processes of interest that may be helpful in the development of gene transcript biomarkers of chemical exposure in fish. PMID:20589742

Sanchez, Brian C; Carter, Barbara; Hammers, Heather R; Sepúlveda, María S

2011-03-01

393

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

McLachlan, J.

1998-06-01

394

Direct contact and environmental contaminations are responsible for HEV transmission in pigs.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause enterically-transmitted hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic nature of Hepatitis E infections has been established in industrialized areas and domestic pigs are considered as the main reservoir. The dynamics of transmission in pig herds therefore needs to be understood to reduce the prevalence of viremic pigs at slaughter and prevent contaminated pig products from entering the food chain. An experimental trial was carried out to study the main characteristics of HEV transmission between orally inoculated pigs and naïve animals. A mathematical model was used to investigate three transmission routes, namely direct contact between pigs and two environmental components to represent within-and between-group oro-fecal transmission. A large inter-individual variability was observed in response to infection with an average latent period lasting 6.9 days (5.8; 7.9) in inoculated animals and an average infectious period of 9.7 days (8.2; 11.2). Our results show that direct transmission alone, with a partial reproduction number of 1.41 (0.21; 3.02), can be considered as a factor of persistence of infection within a population. However, the quantity of virus present in the environment was found to play an essential role in the transmission process strongly influencing the probability of infection with a within pen transmission rate estimated to 2 · 10(-6)g ge(-1)d(-1)(1 · 10(-7); 7 · 10(-6)). Between-pen environmental transmission occurred to a lesser extent (transmission rate: 7 · 10(-8)g ge(-1) d(-1)(5 · 10(-9); 3 · 10(-7)) but could further generate a within-group process. The combination of these transmission routes could explain the persistence and high prevalence of HEV in pig populations. PMID:24165278

Andraud, Mathieu; Dumarest, Marine; Cariolet, Roland; Aylaj, Bouchra; Barnaud, Elodie; Eono, Florent; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

2013-01-01

395

Ground Anthrax Bacillus Refined Isolation (GABRI) method for analyzing environmental samples with low levels of Bacillus anthracis contamination  

PubMed Central

Background In this work are reported the results of a qualitative analytical method capable of detecting Bacillus anthracis spores when they are present in very low concentration in the soil. The Ground Anthrax Bacillus Refined Isolation (GABRI) method, assessed in our laboratory, was compared with the classic method. The comparison involved artificially anthrax-contaminated soil samples (500 spores/7.5 grams soil) and naturally contaminated soil samples collected in Bangladesh during a field investigation. Results The results indicated that, in contrast to the classic method, the GABRI method was able to detect B.anthracis in all contaminated samples. The GABRI method produces a more sensitive measure of anthrax spore presence significantly different from the standard method. In particular, the latter is more sensitive to the presence of normal soil contaminants. Conclusion The main feature of the GABRI method is its ability to strongly reduce the presence of the environmental contaminants, which being much more numerous than B. anthracis tend to inhibit their germination and growth making it extremely difficult to visualize any colonies. The reduction of the microbial environment also allows one to be able to culture and test a larger quantity of potentially contaminated soil and to isolate B. anthracis when the spores are present in very low concentrations in the soil. PMID:23865983

2013-01-01

396

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, we collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 ?g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 ?g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J.M.; Karasov, W.H.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K.L.; Hanbidge, B.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Jones, P.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Verbrugge, D.A.

1996-01-01

397

Remote sensing for the geobotanical and biogeochemical assessment of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Under Contract Number DE-AC08-90NV10845, the DOE has funded the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to examine several aspects of remote sensing, specifically with respect to how its use might help support Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) activities at DOE sites located throughout the country. This report represents partial fulfillment of DRI`s obligations under that contract and includes a review of relevant literature associated with remote sensing studies and our evaluation and recommendation as to the applicability of various remote sensing techniques for DOE needs. With respect to DOE ERWM activities, remote sensing may be broadly defined as collecting information about a target without actually being in physical contact with the object. As the common platforms for remote sensing observations are aircraft and satellites, there exists the possibility to rapidly and efficiently collect information over DOE sites that would allow for the identification and monitoring of contamination related to present and past activities. As DOE sites cover areas ranging from tens to hundreds of square miles, remote sensing may provide an effective, efficient, and economical method in support of ERWM activities. For this review, remote sensing has been limited to methods that employ electromagnetic (EM) energy as the means of detecting and measuring target characteristics.

Wickham, J.; Chesley, M.; Lancaster, J.; Mouat, D.

1993-01-01

398

Geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical interpretations of mineral deposits as analogs for understanding transport of environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Base- and precious-metal mineral deposits comprise anomalous concentrations of metals and associated elements, which may be useful subjects for study as analogs for migration of environmental contaminants. In the geologic past, hydrothermal mineral deposits formed at the intersection of favorable geologic, hydrologic and geochemical gradients. In the present, weathering of these sulfide-rich deposits occurs as a result of the interplay between rates of oxygen supply versus rates of ground or surface-water flow. Transport and spatial dispersion of elements from a mineral deposit occurs as a function of competing rates of water flow versus rates of attenuation mechanisms such as adsorption, dilution, or (co)precipitation. In this paper we present several case studies from mineralized and altered sedimentary and crystalline aquifers in the western United States to illustrate the geologic control of ground-water flow and solute transport, and to demonstrate how this combined approach leads to a more complete understanding of the systems under study as well as facilitating some capability to predict major flow directions in aquifers.

Wanty, R.B.; Berger, B.R.

2006-01-01

399

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture carcasses and nearly all raven carcasses at generally moderate concentrations. Other organochlorines occurred infrequently in carcasses and generally at low concentrations. Turkey vulture eggshells were 16% thinner than the pre-DDT mean; there was no change in shell thickness of raven eggs. Vulture eggs contained an average of 6.9 ppm DDE and two contained excessive concentrations of endrin. DDE concentrations were low in raven eggs. Residues of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Se, Tl, and Zn in tissues of vultures and ravens appeared normal when compared with reference values for other species. Lead concentrations in bone of turkey vultures and feathers of condors appeared to be elevated above normal background concentrations in some cases. Current exposure of condors to organochlorines appears low; however, we are concerned about the excessive exposure of turkey vultures to organochlorines, possibly in Central America. Lead exposure to vultures and condors has occurred, but its significance to their populations is unknown.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Jurek, R.M.; Moore, J.F.

1986-01-01

400

Toxicity of environmental contaminants to fish spermatozoa function in vitro--a review.  

PubMed

In vitro techniques for investigating the toxic effects of environmental contaminants (EC) on fish spermatozoa motility kinetics and fertilizing ability are valuable tools to understand toxicity mechanisms and sites of action. In vitro techniques may also be well-suited to studies of endocrine disruption in male fertility in vivo. This review shows ECs to decrease or suppress spermatozoa motility kinetics and fertilizing ability in a dose-dependent manner, with toxic concentrations being much higher than those reported in the aquatic environment. Sites of action depend on EC concentration and duration of exposure. Both instant (immediate) and incubated exposure of spermatozoa to ECs results in damage to the plasma membrane and the axoneme, while disruption of energy metabolism appears only during incubated exposure. Spermatozoa lose fertilizing ability following exposure to ECs in vitro, not only due to inhibition or suppression of the initiation of motility, but also through damage to DNA. This review highlights the significant lack of information about disruption of spermatozoa function associated with exposure to water from polluted areas as well as combined effects of ECs. Specifics of alterations in intracellular signaling cascades involved in the initiation of spermatozoa motility following exposure to sublethal concentrations of ECs remain unknown. Further studies are also needed to elucidate in vitro EC effects during spermatozoa maturation, when spermatozoa acquire the potential for motility. PMID:23792626

Hatef, Azadeh; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Golshan, Mahdi; Linhart, Otomar

2013-09-15

401

Significance of environmental dredging on metal mobility from contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor, Sweden.  

PubMed

Metals are often seen as immobile in bottom sediments as long as these environmental sinks remain undisturbed. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential metal mobility due to resuspension under pseudo-dredging conditions of contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor that are likely to be dredged as part of a remediation program established in Sweden. To address this concern, mixtures of water slurries were sampled from pore, leaching, and surface water over a period of nearly 36d, and the major ions and trace metal concentrations determined. The results of this study pointed out the potential mobility and toxicity of metals posed by temporary changes during dredging operations, and highlighted the potential release of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Ni to the environment. Among the toxic metals, regarding pre and post dredging, Cu and Pb significantly demonstrated to be in ionic form, apparently because of dissolution of Fe-Mn oxy/hydroxides and decomposition of organic matter. PMID:25084063

Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun; Kaczala, Fabio; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

2015-01-01

402

Long-term environmental and health implications of morphological change and sediment transport with respect to contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EPSRC-funded Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply (ARCoES) project encompasses four research strands, involving 14 institutions and six PhD studentships. ARCoES aims to determine the threats posed to future energy generation and the distribution network by flooding and erosion, changing patterns of coastal sedimentation, water temperature and the distribution of plants and animals in the coastal zone. Whilst this research has direct benefits for the operation of coastal power stations, ARCoES aims to have a wider stakeholder engagement through assessing how the resilience of coastal communities may be altered by five hundred years of coastal evolution. Coastal evolution will have substantial implications for the energy sector of the North West of England as former waste storage sites are eroded and remobilised within the intertidal environment. The current intertidal environmental stores of radioactivity will also experience reworking as ocean chemistry changes and saltmarsh chronologies are reworked in response to rising sea levels. There is a duel requirement to understand mass sediment movement along the North West coast of England as understanding the sediment transport dynamics is key to modelling long term coastal change and understanding how the environmental store of radioactivity will be reworked. The University of Stirling is researching the long-term environmental and health implications of remobilisation and transport of contaminated sediments around the UK coastline. Using a synergy of hyperspectral and topographic information the mobilisation of sediment bound contaminants within the coastal environment will be investigated. Potential hazards posed by contaminants are determined by a set of environmental impact test criteria which evaluate the bio-accessibility and ionising dose of contaminants. These test criteria will be used to comment on the likely environmental impact of modelled sediment transport and anticipated changes in ocean chemistry.

Sneddon, Christopher; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Hunter, Peter; Smith, Nick

2014-05-01

403

Longitudinal Study of Salmonella Dispersion and the Role of Environmental Contamination in Commercial Swine Production Systems?  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the roles of various environmental sources, such as truck-washing systems, waste-processing lagoons, and other sources, as potential contributors to the exposure and dissemination of Salmonella in commercial swine production systems. Four cohorts of nursery age swine herds which originated from distinct farm flows were selected. In addition, cross-sectional sampling of four truck wash stations selected based on the types of disinfectants and sources of water used for sanitizing trucks were tested. Salmonella isolates were recovered from pigs (feces, cecal contents, and mesenteric lymph nodes) and environmental sources (barn floor, lagoon, barn flush, trucks, and holding pens). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotyping were conducted using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and amplified fragment length polymorphism, respectively. Salmonella prevalence significantly increased with age from late nursery to slaughter for all of the cohorts (P = 0.007). In two of three instances, all three pig holding pens (lairage) sampled at processing were Salmonella positive. The predominant antibiotypes for all sources included ACSSuT (51.8%), SSuT (16.8%), T (6%), and pansusceptible (7.4%). For the isolates obtained at the farms, the ACSSuT phenotype was 5.6 times more likely to be found in the animals than in the environment (95% confidence interval, 4.4 to 7.2 times). Serogroup B was the most common serogroup (79%), followed by serogroup E (10.4%). Despite the fact that the four production flows were independent, 1 of the 11 genotypic clusters (cluster A1) was commonly detected in any type of sample regardless of its origin. Five of the genotypic clusters (clusters A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7) contained isolates that originated from trucks and lairage swabs and also from cecal contents and/or mesenteric lymph nodes. More interestingly, genotypic clusters A3, A4, and A6 (but not clusters A5 and A7) were not detected on the farms. They originated from the trucks and lairage swabs and then were identified from the cecal contents and/or mesenteric lymph nodes. These findings underscore the significance of various environmental factors, including inadequate truck-washing systems, and emphasize the role of lairage contamination by Salmonella that has food safety significance. PMID:19139233

Dorr, Paul M.; Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zewde, Bayleyegn Molla; Fry, Pamela; Thakur, Siddhartha; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

2009-01-01

404

Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites  

SciTech Connect

Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

Melinda Christine Wiles [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health

2004-08-15

405

Generic Escherichia coli Contamination of Spinach at the Preharvest Stage: Effects of Farm Management and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

2013-01-01

406

Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.  

PubMed

In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

Krøkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2006-01-01

407

Decline in heavy metal contamination in marine sediments in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia due to increasing environmental regulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 210Pb geochronology, heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, and Pb), and stable Pb isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 207Pb) of three sediment cores collected from Jakarta Bay were analyzed to decipher the history of heavy metal contamination in the period 1900-2006. The chemical and isotopic analyses clearly suggest that anthropogenic metal accumulation in the sediments began in the 1920s and increased greatly from the 1970s until the end of the 1990s. From the end of the 1990s to 2006, accumulation rates were constant or decreased for Zn and Pb near the coastal industrialized area. Comparison of economic data and sociological information suggests that the decline in the concentrations of heavy metals could be attributed to the stricter environmental regulations which were enforced at the end of 1990s. However, metal contamination is currently still an important cause of concern in dealing with environmental preservation and protection in Jakarta Bay.

Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Delinom, Robert; Umezawa, Yu; Toyota, Tomoyo; Kaneko, Shinji; Taniguchi, Makoto

2011-04-01

408

DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil†  

PubMed Central

Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as ?(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

409

Status of organochlorine contaminants in the different environmental compartments of Pakistan: a review on occurrence and levels.  

PubMed

This review evaluates and summarizes the results of the studies of organochlorines-contaminated water, sediment/soil and biota in Pakistan. Pattern of occurrence of each contaminant class from different study sites is followed as DDTs > Cyclodiens > HCHs > PCBs. The studies conducted in the surrounding areas of the demolished DDT manufacturing units and obsolete pesticides stores of country showed extremely highest values of ?DDTs, which differ significantly (p < 0.05) than those reported from the agricultural areas and fresh water bodies of the country. HCHs, heptachlor, dieldrin, and HCB were also reported in many studies, but the concentrations are comparable among all the locations in the country. The authors suggested surface run-off, dumping of waste from industries and contamination from obsolete pesticides and demolished OCPs manufacturing units as the major sources in Pakistan. Information on PCBs is scares and studies on assessment of PCBs occurrence, and spatial trends in various environmental matrices needs special attention to produce the scientific publication. The results draw attention that POPs contamination must be considered as a priority environmental concern due to their use in agricultural and industrial sector. PMID:22173707

Ali-Musstjab-Akber-Shah Eqani, Syed; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Alamdar, Ambreen; Faheem, Hina

2012-03-01

410

11th Annual Conference 011Contaminated Soils. Analysis, Fate, Environmental & Public Health Effecis alld Remediation University of Massachusetts at Amherst. October 21-24  

E-print Network

BNL-63042 ABSTR. 11th Annual Conference 011Contaminated Soils. Analysis, Fate, Environmental-6481; Nicholas L. Clesceri, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Rensselaer and Environmental Protection Division, Building 129, Upton NY 11973-5000 (516) 344-7497; George P. Korfiatis, Ph

Brookhaven National Laboratory

411

Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health

S. N. Burman; D. C. Landguth; M. S. Uziel; T. L. Hatmaker; P. F. Tiner

1992-01-01

412

ERK-dependent induction of TNF? expression by the environmental contaminant benzo(a)pyrene in primary human macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene (BP) are toxic environmental contaminants known to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?. The present study was designed in order to determine whether TNF?, another cytokine acting in inflammation, may also constitute a target for these chemicals. Both TNF? mRNA and TNF? secretion levels were found to be enhanced in human

Valérie Lecureur; Eric Le Ferrec; Monique N’diaye; Marc Le Vee; Claire Gardyn; David Gilot; Olivier Fardel

2005-01-01

413

Serum Concentrations of Various Environmental Contaminants and Their Relationship to Sex Steroid Concentrations and Phallus Size in Juvenile American Alligators  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recent studies have reported a number of abnormalities in the hatchling and juvenile alligators of Lake Apopka, FL (USA).\\u000a These abnormalities include modifications of plasma concentrations of sex steroids in males and females as well as abnormalities\\u000a in gonadal morphology, gonadal enzyme activity, and steroidogenesis. Embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants in the\\u000a eggs has been hypothesized to be the

L. J. Guillette Jr.; J. W. Brock; A. A. Rooney; A. R. Woodward

1999-01-01

414

Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24652574

Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

2014-07-01

415

Boyhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia is the first reference work to focus on the life and history of U.S. boyhood through the centuries. Coverage in the encyclopedia spans education, ethnicity, sports, work, religion, and health issues. The encyclopedia's expert contributors approach topics from many disciplines, including history, cultural studies, media studies,…

Clement, Priscilla Ferguson, Ed.; Reinier, Jacqueline S., Ed.

416

Encyclopedia of Youth and War: Young People as Participants and Victims.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia provides comprehensive information on youth and war. Beginning with the 30 Years' War in the 17th century and ending with the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo, the encyclopedia covers children and youth from birth to age 18, with additional materials on young adults from 18 to 24 years of age. The encyclopedia includes over 300…

Sherrow, Victoria

417

MOBILE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER OPERATED BY PACE ENVIRONMENTAL FOR METALS-CONTAMINATED SOIL CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the Environmental Technology Verification Program, is working to accelerate the acceptance and use of innovative technologies that improve the way the United States manages its environmental problems. This report describes ...

418

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) activities related to sources of ground-water contamination  

SciTech Connect

The report contains a listing of EPA programs and activities, as of October 1986, that address 33 sources of potential ground-water contamination. The information on each activity is presented in a matrix format that is organized by type of contamination source. The following information is presented for each program and activity listed: title, lead office, contact person, type of activity (study, regulation, guidance, strategy, etc.) status, and a summary of the activity. The 33 sources of ground-water contamination are discussed in the 1984 EPA Office of Technology report: Protecting the Nations Ground Water from Contamination.

Black-Coleman, W.

1987-02-01

419

Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA (United States). Northwest Fisheries Science Center

1995-12-31

420

Estimating Environmental Exposures to Indoor Contaminants using Residential-Dust Samples.  

E-print Network

??Using data from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) and the Fresno Exposure Study this dissertation shows that concentrations of chemical contaminants in residential-dust… (more)

Whitehead, Todd Patrick

2011-01-01

421

Effects of varying environmental parameters on trace contaminant concentrations in the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is made of the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration trace contaminant production and depletion level effects of CO2, O2, humidity, temperature, and pressure variations, on the basis of a computer model of the Reference Configuration's chemical reactions and physical processes as functions of time. The effects of changes in the initial concentrations of such contaminants as nonmethane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are also examined, and these are found to result in more significant changes in the concentration levels of trace contaminants than pressure and humidity variations. O2 and CO2 changes are found to have negligible effects on trace contaminant concentrations.

Brewer, Dana A.; Hall, John B., Jr.

1986-01-01

422

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

SciTech Connect

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 {micro}g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 {micro}g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p < 0.05) than at Lake Winnipegosis (70%), and the prevalence of hatchlings with deformed bills was greater (p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J.M.; Karasov, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI (United States); Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Giesy, J.P.; Jones, P.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Verbrugge, D.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hanbidge, B.A.

1996-04-01

423

Large prospective birth cohort studies on environmental contaminants and child health – Goals, challenges, limitations and needs  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The adverse health effects of environmental contaminants (ECs) are a rising public health concern, and a major threat to sustainable socioeconomic development. The developing fetuses and growing children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ECs. However, assessing the health impact of ECs presents a major challenge, given that multiple outcomes may arise from one exposure, multiple exposures may result in one outcome, and the complex interactions between ECs, and between ECs, nutrients and genetic factors, and the dynamic temporal changes in EC exposures during the life course. Large-scale prospective birth cohort studies collecting extensive data and specimen starting from the prenatal or pre-conception period, although costly, hold promise as a means to more clearly quantify the health effects of ECs, and to unravel the complex interactions between ECs, nutrients and genotypes. A number of such large-scale studies have been launched in some developed counties. We present an overview of “why”, “what” and “how” behind these efforts with an objective to uncover major unidentified limitations and needs. Three major limitations were identified: (1) limited data and bio-specimens regarding early life EC exposure assessments in some birth cohort studies; (2) heavy participant burdens in some birth cohort studies may bias participant recruitment, and risk substantial loss to follow-up, protocol deviations limiting the quality of data and specimens collection, with an overall potential bias towards the null effect; (3) lack of concerted efforts in building comparable birth cohorts across countries to take advantage of natural “experiments” (large EC exposure level differences between countries) for more in-depth assessments of dose–response relationships, threshold exposure levels, and positive and negative effect modifiers. Addressing these concerns in current or future large-scale birth cohort studies may help to produce better evidence on the health effects of ECs. PMID:19765909

Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Meng; Fraser, William D.

2011-01-01

424

Pentamidine aerosols and environmental contamination: health-care workers at risk.  

PubMed

In our hospital safety guidelines are available for the handling of pentamidine in the day-care department, but no safety ventilation cabin is used because only one patient a day has been treated, The number of patients to be treated, however, is growing, resulting in the need to treat more than one patient a day. To determine the environmental contamination and exposure of health-care workers during and after aerosolised pentamidine treatment of more than one patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome a day a high-performance liquid chromatographic method is used for the detection and quantification of pentamidine. High volume air samples were taken before, immediately after and the day after a treatment session of up to three patients. Also, sediment samples and personal air samples close to the mouth of the health-care workers were taken. Immediately after a treatment session the air in the room contains 1.0-99.7 micrograms pentamidine per m3 of air. Before and the morning after treatment no pentamidine could be detected in the air. Sediment samples vary in detectable amounts of pentamidine from < 5 to 1165 micrograms. pentamidine/cm2. The personal air samples also show a large variation in quantities of pentamidine: < 5-170 ng a filter. When large amounts of pentamidine in the high volume air samples are found high amounts of pentamidine on the sediment samples and the personal air samples are found as well. This means that the patients treated should be instructed well on how to use the nebulizer correctly and be monitored during treatment. Additional safety measures (for example the use of a safety ventilation cabin) should be taken when more than one patient is treated a day. PMID:8873231

Ros, J J; Langen, M C; Stallen, P C; Lenderink, A W

1996-08-01

425

Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida: Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, the Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia is great resource for information and stories about the ancient cycads. The Encyclopedia comprises numerous articles organized under such topics as Cycad Taxonomy, Biology, Evolution, Horticulture, Conservation, and more. Examples of encyclopedia articles include: a 59-frame slide show on Growing and Collecting Cycads; an interactive Key to Cycad Genera; an older article on Pollination Biology of Cycads co-authored by staff at the New York Botanical Garden and the Fairchild Tropical Garden; and a Compiled List of Cycad Genera. The site also contains a Photo Gallery with many good-quality cycad images listed by scientific name. Site visitors will also find a collection of related links, and a list of reference books.

426

Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.  

PubMed

Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity. However, the same techniques discussed could also have application to catastrophes resulting from other incidents, such as natural disasters or industrial accidents. Further, the high sample throughput enabled by the techniques discussed could be employed for conventional environmental studies and compliance monitoring, potentially decreasing costs and/or increasing the quantity of data available to decision-makers. PMID:24568927

Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

2014-11-01

427

Uptake of environmental contaminants by small mammals in pickleweed habitats at San Francisco Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammals were live-trapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were

Donald R. Clark; Kevin S. Foerster; Carolyn M. Marn; Roger L. Hothem

1992-01-01

428

Glutathione S-transferase activity of Fucus spp. as a biomarker of environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal zones are important areas from both ecological and economical points of view. However, in the last decades, in several regions of the globe, they have been increasingly impacted by complex discharges of contaminants and by marine traffic accidents. The Portuguese Atlantic coast is particularly exposed to these contaminants due to the proximity of important navigation routes. Several rocky shore

E. Cairrão; M. Couderchet; A. M. V. M. Soares; L. Guilhermino

2004-01-01

429

Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the

Lolita Tsanaclis; John F. C. Wicks

2008-01-01

430

PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate (ClO4-) is an anion that originates as a contaminant in ground water and surface waters when the salts of ammonium, potassium, magnesium, or sodium dissolve in water. One major source of contamination is the manufacture or improper disposal of ammonium perchlorate th...

431

Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in the coastal waters of Estonia (Baltic Sea): effects on eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus).  

PubMed

The eastern Baltic Sea near the Estonian coast is heavily navigated by numerous cargo ships and oil tankers. Hundreds of accidents and oil spills happen yearly in this area. Yet, there is a lack of data concerning the distribution and effects of the environmental contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Different parts of the Baltic Sea have different levels of contamination; therefore a wide range of monitoring stations in coastal areas in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga were chosen. The aim of the present research was to document the responses of chosen biomarkers of environmental contaminants in different unstudied areas of the Estonian coastal sea. During 2009 and 2010 we measured PAH metabolites, EROD activities, geno- and cytotoxicity, histology, parasites and other biomarkers from the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), a resident benthic fish species. The results showed that fish from the Gulf of Riga emitted lower levels of fluorescence in fixed wavelength analyses (representing equivalents of PAH metabolites in bile and urine), and consistently, showed less geno- and cytotoxicity and parasite infection, higher liver somatic index (LSI) and a higher condition factor (CF) than fish inhabiting areas close to the Baltic proper and in the Gulf of Finland. The results point to the effect of long-range contaminant transportation, whether atmospheric or hydrodynamic, and also to the intensive shipping activity in international routes. This study fills the gap of knowledge in this area that has persisted until now. Nevertheless, more studies in this area on the different groups of contaminants are necessary, to specify the factors that are responsible for observed biological effects. PMID:22797796

Kreitsberg, Randel; Tuvikene, Arvo; Baršien?, Janina; Fricke, Nicolai Felix; Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Andreik?nait?, Laura; Rumvolt, Kateriina; Vilbaste, Sirje

2012-09-01

432

The Use of Mytilus Galloprovincialis Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-Transferases Activities as Biomarkers of Environmental Contamination Along the Northwest Portuguese Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of using Mytilus galloprovincialis acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) activities as biomarkers of environmental contamination in risk assessment studies along the northwest Portuguese coast, the objective of this study was to provide background information related to: (1) baseline values of these enzymatic activities both in reference and contaminated areas and their responsiveness as indicators of exposure

S. M. Moreira; L. Guilhermino

2005-01-01

433

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

434

Development of an in situ mammalian biomonitor to assess the effect of environmental contaminants on population and community health  

SciTech Connect

The influence of environmental contaminants (e.g., lead, benzene, organic hydrocarbons) on immune function of laboratory and field cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and population and community dynamics of small mammals residing on an oil refinery were studied. Cellular immune function in benzene and lead exposed cotton rats were assessed to determine the sensitivity of immune function as a potential biomarker of toxicant exposure. Additionally, cellular immune function, population density, reproduction, recruitment, and survival were assessed for wild cotton rats collected from an abandoned oil refinery to field test the utility of cotton rats as an in situ bioindicator. Cellular immune function in juvenile and adult cotton rats was sensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of lead and benzene. However, benzene-induced immunosuppression was marginal presumably due to the ability of cotton rats to quickly metabolize the compound and recover from the toxic effects. Wild cotton rats collected on the refinery also demonstrated sensitivity in immune function to the complex mixtures of contaminants found on site. Lymphoproliferative responses of splenocytes was the most consistent indicator toxicant exposure. Population parameters of cotton rats indicated marked depression in density, recruitment, and survival. Results also indicated a shift in community structure due to large numbers of house mice (Mus musculus) on toxic sites. Immune function and population parameters appear to be good prospects in situ bioindicators of environmental contamination.

McMurray, S.T.

1993-01-01

435

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

1999-01-01

436

Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China.  

PubMed

In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p<0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:22414496

Alabi, Okunola A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

2012-04-15

437

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01

438

Alterations in morphometric and organosomatic indices and histopathological analyses indicative of environmental contamination in Mullet, Mugil liza, from Southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Mullet (Mugil liza) were sampled in five different areas along the Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil, classified as non-contaminated, moderately contaminated and contaminated. Morphometric (Fulton condition factor, relative condition factor and weight to length scaling coefficient) and organosomatic (hepatosomatic index) indices of environmental stress were analysed. Fish from the differentially contaminated areas show statistically different Fulton and relative condition factors and hepatosomatic indices, but not the weight to length scaling coefficient. The Kn and the FCF followed the same trend, with fish from São Gonçalo (1.07 ± 0.04 and 0.89 ± 0.03), Itaipu (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.86 ± 0.01) and the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (1.03 ± 0.01 and 0.87 ± 0.20) showing higher FCFs than fish from Magé (0.96 ± 0.01 and 0.81 ± 0.01). Fish from Itaipu showed significantly higher HSI values than the other sampling sites (1.68 ± 0.07), with fish from Olaria and Ipiranga showing the lowest (1.56 ± 0.12 and 1.60 ± 0.07, respectively). PMID:23052584

Hauser-Davis, R A; Lavandier, R C; Bastos, F F; Oliveira, T F; Ribeiro, C A Oliveira; Ziolli, R L; de Campos, R C

2012-12-01

439

Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

Meyers-Schoene, L. (IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-04-01

440

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

Not Available

1991-10-01

441

Reading contamination : an environmental education center at the Wells G&H Superfund Site  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes and architectural and programmatic methodology which makes legible the processes and consequences of site contamination. This methodology is chiefly demonstrated through a plan for the site which emerges ...

Berry, Rebecca Lynn, 1973-

1999-01-01

442

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

Not Available

1992-03-01

443

Effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing the spread of Norovirus contamination via environmental surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay was used to study the transfer of Norovirus (NV) from contaminated faecal material via fingers and cloths to other hand-contact surfaces. The results showed that, where fingers come into contact with virus-contaminated material, NV is consistently transferred via the fingers to melamine surfaces and from there to other typical hand-contact surfaces, such as

J. Barker; I. B. Vipond; S. F. Bloomfield

2004-01-01

444

Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

1993-09-01

445

Visually Exploring Social Participation in Encyclopedia of Life  

E-print Network

transmission networks. Most recently, with the popu- larity of social media, many social communications investigate dynamic social interaction. This limitation can be critical for analyzing social participationVisually Exploring Social Participation in Encyclopedia of Life Jae-wook Ahn, Jennifer Hammock

Shneiderman, Ben

446

Towards a History of the Encyclopedia from Jerome to Isidor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the evolution of the idea of an encyclopedia from Jerome, who worked mainly in Caesarea in Palestine towards the end of the Roman Empire, through the work of Augustine, Martianus Capella, Boethius, and Cassiodorus Senator, to Isidor, who worked i