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1

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

1998-01-01

2

National Park Service: Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.

2005-11-29

3

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

2001-01-01

4

Field Analytic Technologies Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Environmental Protection Agency maintains the Field Analytic Technologies Encyclopedia Web site. The online encyclopedia is \\"intended to provide information about technologies that can be used in the field to characterize contaminated soil and groundwater, monitor progress of remedial efforts, and in some cases, for confirmation sampling and analysis for site close-out.\\" The technologies link contains information on analytics such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and test kits; geophysics such as ground penetrating radar; and delivery systems including direct-push platforms, groundwater samplers, and soil-gas samplers. Other links include resources, references, and online training modules for field-based technologies. The site is a great informational resource and training aide for hazardous waste professionals working directly in the field.

2005-12-08

5

Encyclopedias Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides brief company profiles and describes sales methods and electronic publishing ventures for six encyclopedia publishers: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.; World Book; Grolier; the P.F. Collier encyclopedia division of Macmillan Publishing; Funk & Wagnalls; and Standard Educational Corp. (MES)

Whiteley, Sandy

1992-01-01

6

Lechowicz, M.J., 2001. Phenology. In the Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, Volume 2. The Earth System:biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental  

E-print Network

Lechowicz, M.J., 2001. Phenology. In the Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, Volume 2. The Earth System:biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change. Wiley, London of spring-warming is an expected and normal part of high-latitude climates, but no one expects the end

Lechowicz, Martin J.

7

Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species\\u000a varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across\\u000a Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). ?PCB\\u000a and ?DDT followed by ?CHL were most

Birgit M. Braune; David G. Noble

2009-01-01

8

WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY Environmental History of Africa -Vimbai C. Kwashirai Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)  

E-print Network

, environment, ecology, land, forest, desert, climate, change, control, wildlife, urban, population, humans. African Management of Natural Resources 5. New Agricultural Crops and Animals 6. Colonial Management-conservation nexus of African natural resources. It explores environmental changes resulting from a range

9

Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

Banwell, John G.

1979-01-01

10

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

11

Encyclopedia Mythica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encompassing mythology, folklore, and legend, the Encyclopedia Mythica--a collaborative reference resource with over 150 contributors--contains more than 4400 definitions of mythical and legendary figures and almost 200 images. Users may search the entire work by keyword or browse by topic areas. The browseable index is available in both a frames and non-frames version. The unique Miscellanea section compliments the numerous entries on gods, creatures, and heroes with pronunciation guides, maps, genealogy tables, brief histories of ancient peoples, lists of deities and ancient feast days, and the linguistic origins for the names of days, months, and celestial bodies. Contributions to the encyclopedia are encouraged. All submissions are reviewed by editor Micha F. Lindemans.

12

Holocaust Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) has some tremendous online resources, and the recent addition of the Holocaust Encyclopedia continues in this tradition. The interactive Encyclopedia includes hundreds of articles that cover topics like the Third Reich, refugees, ghettos, and the liberation of Nazi camps. Each entry contains hypertext links to other entries and relevant resources, including timelines, photo galleries, and primary source documents. Visitors can use the "Browse Articles" to get started, and they should also note that the articles are available in French, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Turkish, Arabic, and six other languages. In the "Additional Resources" section, visitors will find a link to "The Holocaust: A Learning Site for Students" and a complete "A-Z" list of all the articles.

13

Encyclopedia of Arabic Language  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics General Editor Kees Versteegh Associate Editors. Versteegh (editor-in-chief), Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics (EALL), Leiden : Brill. #12;In

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern Hemisphere will likely increase the impact of anthropogenic contaminants on Antarctic ecosystems. PMID:18765160

Bargagli, R

2008-08-01

15

Encyclopedia of Information Science  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology Second Edition Mehdi Khosrow-Pour Information. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of information science and technology. Information science--Encyclopedias. 2. Information technology--Encyclopedias. I. Khosrowpour, Mehdi, 1951- Z

Bouras, Christos

16

Burns Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provide by Burns Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert Burns reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. Burns Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion area, Burns and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.

Lindsay, Maurice.

17

Environmental Contamination by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE. PMID:23115260

Lerner, A.; Adler, A.; Abu-Hanna, J.; Meitus, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.

2013-01-01

18

Encyclopedia Mythica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the 2004 Athens Olympic Summer Games are now just a not-so-distant memory, the world's fascination with Greek mythology and the ancient world continues to reverberate with the public, scholars of antiquity, and other interested parties. To pique their interest, there is the lovely Encyclopedia Mythica which was founded and edited by Micha Lindemans. Here visitors can peruse areas devoted to mythology, folklore, bestiary, heroes, and take a look at some genealogy tables, which tend to be quite helpful. The featured items section is quite nice, as visitors can read the full text of a book on witchcraft, learn about the great Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, and read the 1898 edition of the Arabian Nights. The site has a number of other features, including a place for visitor feedback and a search feature. Rounding out the site are lists of feast days from the ancient world, along with a list of Roman deities and their Greek counterparts.

19

Encyclopedia Astronautica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by Friends and Partners in Space and edited by Mark Wade, this site is a bit hard on the eyes, but it has few peers in terms of the sheer mountains of material it offers on spaceflight by all nations of the world. There is so much here that it is hard to decide where to begin. The main page offers a long list of highlights and new additions, most of them generously illustrated. The site may be browsed alphabetically, browsed by topic, or searched by keyword. In addition to the myriad encyclopedia entries, there are hundreds if not thousands of images, a lengthy collection of articles, a long list of references, statistics, and a spaceflight chronology. Again, the site would benefit from a reorganization and redesign, but anyone with a professional or personal interest in spaceflight will undoubtedly enjoy a visit.

20

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power

M. D. Siegel; C. R. Bryan

2003-01-01

21

Encyclopedia Reviews 1978  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews thirteen 1978 edition encyclopedias: Book of Art, Britannica Jr., Britannica 3, Childcraft, Collier's, Compton's. Encyclopedia Americana, Funk & Wagnalls, Merit Students, New Caton, Random House, New Standard, and World Book. (SB)

Minemier, Betty

1978-01-01

22

Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications Mario Freire University of Beira Interior trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of Internet technologies-1-59140-993-9 (hardcover) -- ISBN 978-1-59140-994-6 (ebook) 1. Internet--Encyclopedias. I. Freire, Mário Marques, 1969- II

Bouras, Christos

23

Encyclopedia of Information Science  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology Second Edition Mehdi Khosrow-Pour Information of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia-1-60566-026-4 (hardcover) -- ISBN 978-1-60566-027-1 (ebook) 1. Information science--Encyclopedias. 2. Information

Bouras, Christos

24

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico University of A Coruña, Spain of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-850-5 (ebook) 1. Artificial intelligence--Encyclopedias. I. Rabunal, Juan Ramon, 1973

25

Encyclopedia of Portal Technologies  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Portal Technologies and Applications Arthur Tatnall Victoria University, Australia of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of portal encyclopedia encompasses the economics of setting up and using personal portals, knowledge management

Fung, Benjamin C. M.

26

Encyclopedia and Poetics  

E-print Network

Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics Edited by Alex Preminger I consider this volume nearly acrostic poem) to "zeugma" (yoking unlike words), the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics in 1993, the "new" Encyclopedia, fully revised by T.V.F. Brogan, expanded the contents of the reference

Landweber, Laura

27

Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking Second Edition Margherita Pagani Bocconi trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of multimedia technology-1-60566-015-8 (ebook) 1. Multimedia communications--Encyclopedias. I. Pagani, Margherita, 1971- TK5105.15.E46 2009 621

28

Forest Encyclopedia Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".

29

Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on owls has been largely understudied. Research primarily has focused on two species, the eastern screech owl (Otus asio) and barn owl (Tyto alba). Most of this work has been conducted with captive populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, MD. In the wild, work has been, or is currently being, conducted with great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) at a Superfund site in Colorado and in agricultural croplands in Iowa, and barn owls at a Superfund site in Texas and in metal-contaminated regions of the Netherlands. As higher order consumers, owls bioconcentrate many different environmental contaminants through their prey. Owls have proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of toxic compounds, including PCB`s, metals, and fluoride. Endpoints examined include reproductive effects, eggshell thickness, residue analyses, cholinesterase inhibition, and induction of liver MFO`s. Much more work remains to be done using owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination, particularly with captive populations, salvaged individuals, raptor rehabilitation center birds, and with wild populations in areas around hazardous waste sites, smelters, landfills, agricultural croplands, and other major sources of environmental contamination.

Sheffield, S.R. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

30

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths  

PubMed Central

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

2014-01-01

31

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.  

PubMed

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

2014-01-01

32

DERMAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb in ground water, dioxins...

33

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer

S. S. Talmage; B. T. Walton

1991-01-01

34

Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the from-farm-to-fork activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

35

A prototype electronic encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a prototype electronic encyclopedia implemented on a powerful personal computer, in which user interface, media presentation, and knowledge representation techniques are applied to improving access to a knowledge resource. In itself, an electronic encyclopedia is an important information resource, but this work also illustrates the issues and approaches for many types of electronic information retrieval environments. In the

Stephen A. Weyer; Alan H. Borning

1985-01-01

36

BERKSHIRE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SUSTAINABILITY  

E-print Network

BERKSHIRE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SUSTAINABILITY V O L U M E S 1-10 A ground-breaking interdisciplinary@berkshirepublishing.com | Tel +1 413 528 0206 19 April, 2012 In the 10-volume Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, experts, regional sustainability issues, and resource and ecosystem management. The ten volumes are available

Kammen, Daniel M.

37

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico University of A Coruña, Spain of artificial intelligence / Juan Ramon Rabunal Dopico, Julian Dorado de la Calle, and Alejandro Pazos Sierra) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-850-5 (ebook) 1. Artificial intelligence--Encyclopedias. I. Rabunal, Juan Ramon, 1973

Liang, Faming

38

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between contaminant exposure and trophic level emerged. Insectivores (shrews) had the highest levels of contaminants, followed by omnivores (cricetid mice) with intermediate levels, and herbivores (voles) with the lowest levels. A substantial number of these biomonitoring studies using small mammals collectively point to the importance of food habits and habitat of small mammals, and their availability and abundance as factors that should influence species selection for monitoring studies. The type of contaminants under consideration as well as the appropriateness of the endpoints selected are important factors to consider when deciding whether or not to include small mammals in biomonitoring studies. PMID:1992495

Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

1991-01-01

39

The Canadian Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In December 2000, Historica, a Canadian foundation dedicated to the preservation of Canadian cultural heritage, posted the first online edition of The Canadian Encyclopedia, a massive one-volume reference to Canada authored by over 4,000 Canadians. This searchable edition features more than 10,000 articles written by a broad base of Canadians who are experts in their individual subjects. (An aggressive act of intellectual egalitarianism, the work employs far more authors than the much larger, but more editorially driven, Encyclopedia Britannica.) In addition to entries written in hypertext format with bibliographies, the encyclopedia offers interactive elements, such as statistical graphs, multimedia presentations of key historical events, quizzes and games, student guides, monthly topical features, and more. The encyclopedia is accessible in French and English and has a separate student's edition as well. Note: we did find some brief instances of printer code in the entries; it would appear that another edit of the online version would be beneficial.

2000-01-01

40

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

41

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

Ware, G. (ed.)

2007-07-01

42

Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAOL Medical Encyclopedia To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia includes over 4,000 articles about diseases, tests, ...

43

Encyclopedia as Textbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the students. Encyclopedias adequately expressed this vision. Some of these professors, including Johannes Alsted, were invited to Hungary, Transylvania, to introduce the encyclopedic spirit to the local schools. This act fostered the first textbook in Hungarian language written by Jnos Apczai Csere. This book was an encyclopedia born mostly in the Netherlands where the author studied. The Cartesian philosophy combined with a Ramist system served as the basis of the book. Its history shows how the local conditions influence the content of knowledge incorporated into a textbook.

Pall, Gbor

2006-11-01

44

The Encyclopedia of Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Encyclopedia of Earth is a very ambitious effort to provide high-quality information on a wide range of subjects related to the Earth, its natural environments and their interaction with society. The "About" section is a great place to start as visitors can learn about the mission, goals, and future direction of the Encyclopedia. From the homepage, visitors can read featured articles, learn about the contributors, as well as learn more about the content providers, such as the International Society for Ecological Economists. Visitors can then browse the Encyclopedia by article title, author, topic, content partner, or content source. For those who are geographically inclined, the "Where in the World?" feature lists article by location. Needless to say, this site is a great resource for anyone looking for excellent information on subjects ranging from acid rain to Vladimir Kosma Zworykin.

45

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues, 2008 Review  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2006-2007. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2008 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

46

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

47

Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and

S. G. Donaldson; J. Van Oostdam; C. Tikhonov; M. Feeley; B. Armstrong; P. Ayotte; O. Boucher; W. Bowers; L. Chan; F. Dallaire; R. Dallaire; . Dewailly; J. Edwards; G. M. Egeland; J. Fontaine; C. Furgal; T. Leech; E. Loring; G. Muckle; T. Nancarrow; D. Pereg; P. Plusquellec; M. Potyrala; O. Receveur; R. G. Shearer

2010-01-01

48

The encyclopedia of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative biology, crossing the digital divide, has begun a still largely unheralded revolution: the exploration and analysis of biodiversity at a vastly accelerated pace. Its momentum will return systematics from its long sojourn at the margin and back into the mainstream of science. Its principal achievement will be a single-portal electronic encyclopedia of life.

Edward O. Wilson

2003-01-01

49

Encyclopedia of Terrorism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As recent terrorist attacks on the United States, such as the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing, and the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East have shown, terrorism is an unfortunate reality that can have potentially devastating effects on governments, businesses, and individuals. This encyclopedia provides students, researchers, journalists, and

Combs, Cindy C.; Slann, Martin

50

Encyclopedia as Textbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the

Pallo, Gabor

2006-01-01

51

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE Middle East &  

E-print Network

#12;ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE Modern Middle East & North Africa S E C O N D E D I T I O N Vincent Battesti and Alan R. Richards, 2004. Agriculture. In Mattar Ph. (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle;ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE Modern Middle East & North Africa S E C O N D E D I T I O N VOLUME 1 Aaronsohn ­ Cyril VI

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Science and Engineering Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many online encyclopedias floating around the web, but relatively few that cover the world of engineering. This particular online encyclopedia will be of great use to students of engineering and science, and educators working in these broad areas may wish to pass it along to their students. Visitors can click around at their leisure through the alphabet of terms and concepts explained here, or they may also wish to start off in one of the topical areas, which include mechanical engineering, computing, chemistry, and physics. With several thousand entries, visitors can learn about acoustic mirrors, aerodynamic noise, auralization, and benzene rings. Overall, it's a nice find, and users will want to bookmark the site for future reference if they find themselves puzzled by Euler's equation and other weighty matters.

53

New Media Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online reference work is a scholarly research tool for the study of new media and related artistic practices. The New Media Encyclopedia, now in the first of two phases, consists of four primary sections: Glossary, Chronological Landmarks, General Bibliography, and Artists & Works. The Artists & Works section is the core of the site, containing brief biographies of new media artists and critical descriptions of their works, which users may view with a RealPlayer or QuickTime plug-in. The section currently covers 43 artists and 233 of their works. By the end of the project's second phase, scheduled for late 1999, it will include over 100 artists and 500 works garnered from the collections of the project's three collaborators: the Centre Georges Pompidou, the Museum Ludwig, and the Centre pour l'Image Contemporaine. Users should note that since the project is still in its initial phase, some portions of the encyclopedia may be under development.

54

The Encyclopedia of Suns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Suns! Many people are interested in astronomical research that touches on the relationship between astronomy and biology, or at least the possibility of biology on planets other than Earth. The popularity of research efforts such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and extrasolar planet discovery, especially among the public, shows how strong a hold these ideas have. Currently, the Encyclopedia of Suns contains over 100 stars within 50 light years (15.3 parsecs) from the Sun. It contains all stars within that distance that meet specific criteria for being plausible locations for Earthlike planets. It also has some stars outside the 50 light year limit: those that are not only Sunlike, but which also have one or more planets orbiting them.

Nash, David

2009-05-22

55

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS -CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING  

E-print Network

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS - CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING The text content Production Department at maph_proofs@elsevier.com #12;ELSEVIER FIRST PROOF Author Query Form Encyclopedia

Jardim, Marcos

56

Data-Mining and Informatics Approaches for Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

New and emerging environmental contaminants are chemicals that have not been previously detected or that are being detected at levels significantly different from those expected in both biological and ecological arenas (that is, human, wildlife, and environment). Many chemicals c...

57

Project Overview: PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The human health and ecological assessment issues related to environmental contamination by perchlorate are complex and continue to emerge. Perchlorate, ClO4-, is an anion that originates as a contaminant from the solid salts of ammonium, potassium or sodium perchlorate. These ...

58

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial Review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 20102011. Analytical Chemistry?s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Ev...

59

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

) tissue analyses showed that concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se in fish and some clams but not in sediments is that these pollutants are biomagnified in the food chain al. 2000; Van Dolah et al. 2008). Such contaminants have also entered food chains, concentrated

Mallin, Michael

60

The transcription factor encyclopedia.  

PubMed

Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Brnice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrire, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Hligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

2012-01-01

61

TechWeb Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TechWeb Network is an online resource for IT professionals providing "contextual access to the resources of CMP's network of industry-leading technology publications." The site offers this handy encyclopedia of technology terms where visitors can search a database of over 20,000 IT terms. Results are given as short definitions with links to related terms, along with links to definitions of other terms that are similar to the original term requested. For fun, visitors will also find a featured "random definition" and can browse the top 10 requested definitions.

62

The New Georgia Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Georgia Humanities Council, in partnership with the Office of the Governor and the University of Georgia Press, the New Georgia Encyclopedia represents an ambitious effort to create an authoritative online resource for literally hundreds of topics about the state of Georgia. It would seem that they are well on their way to reaching their goal of 1600 original articles by January 2006, as visitors can select from a number of broad topics to browse through, including: folklife, education, religion, and transportation. Within each topic, there are numerous subtopics, leading the way to individual articles. One rather nice feature of the Encyclopedia is that each article is accompanied by a list of suggested reading, and in many cases, there are hyperlinks to relevant external sites. The site also provides links to basic Quick Facts about the state, galleries featuring the works of prominent museums through the state, and a Features area, which each month hones-in on any number of topics, such as Creek Leaders of Georgia and Twelve Great Works of Georgia Fiction. From Hank Aaron to the Yazoo Land Fraud, this site is a fine fountain of information about the people, places, and traditions of the Peach State.

63

Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.  

PubMed

The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

2014-11-01

64

HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2011-01-01

65

The toll of toxics: Investigating environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On Earth Day of this year, the British Petroleum-operated Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, 41 miles off the Louisiana coast. The blast killed 11 workers, injured 17, launched a massive oil spill, and triggered an environmental catastrophethe full impact of which may not be realized for years.

Sparling, Donald W.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Barclay, John S.

2010-01-01

66

Handbook of mass spectra of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook is a collection of the electron impact mass spectra of 394 commonly encountered environmental pollutants. Each page is devoted to the examination of a single pollutant, which is presented as a bar graph always starting at M\\/z = 40. Each spectra is determined by analyses of data in EPA data bases. The major fragment ions are correlated with

Hites

1985-01-01

67

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

68

Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration "to help federal, state, and local officials and purchasers of seafood identify species substitution and economic deception in the marketplace." As such, the RFE is a compilation of data in several formats (including photographic and imaging parameters, specific isoelectric focusing, DNA sequence patterns, protein patterns, and taxonomic authentication) "that assists with the accurate identification of fish species." Fish and other seafood types are listed by common, regional, market, scientific, and family names, and the site also provides images of some whole fish and market cuts. Additional detailed scientific and taxonomic information is available for some species, but researchers will find the site's varied techniques for identification most useful.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (U.S.). Office of Seafood.; Affairs., United S.

2005-12-07

69

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance, or encycogov for short, is created and maintained by Henrik Mathiesen, a PhD candidate at the Department of International Economics and Management at the Copenhagen Business School. Content on the site is divided into two sections: Specific Topics and General Topics. Topics in both sections begin with a paragraph explaining the overarching definition of the principle, and link to a variety of tables, "exhibitions," and models that further illustrate the definition. For example, the Bankruptcy Systems section begins with the definition and is followed up by two tables: "Effects of bankruptcy systems on corporate performance and other kinds of institutions of relevance for corporate governance" and "International corporate governance- Tentative characterizations of legal and empirical state of large firm bankruptcy systems in various countries as of 1980-95: 1) Developing countries. 2)Germany. 3) Japan. 4) Anglo-American countries. 5) Denmark." Also included on the site are references and site users information.

70

Encyclopedia of the New Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Wired magazine, the Encyclopedia of the New Economy is a compendium of the key issues and terms that define the creation, buying, and selling of communication technology products. Terms are listed in alphabetical order and include both catch phrases and overviews. Wired Encyclopedia authors not only create a useful list of concepts, they also stimulate further thought on the controversies inherent in information technologies by leaving many definitions open-ended.

71

Environmental contamination and human exposure to lead in Brazil.  

PubMed

Adverse effects caused by environmental lead pollution are well recognized. Being a widespread agent in the environment and a major harmful element to organic systems, mostly to children, lead has been investigated all over the world, aiming to improve measures regarding its control. The purpose of this chapter is to present a review of the situation of production, uses, assessment of exposure, and adverse effects from environmental lead contamination in Brazil. It also presents aspects of Brazilian legislation setting up maximum permissible levels of lead in several environmental compartments such as surface and drinking water, soils, sediment, urban air, and also in commercially sold food, vegetables, fish, and meat, in an effort to control industrial emissions. Epidemiological investigations on children's lead exposure around industrial and mining areas are revised, showing that many situations where lead contamination is potentially present still need to be addressed by governmental agencies. In Brazil, lead was withdrawn from gasoline by the end of the 1980s, and the last lead mining and primary smelting plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination, which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Nevertheless, there are hundreds of small secondary battery recycling plants all over the country, running smelting facilities that produce local urban areas of lead contamination. PMID:15790173

Paoliello, Monica M B; De Capitani, Eduardo M

2005-01-01

72

Artemia as a Bioindicator of Environmental Contamination by Trace Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crustacean Artemia is the main component of zooplankton in natural salt ponds and salines of Sardinia. This organism appears to be suitable as an environmental bioindicator because it can reflect the degree of contamination by trace elements in the aquatic compartment. Moreover, given its role in hydroponics, where it is used to feed larvae and fry, it may clearly

F. Petrucci; S. Caimi; G. Mura; S. Caroli

1995-01-01

73

Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic

Christopher J. Griffith; Rifhat Malik; Rose A. Cooper; Nick Looker; Barry Michaels

2003-01-01

74

Birds and environmental contaminants in San Francisco and Chesapeake Bays  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The direct and indirect effects of human activities, including environmental contamination, upon bird populations in San Francisco Bay and Chesapeake Bay are imperfectly understood, and few data are available. that allow a comparison of the contamination levels in birds from these two areas. Certain trace elements and organochlorine compounds have been found at sufficiently high concentrations in bird tissues or their foods to expect adverse effects in these birds, based upon results of field and laboratory studies conducted with other avian species. The decline and recovery of populations of many avian species have been recorded, including some associated with organochlorine contamination. The present paper summarizes available information on the occurrence and potential effects of contaminants upon birds in these two regions.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Fleming, W.J.

1988-01-01

75

Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

Ferguson, Kelly K.; ONeill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

76

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, Len

1992-01-01

77

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

SciTech Connect

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, L.

1992-03-01

78

CONTRIBUTORS' PROOFCHECKING INSTRUCTIONS FOR ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INSECTS  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTORS' PROOFCHECKING INSTRUCTIONS FOR ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INSECTS PROOFREADING The text content.dinsmore@elsevier.com. This e-mail should clearly identify the encyclopedia title and article title. The corrections listed

Papaj, Daniel

79

www.aspbs.com/enn Encyclopedia of  

E-print Network

www.aspbs.com/enn Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Micro- and Nanomechanics Barton C by American Scientific Publishers All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Encyclopedia of Nanoscience

Espinosa, Horacio D.

80

Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology Thomas E. Creighton  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology Thomas E. Creighton ISBN: 0-471-15302-8 ATP Synthase: Two rotary be divided into two operational regions denoted Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 4 Volume Set Thomas E

Oster, George

81

www.aspbs.com/enn Encyclopedia of  

E-print Network

www.aspbs.com/enn Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Ion Implanted Nanostructures Karen of reproduction in any form reserved. Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Edited by H. S. Nalwa Volume

Webb, Roger P.

82

Transport of organic environmental contaminants to animal products.  

PubMed

A large number of chemical contaminants potentially may be present in agricultural environments, leading to exposure of animals and potential residues in animal products. The contamination may be either widespread, as a result of aerial transport of industrial emissions, or localized, as a result of accidental emissions and spills, improper waste disposal, contaminants in useful products, and areas of past use of products now banned. The halogenated hydrocarbons, including the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and persistent organochlorine insecticides remaining from past use, are the contaminants of most concern. Depending on the degree and pattern of chlorine substitution, these compounds are resistant to degradation and tend to accumulate in the fat of animals and their products. Other classes of environmental contaminants as exemplified by the PAHs, phthalate esters, acid phenolics, and nitrosamines also may occur widely in the environment. These compounds are unlikely to be transported to animal products because the compounds are water-soluble or can be metabolized to water-soluble products, which are excreted in the urine and thus do not bioaccumulate in products such as milk and meat. The points of entry of environmental contaminants into agricultural environments usually are plants and soils. Lipophilic compounds such as the halogenated hydrocarbons are not taken up and translocated by plants. Contamination of plants is mainly a surface phenomenon resulting from aerial deposition of emissions or deposition of compounds volatilized from the surface of contaminated soil. Thus, fibrous roughages used primarily in feeding cattle and other ruminants will be the most important pathway of animal exposure and transport to human foods. The second pathway of animal exposure is by ingestion of contaminated soil while grazing or when confined to unpaved facilities. As in the case of feed sources, cattle is the species most vulnerable to exposure by the soil ingestion pathway under most commercial management systems, but poultry and swine are more vulnerable in those infrequent situations in which these species have access to contaminated soil. PMID:7886255

Fries, G F

1995-01-01

83

DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING AN ELECTROSPRAY INTERFACE COMBINED WITH AN ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development, was interested in determining environmental contaminants using a commercial electrospray which is interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) to analyze contaminants of concern. ptimi...

84

Environmental contamination of groundwater in the Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental problems of groundwater contamination in the Gaza Strip are summarized in this paper. The Gaza Strip is a very narrow and highly populated area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (360 km2). Human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources in the area, while the unconfined nature of some parts of the coastal main aquifer favors groundwater contamination. Recent investigations show contamination of the aquifer with organic substances from detergents, agrochemicals, sewage (cesspools), and waste degradation. These effects enhance each other because there is no recycling industry, sewage system, or any type of environmental protection management at present. Inorganic contamination results from overpumping, which increases the salinity of the groundwater. Seawater intrusion also increases the salinity of the groundwater that are used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Consequently, at present about 80 percent of the groundwater in the Gaza Strip is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Solutions are very urgently needed for these problems in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases.

Al-Agha, M. R.

1995-03-01

85

Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From William Howard Taft to Toledo, the Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia is a veritable cornucopia of material about the places, events, and other elements of the Buckeye state's history and lore. As noted on the site's homepage, this encyclopedia ¯¿½"is an evolving, dynamic online encyclopedia that includes information about Ohio's natural history, prehistory and history.¯¿½ That is certainly a tall order to fill, and the site does so admirably. Visitors can click on over to the built-in search engine on the homepage, or just browse along through such broad categories as "History", "Natural History", and "State Symbols". Visitors to this last category may be intrigued to learn that the state's beverage is tomato juice, or that the state's official insect is the ladybug, a peaceful creature best known for its voracious appetite for aphids.

2006-01-01

86

Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia is an initiative of the CHICO (Cultural Heritage Information and Community Outreach) project at the University of Michigan's School of Information (SI). SI cooperated with the School of Music's Stearns Museum of Musical Instruments to develop this comprehensive resource about instruments from around the world. Users may browse the encyclopedia by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme, by geographic origin, or by four major instrument types: percussion, string, wind, and electronic. Users may also conduct full-text searches, or they may search the encyclopedia by instrument title, origin, maker, materials, or description. In addition, an instrument glossary as well as links to other instrument reference resources are available at the site.

1999-01-01

87

Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); thesemeshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit is eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype sorber device for simultaneous CO2 and trace contarninant removal and its attendant weight and energy savings.

Roychoudhury, S.; Perry, J.

2004-01-01

88

Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants. Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (2) smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (3) smokers who expose their children to ETS. Setting: Homes of smokers and non-smokers. Participants: Smoking and non-smoking mothers and their infants ? 1 year. Main outcome measures: ETS contamination as measured by nicotine in household dust, indoor air, and household surfaces. ETS exposure as measured by cotinine levels in infant urine. Results: ETS contamination and ETS exposure were 57 times higher in households of smokers trying to protect their infants by smoking outdoors than in households of non-smokers. ETS contamination and exposure were 38 times higher in households of smokers who exposed their infants to ETS by smoking indoors than in households of smokers trying to protect their children by smoking outdoors. Conclusions: Dust and surfaces in homes of smokers are contaminated with ETS. Infants of smokers are at risk of ETS exposure in their homes through dust, surfaces, and air. Smoking outside the home and away from the infant reduces but does not completely protect a smoker's home from ETS contamination and a smoker's infant from ETS exposure. PMID:14985592

Matt, G; Quintana, P; Hovell, M; Bernert, J; Song, S; Novianti, N; Juarez, T; Floro, J; Gehrman, C; Garcia, M; Larson, S

2004-01-01

89

Susceptibility of human populations to environmental exposure to organic contaminants.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure to organic contaminants is a complex function of environmental conditions, food chain characteristics, and chemical properties. In this study the susceptibility of various human populations to environmental exposure to neutral organic contaminants was compared. An environmental fate model and a linked bioaccumulation model were parametrized to describe ecosystems in different climatic regions (temperate, arctic, tropical, and steppe). The human body burden resulting from constant emissions of hypothetical chemicals was estimated for each region. An exposure susceptibility index was defined as the body burden in the region of interest normalized to the burden of the same chemical in a reference human from the temperate region eating an average diet. For most persistent chemicals emitted to air, the Arctic had the highest susceptibility index (max 520). Susceptibility to exposure was largely determined by the food web properties. The properties of the physical environment only had a marked effect when air or water, not food, was the dominant source of human exposure. Shifting the mode of emission markedly changed the relative susceptibility of the ecosystems in some cases. The exposure arising from chemical use clearly varies between ecosystems, which makes an understanding of ecosystem susceptibility to exposure important for chemicals management. PMID:20704223

Undeman, Emma; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; McLachlan, Michael S

2010-08-15

90

Encyclopedia of Smoking and Tobacco.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia presents an extensive listing of current and historical information relating to tobacco. It aims to provide accurate, current, and balanced information to people of all viewpoints and on both sides of the smoking debate. The A-to-Z format makes a vast amount of current information easily accessible. Over 600 entries are complied

Hirschfelder, Arlene B.

91

Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

Hall, R.J.

1980-01-01

92

Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-Part B: Working papers  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management; (2) Assessment of carcinogenic risks from PCBs in food; (3) Economic analysis of alternative action levels in the regulation of environmental contaminants in food; (4) Analysis of foods for radioactivity; (5) Approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants in food; (6) Analytical systems for the determination of metals in food and water supplies; (7) Assessment of methods for regulating 'unavoidable' contaminants in the food supply; and (8) Consumer risk from environmental contaminants in food.

Not Available

1980-01-01

93

Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

NONE

1996-10-01

94

Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

Moody, R P; Chu, I

1995-01-01

95

Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.  

PubMed

Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

2010-10-01

96

DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE ASSAY FOR VITELLOGENIN TO MONITOR ESTROGEN-LIKE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many environmental contaminants have the potential to disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife and humans resulting in impairment of reproductive and other systems. A subset of these contaminants may initiate these effects by binding to the estrogen receptor. In oviparous vertebrate...

97

Gerhard Fischer 1 Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences Contribution to the International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Discipline  

E-print Network

Gerhard Fischer 1 Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences Contribution to the International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Discipline "Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science Fischer 2 Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences main strategy in the fight against unemployment

Fischer, Gerhard

98

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry Free Sample Articles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From publishers John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, considered the "most comprehensive analytical chemistry reference available," is due for publication in October 2000. In anticipation of the release of this fifteen-volume set, the publisher has posted a teaser: seventeen articles are freely available on the encyclopedia's Website. By completing a simple form, users may access representative articles (in .pdf format) from encyclopedia sections such as Peptides and Proteins; Electroanalytic Methods; Infrared, X-ray, and Mass Spectroscopy; Remote Sensing; and more. Libraries or wealthy individuals interested in ordering the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry ($4,800) may do so at the site.

99

The Internet Encyclopedia of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can learn astonishing facts in historical astronomy, astrobiology, astrophysics, space missions, and many more space science topics at this comprehensive website. David Darling, a British astronomer and science writer, provides straightforward explanations of seemingly difficult concepts. In addition to an easily navigable alphabetical list and a keyword search, the encyclopedia is interlinked so that users can easily progress through the materials. The website also features the latest space science news stories as well as archives of exciting events.

2005-12-30

100

Recycling in the Encyclopedia 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-cycling' is the principle that concepts are 're-cycled' rather than duplicated. At the interface between the encyclopedia and the lexicon, this means that a concept may serve both as the meaning of a word and also as part of ordinary non-linguistic cognition; for example, the ordinary concept 'bicycle' which we use in everyday life in classifying experiences is also the

Richard Hudson; Jasper Holmes

101

A Framework for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis for Remediation or Restoration of Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net environmental benefits are gains in value of environmental services or other ecological properties attained by remediation or ecological restoration minus the value of adverse environmental effects caused by those actions. Net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) is a methodology for comparing and ranking net environmental benefits associated with multiple management alternatives. A NEBA for chemically contaminated sites typically involves comparison

Rebecca A. Efroymson; Joseph P. Nicolette; Glenn W. Suter II

2004-01-01

102

ADAPTIONS OF WILD POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS TO PERSISTENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many aquatic species, including the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichogs), adapt to local environmental conditions. We conducted studies to evaluate whether highly exposed populations of mummichogs adapt to toxic environmental contaminants. These fish populations are ...

103

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MARITIME HISTORY OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS  

E-print Network

1 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MARITIME HISTORY OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 8. Social History/Ports and Labor C-22Feb2010 Author manuscript, published in "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History, Oxford and until the 1990s, Incheon enjoys the highest growth of industrial employment and rural immigration but

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

UCLA Plans Online Encyclopedia of Egyptology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) has unveiled plans for what appears to be the world's first online, peer-reviewed encyclopedia devoted to ancient Egypt. The "UCLA Encyclopedia of Egypt," which in April won a $325,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, will include material in Arabic as well as English. The

Howard, Jennifer

2006-01-01

105

[The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].  

PubMed

On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution. PMID:22977954

del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

2011-01-01

106

A Solution to the Problem of Updating Encyclopedias  

E-print Network

A Solution to the Problem of Updating Encyclopedias Eric M. Hammer and Edward N. Zalta Center This paper describes a way of creating and maintaining a `dy- namic encyclopedia', i.e., an encyclopedia of an entire new edition. Such an encyclopedia is there- fore responsive to new developments and new research

Zalta, Edward N.

107

Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the UK Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme, this site is designed as a one-stop resource for students and general users who have questions about atmospheric issues and terms. The encyclopedia is divided into sections, each of which contains a number of short definitions for selected terms. As a testament to the international appeal of the Simpsons, definitions for adults or younger users are noted by Mr. Burns and Bart Simpson icons, respectively. Also included are lengthy collections of related links and recommended reading.

United Kingdom. Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme.

2000-01-01

108

Encyclopedia of Music in Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Encyclopedia of Music in Canada offers instant access to a complete reference of everything musical in Canada. This second edition of the Website is offered by the National Library of Canada and seeks to "reflect Canadian music's richness and diversity." Presented in French and English, the staggeringly large amount of information can be searched or browsed easily. As an example, when browsing under the letter "a," over 3,500 matches are given including artists, genres, instruments, education, organizations, and much more. The site gives clear descriptions and instructions, allowing users a simple, informative, and up-to-date resource.

2001-01-01

109

The ESPERE Climate Encyclopedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESPERE (Environmental Science Published for Everybody Round the Earth) is a project that seeks to bring current scientific knowledge of the climate system to schools and to make it understandable for teachers, pupils and a wider public. Within ESPERE-ENC a climate encyclopaedia is being developed for use in classes. This Internet publication (URL: www.espere.net) should not only deliver peer-reviewed, reliable and topical information, but promote also the interactive exchange of scientist and non-scientists. The consortium working on this plan consists of Earth scientists on the one hand and representatives of the national educational systems on the other hand. The English master version of the encyclopaedia has been finished end of 2003 and the translation into six other languages is currently taking place, making ESPERE one of the largest providers of climate information in Europe. Building up an international Network, concentrating on the basic processes in the climate system, ESPERE should co-operate with scientific and educational institutes world wide.

de Sherbinin, A. M.; Uherek, E.; Moneo, M.

2004-12-01

110

Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of an interdisciplinary international effort to take a critical look at the phenomenon of mass violence, the Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence is supported by a number of organizations, including The Center for International Research and Studies and The Foundation for the Memory of the Shoah. The primary purpose of the Encyclopedia Project is "to create a regularly updated electronic database focusing on massacres and genocides of the 20th century." First-time visitors can use the interactive map of the world on the homepage to begin their exploration of the site. Within each region of the world (and by extension, each individual country), visitors can read chronological indexes, case studies, and take a look at scholarly reviews of works related to each region or country's genocides or massacres. Visitors should not miss the "Latest contributions" area, which includes the latest works from the Project. Recently featured items here have included an evaluation of The Boxer Uprising and the Burundi Killings of 1972. Overall, it's a very ambitious project, and one that scholars and members of the general public will want to check up on from time to time.

2008-01-01

111

Propolis as an indicator of environmental contamination by metals.  

PubMed

Concentrations of eleven representative metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn) in forty-two propolis samples were measured by electrothermal atomization and flame atomic absorption spectrometry after calcination in a muffle furnace. Samples were collected from different regions from Paran State - Brazil where apiculture is an important economic activity. Results showed that the average content of Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn in propolis was 0.68, 1.66, 7.59, 1.27, 0.08, 0.58 and 0.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Levels of Al, Ca, and Mg were statistically different in some regions of Paran and could be used to assign the geographical origin of the propolis. The average concentration of the Cd, Cr, and Pb in raw propolis was 0.13, 5.53 and 9.85 ?g g(-1), respectively, and allowed for identification of specific areas with environmental contamination. PMID:24414164

Finger, Daiane; Filho, Irineo Kelte; Torres, Yohandra Reyes; Quinia, Sueli Prcio

2014-03-01

112

Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Landrum, P.F. [Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

113

Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

1985-01-01

114

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS), an electronic publication of the MIT Press, is a new comprehensive reference work that encompasses the diverse theories and methodologies of the cognitive and brain sciences. The encyclopedia contains 471 specialized articles by preeminent researchers and scholars; articles include extensive bibliographies and provide multiple cross-references. MITECS spans six major topics: Philosophy; Psychology; Neuroscience; Computational Intelligence; Linguistics and Language; and Culture, Cognition, and Evolution. The introductory essays that precede each major section discuss topics within the larger framework of the cognitive sciences. The encyclopedia may be browsed by an author or a topic index, and the entire work is searchable by keyword. Please note that first-time users of the encyclopedia are required to register at the site; necessary registration information includes email address, full name, and research interests.

2005-11-07

115

Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2002 ROSSBY WAVES  

E-print Network

1 Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2002 ___________________________________________ ROSSBY WAVES Peter B. Rhines School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Large` wave. These waves owe their existence to the rotation and spherical shape of the Earth. Weather

Bordoni, Simona

116

The Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published from time to time from 1914 to 1967, The Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography was the product of the Lewis Publishing Company. These massive tomes profiled a range of persons who had risen to prominence in the Keystone State. Recently, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries digitized the first volumes published before 1923 and placed them online here. Visitors can search through all of the volumes, and they are also encouraged to type in keywords like "Drexel", "Franklin", and "Furness" to get started. The site also includes the "Who's Who in Pennsylvania" books from 1904 and 1908. These works feature notable personages from the early 20th century, and they can also be read as historical documents that offer a portrait of the movers and shakers of their era.

117

Encycogov: Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance, or encycogov for short, is created and maintained by Henrik Mathiesen, a PhD candidate at the Department of International Economics and Management at the Copenhagen Business School. Content on the site is divided into two sections: Specific Topics and General Topics. Topics in both sections begin with a paragraph explaining the overarching definition of the principle, and link to a variety of tables, "exhibitions," and models that further illustrate the definition. For example, the Bankruptcy Systems section begins with the definition and is followed up by two tables: "Effects of bankruptcy systems on corporate performance and other kinds of institutions of relevance for corporate governance" and "International corporate governance- Tentative characterizations of legal and empirical state of large firm bankruptcy systems in various countries as of 1980-95: 1) Developing countries. 2)Germany. 3) Japan. 4) Anglo-American countries. 5) Denmark." Also included on the site are references and site users information.

2010-01-05

118

Manure-borne estrogens as potential environmental contaminants: a review.  

PubMed

Livestock wastes are potential sources of endocrine disrupting compounds to the environment. Steroidal estrogen hormones such as estradiol, estrone, and estriol are a particular concern because there is evidence that low nanogram per liter concentrations of estrogens in water can adversely affect the reproductive biology of fish and other aquatic vertebrate species. We performed a literature review to assess the current state of science regarding estrogen physicochemical properties, livestock excretion, and the fate of manure-borne estrogens in the environment. Unconjugated steroidal estrogens have low solubility in water (0.8-13.3 mg L(-1)) and are moderately hydrophobic (log Kow 2.6-4.0). Cattle excrete mostly 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts, whereas swine and poultry excrete mostly 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts. The environmental fate of estrogens is not clearly known. Laboratory-based studies have found that the biological activity of these compounds is greatly reduced or eliminated within several hours to days due to degradation and sorption. On the other hand, field studies have demonstrated that estrogens are sufficiently mobile and persistent to impact surface and groundwater quality. Future research should use standardized methods for the analysis of manure, soil, and water. More information is needed about the types and amounts of estrogens that exist in livestock wastes and the fate of manure-borne estrogens applied to agricultural lands. Field and laboratory studies should work toward revealing the mechanisms of estrogen degradation, sorption, and transport so that the risk of estrogen contamination of waterways can be minimized. PMID:14717153

Hanselman, Travis A; Graetz, Donald A; Wilkie, Ann C

2003-12-15

119

Information Product Creation Through Open Source Encyclopedias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The same open source philosophy that has been traditionally applied to software development can be applied to the collaborative creation of non-software information products, such as encyclopedias, books, and dictionaries. Most notably, the eight-year-old Wikipedia is a comprehensive general encyclopedia, comprising over 12 million articles in over 200 languages. It becomes increasingly important to rigorously investigate the workings of the

Chitu Okoli; John Molson

2009-01-01

120

Association between indoor environmental contamination by Salmonella enterica and contamination of eggs on layer farms.  

PubMed

This study involves longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella carriage and environmental contamination on two commercial cage layer farms positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (flock A age, 32 weeks; flock B age, 34 weeks). Salmonella-positive fecal, egg belt, and dust samples were all unconditionally associated with eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. The odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella were 91.8, 61.5, and 18.2 times higher when fecal, egg belt, and dust samples, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella. The agreement between the culture-based methods and real-time PCR on preenriched broths for detecting Salmonella was almost perfect for eggshell (observed agreement, 99.19%; kappa coefficient, 0.94) and egg belt samples (observed agreement, 95%; kappa coefficient, 0.88), and it was substantial for fecal (observed agreement, 87.14%; kappa coefficient, 0.47) and floor dust samples (observed agreement, 80.61%; kappa coefficient, 0.58). A 1-log increase in the load of Salmonella detected in the fecal, egg belt, and floor dust samples resulted in 35%, 43%, and 45% increases, respectively (P < 0.001), in the odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella. The multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) patterns of the S. Typhimurium strains isolated from flock A were distinct from those of flock B. S. Typhimurium strains detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited an MLVA pattern similar to those of the strains isolated from flocks A and B. PMID:24966362

Gole, Vaibhav C; Torok, Valeria; Sexton, Margaret; Caraguel, Charles G B; Chousalkar, Kapil K

2014-09-01

121

A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management.  

PubMed

A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including "residential land" and "industrial land" environmental guidelines under "strict" and "loose" strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management. PMID:23995555

Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-Ya; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Da-Zhou; Li, Yu

2013-10-15

122

Isotope Biomonitoring in Riverine Ecosystems: Tools for Understanding Linkages Between Environmental Contaminants and Basin Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of accumulative environmental contaminants (e.g., metals and organocholoro-pesticides) often exhibit wide temporal variations in riverine systems. Aquatic fauna, however, concentrate these contaminants into their biomass, providing a relatively long-term integrated record of water quality. In order to accurately determine how these contaminants are bioaccumulated within local food webs, it is essential to understand the relative trophic positions of the

C. Kendall; S. D. Wankel; G. Cabana; C. Schmitt

2002-01-01

123

SUITABILITY OF CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS) FOR INVESTIGATING REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) are being studied at our laboratory as a model species to determine the effects of environmental contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), on estuarine fish populations. Cunner are easily obtainable and are amenable to laborator...

124

Endocrine disrupting effects of environmental contaminants in herring gull embryos and cultured avian hepatocytes.  

E-print Network

??The effects of non-polar environmental contaminants on components of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis were examined in herring gull (Larus (more)

Lorenzen, Angela.

2009-01-01

125

Studies in Avian Biology No. 26:168176, 2003. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN SURROGATE BIRDS AND  

E-print Network

. SFERRA, AND KIRKE KING Abstract. Several deformed Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii, Empidonax traillii extimus, inorganic elements, insectiv- orous birds, PCBs, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). Environmental contaminants

Mora, Miguel A.

126

The Accumulation and Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Snakes: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any ecological risk assessment, afull complement of the relevant members of theecosystems being studied should be considered. Reptiles in general, and snakes in particular, areimportant although often neglected components ofterrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and should beincluded in any study on environmental contamination. By neglecting reptiles, the risks posed by aparticular contaminant cannot be fully assessed. Since all snakes are

Kym Rouse Campbell; Todd S. Campbell

2001-01-01

127

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane ( Grus canadensis pulla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained

Donald H. White; Clifford P. Rice; David J. Hoffman; George F. Gee

1994-01-01

128

Contaminant modeling. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This note provides initial information on contaminant models that are potentially applicable to situations where the presence of toxic materials in sediments complicates Corps of Engineers (CE) dredging activities.

Bird, S.L.; Dortch, M.

1988-03-01

129

Environmental Contaminants in Hospital Settings and Progress in Disinfecting Techniques  

PubMed Central

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36C/22C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

130

Environmental contaminants in hospital settings and progress in disinfecting techniques.  

PubMed

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36C/22C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Messina, Gabriele; Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

131

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry over the period of 2000-2001. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2002 are also included. The previous Environmental Mass Spectrometry review was very comprehensive, including...

132

Nanostructured Materials for Environmental Remediation of Organic Contaminants in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials have opened new avenues in various scientific fields and are providing novel opportunities in environmental science. The increased surface area-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles, quantum size effects, and the ability to tune surface properties through molecular modification make nanostructures ideal for many environmental remediation applications. We describe herein the fabrication of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications,

Sherine O. Obare; Gerald J. Meyer

2004-01-01

133

UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

134

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOILS IN THE ENVIRONMENT -CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING  

E-print Network

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOILS IN THE ENVIRONMENT - CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING The text content Production Department at: soil_proofs@elsevier.com. 14-Feb-2004 #12;Author Query Form Book: Encyclopedia

Walter, M.Todd

135

A framework for net environmental benefit analysis for remediation or restoration of contaminated sites.  

PubMed

Net environmental benefits are gains in value of environmental services or other ecological properties attained by remediation or ecological restoration minus the value of adverse environmental effects caused by those actions. Net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) is a methodology for comparing and ranking net environmental benefits associated with multiple management alternatives. A NEBA for chemically contaminated sites typically involves comparison of several management alternatives: (1) leaving contamination in place; (2) physically, chemically, or biologically remediating the site through traditional means; (3) improving ecological value through onsite and offsite restoration alternatives that do not directly focus on removal of chemical contamination; or (4) a combination of those alternatives. NEBA involves activities that are common to remedial alternatives analysis for state regulations and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, post-closure and corrective action permits under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, evaluation of generic types of response actions pertinent to the Oil Pollution Act, and land management actions that are negotiated with regulatory agencies in flexible regulatory environments (i.e., valuing environmental services or other ecological properties, assessing adverse impacts, and evaluating remediation or restoration options). This article presents a high-level framework for NEBA at contaminated sites with subframeworks for natural attenuation (the contaminated reference state), remediation, and ecological restoration alternatives. Primary information gaps related to NEBA include nonmonetary valuation methods, exposure-response models for all stressors, the temporal dynamics of ecological recovery, and optimal strategies for ecological restoration. PMID:15520889

Efroymson, Rebecca A; Nicolette, Joseph P; Suter, Glenn W

2004-09-01

136

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

SciTech Connect

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Schuler, C.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-01-01

137

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.  

PubMed

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

2007-09-01

138

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Dynamic Reference Work  

E-print Network

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Dynamic Reference Work Colin Allen , Uri Nodelman , Edward@stanford.edu, zalta@stanford.edu The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is a dynamic two years, the encyclopedia has grown rapidly. We have been publishing new entries at an average rate

Zalta, Edward N.

139

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Developed Dynamic Reference Work  

E-print Network

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Developed Dynamic Reference Work Colin Allen Philosophy and Associate Editor of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Graduate Student in Computer Science at Stanford University, Associate Pro- grammer and Assistant Editor of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Senior

Zalta, Edward N.

140

Raymond S. Nickerson Recent articles, chapters, encyclopedia entries  

E-print Network

Raymond S. Nickerson Recent articles, chapters, encyclopedia entries: · Nickerson, R. S. (1996. S. (2000). Teaching intelligence. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 498 environment. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol 4, pp. 170-172). New York: Oxford

Patel, Aniruddh D.

141

Temporal Database Entries for the Springer Encyclopedia of Database Systems  

E-print Network

Temporal Database Entries for the Springer Encyclopedia of Database Systems Christian S. Jensen Database Entries for the Springer Encyclopedia of Database Systems Copyright c 2009 Springer. All rights. #12;Preface In January 2007 Ling Liu and Tamer ¨Ozsu started work on an Encyclopedia of Database

Snodgrass, Richard T.

142

Becoming Wikipedian: Transformation of Participation in a Collaborative Online Encyclopedia  

E-print Network

Becoming Wikipedian: Transformation of Participation in a Collaborative Online Encyclopedia Susan L-authored online encyclopedia. Legitimate peripheral participation provides a lens for understanding participation is an open-content encyclopedia, built on wiki technology. The first wiki was launched in 1995 by Ward

Bruckman, Amy

143

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Dynamic Reference Work  

E-print Network

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Dynamic Reference Work Edward N. Zalta , Colin Allen , Uri@stanford.edu The primary goal of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Phi- losophy project , less formal, on-line encyclopedia projects. We will demonstrate how our password-protected web in

Zalta, Edward N.

144

www.elsevier.com/emp Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics  

E-print Network

www.elsevier.com/emp Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics First comprehensive interdisciplinary with the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics. TSOU SHEUNG TSUN Dr. Tsou Sheung Tsun obtained her B.Sc. in Hong Kong EDITORIAL BOARD #12;Key features of the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics 1. First comprehensive

Temple, Blake

145

German Encyclopedia Alignment Based on Information Retrieval Techniques  

E-print Network

German Encyclopedia Alignment Based on Information Retrieval Techniques Roman Kern1 and Michael. Collaboratively created online encyclopedias have become increasingly popular. Especially in terms of completeness they have be- gun to surpass their printed counterparts. Two German publishers of traditional encyclopedias

Hammerton, James

146

Visually Exploring Social Participation in Encyclopedia of Life  

E-print Network

Visually Exploring Social Participation in Encyclopedia of Life Jae-wook Ahn, Jennifer Hammock citizen science web platform called the Encyclopedia of Life using dynamic network visualization methods called Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org). EOL is a "c

Shneiderman, Ben

147

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Chapter Number 00403  

E-print Network

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Chapter Number 00403 Book CopyRight - Year 2010 Title (Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2b) Postcode FI-00014 City Helsinki State Country Finland 1 #12;Encyclopedia and their frequencies: C. Sammut, G. Webb (eds.), Encyclopedia of Machine Learning, DOI . / - - - - , © Springer

Toivonen, Hannu

148

The Treatment of the Occult in General Encyclopedias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a content analysis of three general encyclopedias, "Encyclopedia Americana" (EA), "Encyclopaedia Brittanica" (EB), and "World Book Encyclopedia" (WBC), which quantifies the treatment of the occult. Entries are selected from each by starting with the article "Occultism" and tracing all cross-references. Cross-references are likewise

Sonnenfeld, Gary F.

149

An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor  

E-print Network

LETTER An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative found that amphibians only exhibit moderate relative responses to water-borne toxins. Our findings imply

Storfer, Andrew

150

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,  

E-print Network

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist the importance of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development, it is of potential concern that a wide variety of environmental chemicals can interfere with thyroid function or, perhaps of greater concern, with TH action

Zoeller, R. Thomas

151

GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children?s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

152

Cost assessment of various means of averting environmental damage and groundwater contamination from nitrate seepage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizers are used in addition to irrigation water to increase soil fertility and productivity, but cropped areas are sources of groundwater contamination due to loads of nitrates carried downwards by seepage of excess water. The public is increasingly aware of the grave problems of environmental damage caused by groundwater pollution. These environmental effects are not considered by farmers, whose production

Nava Haruvy; A. Hadas

1997-01-01

153

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and

T. C. Michot; T. W. Custer; A. J. Nault; C. A. Mitchell

1994-01-01

154

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: Monitoring environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (PMustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from

R. S. Halbrook; J. H. Jenkins; P. B. Bush; N. D. Seabolt

1994-01-01

155

Monitoring of lymphocyte micronuclei among newborns from Kragujevac in Central Serbia before and after environmental contamination.  

PubMed

The air strikes on "Zastava" complex in Kragujevac, in the spring of 1999, caused extensive environmental pollution with damage to soil, water and air. Since the main problem was the leakage of several tones of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as heavy metals Cr and Ni into the environment and groundwater, we decided to evaluate influence of the environmental contamination on eventual changes of genetic constitution of human body cells. The subjects analyzed were 36 phenotypically healthy newborn babies, who were born 12 months (n=22) and 18 months (n=14) after environmental contamination, and 25 newborns in 1998 as a control group. For the assessment of mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants in vivo, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test was employed. The results show significant increase of micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from newborns born 12 months after contamination (9.36 +/- 5.60), in comparison to controls (5.53 +/- 3.02) and newborns born 18 months after contamination (6.14 +/- 3.57). Only 3 newborns (12%) out of 25 controls showed more than 1 MN/1000 binucleated cells in respect to 8/22 after 12 months (36%) and 2/14 after 18 months from contamination (14%). The mean number of binucleated cells with MN significantly varied in function of sex and environmental changes in newborns born 12 months after contamination (as demonstrated by the analysis of covariance F=9.61, p <0.003). After 18 months of contamination, environmental components had no noticeable effects on MN frequency (F=0.5, p >0.48). These results suggest that the exposure to environmental pollutants in utero affects genetic constitution of fetus and increases MN values in their body cells, which is detectable right after birth in peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:15635268

Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera; Grujicic, Darko; Arsenijevic, Slobodan; Marinkovic, Dragoslav

2005-01-01

156

The lead content of plants and animals as indicators of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Lead content of tissues from some edible plants, pigeons and a vulture, and from human and cattle blood were determined to gain insight into the extent of environmental lead contamination in Zaria and Kaduna environs of Kaduna state of Nigeria. The results suggest that environmental lead contamination in these areas was insignificant when compared to values from developed countries like US. However, there is need for more work of this nature on a regional basis to ascertain the true picture of total environmental lead pollution in Nigeria.

Adaudi, A.O.; Gbodi, T.A.; Aliu, Y.O. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria))

1990-10-01

157

Environmental assessment of waste matrices contaminated with arsenic.  

PubMed

The use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests has been proposed to provide an integrated assessment of leaching processes from solid wastes. The objectives of the research presented here are to (i) validate this assessment approach for contaminated soils and cement-based matrices, (ii) evaluate the use of diffusion and coupled dissolution-diffusion models for estimating constituent release, and (iii) evaluate model parameterization using results from batch equilibrium leaching tests and physical characterization. The test matrices consisted of (i) a soil contaminated with arsenic from a pesticide production facility, (ii) the same soil subsequently treated by a Portland cement stabilization/solidification (S/S) process, and (iii) a synthetic cement-based matrix spiked with arsenic(III) oxide. Results indicated that a good assessment of contaminant release from contaminated soils and cement-based S/S treated wastes can be obtained by the integrated use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests in conjunction with the appropriate release model. During the time scale of laboratory testing, the release of arsenic from the contaminated soil matrix was governed by diffusion and the solubility of arsenic in the pore solution while the release of arsenic from the cement-based matrices was mainly controlled by solubilization at the interface between the matrix and the bulk leaching solution. In addition, results indicated that (i) estimation of the activity coefficient within the matrix pore water is necessary for accurate prediction of constituent release rates and (ii) inaccurate representation of the factors controlling release during laboratory testing can result in significant errors in release estimates. PMID:12493211

Sanchez, F; Garrabrants, A C; Vandecasteele, C; Moszkowicz, P; Kosson, D S

2003-01-31

158

Environmental contaminants in caribou in the Northwest Territories, Canada.  

PubMed

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are strict herbivores with a winter diet consisting primarily of lichen. This simple food chain makes caribou a good species for monitoring changes in arctic terrestrial ecosystem contamination. The defined ranges of herds across the Northwest Territories (NWT) also enables examination of spatial trends in contaminant exposure. Caribou were collected from five locations in the first half of a study designed to examine levels of a broad spectrum of organochlorine, heavy metal, and radionuclide contaminants. A wide range of contaminants were detected, with most compounds found at relatively low levels. In general, organochlorine residues were significantly lower in caribou from the mainland Bathurst and Qamanirjuaq (Arviat) and the Southampton Island herds than in caribou from Cape Dorset and Lake Harbour on southern Baffin Island. Moderate levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) were detected at all five study sites. HCB residues ranged from a lipid corrected mean of 32.83 ng/g in fat of Bathurst caribou to 129.41 ng/g in Lake Harbour animals. Alpha-HCH levels ranged from 8.11 ng/g in Bathurst animals to 37.9 ng/g in Cape Dorset caribou. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma PCB) residues ranged from 6.24 ng/g in fat of Arviat caribou to 31.68 ng/g in Cape Dorset animals. Congeners 153 and 138 were the most dominant of the 43 congeners tested. Metal levels were also relatively low with the exception of cadmium, which had community means of 9.68- 33.87 micrograms/g in kidney tissue and 1.96-4.39 micrograms/g in liver tissue. Moderate levels of cesium-137 were detected, with community means of 33.2-184.1 Bq/kg in muscle tissue. Long-range atmospheric transport appears to be the primary source of the contaminants detected in this study. PMID:7892575

Elkin, B T; Bethke, R W

1995-01-15

159

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants  

E-print Network

, a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter for groundwater treatment inoculated with a microbial consortium filter. Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a frequent co-contaminant of MTBE had no inhibitory effect on MTBE tert-butyl ether; TBA ­ tert-butyl alcohol Introduction Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its biodeg

160

Potential of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for remediation of environmental organic contaminants in water: a review.  

PubMed

Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has the potential to degrade different organic contaminants. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) can reduce the contaminants even more rapidly due to its small size and large specific surface area (SSA), compared to granular ZVI. The main objective of this paper is to assess and compare the potential of NZVI for degradation of different contaminants in water under specific environmental conditions. As a first step, the potential reactive functional groups/bonds associated with different contaminants are identified and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. Thereafter, the reaction efficiencies of different organic contaminants with NZVI are compared. Mass of ZVI and reaction time required to transform a certain amount of contaminated water are calculated based on literature data. Sources of contaminants in the environment and their environmental occurrences are discussed to understand the potential locations where NZVI could be applied for removal of different contaminants. Overall it is observed that azo-compounds are readily transformed in the presence of NZVI particles. Reaction efficiencies of ZVI for reduction of nitro-organic compounds are also reasonably high. However, halogenated compounds with high molecular weights or complex structures (i.e., iodinated contrast media, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) show lower reaction rates with NZVI compared to the widely studied chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e., trichloroethylene). PMID:24135090

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Scheytt, Traugott

2013-01-01

161

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses.

R. G. Anthony; M. G. Garrett; C. A. Schuler

1993-01-01

162

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Logical Paradoxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those who believe the Web fosters only barely mindful surfing, we offer the following site as counterargument. Not to be confused with fallacies are paradoxes: "a puzzling conclusion we seem to be driven towards by our reasoning, but which is highly counterintuitive, nevertheless" -- also known as brainteasers for logicians. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (see the August 14, 1998 Scout Report) presents a thorough discussion of paradoxes in the context of the history of philosophy, covering paradoxes of both classical and modern origins in addition to those of self-reference and a few others. A bibliography is also available as well as links to further discussions of paradoxes within the Encyclopedia.

Slater, Barry H.

2001-01-01

163

Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

164

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

1993-01-01

165

Solid state cadmium-113 nuclear magnetic resonance study of cadmium speciation in environmentally contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial investigation used solid state ¹¹³Cd nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to analyze five soil samples taken from an environmental site that is heavily contaminated with Cd and other metals. The samples were obtained from the contaminated sediment in Foundry Cove near Cold Spring, NY. The discharges of a nickel-cadmium battery factory in the 1950s have left an estimated

S. Bank; J. F. Bank; P. S. Marchetti; P. D. Ellis

2009-01-01

166

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: an epidemiological approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success - egg hatchability and fry survival - were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.

1991-01-01

167

Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success--egg hatchability and fry survival--were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1991-08-01

168

Identification of sentinel health events as indicators of environmental contamination.  

PubMed Central

The consensus process was applied to addressing a public health topic; this was a novel endeavor. The following question was addressed: What role, if any, should sentinel health events play in the decision-making process for identifying the effects of environmental exposure? The panel developed three levels of sentinel health events lists: those that are clearly identifiable, those that are potential signs, and those that are indicators of body burdens. Additionally, the panel developed several salient statements regarding the principles of environmental health surveillance and, especially, recommendations for future research. PMID:1683284

Rothwell, C J; Hamilton, C B; Leaverton, P E

1991-01-01

169

Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

1994-01-01

170

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

1994-01-01

171

Cave and cliff swallows as indicators of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on birds from the Rio Grande, Texas.  

E-print Network

??Cave (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were collected along the Rio Grande and evaluated as potential indicators of environmental contamination. The Rio Grande (more)

Musquiz, Daniel

2004-01-01

172

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry over the period of 2004-2005. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2006 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 100-200 s...

173

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2004 REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry over the period of 2002-2003. A few significant references that appeared between January and March 2004 are also included. This review is in keeping with a current approach of Analytical Chemistry to include onl...

174

Potential effects of environmental chemical contamination in congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

There is compelling evidence that prenatal exposures to environmental xenobiotics adversely affect human development and childhood. Among all birth defects, congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent of all congenital malformations and remains the leading cause of death. It has been estimated that in most cases the causes of heart defects remain unknown, while a growing number of studies have indicated the potential role of environmental agents as risk factors in CHD occurrence. In particular, maternal exposure to chemicals during the first trimester of pregnancy represents the most critical window of exposure for CHD. Specific classes of xenobiotics (e.g. organochlorine pesticides, organic solvents, air pollutants) have been identified as potential risk factors for CHD. Nonetheless, the knowledge gained is currently still incomplete as a consequence of the frequent heterogeneity of the methods applied and the difficulty in estimating the net effect of environmental pollution on the pregnant mother. The presence of multiple sources of pollution, both indoor and outdoor, together with individual lifestyle factors, may represent a further confounding element for association with the disease. A future new approach for research should probably focus on individual measurements of professional, domestic, and urban exposure to physical and chemical pollutants in order to accurately retrace the environmental exposure of parents of affected offspring during the pre-conceptional and pregnancy periods. PMID:24452958

Gorini, Francesca; Chiappa, Enrico; Gargani, Luna; Picano, Eugenio

2014-04-01

175

CRC handbook of mass spectra of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook presents a collection of the electron impact mass spectra of 394 commonly encountered environmental pollutants. Each pollutant is examined on a separate page and is presented as a bar graph always starting at M\\/z = 40. All spectra are determined by analyses of data in EPA data bases. The major fragment ions are correlated with their respective structure.

Hites

1985-01-01

176

Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous type...

177

Reach for Reference: A New Early Encyclopedia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the new Grolier Student Encyclopedia, intended for grades three through eight. Good middle-level readers might become frustrated with this source, but primary and intermediate students, middle-level students reading below grade level, and English language learners of any age will find the style of information presentation

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2005-01-01

178

The ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The pilot phase of the Project is focused on a specified 30 megabases (~1%) of the human genome sequence and is organized as an international consortium of computational and laboratory-based scientists working to develop and apply high-throughput approaches for detecting all sequence

2004-01-01

179

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MITECS) brings together 471 brief articles on a very wide range of topics within cognitive science. The general editors worked with advisory editors in six contributing fields, including Gennaro Chierchia on Lin- guistics and Language and Michael I. Jordan and Stuart Russell on Computational Intelligence. MITECS opens with excellent overview articles by each

Robert A. Wilson; Frank C. Keil; John Nerbonne

1999-01-01

180

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical dia- grams of biochemical pathways including most of the known metabolic pathways and some of the known regulatory pathways. The pathway

Hiroyuki Ogata; Susumu Goto; Kazushige Sato; Wataru Fujibuchi; Hidemasa Bono; Minoru Kanehisa

1999-01-01

181

A chrestomathy Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia  

E-print Network

hermaphrodites, they can draw on insights fromtheirpreviouslifeasfemales." Darwin's Fishes is not the typeA chrestomathy on fishes Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia of Ichthyology, Ecology and Evolution,200,000 words of science, of which roughly 45,000 (nearly 1%) refer directly or indirectly to fishes. These have

Avise, John

182

Environmental contaminants in canvasbacks wintering on San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of 11 trace elements, 21 organochlorines, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 13 aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined in canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering on San Francisco Bay, California during 1988. With the exception of Se, concentrations of potentially toxic elements were low. Similarly, concentrations of most organic compounds were near or below detection limits. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and DDE were common, but at levels lower than those known to be harmful to waterfowl. Innocuous trace elements (Cu, Fe, and Zn), which are often associated with anthropogenic contamination, occurred at high levels. Concentrations of toxic elements were several times lower and those of benign elements were similar or greater than concentrations reported for surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) or greater scaup (Aythya marila) from San Francisco Bay.

Miles, A.K.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

1993-01-01

183

Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.  

PubMed

In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries. PMID:19117208

Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

2009-01-01

184

The remedial action priority system (RAPS): Comparison between simulated and observed environmental contaminant levels  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) is an objective, physics-based, fully integrated multimedia environmental assessment methodology. RAPS assesses environmental issues associated with hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites based on relative human health risk and limited site information. the purpose of this paper is to report on the results associated with applying components of the RAPS methodology to a variety of sites with different contaminant release mechanisms. These applications illustrate the type of data typically required to implement the methodology and several of the types of contaminant releases (e.g., direct discharge, French drain, cribs, tile field, and stacks) that can be considered by the methodology. They thus demonstrate the applicability of the methodology at a wide variety of sites. The various components of the RAPS methodology have been implemented at actual sites where contaminant levels have been monitored in the environment. The monitored contaminant levels are compared to simulated contaminant levels associated with the application to the RAPS methodology at these sites. The purpose of the comparison is to demonstrate the applicability of implementing RAPS to a wide variety of hazardous waste sites and releases of contaminants into the environment. 21 refs., 13 figs.

Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

1988-08-01

185

Catchment-scale environmental controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally river sediment associated contaminants, most notably heavy metals, radionuclides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and phosphorous, constitute one the most significant long-term risks to ecosystems and human health. These can impact both urban and rural areas and, because of their prolonged environmental residence times, are major sources of secondary pollution if contaminated soil and sediment are disturbed by human activity or by natural processes such as water or wind erosion. River catchments are also the primary source of sediment-associated contaminants to the coastal zone, and to the ocean, and an understanding of the factors that control contaminated sediment fluxes and delivery in river systems is essential for effective environmental management and protection. In this paper the catchment-scale controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal are reviewed, including climate-related variations in flooding regime, land-use change, channel engineering, restoration and flood defence. Drawing on case studies from metal mining impacted catchments in Bolivia (Ro Pilcomayo), Spain (Ro Guadiamar), Romania (River Tisa) and the UK (River Swale) some improved methodologies for identifying, tracing, modelling and managing contaminated river sediments are proposed that could have more general application in similarly affected river systems worldwide.

Macklin, Mark

2010-05-01

186

Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination.

Not Available

1980-01-01

187

Environmental contaminants as risk factors for developing diabetes.  

PubMed

The contribution of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the incidence of diabetes has received little attention until recently. A number of reports have emerged, however, concerning elevated diabetes in persons occupationally exposed to dioxin. United States (US) Air Force personnel in Vietnam who sprayed Agent Orange containing dioxin as a contaminant had elevated rates of diabetes, leading to US government compensation for diabetes in these veterans. Recent studies in populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides found a dose-dependent elevated risk of diabetes. An elevation in risk of diabetes in relation to levels of several POPs has been demonstrated by two different groups using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a random sampling of US citizens. The strong associations seen in quite different studies suggest the possibility that exposure to POPs could cause diabetes. One striking observation is that obese persons that do not have elevated POPs are not at elevated risk of diabetes, suggesting that the POPs rather than the obesity per se is responsible for the association. Although a specific mechanism is not known, most POPs induce a great number and variety of genes, including several that alter insulin action. Because diabetes is a dangerous disease that is increasing in frequency throughout the world, further study of the possibility that exposure to POPs contributes to the etiology of diabetes is critical. PMID:18557598

Carpenter, David O

2008-01-01

188

Vitellogenin as a potential biomarker for environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The authors have recently obtained N-terminal amino acid sequences for the egg protein vitellogenin (Vtg) from phylogenetically diverse teleost fish ranging from rainbow trout to the striped bass. Using the striped bass sequence as a template, the other teleost fish showed at least an 87% identity through the region of amino acids 7--20. The amino acid sequence was not as well conserved for other fishes; white sturgeon (60%) and brook lamprey (47%), the clawed frog Xenopus (47--60%) or the domestic chicken (40%). The authors synthesized a consensus peptide to this highly conserved region and have raised a polygonal antibody from rabbit. This antibody shows wide cross-reactivity to Vtg from many species of teleost fish. The authors have found that serum Vtg levels are elevated in both male and female brown bullheads with liver tumors from an area contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Serum levels of Vtg were also elevated in rainbow trout with liver tumors induced with aflatoxin B-1. The authors also describe an in-vitro system of plated hepatocytes to screen for estrogenic and antiestrogenic xenobiotic chemicals in the environment and using Vtg as a screening tool to establish structure-activity relationships for reproductive failure in female fish.

Denslow, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Molecular Biology; Folmar, L.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Sullivan, C.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1994-12-31

189

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: monitoring environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in otters from the lower coastal plain (4.42 and 24.25 mg/kg wet wt, respectively) compared to otters from the piedmont (1.48 and 15.24 mg/kg, respectively). Liver tissue from lower coastal plain otters averaged 7.53 mg/kg mercury. Mean fetus brain and muscle mercury concentrations were 1.03 and 1.58 mg/kg wet wt, respectively, and fetal muscle mercury concentrations were correlated (r = 0.92) with maternal muscle mercury concentrations. Comparison of mercury concentrations found in Georgia otters to those associated with adverse effects in otter and mink (Mustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from the lower coastal plain approached or exceeded concentrations demonstrated to be toxic to experimentally dosed otters. PMID:7944553

Halbrook, R S; Jenkins, J H; Bush, P B; Seabolt, N D

1994-10-01

190

IDENTIFICATION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR SELECTION OF WATERBORNE ORGANISMS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENY'S CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the revisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to identify contaminants which may have an adverse health effects for inclusion on a Contaminant Candidate List. Contaminants from this list are further reviewed to de...

191

DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF VULNERABILITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The susceptibility of the developing nervous system to damage following exposure to environmental contaminants is believed to be based upon the critical nature of the organizational events that occur in both a regionally- and temporally-dependent manner. The age-related susceptib...

192

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the

Jill M. Larson; William H. Karasov; Louis Sileo; Kenneth L. Stromborg; J. P. Giesy; P. D. Jones; D. E. Tillitt; D. A. Verbrugge; B. A. Hanbidge

1996-01-01

193

Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may

R. L. Hothem; S. G. Zador

1995-01-01

194

Investigation of environmental contamination in lichens of Gkeada (Imbroz) Island in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to determine the type of environmental contamination in lichens in Gkeada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey. We used two different lichen species Cladonia foliacea and Ramalina pollinaria. In the first part of the investigation, the beta activities of lichens have been measured by using a TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector.The

A. Kahraman; G. Kaynak; O. Gurler; S. Yalcin; S. Ozturk; O. Gundogdu

2009-01-01

195

Osprey: Worldwide Sentinel Species for Assessing and Monitoring Environmental Contamination in Rivers, Lakes, Reservoirs, and Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel

Robert A. Grove; Charles J. Henny; James L. Kaiser

2009-01-01

196

Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated

Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

2001-01-01

197

A systems biology approach to understanding impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past decade, our research team at the US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division has employed systems biology approaches to examine and understand impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction. Our systems biology approach is one in which iterations of model cons...

198

Recent Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard as Recorded in Lake Sediments an Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an interdisciplinary project on recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (7630'N8030'N). It describes the rationale and aims of the project and summarises the location, climate, geology, vegetation, and land-use of Svalbard.

H. J. B. Birks; Vivienne J. Jones; N. L. Rose

2004-01-01

199

Valuing Environmental Quality Changes Using Averting Expenditures: An Application to Groundwater Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public decision-makers require information on the benefits and costs of policies for groundwater protection. The averting expenditures method for valuing environmental improvements is examined and used to approximate the economic costs of groundwater degradation to households in a southeastern Pennsylvania community. Results indicate that households' knowledge of contamination, perception of risk, and presence of children determine whether they undertake averting

Charles W. Abdalla; Brian A. Roach; Donald J. Epp

1992-01-01

200

HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

201

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

202

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. The most threatened sites include Jefferson National Forest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

2008-01-01

203

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities. PMID:18393576

Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

2008-07-01

204

UNESCO-EOLSS UNESCO-EOLSS Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems  

E-print Network

©UNESCO-EOLSS #12;©UNESCO-EOLSS Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS (EOLSS) Developed under the auspices of the UNESCO EOLSS is the largest on-line encyclopedia

205

Author-produced version of the article published in Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2007, 53, 57-65.  

E-print Network

of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53 (2007) p. 57 - p. 65" DOI : 10.1007/s00244-006-0046-y #12Author-produced version of the article published in Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2007, 53, 57-65. The original publication is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/ doi : 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Environmental contamination by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production  

PubMed Central

Background Vancomycin resistant enterococci are a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and their presence among farm animals is unwanted. Using media supplemented with vancomycin an increase in the proportion of samples from Swedish broilers positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci has been detected. The situation at farm level is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline knowledge about environmental contamination with vancomycin resistant enterococci in Swedish broiler production and the association between environmental contamination and colonisation of birds. Methods Environmental samples were taken before, during and after a batch of broilers at three farms. Samples were cultured both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. In addition, caecal content from birds in the batch following at each farm was cultured qualitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. Results The number of samples positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Also the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the positive samples and the proportion of caecal samples containing vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Still, the temporal changes in environmental contamination followed a similar pattern in all farms. Conclusion Vancomycin resistant enterococci persist in the compartments even after cleaning and the temporal changes in environmental contamination were similar among farms. There were however differences among farms regarding both degree of contamination and proportion of birds colonized with vancomycin resistant enterococci. The proportion of colonized birds and the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the compartments seems to be associated. If the factor(s) causing the differences among farms could be identified, it might be possible to reduce both the risk for colonisation by vancomycin resistant enterococci of the subsequent flock and the risk for spread of vancomycin resistant enterococci via the food chain to humans. PMID:19954525

2009-01-01

207

Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitat types in addition to estuaries, and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional or national environmental quality assessments.

Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

2003-01-01

208

Chemical activity as an integrating concept in environmental assessment and management of contaminants.  

PubMed

It is suggested that chemical activity in environmental media can serve as an integrating concept for holistic evaluations of contaminants, including their fate and effects. In support of this assertion, information underlying the thermodynamic principles and the relationships between monitored and modeled concentrations and activities are presented. The toxicological significance of activity is discussed, with emphasis on substances that exert baseline narcosis. Illustrations are given of the application of activity using models and monitoring data for chemical risk assessment and management. It is argued that the proximity of prevailing multimedia environmental activities to activities causing toxic effects is a particularly insightful metric of environmental contamination for both narcotics and reactive toxic substances. PMID:20836055

Mackay, Don; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Bailey, Robert E

2011-04-01

209

Digital Encyclopedia: George Washington's Mount Vernon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was George Washington's life like at Mount Vernon? This frequent question is answered in fine form by this Digital Encyclopedia, compiled by a variety of scholars in collaboration with the Mount Vernon Estate. It is particularly appropriate that there is such a copious compendium of facts on the goings-on at Mt. Vernon, as Washington was enamored of encyclopedias during his life. Drawing on a range of primary sources, this project brings together hundreds of entries divided into over a dozen topics, including Military, Slavery, Food and Drink, and Animals. The Personal area is quite compelling, as it includes entries on Barbados, smallpox and, of course, the celebrated myths surrounding Washington's false teeth.

210

Encyclopedia of the NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Encyclopedia of the Sanctuaries offers photos, streaming video and important facts for more than 100 key animal and plant species from each of the national marine sanctuaries. It allows users to search for their favorite species or browse the wildlife of each sanctuary by category, ranging from spiny lobster to killer whales and from white-tipped reef sharks to sea anemones. The encyclopedia entry for each species includes a photo, quick facts, information about its diet, habitat, distribution and status, and links to outside resources. Many of the entries also offer engaging, high-quality video clips of species in their natural habitats, making this an entertaining and informative resource for educators, students of all ages, zoos and aquaria, science and technology centers, and natural history museums.

2005-10-10

211

Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When thinking about the Volunteer State, many people's minds may immediately turn to the accomplishments of President Andrew Jackson or the far-reaching impact of the massive public works project that resulted in the formation of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Interested parties can learn about these aspects of the state's history and culture, along with many other facets of the state, at this fine site which is the digital version of The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Originally released in 1998 as a large print volume, the Encyclopedia was placed online in a searchable format in 2002. Here visitors can browse through more than 1500 entries, along with 500 additional images and some audio and video files as well. For those interested in looking at the material by themes, they will be pleased to learn that the materials are also divided into categories, such as medicine, sports, county history, and industry.

212

Better Homes and Gardens Home Improvement Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the commercial intentions of the site, this free online guide to home repair is superior to many similar offerings on the Web. Organized in five principle sections (Plumbing, Wiring, Carpentry, Decks, and Masonry & Concrete), the Encyclopedia covers a good variety of subtopics, from selecting and buying lumber to replacing a faucet or water heater to pouring concrete. Generally aimed at users with some skills but not necessarily much experience in home repair, the projects are clearly explained, with generous illustrations and, in some cases, an "Animated How-To." Project information includes estimated time, required skills and tools, cautions, and links to related projects. Additional resources include a glossary, tool encyclopedia, and an internal search engine.

213

Environmental Contamination due to Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii surrounding Colonized or Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients colonized or infected with MDR-AB at a tertiary-care hospital from October 2008 to January 2009. For each patient, 10 surfaces in the patient room were sampled and evaluated for the presence of A. baumannii. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on all environmental isolates and a clinical isolate if available. RESULTS 50 rooms were sampled; 48% (24/50) were positive at one or more environmental sites. Supply carts (10/50, 20%); floors (8/50, 16%); infusion pumps (7/50, 14%); and ventilator touch pads (5/44, 11.4%) were most commonly contaminated. Patients with a recent history of MDR-AB were no more likely to contaminate their environment than patients with a remote history (51% vs. 36%, p-value = 0.50). In 85% (17/20) of cases the environmental isolate was classified as genetically similar to the patient isolate. CONCLUSIONS For patients with MDR-AB, the surrounding environment is frequently contaminated, even among patients with a remote history of MDR-AB. Surfaces often touched by healthcare workers during routine patient care are commonly contaminated and may be a source of nosocomial spread. PMID:22041290

Thom, Kerri A.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Lee, Mary S.; Harris, Anthony D.

2011-01-01

214

Encyclopedia of artificial intelligence: 2 Vol. set  

SciTech Connect

Drawing on the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, linguistics, mathematics, philosophy, psychology, and physiology, this one-volume encyclopedia brings together the core of knowledge on artificial intelligence. It provides an overview of how to program computers to emulate human behavior, offering a wide range of techniques for speech and visual generation, problem-solving and more. Over 250 entries are organized alphabetically, cross-referenced and indexed.

Shapiro, S.C.

1987-01-01

215

Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, 2 Volume Set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart materials--materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device--are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. Now, practictioners and researchers have an authoritative source to go to for answers about this emerging new area. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials provides A-to-Z coverage of the entire field of intelligent materials. Discussions of theory, fabrication, processing, applications, and uses of these unique materials are presented here in a collection of concise entries from the world's foremost experts in the field--including scientists, educators and engineers. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions. Illustrated with photographs, tables, line drawings, and equations, Encyclopedia of Smart Materials is the premier reference for material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, consultants, patent attorneys and students in these areas. An essential resource on the shelves of laboratories, government facilities, and academic libraries. Editor-in-Chief, Mel Schwartz has over forty years of experience with metals, ceramics, and composites, with special expertise in brazing. The holder of five patents, he has authored thirteen books and more than one hundred technical papers and articles. Reach the information you need rapidly and easily with the ONLINE edition of the Encyclopedia of Smart Materials. The online edition delivers all the rich content of the print edition with the added benefits of an advanced search engine and the desktop convenience of web access. For more information or to license the online edition (beginning July 2002) please visit: www.interscience.wiley.com/reference/esm

Schwartz, Mel

2002-03-01

216

AUTHOR INFORMATION SHEET: Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering 1 Article title: Interpenetrating Polymeric Networks  

E-print Network

AUTHOR INFORMATION SHEET: Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Contact Author 1;AUTHOR INFORMATION SHEET: Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Co-Author 1 Article

Peppas, Nicholas A.

217

Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 612 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game rarely or never at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game at least once a day. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

2012-01-01

218

Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.  

PubMed

Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

2011-01-01

219

Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  

PubMed

Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

2014-07-01

220

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant hazards (e.g., Blue Ridge Parkway, George Washington National Forest, Shenandoah National Park) had no recent avian ecotoxicological data. Contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from such efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

2007-01-01

221

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01

222

Federal environmental legislation in the U.S. for protection of wildlife and regulation of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The U.S. has a long history of legislation to protect wildlife, beginning with the Lacey Act of 1900. There are now over 170 Federal laws that regulate environmental activities which may affect wildlife. Two important laws are the Pittman-Robertson Act enacted in 1937 that authorizes a tax for wildlife management and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act passed in 1958 whose primary purpose is conservation of fish and wildlife, both of which continue to provide significant funding for wildlife management. Modern environmental regulations began by passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, followed by the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and other laws to regulate pesticides and toxics and clean up contaminated sites. International conventions regulate sale, use and disposal of toxics and ocean dumping. These laws and conventions should protect wildlife from unintended consequences of global industrialization. PMID:19562483

Fairbrother, Anne

2009-10-01

223

Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

1994-12-31

224

Faecal contamination on children's hands and environmental surfaces in primary schools in Leeds.  

PubMed Central

Gastro-intestinal diseases continue to be a major health problem in primary schools in the UK. This study, which took place in 20 primary schools in the Leeds area, investigated the presence of faecal indicator bacteria on children's hands and environmental surfaces. Faecal streptococci were used as an indicator of faecal contamination. A handwashing knowledge score was developed for each child. Those children with good hygiene knowledge had less faecal contamination on their hands (relative risk: 1.4, 95% CI = 1.09-1.81, P = 0.005). Those schools with higher hand counts were more likely to have had a reported outbreak of gastroenteritis in the past. Values of the Townsend Deprivation Index, an indicator of deprivation, were compared with the hand results and those schools in high deprivation areas had higher hand counts. Of the swabs taken from surfaces in the toilet areas and classrooms, the carpets in the classrooms were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. PMID:8557085

Kaltenthaler, E. C.; Elsworth, A. M.; Schweiger, M. S.; Mara, D. D.; Braunholtz, D. A.

1995-01-01

225

Faecal contamination on children's hands and environmental surfaces in primary schools in Leeds.  

PubMed

Gastro-intestinal diseases continue to be a major health problem in primary schools in the UK. This study, which took place in 20 primary schools in the Leeds area, investigated the presence of faecal indicator bacteria on children's hands and environmental surfaces. Faecal streptococci were used as an indicator of faecal contamination. A handwashing knowledge score was developed for each child. Those children with good hygiene knowledge had less faecal contamination on their hands (relative risk: 1.4, 95% CI = 1.09-1.81, P = 0.005). Those schools with higher hand counts were more likely to have had a reported outbreak of gastroenteritis in the past. Values of the Townsend Deprivation Index, an indicator of deprivation, were compared with the hand results and those schools in high deprivation areas had higher hand counts. Of the swabs taken from surfaces in the toilet areas and classrooms, the carpets in the classrooms were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. PMID:8557085

Kaltenthaler, E C; Elsworth, A M; Schweiger, M S; Mara, D D; Braunholtz, D A

1995-12-01

226

Alterations in steroidogenesis in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) exposed naturally and experimentally to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed Central

Many environmental contaminants alter the reproduction of animals by altering the development and function of the endocrine system. The ability of environmental contaminants to alter the endocrine system of alligators was studied both in a descriptive study in which juvenile alligators from a historically contaminated lake were compared to animals from a control lake and in an experimental study in which hatchling control alligators were exposed in ovo to several endocrine-disrupting standards and two modern-use herbicides. Endocrine status was assessed by examining plasma hormone concentrations, gonadal-adrenal mesonephros (GAM) aromatase activity, and gonadal histopathology. In the descriptive study, juvenile alligators from the contaminated lake had significantly lower plasma testosterone concentrations (29.2 pg/ml compared to 51.3 pg/ml), whereas plasma 17 beta-estradiol concentrations did not vary when compared to controls. GAM aromatase activity was significantly decreased n the alligators from the contaminated lake (7.6 pmol/g/hr compared to 11.4 pmol/g/hr). In the experimental study, the endocrine-disrupting standards had the expected effects. 17 beta-Estradiol and tamoxifen caused sex reversal from male to female, with a corresponding increase in aromatase activity. Vinclozolin had no apparent effect on male or female alligators. Among the herbicides tested, atrazine induced GAM aromatase activity in male hatchling alligators that was neither characteristic of males nor females, although testicular differentiation was not altered. Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid had no effect on the endocrine parameters that were measured. Together, these studies show that exposure to some environmental chemicals (such as atrazine) can alter steroidogenesis in alligators, but the endocrine alterations previously noted for Lake Apopka, Florida, alligators can not be fully explained by this mechanism. Images Figure 1. PMID:9222139

Crain, D A; Guillette, L J; Rooney, A A; Pickford, D B

1997-01-01

227

Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

2014-04-01

228

Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

2007-01-01

229

Contaminants at the sediment-water interface: implications for environmental impact assessment and effects monitoring.  

PubMed

Many contaminants in aquatic environments are associated with loosely packed aggregates of particulate material called flocs. Flocculation allows contaminants to accumulate at the sediment-water interface and it packages them in a form that is readily available for ingestion by filter feeding organisms. Unfortunately, most samplers being used for environmental assessment and monitoring suspend this material on impact and fail to sample this critical component of the seabed. In this study we use a slo-corer to collect seabed samples with an undisturbed surface layer and a Gust microcosm erosion chamber to erode the surface of the cores at increasing shear stresses. Results from two different sites, one impacted by tailings from historic gold mining and the other by open-pen salmon aquaculture, showed the levels of metals suspended at stresses below 0.24 Pa were greater than in the underlying sediment. Sampling this highly mobile surface layer is critical for determining the total contaminant load in bottom sediments and, more importantly, this layer represents the most readily available material for suspension. The loss of this layer during sampling could lead to inaccurate measurements of contaminant levels during environmental assessment and effects monitoring. A re-evaluation of the ISO standard for bottom sediment sampling is recommended. PMID:23647260

Milligan, T G; Law, B A

2013-06-01

230

Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contamination of spacecraft in the aerospace environment is examined. The optical systems, thermal control systems and solar power systems were deemed to be most vulnerable to particle damage. It was decided that all orbits should be considered. Specific issues concern whether there are changes in transmittance of optics and the radiative properties of protective coatings.

Maag, Carl R.

1989-01-01

231

Environmental contaminants and biochemical responses in flatfish from the Hvaler Archipelago in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of several environmental contaminants, including selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organochlorines (DDT\\/DDE, hexachlorobenzene), 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF\\/PCDD), and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, and As) were analyzed in muscle and liver of three different flatfish species (dab,Limanda limanda; flounder,Platichthys flesus; plaice,Pleuronectes platessa) caught by gill netting at different sites in the Hvaler

Anders Goksyr; Astrid-Mette Husy; Hfivard E. Larsen; Jarle Klungsyr; Svein Wilhelmsen; Amund Maage; Einar M. Brevik; Tommy Andersson; Malin Celander; Maija Pesonen; Lars Frlin

1991-01-01

232

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg\\/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.059.2 mg\\/kg) was recorded in urban

H. Taylor; J. d. Appletonsupasu; R. Lister; B. Smith; D. Chitamweba; O. Mkumbo; J. F. Machiwa; A. L. Tesha; C. Beinhoff

2005-01-01

233

Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

A bacterial biosensor for benzene, toluene, and similar compounds has been constructed, characterized, and field tested on contaminated water and soil. The biosensor is based on a plasmid incorporating the transcriptional activator xylR from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The XylR protein binds a subset of toluene-like compounds and activates transcription at its promoter, Pu. A reporter plasmid was constructed by placing the luc gene for firefly luciferase under the control of XylR and Pu. When Escherichia coli cells were transformed with this plasmid vector, luminescence from the cells was induced in the presence of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and similar molecules. Accurate concentration dependencies of luminescence were obtained and exhibited K1/2 values ranging from 39.0 3.8 ?M for 3-xylene to 2,690 160 ?M for 3-methylbenzylalcohol (means standard deviations). The luminescence response was specific for only toluene-like molecules that bind to and activate XylR. The biosensor cells were field tested on deep aquifer water, for which contaminant levels were known, and were able to accurately detect toluene derivative contamination in this water. The biosensor cells were also shown to detect BETX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) contamination in soil samples. These results demonstrate the capability of such a bacterial biosensor to accurately measure environmental contaminants and suggest a potential for its inexpensive application in field-ready assays. PMID:9501440

Willardson, Barry M.; Wilkins, Jon F.; Rand, Timothy A.; Schupp, James M.; Hill, Karen K.; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J.

1998-01-01

234

Possible mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants on St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).  

PubMed Central

A small isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that are highly contaminated by pollutants, mostly of industrial origin, resides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Qubec, Canada. Overhunting in the first half of the century was the probable cause for this population to dwindle from several thousand animals to the current estimate of 500. The failure of the population to recover might be due to contamination by organochlorine compounds, which are known to lead to reproductive failure and immunosuppression in domestic and laboratory animals and seals. Functional and morphological changes have been demonstrated in thyroid gland and adrenal cortex in many species exposed to organochlorinated compounds, including seals. Morphological lesions, although different, were also found in belugas. Functional evaluation of thyroid and adrenal glands of contaminated (St. Lawrence) versus much less contaminated (Arctic) belugas is currently under way. Necropsy of St. Lawrence belugas showed numerous severe and disseminated infections with rather mildly pathogenic bacteria, which suggests immunosuppression. Organochlorine compounds and other contaminants found in beluga whales cause immunosuppression in a variety of animal species including seals. Thirty-seven percent of all the tumors reported in cetaceans were observed in St. Lawrence beluga whales. This could be explained by two different mechanisms: high exposure to environmental carcinogens and suppression of immunosurveillance against tumors. Overall, St. Lawrence belugas might well represent the risk associated with long-term exposure to pollutants present in their environment and might be a good model to predict health problems that could emerge in highly exposed human populations over time. PMID:7556028

De Guise, S; Martineau, D; Beland, P; Fournier, M

1995-01-01

235

Academic Press Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology  

E-print Network

Academic Press Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology Fourier Series James S. Walker­836­3301 Fax: 715­836­2924 e-mail: walkerjs@uwec.edu 1 #12;2 Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology I

Walker, James S.

236

Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

237

LINKING RELATED CONTENT IN WEB ENCYCLOPEDIAS WITH SEARCH QUERY TAG CLOUDS  

E-print Network

LINKING RELATED CONTENT IN WEB ENCYCLOPEDIAS WITH SEARCH QUERY TAG CLOUDS Christoph Trattner related resources in Web encyclopedias called QueryCloud. Typically, users come to an encyclopedia from encyclopedia systems, we introduce a tool called QueryCloud. The tool combines two promising approaches ­ tag

Hammerton, James

238

Perceived credibility of Internet encyclopedias Ida Kubiszewski a,*, Thomas Noordewier b,c  

E-print Network

Perceived credibility of Internet encyclopedias Ida Kubiszewski a,*, Thomas Noordewier b,c , Robert encyclopedia Survey Perceived credibility Likelihood model Experiment Wikipedia Encyclopedia of Earth Encyclopedia Britannica a b s t r a c t A vast amount of information is now available online, produced

Vermont, University of

239

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental sites in 3 commercial dairy herds in the Northeast US were cultured quarterly for MAP, providing 1131 samples (133 (11.8%) were culture-positive), and all adult animals in the herds were tested biannually by fecal culture (FC), for 6 years. Of the environmental sites sampled, manure storage areas and shared alleyways were most likely to be culture-positive. Environmental sample results were compared to FC results from either the concurrent or previous sampling date at both the herd and the pen level. At the herd level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding increased the odds of a positive non-pen environmental sample by a factor of 6 and increased the average amount of MAP in non-pen samples by 2.9 cfu/g. At the pen level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding in the pen increased the odds of a positive environment by a factor of 2.4 and the average amount of MAP was increased by 3.5 cfu/g. We were not able to model the relationship between non-pen environmental sample status and the distance between shedding animals and the sample's location, and neighboring pens did not significantly affect the results of the pen-level analysis. The amount of MAP in pen-level samples and the probability of a pen testing positive for MAP were both positively but non-significantly correlated with the number of animals in the pen shedding >30 cfu/g of MAP. At least 6 environmental samples met the criteria for the U.S. Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program on 47 of the 72 sampling dates; of these, 19 of the 47 FC-positive sampling dates were positive by the 6-sample environmental testing method, resulting in a herd sensitivity of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.26-0.54). None of the 3 FC-negative sampling dates produced positive environmental samples. Although environmental sampling can be used as a tool in understanding the level of MAP infection in a herd or pen, it did not appear to be a sensitive diagnostic method for herd positivity in these low prevalence herds, and its use may require caution. PMID:21775002

Smith, R L; Schukken, Y H; Pradhan, A K; Smith, J M; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Wolfgang, D R; Grohn, Y T

2011-10-01

240

CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A DOSIMETRY-BASED CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR MIXTURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report, Considerations for Developing a Dosimetry-Based Cumulative Risk Assessment Approach for Mixtures of Environmental Contaminants , addresses the justification for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for cumulative risk assessment....

241

Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

Bengelsdorf, I.

1988-01-01

242

Thyroid disruption in walleye ( Sander vitreus) exposed to environmental contaminants: Cloning and use of iodothyronine deiodinases as molecular biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormones play a role in the initiation of ovarian maturation in fish. Thus, reports of delayed sexual maturation in female walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to contaminants in the Ottawa River suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of environmental contaminants in the Ottawa River on thyroid hormones of immature

Michelle Picard-Aitken; Henri Fournier; Richard Pariseau; David J. Marcogliese; Daniel G. Cyr

2007-01-01

243

Relationships of environmental contaminants to reproductive success in red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) from Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1977 and 1978, we studied red-breasted mergansers Mergus serrator nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan to determine whether environmental contaminants were having effects on reproduction. Seventeen contaminants were measured in randomly chosen eggs from 206 nests under study. Using a variety of statistical approaches, we looked for effects of individual contaminants and combinations of contaminants on reproductive measurements such as nest desertion, failure of eggs to hatch, death of newly hatched ducklings, percentage hatching success, number of ducklings leaving the nest and eggshell thickness. We also looked for relationships between the levels of some contaminants in blood samples of 39 incubating females and reproductive success. A small degree of eggshell thinning was attributed to DDE and a few other statistical tests were significant, but no contaminant or combination of contaminants we measured seemed to have a pronounced effect on the aspects of reproduction we followed.

Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Reichel, W.L.; Hensler, G.L.

1983-01-01

244

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Gale, R.W.; Lebo, J.A.; Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Cranor, W.L.

2000-01-01

245

Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

246

Altered gonadal expression of TGF-? superfamily signaling factors in environmental contaminant-exposed juvenile alligators.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminant exposure can influence gonadal steroid signaling milieus; however, little research has investigated the vulnerability of non-steroidal signaling pathways in the gonads. Here we use American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) hatched from field-collected eggs to analyze gonadal mRNA transcript levels of the activin-inhibin-follistatin gene expression network and growth differentiation factor 9. The eggs were collected from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, a site with minimal anthropogenic influence, and Lake Apopka, a highly contaminated lake adjacent to a former EPA Superfund site. The hatchling alligators were raised for 13 months under controlled conditions, thus limiting differences to embryonic origins. Our data reveal sexually dimorphic mRNA expression in 13-month-old alligator gonads similar to patterns established in vertebrates with genetic sex determination. In addition, we observed a relationship between lake of origin and mRNA expression of activin/inhibin subunits ? and ?B, follistatin, and growth differentiation factor 9. Our study suggests that embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants can affect future non-steroidal signaling patterns in the gonads of a long-lived species. PMID:21251980

Moore, Brandon C; Milnes, Matthew R; Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Woodruff, Teresa K; Guillette, Louis J

2011-10-01

247

Evaluation of the role of environmental contamination in the microbial degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Studies were undertaken to determine the effect of environmental contamination upon the potential for degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by the microbial populations in freshwater sediments. Naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and benzo(a)pyrene(BP) were employed as substrates for PAH biodegradation. Biodegradation was assessed by mineralization of the /sup 14/C-PAH substrates incubated in sediment slurries. Mineralization rate constants and substrate turnover times were calculated for PAH mineralization studies. Sediment microcosms treated with individual, unlabeled PAH or a synthetic oil (SO) were sampled for the mineralization assay after various periods of acclimation. NAP and PHE treatments enhanced PAH mineralization rates while BP was inhibitory. The SO treatment caused a substantial enhancement of PAH mineralization rates. A PAH-degrading bacterial population added to various sediment systems did not significantly enhance PAH mineralizaion rates. Studies with natural sediment samples also indicated that previous environmental contamination tends to enhance the potential for PAH biodegradation. Studies indicated PAH mineralization in sediments was related to the length of incubation time, temperature, molecular size of the substrate and prior exposure to PAH or related contaminants.

Sherrill, T.W.

1982-01-01

248

Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems  

SciTech Connect

Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

Forstner, U.

1989-01-01

249

Possible environmental contaminant effects in neotropical migrants nesting at a Superfund site  

SciTech Connect

Forest fragmentation, insularization, and tropical deforestation have been named as significant factors in the decline of many neotropical migrant bird species, however, contamination of breeding grounds also may be of concern. Additionally, neotropical migrants may serve as a route of transport of contaminants from breeding grounds in North America to wintering grounds in the tropics. Accumulation and effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and heavy metal concentrations in avian species were evaluated at a Superfund site (Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois) using the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) as a model. Starlings were monitored at 12 nest boxes constructed at each of 3 study and 2 reference sites. Behavior of adult starlings was observed in the field to assess possible contaminant effects on nest attentiveness and reproductive success was recorded as the number of chicks surviving to 15 days post-hatch. Effects included a significant reduction in nest attentiveness behavior and increased chick mortality between PCB and reference sites. There were no significant differences among study and reference sites in number of eggs laid and percent of eggs hatched. Because Crab Orchard NWR serves as breeding ground for approximately 80 neotropical migrant species, the results suggest that species with feeding habits similar to starlings also may have greater body burdens of metals and PCBs and may suffer similar reductions in nesting success. The potential exists for transport and incorporation of environmental contaminants into the food chain at sites along the migration route.

Arenal, C.; Halbrook, R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

1995-12-31

250

Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh groundwater: a major environmental and social disaster.  

PubMed

In attempting to eliminate disease caused by drinking polluted surface water, millions of shallow surface wells were drilled into the Ganges delta alluvium in Bangladesh. The latest statistics indicate that 80% of Bangladesh and an estimated 40 million people are at risk of arsenic poisoning-related diseases because the ground water in these wells is contaminated with arsenic. The clinical manifestations of arsenic poisoning are myriad, and the correct diagnosis depends largely on awareness of the problem. Patients with melanosis, leuco-melanosis, keratosis, hyperkeratosis, dorsum, non-petting edema, gangrene and skin cancer have been identified. The present article reviews the current arsenic contamination of ground water, hydrological systems, groundwater potential and utilization and environmental pollution in Bangladesh. This paper concludes by clarifying the main actions required to ensure the sustainable development of water resources in Bangladesh. PMID:12396524

Alam, M G M; Allinson, G; Stagnitti, F; Tanaka, A; Westbrooke, M

2002-09-01

251

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

1994-01-01

252

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla).  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants. PMID:24213965

White, D H; Rice, C P; Hoffman, D J; Gee, G F

1994-07-01

253

Prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver colony and the resulting environmental contamination.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver (Castor canadensis) colony in Colorado was determined by the collection and analysis of fecal samples over a period of 14 mo. Environmental contamination was monitored through the use and analysis of water filter samples. Beaver shed cysts of Giardia sp. in their feces throughout the year with temporal variations in the prevalence, and became infected as kits and remained infected as juveniles and adults. Beaver served as amplification hosts for Giardia sp. and contaminated surface waters downstream from their dams in late spring and early fall. In slow moving waters the cysts of Giardia sp. settled rapidly. Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were the only other species of wildlife shedding cysts of Giardia sp. on the study area. PMID:3682082

Monzingo, D L; Hibler, C P

1987-10-01

254

The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species  

SciTech Connect

Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3,000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 {mu}g/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 {mu}g/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption.

Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.; van Belle, G.; Mottet, N.K.; Polissar, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Bolgiano, D. (Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Coble, K. (Tacoma-Pierce County Health Dept., WA (USA))

1990-11-01

255

State-of-the-Art Multimedia in 1996: The "Big Four" General Encyclopedias on CD-ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews four CD-ROM encyclopedias: Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, 1996 Edition; Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia; the 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia; and World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia 1996. Focuses on multimedia features, their quantity, quality, accessibility, and playability. Discusses each product's novel features and important

Jacso, Peter

1996-01-01

256

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PHOSPHATE-BASED REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGY IN METAL CONTAMINATED URBAN AND MINING AREAS IN A SELECTED MISSOURI SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project provided important data on fundamental processes responsible for health and environmental risk reductions and environmental safety of the phosphate-based treatments in metal, specifically Pb, contaminated soils. By an integrated approach of environmental risk asse...

257

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

Not Available

1991-10-01

258

Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

Siegel, S. M.

1973-01-01

259

Characterization of organic contaminants in environmental samples associated with mount St. Helens 1980 volcanic eruption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic ash, surface-water, and bottom-material samples obtained in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens after the May 18, 1980, eruption were analyzed for organic contaminants by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer techniques. Classes of compounds identified include n-alkanes, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, aromatic acids and aldehydes, phenols, resin acids, terpenes, and insect juvenile hormones. The most probable source of these compounds is from pyrolysis of plant and soil organic matter during and after the eruption. The toxicity of selected compounds and their environmental significance are discussed.

Pereira, W. E.

1982-01-01

260

Breeding in a contaminated world: do environmental pollutants promote mistiming of reproduction and limit the breeding success of farmland  

E-print Network

exposure on wild animals. This project will test the hypothesis that the timing of reproductive eventsBreeding in a contaminated world: do environmental pollutants promote mistiming of reproduction the dramatic decline of many bird populations remains unknown, but mistiming of reproduction with environmental

Guo, Zaoyang

261

Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

1987-01-01

262

The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies  

SciTech Connect

Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site.

Wendling, M.A.

1993-05-01

263

BAINE J. (2013), "Entrepreneurship education", in Carayannis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship BAINE J. (2013), "Entrepreneurship education", in Elias G. Carayannis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of  

E-print Network

BAIN?E J. (2013), "Entrepreneurship education", in Carayannis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Creativity. Carayannis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship, Springer, pp.649 or in Canada. hal-00980385,version1-17Apr2014 Author manuscript, published in "Encyclopedia of Creativity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Evaluating Determinants of Environmental Risk Perception for Risk Management in Contaminated Sites  

PubMed Central

Understanding the differences in the risk judgments of residents of industrial communities potentially provides insights into how to develop appropriate risk communication strategies. This study aimed to explore citizens fundamental understanding of risk-related judgments and to identify the factors contributing to perceived risks. An exploratory model was created to investigate the publics risk judgments. In this model, the relationship between laypeoples perceived risks and the factors related to the physical nature of risks (such as perceived probability of environmental contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences) were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological factors, such as the ability to control the risks, concerns, experiences, and perceived benefits of industrial development were also included in the analysis. The Maptaphut industrial area in Rayong Province, Thailand was selected as a case study. A survey of 181 residents of communities experiencing different levels of hazardous gas contamination revealed rational risk judgments by inhabitants of high-risk and moderate-risk communities, based on their perceived probability of contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and perceived catastrophic consequences. However, risks assessed by people in low-risk communities could not be rationally explained and were influenced by their collective experiences. PMID:24937530

Janmaimool, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

2014-01-01

265

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome  

E-print Network

The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of ...

Altshuler, Robert Charles

266

Contemporary Biographies from the Large Soviet Encyclopedia. Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains biographical articles on living Soviet personalities included in the Large Soviet Encyclopedia. The information has been reproduced in file-card format for convenience in filing. (Author)

A. M. Prokhorov

1972-01-01

267

CAMEO: Conservation & Art Material Encyclopedia Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Art historians, preservationists, and other types will be most glad to learn about the existence of the Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO). This is, of course, if they don't know about it already. The original CAMEO was first placed online in November 2000, and it has been significantly enlarged and updated over the past several years. This online resource contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials. While some visitors may wish to use the embedded search engine, some may just wish to browse the materials by letter. Visitors can also perform a material search by entering a word, partial word, or a variety of other fields, including composition, density, and boiling point.

268

The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture is "to collect and disseminate information on all aspects of the state's history and culture and to provide a comprehensive reference work for historians, teachers, students and individuals for the purpose of promoting the study, understanding, and appreciation of Arkansas's heritage." First-time visitors should check out the This Day in Arkansas History feature, which provides easy access to the lore, culture, history, and geography of the state. Moving on, visitors can use the Browse Entries area to look around the material by category, type, time period, or race & ethnicity. Those persons looking for a bit of audio-visual inspiration will want to click on over to the Browse Media area. Here, they can find songs performed by sons and daughters of Arkansas (including the legendary Al Hibbler), maps, and video clips from films like "Emerson County Shaping Dream" and "Unhooking the Hookworm."

269

An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor canaries?  

PubMed

Nearly two decades ago, the global biodiversity crisis was catapulted to the front pages of newspapers with the recognition of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, 'canaries in a coal mine', because of apparent high sensitivity to human-mediated environmental change. The most frequently cited causes for high susceptibility include permeable skin, a dual aquatic-terrestrial life cycle and a relatively rudimentary immune system. While some researchers have questioned the basis for the canary assertion, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative to other taxa. Here, we apply a database representing thousands of toxicity tests to compare the responses of amphibians relative to that of other taxonomic groups. The use of standardized methods combined with large numbers of identical challenges enables a particularly powerful test of relative effect size. Overall, we found that amphibians only exhibit moderate relative responses to water-borne toxins. Our findings imply that, as far as chemical contaminants are concerned, amphibians are not particularly sensitive and might more aptly be described as 'miners in a coal mine'. To the extent that amphibian declines have been mediated by chemical contaminants, our findings suggest that population losses and extinctions may have already occurred in a variety of taxa much more sensitive than amphibians. PMID:19845728

Kerby, Jacob L; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Storfer, Andrew; Skelly, David K

2010-01-01

270

The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility as a barrier to environmental contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

1989-01-01

271

The rodent research animal holding facility as a barrier to environmental contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

1989-01-01

272

Corynebacterium bovis: epizootiologic features and environmental contamination in an enzootically infected rodent room.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium bovis is a common pathogen in athymic nude mouse colonies. Control and eradication of the organism are challenging because depopulation and restricted colony access are often not options within vivaria. We evaluated potential sources and dissemination routes of C. bovis in an enzootically infected colony. Immunocompetent mice and personnel were evaluated for their potential to carry C. bovis, and husbandry and sanitation methods were evaluated for their efficacy in preventing cross-contamination. C. bovis was detected in furred immunocompetent mice previously exposed to infected athymic nude mice and in the nasopharynx of humans. Microisolation cages were not effective in maintaining athymic nude mice C. bovis-free when they were housed in a room known to contain immunodeficient mice with C. bovis infections. A tunnel washer that provided a ?180 F final rinse provided effective elimination of C. bovis from cage components. Passive and active air sampling techniques showed airborne dispersal of C. bovis despite the use of individually ventilated caging systems and stringent operational standards. Bacterial growth was not observed in settle plates placed inside autoclaved individually ventilated microisolation cages on various ventilated racks for 24-h periods. C. bovis aerosolization was shown to be a means of spread of the bacterium during cage-change procedures inside a class II type A2 biosafety cabinet. Our findings indicate that C. bovis can be a pervasive environmental contaminant in infected rodent holding rooms and successful eradication strategies must include environmental decontamination and attention to air quality. PMID:22776119

Burr, Holly N; Wolf, Felix R; Lipman, Neil S

2012-03-01

273

Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.  

PubMed

There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. PMID:24875868

Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

2014-07-01

274

Cord serum immunoglobulin E related to the environmental contamination of human placentas with organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed Central

Allergic diseases are on the rise in both prevalence and severity, especially in industrialized countries. The process of allergic sensitization needs an understanding of the role environmental factors play in its development. In addition to traditionally considered air pollutants, various persistent organochlorine pollutants, which accumulate in the human body over a lifetime via food intake, are toxic in humans. Placental contamination by chemicals may act as a biologic marker for the exposure of the mother or for the fetus via transplacental transfer. Placentas were collected from term deliveries in two Slovak regions. The samples were then analyzed for 21 selected organochlorine compounds. Specimens of cord blood from 2,050 neonates were gathered for the determination of levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE). The regions were chosen according to their environmental characteristics: a city polluted with organic chemical industry versus a rural region devoid of industrial sources of pollution. In addition, data regarding the incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the regions were considered. Comparisons between regions revealed that both the placental contamination with 16 of 21 organochlorine compounds and the cord serum IgE levels were significantly higher in the industrial region. The findings pointed to an association between organochlorine compounds and the higher levels of total IgE in newborns, signaling a higher allergic sensitization in the industrial region. This association was supported by the higher incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the population registered in the industrial region. Images Figure 1 PMID:10544157

Reichrtova, E; Ciznar, P; Prachar, V; Palkovicova, L; Veningerova, M

1999-01-01

275

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.  

PubMed Central

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Changes in immune function were monitored over a 2 1/2-year period. The seals that were fed contaminated Baltic herring developed significantly higher body burdens of potentially immunotoxic organochlorines and displayed impaired immune responses as demonstrated by suppression of natural killer cell activity and specific T-cell responses. During a 2-week fasting experiment performed at the end of the feeding study, mobilization of organochlorines from the blubber did not lead to a strong increase of contaminant levels in the blood, and no enhancement of the existing immunosuppression was observed. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain affects immune function in harbour seals, whereas short-term fasting periods, which are normal for seals, do not seem to pose an additional risk. The seals of this study were not exposed perinatally to high levels of environmental chemicals, and body burdens of organochlorines measured near the end of the study were lower than those generally observed in free-ranging seals inhabiting many contaminated regions. Therefore, it may be expected that environmental contaminants adversely affect immune function of free-ranging seals inhabiting contaminated regions at least as seriously as observed in these studies. PMID:8880005

de Swart, R L; Ross, P S; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D

1996-01-01

276

Anticipating the fate and impact of organic environmental contaminants: a new approach applied to the pharmaceutical furosemide.  

PubMed

The presence of trace levels of organic contaminants in the environment is currently an environmental concern. When these contaminants are subjected to environmental transformations, environmental transformation products (ETPs) are obtained, whose structures often remain unknown. The absence of information concerning these new compounds makes them unavailable and consequently makes their environmental detection as well as their (eco)toxicological study impossible. This report describes a multidisciplinary approach that seeks to both anticipate the fate and evaluate the impact of organic environmental contaminants. Our approach consists of three steps. First, isolated and fully characterized transformation products (TPs) of the parent molecule are obtained. In the second step, the parent molecule is subjected to environmentally relevant transformations to identify plausible ETPs. The detection of previously characterized TPs allows the concomitant identification of plausible ETPs. The third step is devoted to the toxicological evaluation of the identified plausible ETPs. Such an approach has recently been applied to furosemide and has allowed the identification of its main TPs. This report now seeks to identify and evaluate toxicologically plausible ETPs of this drug, which is also known as an environmental contaminant. PMID:25065810

Laurenc, Cline; Rivard, Michael; Martens, Thierry; Morin, Christophe; Buisson, Didier; Bourcier, Sophie; Sablier, Michel; Oturan, Mehmet A

2014-10-01

277

Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as other peripheral areas that are recovering with pioneering vegetation on their own. This allows us to develop an adaptive management strategy in ecological restoration and inform decisions about managing the trajectory of succession. The Palmerton area could serve as an excellent example of how profoundly contaminated areas can be restored.

Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

2006-12-01

278

Distribution and uptake of environmental contaminants in the lower Calcasieu estuary, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

The lower Calcasieu estuary, located in southwest Louisiana, has received industrial, municipal, and agricultural discharge for the last several decades, resulting in the contamination of distinct regions of the system. This paper coordinates existing environmental data from the analyses of surface waters, sediments, and tissues of higher trophic level aquatic organisms collected by several state and federal agencies, attempting to detect spacial trends in contaminant distribution. Selected industrial facilities were examined with respect to process, effluent parameters, and wastewater treatment equipment. Surface water quality in areas has been impacted by the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and sediment contaminants detected include chlorinated benzenes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates. State analyses of both edible portions and whole body samples of seventeen aquatic species show a very wide spacial distribution of individuals carrying elevated body burdens of hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), two of the more prevalent chlorinated hydrocarbons found in the system. While found in animals from throughout the system, HCB and HCBD were detected in only a very limited spacial range in sediments and surface waters of the system. In an attempt to understand potential mechanisms of uptake in various species, middle trophic level organisms were collected and analyzed for whole body burden concentrations of HCB and HCBD. Dialysis tubing filled with isooctane was employed as a biological surrogate to determine relative bioavailability of water-solubilized HCB and HCBD from various regions in the system. Detectable levels of both compounds were found in areas downstream, upstream, and lateral to the area of known sediment contamination.

Norriss, D.D.

1991-01-01

279

Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

2005-12-10

280

Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.  

PubMed

Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying their resources during incidents of lesser significance, for special projects, and for routine surveillance and monitoring as part of ongoing activities of the environmental laboratory community. PMID:24534702

Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

2014-11-01

281

Differential exposure, duration, and sensitivity of unionoidean bivalve life stages to environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea) are in serious global decline and in urgent need of protection and conservation. The declines have been attributed to a wide array of human activities resulting in pollution and water-quality degradation, and habitat destruction and alteration. Linkages among poor water quality, pollutant sources, and mussel decline in rivers and streams have been associated with results of laboratory-based tests of specific pollutants. However, uncertainties remain about the relationship of laboratory data to actual contaminant exposure routes for various mussel species, life stages, and in the habitats occupied during these exposures. We evaluated the pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants for all 4 life stages (free glochidia, encysted glochidia, juveniles, adults) of unionoidean mussels and found that each life stage has both common and unique characteristics that contribute to observed differences in exposure and sensitivity. Free glochidia typically are exposed only briefly (e.g., seconds to days) through surface water, whereas adults sustain exposure over years to decades through surface water, pore water, sediment, and diet. Juveniles live largely burrowed in the sediment for the first 0 to 4 y of life. Thus, sediment, pore water, and diet are the predominant exposure routes for this life stage, but surface water also might contribute to exposure during certain periods and environmental conditions. The obligate parasitic stage (encysted glochidia stage) on a host fish might be exposed from surface water while partially encysted or from toxicants in host-fish tissue while fully encysted. Laboratory methods for testing for acute and chronic exposures in water have advanced, and toxicant-specific information has increased in recent years. However, additional research is needed to understand interactions of life history, habitat, and long-term exposure to contaminants through water, pore water, sediment, and diet so that the risks of environmental exposures can be properly assessed and managed. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

Cope, W.G.; Bringolf, R.B.; Buchwalter, D.B.; Newton, T.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Dwyer, F.J.; Barnhart, M.C.; Neves, R.J.; Hammer, E.

2008-01-01

282

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

283

The toxicology of climate change: environmental contaminants in a warming world.  

PubMed

Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. This review examines one of the consequences of climate change that has only recently attracted attention: namely, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemical pollutants. A review was undertaken of the scientific literature (original research articles, reviews, government and intergovernmental reports) focusing on the interactions of toxicants with the environmental parameters, temperature, precipitation, and salinity, as altered by climate change. Three broad classes of chemical toxicants of global significance were the focus: air pollutants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including some organochlorine pesticides, and other classes of pesticides. Generally, increases in temperature will enhance the toxicity of contaminants and increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone regionally, but will also likely increase rates of chemical degradation. While further research is needed, climate change coupled with air pollutant exposures may have potentially serious adverse consequences for human health in urban and polluted regions. Climate change producing alterations in: food webs, lipid dynamics, ice and snow melt, and organic carbon cycling could result in increased POP levels in water, soil, and biota. There is also compelling evidence that increasing temperatures could be deleterious to pollutant-exposed wildlife. For example, elevated water temperatures may alter the biotransformation of contaminants to more bioactive metabolites and impair homeostasis. The complex interactions between climate change and pollutants may be particularly problematic for species living at the edge of their physiological tolerance range where acclimation capacity may be limited. In addition to temperature increases, regional precipitation patterns are projected to be altered with climate change. Regions subject to decreases in precipitation may experience enhanced volatilization of POPs and pesticides to the atmosphere. Reduced precipitation will also increase air pollution in urbanized regions resulting in negative health effects, which may be exacerbated by temperature increases. Regions subject to increased precipitation will have lower levels of air pollution, but will likely experience enhanced surface deposition of airborne POPs and increased run-off of pesticides. Moreover, increases in the intensity and frequency of storm events linked to climate change could lead to more severe episodes of chemical contamination of water bodies and surrounding watersheds. Changes in salinity may affect aquatic organisms as an independent stressor as well as by altering the bioavailability and in some instances increasing the toxicity of chemicals. A paramount issue will be to identify species and populations especially vulnerable to climate-pollutant interactions, in the context of the many other physical, chemical, and biological stressors that will be altered with climate change. Moreover, it will be important to predict tipping points that might trigger or accelerate synergistic interactions between climate change and contaminant exposures. PMID:19375165

Noyes, Pamela D; McElwee, Matthew K; Miller, Hilary D; Clark, Bryan W; Van Tiem, Lindsey A; Walcott, Kia C; Erwin, Kyle N; Levin, Edward D

2009-08-01

284

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

1992-09-01

285

Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants. This research will form the foundation for future experiments into the genetic manipulation of plants to potentially promote greater or more specific symbiotic relationships between plant and Rhizobium allowing this biological phenomenon to be used in a greater number of crop types. Future technology developments could include the genetic engineering of crops suitable for in situ vadose zone 2 bioremediation (via microbes) and phytoremediation (through the crop, itself) in contaminated DOE sites.

McLachlan, John A.

2000-06-01

286

Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - zambia, 2014.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

2014-11-01

287

Tolerance and genetic relatedness of three meiobenthic copepod populations exposed to sediment-associated contaminant mixtures: Role of environmental history  

SciTech Connect

Meiobenthic copepod populations (Microarthridion littoral) were collected from three South Carolina, USA, estuaries having different pollution stress histories (i.e., pristine sediments, high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [PAH] sediments, high metals/moderate PAH sediments) and then assayed for survival and reproductive output in 14-d exposures to pristine and heavily PAH/metals-contaminated sediment mixture exhibited differential survival and reproductive outputs as a function of previous environmental histories and whether genetic relatedness among populations measured as DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome apoenzyme b, were linked to copepod contaminant tolerance. Overall, adult survival and reproductive success in contaminated sediments were significantly reduced relative to controls for all three populations irrespective of environmental histories. Differential resistance to sediment-contaminant mixtures by the two copepod populations inhabiting the contaminated sites was not found, despite their previous exposures to mixed contaminants at {Sigma}PAH and {Sigma}Metal concentrations of 7,287 to 2,467 ng/g dry wt and 461 to 3,497 {micro}g/g, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation, however, was found between copepod populations from the control and the two contaminated sites. Generally, cross-population survival and reproductive outputs were not significantly different and could not be linked to genetic differentiation at the population level.

Kovatch, C.E.; Schizas, N.V.; Chandler, G.T.; Coull, B.C.; Quattro, J.M.

2000-04-01

288

Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter.  

PubMed Central

Occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. Thirty of 37 employees (81 per cent) has blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 mug/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels greater than 60mug/100ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells; eight current and previous employees had been hospitalized with lead colic, and another with encephalopathy. Levels of lead in surface soil (1,800 ppm) and vegetation (20,000 ppm) at the smelter were high and decreased with distance. Animals on nearby pasture had died, and lead levels in the blood, milk, and hair of large and small animals were elevated. Adults living within 100 meters of the smelter had higher blood and hair lead levels than controls, who lived at greater distances, but there was no evidence in them of lead toxicity. PMID:937600

Levine, R J; Moore, R M; McLaren, G D; Barthel, W F; Landrigan, P J

1976-01-01

289

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

2007-12-14

290

The occurrence of organic contaminants in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Poland: an environmental quality assessment.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to provide information on the levels of pollutants in the tissues of eels caught in Polish waters. The contaminants included in the study are those which have not yet been widely studied in eel stocks, but which arouse concern in relation to the environment. An overview of the pollutant levels in eels caught in other European waters was also conducted. The results are evaluated in terms of environmental quality and consumer health. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs and ?HBCDs in muscles of eels sampled in Polish waters were between 1 and 2 ng g(-1) ww. The mean TBT concentrations were between 2 and 4 ng g(-1)ww with the exception of samples from the Szczecin Lagoon, in which the mean TBT concentration was about tenfold higher. PMID:25113214

Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Ruczynska, Wies?awa; Nermer, Tomasz; Usydus, Zygmunt; Robak, Stanis?aw

2014-11-01

291

White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed {sup 137}Cs concentrations [> 10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (> 10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h{sup 1} 1 m above the soil surface.

Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

1993-01-01

292

Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th  

SciTech Connect

Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) Rua General Severiano, 90, RJ de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil); Wieland, Patricia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ), Dept. Eng. Ind., RJ (Brazil)

2008-08-07

293

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

Not Available

1991-10-01

294

TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM- AND URANIUM-CONTAMINATED OIL FROM ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE  

SciTech Connect

A removal method for plutonium and uranium has been tested at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This alternative treatment technology is applicable to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with actinides. In our studies, greater than 70% removal of the actinides was achieved. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder consisting of a surface modified mesoporous material. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and actinides in water and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1, 2]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide support provides a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. The testing described in this report was conducted on a small scale but larger-scale testing of the technology has been performed on mercury-contaminated oil without difficulty [3].

Klasson, KT

2002-12-05

295

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

Not Available

1992-03-01

296

Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)  

SciTech Connect

A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may also have contributed to the decline. California least terns are primarily piscivorous during the nesting period, feeding predominantly on jack-smelt, topsmelt, and northern anchovy. Topsmelt had the highest levels of DDE (p,p`-DDE) (up to 3 {mu}g/g wet wt) of fish collected from San Diego Bay. Eggs of Caspian terns (S.caspia) from that study contained up to 56 {mu}g/g DDE, and DDE was associated with a reduction in eggshell thickness as determined by the thickness index. In addition to shell deficiencies, organochlorines can also cause reduced egg production, aberrant incubation behavior, delayed ovulation, embryotoxicosis, and mortality of chicks and adults. Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) have caused decreased hatchability, altered nesting behavior, and embryotoxicosis in birds in field and laboratory studies. Our objective was to evaluate the role of contaminants in the decline of California least terns. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Hothem, R.L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zador, S.G. [San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Newark, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

297

Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) as biomonitors of environmental metal contamination.  

PubMed

We live-trapped 40 northern pocket gophers across two years from the Anaconda Smelter Superfund Site, Anaconda, Montana, USA, to determine their exposure to five metal contaminants and effects of exposure on selected measurements. Soil, gopher blood, liver, kidney, and carcass samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. Hematological parameters, kidney and liver porphyrins, and red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity were also measured. Micronutrients Cu and Zn were detected in all tissues analyzed, and Cd, Pb, and As were detected less frequently. We report differences in metal distribution among different tissues and differences in bioaccumulation for different metals within the same tissue. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of Zn or Cu in any tissue across the study site, but relationships between lead in soil and lead in carcass proved especially strong (r2 = 0.80; p < 0.001; n = 18). Among biomarker data, we observed a negative relationship between concentration of lead in the soil and ALAD activity in gophers with detectable concentrations of lead in their blood (r2 = 0.45; p = 0.006; n = 15). Results of this study suggest that northern pocket gophers are useful biomonitors of environmental Pb, Cd, and As contamination, and their broad geographic range across North America could allow them to be an important component of site-specific metals assessments. PMID:16519307

Reynolds, Kevin D; Schwarz, Matthew S; McFarland, Craig A; McBride, Toby; Adair, Blakely; Strauss, Richard E; Cobb, George P; Hooper, Michael J; McMurry, Scott T

2006-02-01

298

Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). College of Pharmacy; Hartley, W. [Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-31

299

Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.  

PubMed

The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/?l of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/?l in the Sane-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. PMID:24484767

Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Grald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benot; Comte, Sbastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frdric; Giraudoux, Patrick

2014-03-17

300

Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (?10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., environmental contaminants. PMID:24038072

Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

2014-03-01

301

Environmental contaminant exposure data and monitoring priorities for wild terrestrial vertebrates at national parks in coastal and estuarine habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on select species and habitats in the United States. One of the many BEST Project activities entails the development of decision-support tools to assist in the identification of chemical threats to species and lands under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior. Although there are many ecotoxicological monitoring programs that focus on aquatic species and habitats, there are currently no large-scale efforts that are focused on terrestrial vertebrates in the United States. Nonetheless, organochlorine contaminants, metals, and new pollutants continue to pose hazards to terrestrial vertebrates at many spatial scales (ranging from small hazardous-waste-site point sources to entire watersheds). To evaluate and prioritize pollutant hazards for terrestrial vertebrates, a ?Contaminant Exposure and EffectsTerrestrial Vertebrates? (CEE-TV) database (www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online) was developed. The CEE-TV database has been used to conduct simple searches for exposure and biological effects information for a given species or location, identification of temporal contaminant exposure trends, information gap analyses for national wildlife refuge and national park units, and ranking of terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological information needs based on data density and water quality problems. Despite widespread concerns about environmental contamination, during the past decade only about one-half of the coastal National Park units appear to have terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data. Based upon known environmental contaminant hazards, it is recommended that regionalized monitoring programs or efforts focused on lands managed by the Department of the Interior should be undertaken to prevent serious natural resource problems.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.; Eisenreich, K. M.; McKernan, M.A.

2006-01-01

302

SEP ICOLC Call to Action January 2005 1 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP)  

E-print Network

SEP ICOLC Call to Action January 2005 1 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) A Call for ICOLC to Action - ICOLC Global Funding Initiative For Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy · The General Approach

Zalta, Edward N.

303

The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements ANTI-WITCHCRAFT MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA  

E-print Network

1 The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements ANTI-WITCHCRAFT MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA, published in "Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements, D.A. Snow, D. della Porta, B. Klandermans. D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

CLBE001-ESS2E October 14, 2006 15:55 Encyclopedia of the Solar System  

E-print Network

CLBE001-ESS2E October 14, 2006 15:55 Encyclopedia of the Solar System Second Edition Editors for the second edition of Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Your Chapter is 9. Your corrections will be due back

305

An overview of the ERICA Integrated Approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERICA project (environmental risks from ionising contaminants: assessment and management, EC contract no. FI6R-CT-2004-508847) concluded with the publication of two main outputs: the ERICA Integrated Approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising radiation, of which also introduces the user to the second main output, the ERICA Tool, which is a software programme with supporting databases,

Carl-Magnus Larsson

2008-01-01

306

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Field Procedures for Assessing the Exposure of Fish to Environmental Contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document describes procedures used to collect information, tissues, and fluids for documenting the exposure of fish to environmental contaminants. For the procedures described here, fish are captured (preferably by electrofishing) and held alive until processing (generally <1 h). Fish are weighed, measured, and examined for grossly visible external lesions and pathologies. A blood sample is collected by caudal veinipuncture using a needle and syringe. The fish is subdued and it's abdominal cavity opened. The internal organs are dissected from the fish for examination. The sex of the fish is determined by direct observation of its gonads. The liver is weighed (most species) and cut into small cubes and flash-frozen in cryogenic vials, which are stored and shipped in dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Additional liver cubes plus all grossly visible anomalies are preserved for histopathology. The gonads and spleen are weighed, and samples are preserved for histopathology. The kidneys are examined, and histopathology samples collected. A gill sample is also collected and preserved. All remaining tissues are returned to the carcass, which is wrapped in foil, labeled for chemical analysis, and chilled. Individual fish carcasses are composited by station, species, and gender; frozen; and shipped to the analytical laboratory. Procedures are also described for record keeping; processing blood to obtain serum and plasma; flash-freezing samples; cleaning equipment; and preventing the transport of living organisms among waterways. A list of necessary equipment and supplies is also provided.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gross, Timothy S.; Bryant, Wade L., Jr.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Smith, Stephen B.; Goede, Ronald W.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Kubiak, Timothy J.

1999-01-01

307

Check on level of environmental contamination by mercury and cleanup of Abetina Mining area (Grosseto-Italia)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to check on the level of environmental contamination and to design a project for cleaning up the Abetina Mine area at Piancastagnaio (Grosseto, Italy). Contamination of this area had occurred during the mining and treatment of cinnabar (HgS) over a prolonged period. The aim of the project is to remove the sources of contamination or render them harmless. Mining of the Piancastagnaio deposit started in 1840, mercury metal being extracted from the ore by thermal treatment. Together with Spain, Italy was the first country to produce this metal and was the world leader in this field between 1936 and 1943. Though mercury production in the Monte Amiata region of Tuscany ceased in 1974 the ensuing environmental impact is very evident, taking the form of rusty old mining and processing works, plus waste tips which still contain considerable amount of mercury even after the ore had been subject to thermal extraction treatment. The research which has been conducted included mapping the area to identify the main sources of mercury and arsenic pollution, as well as the level of environmental contamination. Mercury and arsenic values in excess of 16,000 and 150 ppm respectively are encountered in the most highly-contaminated places. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Belardi, G.; Marabini, A.M.; Passariello, B. [Institute for Minerals Treatment, Rome (Italy)] [and others

1996-12-31

308

Potential External Contamination with Bisphenol A and Other Ubiquitous Organic Environmental Chemicals during Biomonitoring Analysis: An Elusive Laboratory Challenge  

PubMed Central

Background: Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. Objectives: We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. Discussions: We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Conclusions: Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valideven when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practicesthe following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples. PMID:23458838

Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua

2013-01-01

309

The use of nontraditional assays in an integrated environmental assessment of contaminated ground water  

SciTech Connect

The toxic potential of ground water contaminated with several probable carcinogenic heavy metals and halogenated solvents was evaluated using an integrated environmental assessment approach. A number of assays, which included acute toxicity, short-term chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, developmental toxicity and carcinogenicity, were used to assist in a hazard assessment. Comprehensive analytical chemistry was performed throughout the 9-month exposure to document the chemical characteristics of the ground water. An initiation-promotion protocol using a non-neoplastic concentration of diethylnitrosamine as an initiator in a 9-month chronic exposure of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was used to evaluate potential carcinogenicity of the ground water. The fish were exposed to groundwater concentrations of 1% and 10% ground water by volume. No significant lesions were found in the Japanese medaka exposed to groundwater concentrations at 1% or 10% ground water by volume. Likewise, no genotoxicity, developmental toxicity, acute toxicity or short-term chronic toxicity, were found at concentrations of {le} 10% ground water by volume. The negative results obtained in this study show that the potential hazard posed by low concentrations of a complex mixture containing suspect carcinogens may not be manifested at environmentally relevant concentrations.

Twerdok, L.E. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Detrick, MD (United States); Burton, D.T. [Univ. of Maryland, Queenstown, MD (United States). Wye Research and Education Center; Gardner, H.S.; Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Fort Detrick, MD (United States); Wolfe, M.J. [Experimental Pathology Labs., Herndon, VA (United States)

1997-09-01

310

Evaluation of environmental contamination of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in hospital rooms at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital (SLEH) and review of literature on environmental sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital to evaluate environmental contamination of Clostridium difficile in the infected patient rooms. Samples were collected from the high risk areas and were immediately cultured for the presence of Clostridium difficile . Lack of microbial typing prevented the study of molecular characterization of the Clostridium difficile isolates obtained led to a

Shilpy Chowdhury

2010-01-01

311

From SEP to SEPIA: How and Why Indiana University is Helping the Stanford Encyclopedia of  

E-print Network

From SEP to SEPIA: How and Why Indiana University is Helping the Stanford Encyclopedia, but maintaining open access is. The encyclopedia has been built with major grants from the National Endowment it ever cease to support the encyclopedia. Indiana University founds SEPIA When the idea of applying

Zalta, Edward N.

312

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Book CopyRight -Year 2010  

E-print Network

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Book CopyRight - Year 2010 Title Association Rule (Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2b) Postcode FI-00014 City Helsinki Country Finland 1 #12;Encyclopedia of Machine Park: AAAI Press. C. Sammut, G. Webb (eds.), Encyclopedia of Machine Learning, DOI

Toivonen, Hannu

313

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES--Interspecific Coevolution Copyright Macmillan Reference Ltd6 August, 2003 Page 1  

E-print Network

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES--Interspecific Coevolution ©Copyright Macmillan Reference Ltd6 August, 2003 Page 1 A3667 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES May 2003 ©Macmillan Reference Ltd Interspecific are a source of macroevolutionary patterns of speciation and specialization. #12;ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES

Weiblen, George D

314

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Book CopyRight -Year 2010  

E-print Network

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Book CopyRight - Year 2010 Title Basket Analysis Author Hallstromin katu 2b) Postcode FI-00014 City Helsinki Country Finland 1 #12;Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Frequent Itemset Frequent Pattern C. Sammut, G. Webb (eds.), Encyclopedia of Machine Learning, DOI

Toivonen, Hannu

315

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES--Neuronal Migration Copyright Macmillan Reference Ltd14 August, 2002 Page 1  

E-print Network

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES--Neuronal Migration ©Copyright Macmillan Reference Ltd14 August, 2002 Page 1 A796 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES July 2002 ©Macmillan Reference Ltd Neuronal Migration microscopic examination and reconstruction uncovered strong evidence for the migration of #12;ENCYCLOPEDIA

Wu, Jane Y.

316

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Book CopyRight -Year 2010  

E-print Network

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Book CopyRight - Year 2010 Title Apriori Algorithm (Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2b) Postcode FI-00014 City Helsinki Country Finland 1 #12;Encyclopedia of Machine. ­ s ). Menlo Park: AAAI Press. C. Sammut, G. Webb (eds.), Encyclopedia of Machine Learning, DOI

Toivonen, Hannu

317

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Book CopyRight -Year 2010  

E-print Network

Book Title Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Book CopyRight - Year 2010 Title Frequent Itemset (Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2b) Postcode FI-00014 City Helsinki Country Finland 1 #12;Encyclopedia of Machine Press. C. Sammut, G. Webb (eds.), Encyclopedia of Machine Learning, DOI . / - - - - , © Springer

Toivonen, Hannu

318

Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer  

E-print Network

Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer David;Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics Mantle Convection, David Bercovici MANTLE CONVECTION Synonyms Mantle convection the- ory to follow, the simple B�enard convective sys- 1 #12;Encyclopedia of Solid Earth

319

A User's Guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements The ENCODE Project Consortium"  

E-print Network

A User's Guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) The ENCODE Project Consortium" * Abstract The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific Consortium (2011) A User's Guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). PLoS Biol 9(4): e1001046. doi

Lieb, Jason

320

Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: The internet encyclopedia Wikipedia A. Capocci,1  

E-print Network

Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: The internet encyclopedia Wikipedia A-line encyclopedia Wikipedia. By describing topics by vertices and hyperlinks between them as edges, we can represent this encyclopedia as a directed graph. The topological properties of this graph are in close analogy with those

Caldarelli, Guido

321

ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature11247 An integrated encyclopedia of DNA  

E-print Network

ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature11247 An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, species and individuals. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project aims to delineate all

Lieb, Jason

322

Encyclopedia of Youth and War: Young People as Participants and Victims.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia provides comprehensive information on youth and war. Beginning with the 30 Years' War in the 17th century and ending with the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo, the encyclopedia covers children and youth from birth to age 18, with additional materials on young adults from 18 to 24 years of age. The encyclopedia includes over 300

Sherrow, Victoria

323

Environmental contaminants in prey and tissues of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend Region, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) have been recorded nesting in Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA and other areas of the Chihuahuan Desert since the early 1900s. From 1993 to 1996, peregrine falcon productivity rates were very low and coincided with periods of low rainfall. However, low productivity also was suspected to be caused by environmental contaminants. To evaluate potential impacts

M. Mora; R. Skiles; B. Mckinney; M. Paredes; D. Buckler; D. Papoulias; D. Klein

2002-01-01

324

Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up

Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

2009-01-01

325

Induction of cytochrome p?450 in the norway rat, rattus norvegicus, following exposure to potential environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P?450 (CYP) induction (consisting of increases in cellular RNA and protein content and associated catalytic activities) occurs predominantly in the liver, but also in small intestine, lung, kidney, and placenta, of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.) exposed to certain types of potential environmental contaminants. The specific isoform(s) induced in the rat and the magnitudes of the increases observed depend upon

Raymond W. Nims; Ronald A. Lubet

1995-01-01

326

Cytochrome P4501A induction and DNA adduct formation in glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus), fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study indicates that complex mixtures of pollutants found in the Arctic marine environment have genotoxic effects in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). DNA adducts were quantified, by the 32P-postlabeling technique, in liver samples from gulls fed with hen eggs (controls) and from gulls fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed). All birds were grown and fed under laboratory conditions. Hepatic

Lene stby; Geir Wing Gabrielsen; se Krkje

2005-01-01

327

Chromosome Aberrations and DNA Strand Breaks in Glaucous Gull (Larus Hyperboreus) Chicks Fed Environmentally Contaminated Gull Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull

se Krkje; Chris Bingham; Ruth Husmo Tuven; Geir Wing Gabrielsen

2006-01-01

328

Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of

D. J. Nancarrow; M. M. White

2004-01-01

329

Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 2: Environmental and physiological factors governing mercury flux to the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of physiological and environmental factors in governing the flux of elemental mercury from plants to the atmosphere. Five species (Lepidium latifolium, Artemisia douglasiana, Caulanthus sp., Fragaria vesca, and Eucalyptus globulus) with different ecological and physiological attributes and growing in soils with high levels of mercury contamination were examined. Studies were

Todd L. Leonard; M. S. Gustin; G. C. J. Fernandez; G. E. Jr. Taylor

1998-01-01

330

Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

331

In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically

Gregory G. Miller; Leonard I. Sweet; Jean V. Adams; Geneva M. Omann; Dora R. Passino-Reader; Peter G. Meier

2002-01-01

332

Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n?=?461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p?=?.002) and after using the toilet (p?=?.001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n?=?367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. PMID:24312303

Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

2013-01-01

333

Effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol and environmentally persistent free radicals.  

PubMed

The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs' and the PCP molecules' chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2-12 10(18) spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and line width (?Hp-p) of 2.00311-2.00323 and 4.190-5.472 G, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1-10 10(18) spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327-2.00341, and ?Hp-p of 5.209-6.721 G. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 10(18) spins/g of soil at 100 C for open heating and 12 10(18) spins/g at 75 C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2-24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure. PMID:22548284

dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Cook, Robert L; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Dellinger, Barry

2012-06-01

334

Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

NONE

1995-12-01

335

A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Furlong, E.T.

2004-01-01

336

Direct contact and environmental contaminations are responsible for HEV transmission in pigs  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause enterically-transmitted hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic nature of Hepatitis E infections has been established in industrialized areas and domestic pigs are considered as the main reservoir. The dynamics of transmission in pig herds therefore needs to be understood to reduce the prevalence of viremic pigs at slaughter and prevent contaminated pig products from entering the food chain. An experimental trial was carried out to study the main characteristics of HEV transmission between orally inoculated pigs and nave animals. A mathematical model was used to investigate three transmission routes, namely direct contact between pigs and two environmental components to represent within-and between-group oro-fecal transmission. A large inter-individual variability was observed in response to infection with an average latent period lasting 6.9 days (5.8; 7.9) in inoculated animals and an average infectious period of 9.7 days (8.2; 11.2). Our results show that direct transmission alone, with a partial reproduction number of 1.41 (0.21; 3.02), can be considered as a factor of persistence of infection within a population. However, the quantity of virus present in the environment was found to play an essential role in the transmission process strongly influencing the probability of infection with a within pen transmission rate estimated to 2???10??6gge??1d??1(1???10??7;?7???10??6). Between-pen environmental transmission occurred to a lesser extent (transmission rate: 7???10??8gge??1d??1(5???10??9;?3???10??7) but could further generate a within-group process. The combination of these transmission routes could explain the persistence and high prevalence of HEV in pig populations. PMID:24165278

2013-01-01

337

Direct contact and environmental contaminations are responsible for HEV transmission in pigs.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause enterically-transmitted hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic nature of Hepatitis E infections has been established in industrialized areas and domestic pigs are considered as the main reservoir. The dynamics of transmission in pig herds therefore needs to be understood to reduce the prevalence of viremic pigs at slaughter and prevent contaminated pig products from entering the food chain. An experimental trial was carried out to study the main characteristics of HEV transmission between orally inoculated pigs and nave animals. A mathematical model was used to investigate three transmission routes, namely direct contact between pigs and two environmental components to represent within-and between-group oro-fecal transmission. A large inter-individual variability was observed in response to infection with an average latent period lasting 6.9 days (5.8; 7.9) in inoculated animals and an average infectious period of 9.7 days (8.2; 11.2). Our results show that direct transmission alone, with a partial reproduction number of 1.41 (0.21; 3.02), can be considered as a factor of persistence of infection within a population. However, the quantity of virus present in the environment was found to play an essential role in the transmission process strongly influencing the probability of infection with a within pen transmission rate estimated to 2 10(-6)g ge(-1)d(-1)(1 10(-7); 7 10(-6)). Between-pen environmental transmission occurred to a lesser extent (transmission rate: 7 10(-8)g ge(-1) d(-1)(5 10(-9); 3 10(-7)) but could further generate a within-group process. The combination of these transmission routes could explain the persistence and high prevalence of HEV in pig populations. PMID:24165278

Andraud, Mathieu; Dumarest, Marine; Cariolet, Roland; Aylaj, Bouchra; Barnaud, Elodie; Eono, Florent; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

2013-01-01

338

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

McLachlan, J.

1998-06-01

339

Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.  

PubMed

Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. PMID:23845936

Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

2013-09-01

340

[Environmental intervention in sites contaminated by lead: the United States of America experience].  

PubMed

For a decade, state and federal agencies have worked jointly with communities throughout the USA, with the objective of measuring the health-risk from lead pollution in residential zones. Often these communities have been linked with facilities previously associated with activities like mining and metallurgy; nevertheless, there are other industries like paint manufacturing and battery recycling, that have also been identified as lead pollution sources. The vast experience in cleaning up the contaminated sites has shown that ample programs designed to identify and handle the exposure routes can help, in an effective manner, to diminish blood lead levels (BLL) in susceptible populations, such as in young children. Environmental intervention programs are more effective when the affected communities carry out health education/intervention programs, geared towards the development of individualized strategies for handling the risk implied by the presence of lead in the atmosphere. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:14746009

Ceto, Nicholas

2003-01-01

341

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus).  

PubMed

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture carcasses and nearly all raven carcasses at generally moderate concentrations. Other organochlorines occurred infrequently in carcasses and generally at low concentrations. Turkey vulture eggshells were 16% thinner than the pre-DDT mean; there was no change in shell thickness of raven eggs. Vulture eggs contained an average of 6.9 ppm DDE and two contained excessive concentrations of endrin. DDE concentrations were low in raven eggs. Residues of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Se, Tl, and Zn in tissues of vultures and ravens appeared normal when compared with reference values for other species. Lead concentrations in bone of turkey vultures and feathers of condors appeared to be elevated above normal background concentrations in some cases. Current exposure of condors to organochlorines appears low; however, we are concerned about the excessive exposure of turkey vultures to organochlorines, possibly in Central America. Lead exposure to vultures and condors has occurred, but its significance to their populations is unknown. PMID:24254546

Wiemeyer, S N; Jurek, R M; Moore, J F

1986-01-01

342

Polybrominated biphenyls in model and environmentally contaminated human blood: protein binding and immunotoxicological studies.  

PubMed Central

A review and summary is given of analytical, biochemical, and immunological studies made following an immunodiagnostic investigation which revealed significant decreases in the numbers, and changes in the functional integrity, of both T-and B-lymphocytes in a group of Michigan dairy farmers exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) which had been inadvertently introduced into the food chain in 1973. A quantification technique based on selected ion monitoring of bromine anions, obtained in negative chemical ionization, permitted determination of 10-35 pg of individual PBB congener per mL serum, a 20-fold improvement over electron capture gas chromatography. An in vitro spiked system was established and shown to be a representative model of environmentally contaminated blood. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric quantification determined that the distribution of PBB among plasma, erythrocytes, mononucleocytes and polymorphonucleocytes was 89:9:less than 1:less than 1. In plasma 80% of the PBB was bound to apolipoproteins B and A in a 3:1 ratio. No preferential absorption of PBB congeners was found in the blood compartments suggesting that changes in the relative abundances of PBB congeners observed in longitudinal studies on Michigan subjects reflect differences in excretion rates or metabolism. A repeat in 1981 of the immunodiagnostic tests conducted in 1976 revealed a virtually complete persistence of the immune dysfunctions in the Michigan farmers exposed to PBB a decade ago. PMID:2992920

Roboz, J; Greaves, J; Bekesi, J G

1985-01-01

343

Remote sensing for the geobotanical and biogeochemical assessment of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Under Contract Number DE-AC08-90NV10845, the DOE has funded the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to examine several aspects of remote sensing, specifically with respect to how its use might help support Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) activities at DOE sites located throughout the country. This report represents partial fulfillment of DRI`s obligations under that contract and includes a review of relevant literature associated with remote sensing studies and our evaluation and recommendation as to the applicability of various remote sensing techniques for DOE needs. With respect to DOE ERWM activities, remote sensing may be broadly defined as collecting information about a target without actually being in physical contact with the object. As the common platforms for remote sensing observations are aircraft and satellites, there exists the possibility to rapidly and efficiently collect information over DOE sites that would allow for the identification and monitoring of contamination related to present and past activities. As DOE sites cover areas ranging from tens to hundreds of square miles, remote sensing may provide an effective, efficient, and economical method in support of ERWM activities. For this review, remote sensing has been limited to methods that employ electromagnetic (EM) energy as the means of detecting and measuring target characteristics.

Wickham, J.; Chesley, M.; Lancaster, J.; Mouat, D.

1993-01-01

344

Remedial policies in radiologically-contaminated forests: environmental consequences and risk assessment.  

PubMed

As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, large forested areas in Europe were contaminated by radionuclides. Extensive societal pressure has been exerted to decrease the radiation dose to the population and to the environment. Thus, in making abatement and remediation policy decisions not only economic costs, but also human and environmental risk assessment are desired. Forest remediation by organic layer removal, one of the most promising cleanup policies, is considered in this paper. Ecological risk assessment requires evaluation of the radionuclide distribution in forests. The FORESTPATH model is used for predicting the radionuclide fate in forest compartments after deposition as well as for evaluating the application of the remedial policy. Time of intervention and radionuclide deposition profile was predicted as being crucial for the remediation efficiency. Risk assessment conducted for a critical group of forest users in Belarus shows that consumption of forest products (berries and mushrooms) leads to about 0.004% risk of a fatal cancer. Cost-benefit analysis for forest cleanup suggests that complete removal of organic layer is too expensive for application in Belarus. PMID:9131826

Linkov, I; Morel, B; Schell, W R

1997-02-01

345

Long-term environmental and health implications of morphological change and sediment transport with respect to contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EPSRC-funded Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply (ARCoES) project encompasses four research strands, involving 14 institutions and six PhD studentships. ARCoES aims to determine the threats posed to future energy generation and the distribution network by flooding and erosion, changing patterns of coastal sedimentation, water temperature and the distribution of plants and animals in the coastal zone. Whilst this research has direct benefits for the operation of coastal power stations, ARCoES aims to have a wider stakeholder engagement through assessing how the resilience of coastal communities may be altered by five hundred years of coastal evolution. Coastal evolution will have substantial implications for the energy sector of the North West of England as former waste storage sites are eroded and remobilised within the intertidal environment. The current intertidal environmental stores of radioactivity will also experience reworking as ocean chemistry changes and saltmarsh chronologies are reworked in response to rising sea levels. There is a duel requirement to understand mass sediment movement along the North West coast of England as understanding the sediment transport dynamics is key to modelling long term coastal change and understanding how the environmental store of radioactivity will be reworked. The University of Stirling is researching the long-term environmental and health implications of remobilisation and transport of contaminated sediments around the UK coastline. Using a synergy of hyperspectral and topographic information the mobilisation of sediment bound contaminants within the coastal environment will be investigated. Potential hazards posed by contaminants are determined by a set of environmental impact test criteria which evaluate the bio-accessibility and ionising dose of contaminants. These test criteria will be used to comment on the likely environmental impact of modelled sediment transport and anticipated changes in ocean chemistry.

Sneddon, Christopher; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Hunter, Peter; Smith, Nick

2014-05-01

346

Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

Fontaine, T.A.

1991-11-01

347

Transforming text into hypertext for a compact disc encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypertext version of a multi-volume engineering encyclopedia on a compact disc is described. The methods for characterizing the explicit and implicit structure of the document, the novel user interface to the compact disc version, and the design and development lessons that apply to any hypertext project involving realistic amounts of text and graphics are discussed.

Robert J. Glushko

1989-01-01

348

Self-supervised Chinese ontology learning from online encyclopedias.  

PubMed

Constructing ontology manually is a time-consuming, error-prone, and tedious task. We present SSCO, a self-supervised learning based chinese ontology, which contains about 255 thousand concepts, 5 million entities, and 40 million facts. We explore the three largest online Chinese encyclopedias for ontology learning and describe how to transfer the structured knowledge in encyclopedias, including article titles, category labels, redirection pages, taxonomy systems, and InfoBox modules, into ontological form. In order to avoid the errors in encyclopedias and enrich the learnt ontology, we also apply some machine learning based methods. First, we proof that the self-supervised machine learning method is practicable in Chinese relation extraction (at least for synonymy and hyponymy) statistically and experimentally and train some self-supervised models (SVMs and CRFs) for synonymy extraction, concept-subconcept relation extraction, and concept-instance relation extraction; the advantages of our methods are that all training examples are automatically generated from the structural information of encyclopedias and a few general heuristic rules. Finally, we evaluate SSCO in two aspects, scale and precision; manual evaluation results show that the ontology has excellent precision, and high coverage is concluded by comparing SSCO with other famous ontologies and knowledge bases; the experiment results also indicate that the self-supervised models obviously enrich SSCO. PMID:24715819

Hu, Fanghuai; Shao, Zhiqing; Ruan, Tong

2014-01-01

349

Book Review. Pushkinskaia Entsiklopediia Mikhailovskoe (Pushkin Encyclopedia Mikhailovskoe)  

E-print Network

This article reviews volume one of the encyclopedia, which sets out to be a systematic guide to information about the realities of A. S. Pushkins life in the Pskov region. The work is intended to help both reader and visitor recreate...

Giullian, Jon C.

2006-01-01

350

Becoming Wikipedian: transformation of participation in a collaborative online encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional activities change in surprising ways when computer-mediated communication becomes a component of the activity system. In this descriptive study, we leverage two perspectives on social activity to understand the experiences of individuals who became active collaborators in Wikipedia, a prolific, cooperatively-authored online encyclopedia. Legitimate peripheral participation provides a lens for understanding participation in a community as an adaptable process

Susan L. Bryant; Andrea Forte; Amy Bruckman

2005-01-01

351

Historical Perspectives, Encyclopedia of NMR to be submitted Massiot, Dominique  

E-print Network

Historical Perspectives, Encyclopedia of NMR ­ to be submitted Massiot, Dominique : Materials by NMR of Quadrupoles from room to high temperature Dominique Massiot CEMHTI-CNRS, Orléans, France I came California. The former were able to evidence directly local coordination of silicon or aluminum from 29 Si

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia Table of Contents (Hide All)  

E-print Network

, Classification and Problems of Application The Fossil Record: A Window to the Past What Does the Fossil RecordGrzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia Evolution Table of Contents (Hide All) Dinosaurs Creation Tell Us about Evolution? Biogeography: The Distribution of Life Genetics: The Blueprint of Life Genes

Musselman, Lytton John

353

Self-Supervised Chinese Ontology Learning from Online Encyclopedias  

PubMed Central

Constructing ontology manually is a time-consuming, error-prone, and tedious task. We present SSCO, a self-supervised learning based chinese ontology, which contains about 255 thousand concepts, 5 million entities, and 40 million facts. We explore the three largest online Chinese encyclopedias for ontology learning and describe how to transfer the structured knowledge in encyclopedias, including article titles, category labels, redirection pages, taxonomy systems, and InfoBox modules, into ontological form. In order to avoid the errors in encyclopedias and enrich the learnt ontology, we also apply some machine learning based methods. First, we proof that the self-supervised machine learning method is practicable in Chinese relation extraction (at least for synonymy and hyponymy) statistically and experimentally and train some self-supervised models (SVMs and CRFs) for synonymy extraction, concept-subconcept relation extraction, and concept-instance relation extraction; the advantages of our methods are that all training examples are automatically generated from the structural information of encyclopedias and a few general heuristic rules. Finally, we evaluate SSCO in two aspects, scale and precision; manual evaluation results show that the ontology has excellent precision, and high coverage is concluded by comparing SSCO with other famous ontologies and knowledge bases; the experiment results also indicate that the self-supervised models obviously enrich SSCO. PMID:24715819

Shao, Zhiqing; Ruan, Tong

2014-01-01

354

Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 5-volume set focuses on the substance of American law, the processes that produce its legal principles, and the history of the Supreme Court, from its creation to the present. One of the encyclopedia's distinguishing themes is the examination of case law, the essential texts that form the backbone of legal and pre-legal study in the United States. Overview essays

David S. Tanenhaus; Kay P. Kindred; Felice Batlan; Alfred L. Brophy; Mark A. Graber

2008-01-01

355

Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 5-volume Macmillan focuses on the substance of American law, the processes that produce its legal principles, and the history of the Supreme Court, from its creation to the present. One of the encyclopedia's distinguishing themes is the examination of case law, the essential texts that form the backbone of legal and pre-legal study in the United States. Overview essays

David S. Tanenhaus; Kay P. Kindred; Felice Batlan; Alfred L. Brophy; Mark A. Graber

2008-01-01

356

Encyclopedia of Research on Distance Education in South Dakota. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The action research reports compiled in this revised Encyclopedia focus on distance education in South Dakota. Contents include: "Designing Instruction for Distance Education: Guide to Best Practice" (Michael Simonson); "Effectiveness of Strategies Used by South Dakota Distance Education Teachers" (Jan Brockel); "Consortium: Key To Successful

Simonson, Michael, Comp.; Crawford, Margaret, Comp.

357

An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE)  

PubMed Central

To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome. PMID:22889292

2012-01-01

358

Generic Escherichia coli contamination of spinach at the preharvest stage: effects of farm management and environmental factors.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

2013-07-01

359

Generic Escherichia coli Contamination of Spinach at the Preharvest Stage: Effects of Farm Management and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

2013-01-01

360

Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.  

PubMed

In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

Krkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2006-01-01

361

DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil  

PubMed Central

Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as ?(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

362

Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA (United States). Northwest Fisheries Science Center

1995-12-31

363

Reduction of Clostridium Difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Contaminated environmental surfaces may play an important role in transmission of some healthcare-associated pathogens. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of cleaning practices in rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection and examined whether an intervention would result in improved decontamination of surfaces. METHODS: During a 6-week period, we cultured

Brittany C Eckstein; Daniel A Adams; Elizabeth C Eckstein; Agam Rao; Ajay K Sethi; Gopala K Yadavalli; Curtis J Donskey

2007-01-01

364

Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24652574

Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

2014-07-01

365

Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)  

SciTech Connect

To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 {micro}g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 {micro}g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p < 0.05) than at Lake Winnipegosis (70%), and the prevalence of hatchlings with deformed bills was greater (p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

Larson, J.M.; Karasov, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI (United States); Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Giesy, J.P.; Jones, P.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Verbrugge, D.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hanbidge, B.A.

1996-04-01

366

Differentiation of human placental BeWo cells by the environmental contaminant benzo(a)pyrene.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are widely-distributed environmental contaminants known to exert toxic effects in various tissues, including placenta. PAHs have notably been shown to inhibit proliferation of trophoblastic cells. The present study was designed to determine whether PAHs can concomitantly affect differentiated functions of trophoblastic cells. BaP was found to induce expression and secretion of ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) in human trophoblastic BeWo cells. The PAH also increased mRNA expressions of other trophoblastic differentiation markers, including those of the steroid metabolism enzymes CYP19A1 and HSD11B2 and of the fusogenic protein syncytin-2; in parallel, it triggered syncytialisation of BeWo cells. BaP-mediated ?-hCG and syncytin-2 up-regulation was prevented by co-treatment by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist CH-223191 or by knocking-down AhR expression through siRNA transfection. However, the potent AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) failed to induce expression of ?-hCG and syncytin-2, indicating that activation of the AhR pathway, known to be implicated in most, if not all, effects of PAHs, was required, but not sufficient. Interestingly, the p53 signaling pathway was activated by BaP, but not by TCDD, in BeWo cells and co-treatment by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-? or siRNAs-mediated silencing of p53 prevented up-regulation of ?-hCG and syncytin-2 induced by BaP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that BaP induces differentiation of placental trophoblastic BeWo cells in an AhR- and p53-dependent manner. PMID:24361490

Le Vee, Marc; Kolasa, Elise; Jouan, Elodie; Collet, Nicolas; Fardel, Olivier

2014-03-01

367

Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the

Lolita Tsanaclis; John F. C. Wicks

2008-01-01

368

Uptake of environmental contaminants by small mammals in pickleweed habitats at San Francisco Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammals were live-trapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were

Donald R. Clark; Kevin S. Foerster; Carolyn M. Marn; Roger L. Hothem

1992-01-01

369

Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Trace Contaminant Control Through FY 2012  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace contaminant control has been a concern of spacecraft designers and operators from early in the progression of manned spaceflight. Significant technological advancement has occurred since the first designs were implemented in the 1960s, culminating in the trace contaminant control system currently in use aboard the International Space Station as part of the atmosphere revitalization system.

Perry, J. L.; Pruitt, M. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Monje, O.

2013-01-01

370

Glutathione S-transferase activity of Fucus spp. as a biomarker of environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal zones are important areas from both ecological and economical points of view. However, in the last decades, in several regions of the globe, they have been increasingly impacted by complex discharges of contaminants and by marine traffic accidents. The Portuguese Atlantic coast is particularly exposed to these contaminants due to the proximity of important navigation routes. Several rocky shore

E. Cairro; M. Couderchet; A. M. V. M. Soares; L. Guilhermino

2004-01-01

371

KAPL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION PATTERN DUE TO KAPL OPERATIONS AND OUTSIDE INFLUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of the Knolls site and vicinity with radioactivity is ; reported. Hadiation monitoring results are summarized as to magnitude, extent, ; and frequency of contamination, characterized as to origin, and as sessed as to ; relative health hazard. The period of January 1951 through September 1953 is ; covered in this survey. Knolls site radioactive waste treatment is discussed,

Cherubin

1954-01-01

372

PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate (ClO4-) is an anion that originates as a contaminant in ground water and surface waters when the salts of ammonium, potassium, magnesium, or sodium dissolve in water. One major source of contamination is the manufacture or improper disposal of ammonium perchlorate th...

373

Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.  

PubMed

Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity. However, the same techniques discussed could also have application to catastrophes resulting from other incidents, such as natural disasters or industrial accidents. Further, the high sample throughput enabled by the techniques discussed could be employed for conventional environmental studies and compliance monitoring, potentially decreasing costs and/or increasing the quantity of data available to decision-makers. PMID:24568927

Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

2014-11-01

374

Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J. [and others

1995-06-01

375

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Rio Grande Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites in the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998. Four sites were National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. The other six were USGS-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations where water quality is monitored. The objectives were to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative organic and inorganic contaminants in RGB fish and the effects of contaminants on the fish; to continue testing the feasibility of incorporating biomarkers (that is, biochemical, histopathological, and other biological indicators of contaminant exposure or effects) into a monitoring program for large U.S. rivers; and to evaluate the compatibility of monitoring methods based on the analysis of fish with those used to monitor water by NASQAN. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus sp.; bass) were the targeted species; together, they represented 77% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed by instrumental methods for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from stations in the lower RGB contained greater concentrations of some contaminants and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by general gradient of pesticide concentrations and biomarker responses from upstream to downstream. In the upper RGB, a minimal number of altered biomarkers and few or no elevated contaminant concentrations were noted. The exception was elevated concentrations [up to 0.46 ug/g wet-weight (ww)] of total mercury (Hg) in predatory species from Station 63 (Rio Grande at Elephant Butte Reservior, NM), a condition noted in the past.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Coyle, James J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

376

Environmental effects of dredging: Trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The terms bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, trophic transfer, and trophic transfer coefficient are defined to avoid confusion, as they have been used inconsistently throughout the literature (Dallinger and others 1987). Bioconcentration is the uptake of a contaminant by aquatic organisms where water is the sole containment source. Bioaccumulation is the uptake of a contaminent from both water and dietary sources. Biomagnification refers to the processes of both bioconcentration and bioaccumulation that result in increased tissue concentrations of a contaminant as it passes through two or more trophic levels (Macek, Petrocelli, and Sleight 1979). Trophic transfer is defined as the transport of contaminants between two trophic levels (that is, prey to predator) (Swartz and Lee 1980). Trophic transfer coefficient (FTC) is the concentration of contaminant in consumer tissue divided by the concentration of contaminant in food sources (that is, preceding trophic level). A TTC is an approximate measure of the potential for a contaminant to biomagnify. Biomagnification occurs when concentrations of a material increase between two or more trophic levels (that is, TTC>1) and is a sub- set of trophic transfer, which refers to any movement of a material between trophic levels (that is, TTC can be greater than or less than 1). If trophic transfer is determined to be substantially >1, biomagnification is said to occur. If a TTC value is <1%, biomagnification is judged not to take place.

Dillon, T.M.; Suedel, B.C.; Peddicord, R.K.; Clifford, P.A.; Boraczek, J.A.

1995-01-01

377

REPORT ON THE PEER REVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA'S "Perchlorate ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION (External Review Draft)" 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the comments made at a two-day independent scientific peer review meeting on the Agency's draft assessment of health and ecotoxicological effects of perchlorate, entitled Perchlorate Environmental Contamination: Toxicological Review and Risk Characteriza...

378

The Use of Mytilus Galloprovincialis Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-Transferases Activities as Biomarkers of Environmental Contamination Along the Northwest Portuguese Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of using Mytilus galloprovincialis acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) activities as biomarkers of environmental contamination in risk assessment studies along the northwest Portuguese coast, the objective of this study was to provide background information related to: (1) baseline values of these enzymatic activities both in reference and contaminated areas and their responsiveness as indicators of exposure

S. M. Moreira; L. Guilhermino

2005-01-01

379

Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.  

PubMed

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2008-08-01

380

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

Not Available

1991-10-01

381

Reading contamination : an environmental education center at the Wells G&H Superfund Site  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes and architectural and programmatic methodology which makes legible the processes and consequences of site contamination. This methodology is chiefly demonstrated through a plan for the site which emerges ...

Berry, Rebecca Lynn, 1973-

1999-01-01

382

SLIDE PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

While pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous trace contaminants in the environment, thetypes, concentrations, and relative abundances of individual residues will vary depending on thegeographic locale and time of year, primarily a reflection of differing and varying prescribing andconsum...

383

Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

Meyers-Schoene, L. (IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-04-01

384

Benthic diatom community response to environmental variables and metal concentrations in a contaminated bay adjacent to Casey Station, Antarctica.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of anthropogenic contaminants and environmental variables on the composition of benthic diatom communities within a contaminated bay adjacent to an abandoned waste disposal site in Antarctica. The combination of geographical, environmental and chemical data included in the study explained all of the variation observed within the diatom communities. The chemical data, particularly metal concentrations, explained 45.9% of variation in the diatom communities, once the effects of grain-size and spatial structure had been excluded. Of the metals, tin explained the greatest proportion of variation in the diatom communities (28%). Tin was very highly correlated (R2>0.95) with several other variables (copper, iron, lead, and sum of metals), all of which explained similarly high proportions of total variation. Grain-size data explained 23% of variation once the effects of spatial structure and the chemical data had been excluded. The pure spatial component explained only 1.8% of the total variance. The study demonstrates that much of the compositional variability observed in the bay can be explained by concentrations of metal contaminants. PMID:15757690

Cunningham, Laura; Snape, Ian; Stark, Jonathan S; Riddle, Martin J

2005-03-01

385

Development of an in situ mammalian biomonitor to assess the effect of environmental contaminants on population and community health  

SciTech Connect

The influence of environmental contaminants (e.g., lead, benzene, organic hydrocarbons) on immune function of laboratory and field cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and population and community dynamics of small mammals residing on an oil refinery were studied. Cellular immune function in benzene and lead exposed cotton rats were assessed to determine the sensitivity of immune function as a potential biomarker of toxicant exposure. Additionally, cellular immune function, population density, reproduction, recruitment, and survival were assessed for wild cotton rats collected from an abandoned oil refinery to field test the utility of cotton rats as an in situ bioindicator. Cellular immune function in juvenile and adult cotton rats was sensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of lead and benzene. However, benzene-induced immunosuppression was marginal presumably due to the ability of cotton rats to quickly metabolize the compound and recover from the toxic effects. Wild cotton rats collected on the refinery also demonstrated sensitivity in immune function to the complex mixtures of contaminants found on site. Lymphoproliferative responses of splenocytes was the most consistent indicator toxicant exposure. Population parameters of cotton rats indicated marked depression in density, recruitment, and survival. Results also indicated a shift in community structure due to large numbers of house mice (Mus musculus) on toxic sites. Immune function and population parameters appear to be good prospects in situ bioindicators of environmental contamination.

McMurray, S.T.

1993-01-01

386

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

1999-01-01

387

Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

1993-09-01

388

Empirically-based re-design of a hypertext encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the processes used and guidelines discovered in re-designing the user interface of the hypertext encyclopedia, HyperHolmes. The re-design was based on the outcomes of a previous experiment and was evaluated experimentally. Results showed that the new system resulted in superior performance and somewhat different styles of navigation compared to the old system and to paper. The

Keith Instone; Barbee Mynatt Teasley; Laura Marie Leventhal

1993-01-01

389

EcoCyc: Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of E.coli. The database describes 3030 genes of E.coli, 695 enzymes encoded by a subset of these genes, 595 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli, and the organization of these reactions into 123 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical

Peter D. Karp; Monica Riley; Suzanne M. Paley; Alida Pellegrini-toole; Markus Krummenacker

1998-01-01

390

Eco Cyc: encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes andmetabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combinesinformation about the genome and the intermediarymetabolism of E.coli. The database describes 3030genes of E.coli, 695 enzymes encoded by a subset ofthese genes, 595 metabolic reactions that occur inE.coli, and the organization of these reactions into 123metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interfaceallows scientists to query and explore

Peter D. Karp; Monica Riley; Suzanne M. Paley; Alida Pellegrini-toole; Markus Krummenacker

1999-01-01

391

Wikipedias: Collaborative web-based encyclopedias as complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wikipedia is a popular web-based encyclopedia edited freely and\\u000acollaboratively by its users. In this paper we present an analysis of\\u000aWikipedias in several languages as complex networks. The hyperlinks pointing\\u000afrom one Wikipedia article to another are treated as directed links while the\\u000aarticles represent the nodes of the network. We show that many network\\u000acharacteristics are common to

V. Zlati?; M. Bozicevic; H. tefan?i?; M. Domazet

2006-01-01

392

This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience published by Elsevier and Halgren E (2009) Magnetoencephalography. In: Squire LR (ed.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, volume 5, pp

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

393

This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Inland Waters published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Inland Waters published by Elsevier. (2009) Megaloptera (Alderflies, Dobsonflies). In: Gene E. Likens, (Editor) Encyclopedia of Inland Waters

Pennuto, Chris

394

This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience published by Elsevier (2009) Electrical Perception and Communication. In: Squire LR (ed.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, volume

Hopkins, Carl D.

395

This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience published by Elsevier (2009) Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). In: Squire LR (ed.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, volume 1, pp. 105

Burnstock, Geoffrey

396

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Columbia River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project examined and analyzed 560 fish representing eight species from 16 sites in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998. Ten of the 16 sampling locations were historical National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) sites where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. Five sites were co-located at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations at which water quality is monitored. The sampling location at Marine Park in Vancouver, Washington did not correspond to either of the established monitoring programs. Eight of the sampling locations were located on the Columbia River; three were on the Snake River; two were on the Willamette River, and one site was on each of the Yakima, Salmon and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black basses (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) together accounted for 80% of the fish sampled during the study. Fish were weighed and measured then field-examined for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

397

Environmental effects of dredging. Biomagnification of contaminants in aquatic food webs as a result of open-water disposal of dredged material  

SciTech Connect

This note provides information regarding the potential extent of biomagnification (the tendency for contaminant concentrations in animal tissues to increase through successively higher trophic levels) of contaminants in aquatic food chains resulting from the open-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. The note also provides a technically sound perspective and offers general technical guidance on assessing the environmental importance of biomagnification in aquatic food chains as a result of open-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. It does not consider biomagnification in nonaquatic organisms.

Kay, S.H.

1985-06-01

398

Lead (II) detection and contamination routes in environmental sources, cookware and home-prepared foods from Zimatln, Oaxaca, Mexico.  

PubMed

An interdisciplinary investigation, involving environmental geochemists, epidemiologists, nurses, and anthropologists, was undertaken to determine the contamination source and pathway of an on-going outbreak of lead poisoning among migrants originating from Zimatln, Oaxaca, Mexico and living in Seaside, California, and among their US-born children. An initial investigation in Seaside identified grasshopper foodstuff ("chapulines") imported from Mexico and consumed as snacks, as containing alarmingly high lead concentrations (up to 2300 mg/kg). The focus in the present work concentrates on the Oaxacan area of origin of the problem in Mexico, and two potential sources of contamination were investigated: wind-borne dusts from existing mine residues as potential contaminants of soil, plant, and fauna; and food preparation practices using lead-glazed ceramic cookware. Over a three year period, sampling was conducted in Oaxaca using community-level sampling and also targeted sampling with families of cases with lead poisoning in California. In addition to fresh field chapulines, we analyzed for total lead: soil, water, mine residues, and plant materials, both from areas adjacent to or at an abandoned waste site containing mine tailings, and from fields where chapulines are collected; foodstuffs gathered in community markets or in a food transport business; and foodstuffs and cookware gathered from relatives of case families in California. Also, selected new and used lead-glazed clay cookware was extracted for lead, using 0.02 M citric acid and with 4% acetic acid. The results indicated significant presence of lead in mine wastes, in specific foodstuffs, and in glazed cookware, but no extensive soil contamination was identified. In-situ experiments demonstrated that lead incorporation in food is made very efficient through grinding of spices in glazed cookware, with the combination of a harsh mechanical action and the frequent presence of acidic lime juice, but without heating, resulting in high but variable levels of contamination. PMID:19185330

Villalobos, M; Merino-Snchez, C; Hall, C; Grieshop, J; Gutirrez-Ruiz, M E; Handley, M A

2009-04-01

399

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

NONE

1997-01-01

400

Environmental contamination of chromium in agricultural and animal products near a chromate industry  

SciTech Connect

India is one of the largest leather exporting countries. Accordingly the important raw material required for leather tanning, namely sodium dichromate production, has also been boosted in some states of India. Investigations on irrigation reservoirs, irrigation wells and soil revealed high level contamination of chromium. There was no effluent treatment plant installed and effluents stored in earthen lagoons without cement lining caused contamination of underground aquafers. There is little information on the biomagnification and movement of toxic chromate compounds from the contaminated soil and water resources into the components of the foodchain which might ultimately reach humans. Hence an analysis of chromium was carried out in some commercial plants cultivated in these areas and also in some animal products and foods like milk and fishes.

Khasim, D.I. (Research Centre of Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kakinada (India)); Kumar, N.V.N.; Hussain, R.C. (Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India))

1989-11-01

401

Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) phase 3 simplified integrated test trace contaminant control subsystem performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system testing has been conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center since 1986. The phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted from July 30, 1989, through August 11, 1989, tested an integrated air revitalization system. During this test, the trace contaminant control subsystem (TCCS) was directly integrated with the bleed stream from the carbon dioxide reduction subsystem. The TCCS performed as expected with minor anomalies. The test set the basis for further characterizing the TCCS performance as part of advance air revitalization system configurations.

Perry, J. L.

1990-01-01

402

The Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix) as an Environmental Bioindicator Species of Heavy Metal Contamination.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine the possible presence of lead and cadmium in the liver and kidneys of hooded crows (Corvus cornix). Liver and kidneys of hooded crow carcasses were collected in Province of Cuneo (Piedmont, Italy) in order to detect lead and cadmium content. Significant differences were found in lead and cadmium levels between areas of intensive cultivation versus areas where meadows are prevalent. Moreover, age greatly influenced the burden of heavy metals, while sex did not seem to affect the level of contamination. The source of contamination may be phosphate fertilizers used for intensive cultivation in the study area. PMID:25149280

Giammarino, Mauro; Quatto, Piero; Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina

2014-10-01

403

National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Toxic contaminants in the Gulf of Maine  

SciTech Connect

The report summaries results of the National Status and Trends (NS T) Program from the Gulf of Maine Region. It characterizes the system, its drainage basin, and inputs that influence the concentrations of contaminants and biological responses to those substances. These results are shown in relation to those obtained at all other NS T sites around the United States. The summary is intended to provide information to assist local and state resource managers in evaluating toxic contaminant conditions in their areas and placing those conditions in perspective to those throughout the Gulf and across the nation.

Gottholm, B.W.; Turgeon, D.D.

1991-01-01

404

Groundwater Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by the Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum presents an interactive module that provides an introduction to groundwater quality issues. The information is presented as a series of slides with text, animations, quiz questions and interactive features. Topics include types of aquifers, groundwater movement, sources of contamination, the concentration and dispersion of contaminants, plumes and remediation.

Babcock, Matthew; Mayer, Alex; Curriculum, Michigan E.

405

Chapter 17 in Encyclopedia of Computational Mechanics, Volume 3: Fluids Finite Element Methods for Fluid Dynamics with  

E-print Network

Chapter 17 in Encyclopedia of Computational Mechanics, Volume 3: Fluids Finite Element Methods in Encyclopedia of Computational Mechanics, Volume 3: Fluids (eds. E. Stein, R. De Borst and T.J.R. Hughes), John

Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

406

PAULRAJ, GESBERT, PAPADIAS, ENCYCLOPEDIA FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, JOHN WILEY PUBLISHING CO., 2000 1 Smart Antennas for Mobile Communications  

E-print Network

PAULRAJ, GESBERT, PAPADIAS, ENCYCLOPEDIA FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, JOHN WILEY PUBLISHING CO as the Encyclopedia for Electrical Engineering, John Wiley Pub- lishing Co. Note that it does not cover the area

Gesbert, David

407

Environmental impacts and metal exposure of aquatic ecosystems in rivers contaminated by small scale gold mining: the Puyango River basin, southern Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold mining in the Portovelo-Zaruma district in southern Ecuador is causing considerable environmental impacts; the most important ones are related to the discharge of cyanide, mercury and metal rich tailings into rivers of the Puyango catchment area. Cyanide and metal levels in rivers regularly exceed environmental quality criteria. The contamination impacts biodiversity, with cyanide causing a direct lethal effect on

N. H Tarras-Wahlberg; A Flachier; O Sangfors

2001-01-01

408

2001. Pp 161-176 in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol 4, Simon A. Levin, ed, Academic Press. 2001. Pp 161-176 in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol 4, Simon A. Levin, ed, Academic Press.  

E-print Network

2001. Pp 161-176 in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol 4, Simon A. Levin, ed, Academic Press. #12;2001. Pp 161-176 in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol 4, Simon A. Levin, ed, Academic Press. #12;2001. Pp 161-176 in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol 4, Simon A. Levin, ed, Academic Press. #12;2001. Pp 161

Chesson, Peter L.

409

A Summary of Tissue Lesions in Aquatic Animals Induced by Controlled Exposures to Environmental Contaminants,  

E-print Network

Contaminants, Chemotherapeutic Agents, and Potential Carcinogens THEODORE R. MEYERS and JERRY D. HENDRICKS with the De- partment of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, is currently 99801. Jerry D. Hen- dricks is with the Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State

410

Environmental Contamination with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospital Sewage in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected in samples of sewage obtained downstream of hos- pitals of the Porto area in Portugal, and in samples from the Douro Estuary. Clonal analysis, Tn1546 typing, and presence of putative virulence traits indicate the clinical origin of these isolates. This observation highlights the importance of hospital sewage in the VRE contamination of the environment.

Carla Novais; Teresa M. Coque; Helena Ferreira; Joao Carlos Sousa; Luisa Peixe

2005-01-01

411

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT/COMMUNICATION TOOLS FOR REVITALIZATION OF POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED SITES CD  

EPA Science Inventory

Revitalization of potentially contaminated sites is often at a disadvantage compared to greenfield development. Apart from the lower cost of land in rural areas, redevelopment is very often still seen as a rather complex time- and cost-consuming process. Additionally, the potenti...

412

Environmental Contamination with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospital Sewage in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected in samples of sewage obtained downstream of hospitals of the Porto area in Portugal, and in samples from the Douro Estuary. Clonal analysis, Tn1546 typing, and presence of putative virulence traits indicate the clinical origin of these isolates. This observation highlights the importance of hospital sewage in the VRE contamination of the environment. PMID:15933043

Novais, Carla; Coque, Teresa M.; Ferreira, Helena; Sousa, Joao Carlos; Peixe, Luisa

2005-01-01

413

Space environmental and contamination effects on cryogenic and warm optical surfaces: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review paper focuses on measurement techniques and facilities for the study of the contamination and space environment effects on optical and thermal radiative surfaces. Laboratory measurements are reviewed and illustrate how cryogenic and relatively warm surfaces can be affected by contaminants, vacuum, and UV. The laboratory data are used to illustrate the important parameters that require consideration when trying to determine these types of effects on future satellite missions. Optical properties of thin contaminants films, BRDF measurements on cryogenic films, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, and UV effects on silicone/hydrocarbon films are presented and discussed relative to their applications to satellite systems. The laboratory data are complemented with flight data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite. Laboratory results were used to interpret MSX spacecraft flight data. The MSX demonstration and validation satellite program was funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. MSX had UV, visible, and infrared instruments including the Spirit 3 cryogenic telescope and had several contamination instruments for measuring pressure, gas species, water and particulate concentrations, and condensable gas species. Some of the data collected from the flight QCMs are presented.

Wood, Bob E.; Bertrand, William T.; Seiber, Bryan L.; Lesho, Jeffrey C.; Uy, O. Manuel; Hall, David F.; Dyer, James S.

1998-09-01

414

D.M. Whitacre (ed) Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 214, 87-124  

E-print Network

in such reinforcement is to evaluate toxic effects at the community level by applying community ecology concepts threaten the entire equilibrium of the ecosystems they contaminate. The tests that are most widely used toxicity tests; such tests combine low cost with satisfactory reproducibility and ease of execution (Seguin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Conazole Fungicides as Chiral Environmental Contaminants: Enantiomer Analysis and Enantioselectivity in Soil Slurries  

EPA Science Inventory

Conazoles are triazole compounds, many of which are in wide use as agricultural and medicinal fungicides. Opportunities exist for them to contaminate the environment and, since they are all chiral molecules, they are apt to be degraded enantioselectively by indigenous microbes. T...

416

INTERFERENCE OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT EXTRACTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS WITH RETINOID SIGNALING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis. Some effects, such as malformations in frogs or changes in metabolism of birds, could be related to disruption of the retinoid signaling pathway by exposure to organic contaminants. A new reporter gene assay has been established for evaluation of the modulation of retinoid signaling by individual chemicals

Ji? Novk; Martin Benek; Ji? Pachernk; Jaroslav Janoek; Tereza dlov; Hannu Kiviranta; Matti Verta; John P. Giesy; Lud?k Blha; Klra Hilscherov

2007-01-01

417

Environmental tritium contamination from a gaseous tritium light device maintenance facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facility was used for the maintenance of military optical instruments and cold light sources. A number of these instruments incorporated Gaseous Tritium Light Sources (GTLS) in their construction. While it is generally accepted that there is minimal exposure hazard from a broken GTLS after the tritium gas has dispersed, the contamination in this case is considered to be associated

Ross Kleinschmidt; Susan Barr; Megan Cook; D. Watson

2009-01-01

418

Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills, disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters, antifouling agents, and the preservation of wood. Due to its widespread use as an antifouling agent in boat paints, TBT is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems exceeding acute and chronic toxicity levels. TBT

Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

2008-01-01

419

Erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in wild and caged fish ( Liza aurata) along an environmental mercury contamination gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laranjo basin (Aveiro, Portugal) has been subjected to mercury contamination from a chlor-alkali plant, presenting a well-described mercury gradient. This study aims the assessment of mercury genotoxicity in this area by measuring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) frequency in the mullet Liza aurata, and its relation with total mercury concentration (Hgt) in blood. Wild fish were seasonally analysed, and, complementarily, fish

S. Guilherme; M. Vlega; M. E. Pereira; M. A. Santos; M. Pacheco

2008-01-01

420

Association of environmental air contaminants with disease and productivity in swine.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional epidemiologic study associating air quality with swine health was conducted on 28 swine farms in southern Sweden. Correlation of housing air environment to swine diseases and productivity (data collected over the preceding 12 months) were investigated. The most prevalent swine health problems detected at slaughter were pneumonia and pleuritis. In farrowing and nursery operations, the most prevalent problem was neonatal pig mortality. Several air contaminants (dust, ammonia carbon dioxide, and microbes) were found to be correlated with these swine health problems. Maximal safe concentrations of air contaminants were estimated on the basis of dose-response correlation to swine health or human health problems. Recommended maximal concentrations of contaminant were: dust, 2.4 mg/m3; ammonia, 7 ppm; endotoxin, 0.08 mg/m3; total microbes, 10(5) colony-forming units/m3; and carbon dioxide, 1,540 ppm. The overall quality of the ventilation system was correlated with lower concentration of ammonia, carbon dioxide, microorganisms, and endotoxin, but not with dust concentrations. High animal density was related to high ammonia and air microbe concentrations. Animal density measured as kilograms of swine per cubic meter (compared with kilograms of pig weight or swine per square meter) had the highest correlation to animal health and air contaminants. PMID:1767997

Donham, K J

1991-10-01

421

Relationship of diets and environmental contaminants in wintering bald eagles. [Haliaeetus leucocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between diets and potential hazards in contaminants of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Klamath Basin of northern California and southern Oregon. We studied diets by identifying remains of 913 prey items found at perches, examining 341 castings collected from communal night roots, and observing foraging eagles. We determined residues of organochlorine compounds, lead (Pb),

R. W. Frenzel; R. G. Anthony

1989-01-01

422

Environmental contamination associated with a marine landfill (seafill) beside a coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bermuda, bulk waste such as scrap metal, cars, etc., and blocks of cement-stabilized incinerator ash (produced from burning garbage) are disposed of in a foreshore reclamation site, i.e., a seafill. Chemical analyses show that seawater leaching out of the dump regularly exceeds water quality guidelines for Zn and Cu, and that the surrounding sediments are enriched in multiple contaminant

Ross Jones

2010-01-01

423

Organochlorines and other environmental contaminants in muscle tissues of sportfish collected from San Francisco Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible fish species were collected from 13 locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminant levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut. 66 composite tissue samples were analysed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (P0CBs), pesticides,

Russell Fairey; Karen Taberski; Stewart Lamerdin; Eric Johnson; Ross P. Clark; James W. Downing; John Newman; Myrto Petreas

1997-01-01

424

Persistent Environmental Contamination with USA300 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Other Pathogenic Strain Types in Households with S. aureus Skin Infections.  

PubMed

Objective.?To understand the genotypic spectrum of environmental contamination of Staphylococcus aureus in households and its persistence. Design.?Prospective longitudinal cohort investigation. Setting.?Index participants identified at 2 academic medical centers. Participants.?Adults and children with S. aureus skin infections and their household contacts in Los Angeles and Chicago. Methods.?Household fomites were surveyed for contamination at baseline and 3 months. All isolates underwent genetic typing. Results.?We enrolled 346 households, 88% of which completed the 3-month follow-up visit. S. aureus environmental contamination was 49% at baseline and 51% at 3 months. Among households with a USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) body infection isolate, environmental contamination with an indistinguishable MRSA strain was 58% at baseline and 63% at 3 months. Baseline factors associated with environmental contamination by the index subject's infection isolate were body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection isolate at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 10.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.75-20.79]), higher housing density (OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.10-1.96]), and more frequent household fomite cleaning (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.16-2.27]). Household environmental contamination with the index subject's infection strain at 3 months was associated with USA300 MRSA and a synergistic interaction between baseline environmental contamination and body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection strain. Conclusions.?We found that infecting S. aureus isolates frequently persisted environmentally in households 3 months after skin infection. Presence of pathogenic S. aureus strain type in the environment in a household may represent a persistent reservoir that places household members at risk of future infection. PMID:25333432

Eells, Samantha J; David, Michael Z; Taylor, Alexis; Ortiz, Nancy; Kumar, Neha; Sieth, Julia; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S; Miller, Loren G

2014-11-01

425

Potential hazards of environmental contaminants to avifauna residing in the Chesapeake Bay Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A search of the Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database revealed that 70% of the 839 Chesapeake Bay records deal with avian species. Studies conducted on waterbirds in the past 15 years indicate that organochlorine contaminants have declined in eggs and tissues, although p,p?DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and coplanar PCB congeners may still exert sublethal and reproductive effects in some locations. There have been numerous reports of avian die-off events related to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. More contemporary contaminants (e.g., alkylphenols, ethoxylates, pertluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are detectable in bird eggs in the most industrialized portions of the Bay, but interpretation of these data is difficult because adverse effect levels are incompletely known for birds. Two moderate-sized oil spills resulted in the death of several hundred birds, and about 500 smaller spill events occur annually in the watershed. With the exception of lead, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in eggs and tissues appear to be below toxic thresholds for waterbirds. Fishing tackle and discarded plastics, that can entangle and kill young and adults, are prevalent in nests in some Bay tributaries. It is apparent that exposure and potential effects of several classes of contaminants (e.g., dioxins, dibenzofurans, rodenticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, lead shot, and some metals) have not been systematically examined in the past 15 years, highlighting the need for toxicological evaluation of birds found dead, and perhaps an avian ecotoxicological monitoring program. Although oil spills, spent lead shot, some pesticides, and industrial pollutants occasionally harm Chesapeake avifauna, contaminants no longer evoke the population level effects that were observed in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) through the 1970s.

Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.

2007-01-01

426

Further assessment of environmental contaminants in avian prey of the peregrine falcon in big bend National Park, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A small resident population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum) in the Big Bend region of Texas has suffered reproductive failures since 1990. To continue our assessment of the effects of environmental contaminants on the peregrine falcon, we collected representative avian prey species during 2001 at Mariscal Canyon, Big Bend National Park. The avian carcasses were analyzed for inorganic and organochlorine contaminants. Concentrations of Se and Hg were present at high levels (up to 11 and 2.2 ??g/g dry weight, respectively) in some avian prey and could be implicated in reproductive failures of the peregrine falcon in Big Bend National Park. All other inorganic elements were below concentrations known to affect reproduction or to be associated with other deleterious effects in birds. Of all the organochlorines analyzed, only DDE and total PCBs were present above detection limits in all species, although at low concentrations. Our study provides further support to the hypothesis that contaminants in potential avian prey of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend region are implicated in the productivity failures observed in this species since 1990.

Mora, M.A.; Skiles, R.S.; Paredes, M.

2007-01-01

427

To appear: Encyclopedia of Machine Learning, C.Sammut & G.I.Webb (Eds.), Springer Press 2010 Ensemble Learning  

E-print Network

To appear: Encyclopedia of Machine Learning, C.Sammut & G.I.Webb (Eds.), Springer Press 2010 methods--indeed, there would be no need for this encyclopedia either. The underlying principle of ensemble to automatically exploit the strengths and weaknesses of different learning systems. 1 #12;To appear: Encyclopedia

Brown, Gavin

428

Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Chapter No: 00400 Page Proof Page 1 29-1-2010 #1 Ensemble Learning  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Machine Learning Chapter No: 00400 Page Proof Page 1 29-1-2010 #1 E Ensemble for ensemble learning methods ­ indeed, there would be no need for this encyclopedia either. e underlying. Sammut, G. Webb (eds.), Encyclopedia of Machine Learning, DOI ./----, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Brown, Gavin

429

Published in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd edition), ed. K. Brown, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, pp. 631-  

E-print Network

1 Published in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd edition), ed. K. Brown, Oxford article in this edition of the Encyclopedia on "Understanding spoken discourse", as well as the article manuscript, published in "Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2e édition),, Keith Brown (Ed.) (2006) pp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

431

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and their Effects on Fish in the Mississippi River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected, examined, and analyzed 1378 fish of 22 species from 47 sites in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) during 1995 and from a reference site in 1996. The sampling sites in the MRB represented National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations situated at key points on major rivers and National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations located on lower-order rivers and streams in the Eastern Iowa Basins (EIB) and Mississippi Embayment (MSE) Study Units. The reference site was the water supply system of the USGS-Leetown Science Center in rural Jefferson County, WV. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus spp.; bass), the targeted species, together represented 82% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organo-somatic indices, and selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of biomarkers. Fish health indicators included splenic macrophage aggregates, lysozyme activity, and hispathological analysis of liver, kidney, and other tissues. Reproductive biomarkers included analysis of plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (vtg) and the sex steroid hormones 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11- kt); and the histological determination of percent oocyte atresia (in female fish) and gonadal stage. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also measured. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organochlorine and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Organochlorine and inorganic contaminant concentrations in fish were generally low relative to historical levels at most sites, but remained present at concentrations representing threats to piscivorous wildlife in some locations. Toxaphene and DDT (mostly as p,p?-DDE) concentrations remained elevated in fish from the cottongrowing regions of the lower Mississippi valley, and were generally greater in the smaller streams draining agricultural areas (that is, in the MSE Study Unit) than at large river sites. Cyclodiene pesticide concentrations were also greatest in the EIB Study Unit and elsewhere in the corn-growing regions of the mid-MRB. Former point-sources of organochlorine pesticides also remained evident, especially in the Mississippi River near Memphis, TN. Consistent with previous findings, total PCB concentrations tended to be greatest (1-3 ?g/g) in the industrialized and urbanized Ohio River and Upper Mississippi sub-basins and at Memphis, TN, and were generally correlated with TCDD-EQ and EROD activity. Conversely, PCB concentrations were low (0.3 ?g/g) in bass from the Mississippi River at Memphis and several other sites and in carp from one MSE site. Concentrations of Se were also great enough to constitute a hazard to piscivorous wildlife (>0.6 ?g/g) at several MRB sites in the western parts of the MRB and were especially high (4-5 ?g/g) in fish from John Martin Reservoir, CO, where elevated concentrations were reported previously. Biomarker results indicated that fish from many stations had been exposed to contaminants, but at no sites did findings indicate exposure to high concentrations of toxic chemicals. Noteworthy among biomarker findings was that 73% of the male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) from the Mississippi River at Lake City, MN (Lake Pepin) were intersex as indicated by the histological detection of ovotestes; and the combined EROD and H4IIE results indicated that fish from several rural sites in the

edited by Schmitt, Christopher J.

2002-01-01

432

Out for a Spin: A School Librarian Test Drives 14 CD-ROM Encyclopedias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school librarian reviews CD-ROM encyclopedias, determining their suitability for school and public library use with children and young adults, and favoring content and accessibility over special features and multimedia enhancements. Outlines essential considerations when choosing encyclopedias (price, network and print versions, and online

Del Vecchio, Stephen

1997-01-01

433

Subject Encyclopedias: User Guide, Review Citations, and Keyword Index. Part I and Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-volume guide is designed to make subject encyclopedias more accessible. To qualify for inclusion, an encyclopedia must meet the following criteria: new or revised edition published since 1990; coverage by subject (not primarily biographical or geographical); intended audience of high school students, college students, and adults;

Mirwis, Allan N.

434

Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science--Statistical Methods Copyright Macmillan Reference Ltd 03 January 2002 Page 1  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science--Statistical Methods ©Copyright Macmillan Reference Ltd 03 January 2002 Page 1 283 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE 2000 Macmillan Reference Ltd Statistical Methods Statistical methods#computational linguistics#machine learning#stochastic grammars Abney, Steven Steven Abney

Lin, Dekang

435

Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 2: Environmental and physiological factors governing mercury flux to the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of physiological and environmental factors in governing the flux of elemental mercury from plants to the atmosphere. Five species (Lepidium latifolium, Artemisia douglasiana, Caulanthus sp., Fragaria vesca, and Eucalyptus globulus) with different ecological and physiological attributes and growing in soils with high levels of mercury contamination were examined. Studies were conducted in a whole-plant, gas-exchange chamber providing precise control of environmental conditions, and mercury flux was estimated using the mass balance approach. Mercury flux increased linearly as a function of temperature within the range of 20 to 40 C, and the mean temperature coefficient (Q{sub 10}) was 2.04. The temperature dependence of mercury flux was attributed to changes in the contaminant`s vapor pressure in the leaf interior. Mercury flux from foliage increased linearly as a function of irradiance within the range of 500 to 1,500 {micro}mol m/s, and the light enhancement of mercury flux was within a factor of 2.0 to 2.5 for all species. Even though the leaf-to-atmosphere diffusive path for mercury vapor from foliage is similar to that of water vapor, stomatal conductance played a secondary role in governing mercury flux. In a quantitative comparison with other studies in both laboratory and field settings, a strong linear relationship is evident between mercury vapor flux and the natural logarithm of soil mercury concentration, and this relationship may have predictive value in developing regional- and continental-scale mercury budgets. The most critical factors governing mercury flux from plants are mercury concentration in the soil, leaf area index, temperature, and irradiance.

Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Taylor, G.E. Jr. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01

436

Thyroid disruption in walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to environmental contaminants: cloning and use of iodothyronine deiodinases as molecular biomarkers.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones play a role in the initiation of ovarian maturation in fish. Thus, reports of delayed sexual maturation in female walleye (Sander vitreus) exposed to contaminants in the Ottawa River suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of environmental contaminants in the Ottawa River on thyroid hormones of immature walleye and to develop a molecular biomarker of thyroid status. Walleye were sampled in the Ottawa River at Deep River (reference site), at Rivire Blanche (downstream from the Ottawa and Gatineau municipal wastewater treatment plants outflows), and at Plaisance (downstream from a pulp and paper mill). Plasma thyroid hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Walleye at Plaisance had two-fold elevated levels of thyroxine (T(4)) and 1.5-fold elevated levels triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas the molar ratio of T(3):T(4) was reduced by over 50% compared to Deep River. Plasma T(3) levels were also elevated by approximately 1.5-fold at Rivire Blanche. Three iodothyronine deiodinases, a family of enzymes responsible for converting the prohormone T(4) to biologically active T(3), as well as for inactivating these two hormones, were partially cloned in walleye. A real-time PCR assay of deiodinase expression indicated that hepatic mRNA levels of type I and type III deiodinase were not modified between sites, whereas they were increased for type II deiodinase at Rivire Blanche as compared to the other sites. The response of this novel molecular transcript indicates a divergence with that expected based on the effects of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on fish deiodinase expression; additional endpoints are therefore necessary to interpret changes in thyroid hormones levels in fish exposed to environmental contaminants. PMID:17524500

Picard-Aitken, Michelle; Fournier, Henri; Pariseau, Richard; Marcogliese, David J; Cyr, Daniel G

2007-07-20

437

Biomarkers of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on swallows nesting along the Rio Grande, Texas, USA.  

PubMed

We collected adult cave swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (P. pyrrhonota) during the breeding seasons in 1999 and 2000 from eight locations along the Rio Grande from Brownsville to El Paso (unless otherwise specified, all locations are Texas, USA) and an out-of-basin reference location. Body mass, spleen mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), thyroxine (T4) in plasma, DNA damage measured as the half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA content (HPCV) in blood cells, as well as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in brain were compared with concentrations of organochlorines, metals, and metalloids in carcasses to determine potential effects of contaminants on swallows during the breeding season. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) were significantly greater in swallows from El Paso than in those from most locations, except for Pharr and Llano Grande. All swallows from these three locations had p,p'-DDE concentrations of 3 microg/g wet weight or greater. Swallows from El Paso either had or shared the highest concentrations of p,p'-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 13 inorganic elements. Swallows from El Paso exhibited greater spleen mass and HPCV values as well as lower T4 values compared with those from other locations. Thyroxine was a potential biomarker of contaminant exposure in swallows of the Rio Grande, because it was negatively correlated with p,p'-DDE and Se. Spleen mass was positively correlated with selenium and HSI and negatively correlated with body mass, GSI, Mn, and Ni. Overall, the present study suggests that insectivorous birds living in areas of high agricultural and industrial activity along the Rio Grande bioaccumulate environmental contaminants. These contaminants, particularly p,p'-DDE, may be among multiple factors that impact endocrine and hematopoietic function in Rio Grande swallows. PMID:16764476

Mora, Miguel A; Musquiz, Daniel; Bickham, John W; Mackenzie, Duncan S; Hooper, Michael J; Szabo, Judit K; Matson, Cole W

2006-06-01

438

Biomarkers of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on swallows nesting along the Rio Grande, Texas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected adult cave swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (P. pyrrhonota) during the breeding seasons in 1999 and 2000 from eight locations along the Rio Grande from Brownsville to El Paso (unless otherwise specified, all locations are Texas, USA) and an out-of-basin reference location. Body mass, spleen mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), thyroxine (T4) in plasma, DNA damage measured as the half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA content (HPCV) in blood cells, as well as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in brain were compared with concentrations of organochlorines, metals, and metalloids in carcasses to determine potential effects of contaminants on swallows during the breeding season. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p???-DDE) were significantly greater in swallows from El Paso than in those from most locations, except for Pharr and Llano Grande. All swallows from these three locations had p,p???-DDE concentrations of 3 ??g/g wet weight or greater. Swallows from El Paso either had or shared the highest concentrations of p,p???-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 13 inorganic elements. Swallows from El Paso exhibited greater spleen mass and HPCV values as well as lower T4 values compared with those from other locations. Thyroxine was a potential biomarker of contaminant exposure in swallows of the Rio Grande, because it was negatively correlated with p,p???-DDE and Se. Spleen mass was positively correlated with selenium and HSI and negatively correlated with body mass, GSI, Mn, and Ni. Overall, the present study suggests that insectivorous birds living in areas of high agricultural and industrial activity along the Rio Grande bioaccumulate environmental contaminants. These contaminants, particularly p,p???-DDE, may be among multiple factors that impact endocrine and hematopoietic function in Rio Grande swallows. ?? 2006 SETAC.

Mora, M.A.; Musquiz, D.; Bickham, J.W.; MacKenzie, D.S.; Hooper, M.J.; Szabo, J.K.; Matson, C.W.

2006-01-01

439

Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.  

PubMed

In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way. PMID:16458952

Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

2006-07-31

440

System for the removal of airborne contaminants from aircraft environmental control systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The system comprises a high pressure moisture remover, a conduit interconnecting the moisture remover with the compressor of the turbine engine of the aircraft which provides a source of pressurized air, a high pressure diffuser connected to the outlet of the moisture remover to diffuse the dried pressurized air stream to lower pressure, and an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the diffuser for removing particulate contaminants from the air stream. Alternatively, a low pressure moisture remover may be included downstream of the diffuser. A reactor and absorber may be included in the system to supplement the processes in the removal of chemical contaminants. Vent lines and discharge ports may be connected to the system where convenient, such as to the moisture remover, precipitator and absorber, in order to discharge overboard of the aircraft the liquid effluent and particles removed from the air stream.

Barnes, D. R.; Watts, R. J.

1984-05-01

441

From now on, the Encyclopedia Britannica will only be published online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopedia Britannica ends print, goes digitalhttp://www.chicagotribune.com/health/sns-rt-us-encyclopediabritannicabre82c1fs-20120313,0,338011.storyAfter 244 Years, Encyclopaedia Britannica Stops the Presseshttp://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/after-244-years-encyclopaedia-britannica-stops-the-presses/Encyclopedia Britannica to stop printing bookshttp://money.cnn.com/2012/03/13/technology/encyclopedia-britannica-books/?cnn=yes&hpt=hp_t3Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th editionhttp://www.archive.org/details/EncyclopaediaBritannica1911HQDJVUDeath of a Sales Forcehttp://www1.salon.com/media/media960510.htmlBritannica.comhttp://www.britannica.com/The first proto-encyclopedia was created by Pliny the Elder two thousand years ago. Over the course of many years, he created a work that covered art, medicine, geography, geology, and natural history. Since that time, many encyclopedias have come and gone, and one of the most enduring is certainly the Encyclopedia Britannica. First published in 1768, the work began life in Edinburgh and it was considered one of the distinguishing products of the Scottish Enlightenment. This Tuesday it was announced that the Encyclopedia would no longer publish a print edition, but the company will continue to update and offer its digital online version. In a statement released this week to major news outlets, the company's president, Jorge Cauz, commented that "The print edition became more difficult to maintain and wasn't the best physical element to deliver the quality of our database and the quality of our editorial." Of course, the broader story of this transformation involves the rise of various free online encyclopedias, such as Wikipedia. Interested parties may still purchase one of the existing 15th edition printed copies of the Encyclopedia for $1,400.The first link will take visitors to a news article about the Encyclopedia Britannica's decision to go to an all-digital format from this Wed