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1

Field Analytic Technologies Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Environmental Protection Agency maintains the Field Analytic Technologies Encyclopedia Web site. The online encyclopedia is \\"intended to provide information about technologies that can be used in the field to characterize contaminated soil and groundwater, monitor progress of remedial efforts, and in some cases, for confirmation sampling and analysis for site close-out.\\" The technologies link contains information on analytics such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and test kits; geophysics such as ground penetrating radar; and delivery systems including direct-push platforms, groundwater samplers, and soil-gas samplers. Other links include resources, references, and online training modules for field-based technologies. The site is a great informational resource and training aide for hazardous waste professionals working directly in the field.

2

Encyclopedias Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides brief company profiles and describes sales methods and electronic publishing ventures for six encyclopedia publishers: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.; World Book; Grolier; the P.F. Collier encyclopedia division of Macmillan Publishing; Funk & Wagnalls; and Standard Educational Corp. (MES)

Whiteley, Sandy

1992-01-01

3

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

4

Environmental contaminants in California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five wild Califorinia condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumably of cyanide (CN) poisoning, and 1 nestling of handling shock. Organochlorine concentrations were low in 4 condors that were analyzed for these contaminants. Blood samples from 14 wild and 14 captive condors were analyzed primarily for Pb. Five of 14 wild condors sampled had elevated (> 0.70 ppm) concentrations of Pb in blood whereas Pb concentrations in all captive condors were low. Lead levels in individual birds often fluctuated over time. Lead exposure, especially poisoning, was a major factor affecting the wild California condor population during 1982-86. The probable source of Pb was bullet fragments in carrion on which condors were feeding.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Scott, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.; Bloom, P.H.; Stafford, C.J.

1988-01-01

5

Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern Hemisphere will likely increase the impact of anthropogenic contaminants on Antarctic ecosystems. PMID:18765160

Bargagli, R

2008-08-01

6

Environmental Contamination by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE. PMID:23115260

Lerner, A.; Adler, A.; Abu-Hanna, J.; Meitus, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.

2013-01-01

7

Holocaust Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) has some tremendous online resources, and the recent addition of the Holocaust Encyclopedia continues in this tradition. The interactive Encyclopedia includes hundreds of articles that cover topics like the Third Reich, refugees, ghettos, and the liberation of Nazi camps. Each entry contains hypertext links to other entries and relevant resources, including timelines, photo galleries, and primary source documents. Visitors can use the "Browse Articles" to get started, and they should also note that the articles are available in French, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Turkish, Arabic, and six other languages. In the "Additional Resources" section, visitors will find a link to "The Holocaust: A Learning Site for Students" and a complete "A-Z" list of all the articles.

8

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. Emerging c...

9

Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5299747

Warner, Richard E.

1967-01-01

10

Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on owls has been largely understudied. Research primarily has focused on two species, the eastern screech owl (Otus asio) and barn owl (Tyto alba). Most of this work has been conducted with captive populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, MD. In the wild, work has been, or is currently being, conducted with great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) at a Superfund site in Colorado and in agricultural croplands in Iowa, and barn owls at a Superfund site in Texas and in metal-contaminated regions of the Netherlands. As higher order consumers, owls bioconcentrate many different environmental contaminants through their prey. Owls have proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of toxic compounds, including PCB`s, metals, and fluoride. Endpoints examined include reproductive effects, eggshell thickness, residue analyses, cholinesterase inhibition, and induction of liver MFO`s. Much more work remains to be done using owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination, particularly with captive populations, salvaged individuals, raptor rehabilitation center birds, and with wild populations in areas around hazardous waste sites, smelters, landfills, agricultural croplands, and other major sources of environmental contamination.

Sheffield, S.R. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

11

Encyclopedia Mythica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the 2004 Athens Olympic Summer Games are now just a not-so-distant memory, the world's fascination with Greek mythology and the ancient world continues to reverberate with the public, scholars of antiquity, and other interested parties. To pique their interest, there is the lovely Encyclopedia Mythica which was founded and edited by Micha Lindemans. Here visitors can peruse areas devoted to mythology, folklore, bestiary, heroes, and take a look at some genealogy tables, which tend to be quite helpful. The featured items section is quite nice, as visitors can read the full text of a book on witchcraft, learn about the great Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, and read the 1898 edition of the Arabian Nights. The site has a number of other features, including a place for visitor feedback and a search feature. Rounding out the site are lists of feast days from the ancient world, along with a list of Roman deities and their Greek counterparts.

12

Encyclopedia Astronautica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by Friends and Partners in Space and edited by Mark Wade, this site is a bit hard on the eyes, but it has few peers in terms of the sheer mountains of material it offers on spaceflight by all nations of the world. There is so much here that it is hard to decide where to begin. The main page offers a long list of highlights and new additions, most of them generously illustrated. The site may be browsed alphabetically, browsed by topic, or searched by keyword. In addition to the myriad encyclopedia entries, there are hundreds if not thousands of images, a lengthy collection of articles, a long list of references, statistics, and a spaceflight chronology. Again, the site would benefit from a reorganization and redesign, but anyone with a professional or personal interest in spaceflight will undoubtedly enjoy a visit.

13

DERMAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb in ground water, dioxins...

14

High Contamination Levels Lead to Environmental Concerns  

E-print Network

High Contamination Levels Lead to Environmental Concerns High nutrient and bacterial levels Service partnered with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board in 2005 to inform and educate&M AgriLife Extension Service ph. 979.845.1861 e-mail: d-mccorkle@tamu.edu agrilifeextension

15

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

1 23 Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology ISSN 0090-4341 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol DOI 10.1007/s00244-013-9958-5 Short-Term Effects of Military Fog Oil on the Fountain Darter: "The final publication is available at link.springer.com". #12;Short-Term Effects of Military Fog Oil

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

16

MEASUREMENT OF CONTAMINATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Contamination of environmental samples and measurement system can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. uring the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specification of appropriate blan...

17

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

18

Encyclopedia Reviews 1978  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews thirteen 1978 edition encyclopedias: Book of Art, Britannica Jr., Britannica 3, Childcraft, Collier's, Compton's. Encyclopedia Americana, Funk & Wagnalls, Merit Students, New Caton, Random House, New Standard, and World Book. (SB)

Minemier, Betty

1978-01-01

19

Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.  

PubMed Central

For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimulate an immune response, are associated with the occurrence of these diseases. We reviewed the epidemiologic data that addressed whether environmental contaminants might cause type 1 or type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, higher intake of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, as well as higher serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with increased risk. Overall, however, the data were limited or inconsistent. With respect to type 2 diabetes, data on arsenic and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin relative to risk were suggestive of a direct association but were inconclusive. The occupational data suggested that more data on exposure to N-nitroso compounds, arsenic, dioxins, talc, and straight oil machining fluids in relation to diabetes would be useful. Although environmental factors other than contaminants may account for the majority of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the etiologic role of several contaminants and occupational exposures deserves further study. PMID:11744505

Longnecker, M P; Daniels, J L

2001-01-01

20

Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between contaminant exposure and trophic level emerged. Insectivores (shrews) had the highest levels of contaminants, followed by omnivores (cricetid mice) with intermediate levels, and herbivores (voles) with the lowest levels. A substantial number of these biomonitoring studies using small mammals collectively point to the importance of food habits and habitat of small mammals, and their availability and abundance as factors that should influence species selection for monitoring studies. The type of contaminants under consideration as well as the appropriateness of the endpoints selected are important factors to consider when deciding whether or not to include small mammals in biomonitoring studies. PMID:1992495

Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

1991-01-01

21

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Edward N. Zalta, Consulting Associate Professor of Philosophy at Stanford, this site claims to be the first dynamic encyclopedia. Unlike standard reference works or CD-ROMS, each entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia is maintained and kept up to date by experts in the field. As a result, the entries and the Encyclopedia as a whole are responsive to new developments in the field. The Encyclopedia is still very much under development, with many topics awaiting an entry. However, regular users may track new additions via the What's New section. Additional resources include an internal search engine and an archive of the previous three editions of the Encyclopedia.

1999-01-01

22

Forest Encyclopedia Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".

23

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

Ware, G. (ed.)

2007-07-01

24

Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

25

2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

26

Mapping environmental pollution, contamination, and waste in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Businesses operating facilities with environmental focus dealing with waste, contamination, or pollution are legally required to detail their degree of compliance with environmental rules and regulations, and to report on their activities to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such activities include substances related to air pollution, land or water contamination, waste disposal, and toxic or radioactive materials. Due

Ashraf Ghaly

2012-01-01

27

Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. PMID:24567041

Sessink, Paul Jm; Leclercq, Gisčle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loďc; Hammad, Chaďma; Kassoul, Nassima

2015-04-01

28

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry?s current polic...

29

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico University of A Coruña, Spain of artificial intelligence / Juan Ramon Rabunal Dopico, Julian Dorado de la Calle, and Alejandro Pazos Sierra) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-850-5 (ebook) 1. Artificial intelligence--Encyclopedias. I. Rabunal, Juan Ramon, 1973

Liang, Faming

30

Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containing more than 450 entries by some 200 eminent contributors from all over the world, the Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences is the first book to present this information in an authoritative yet approachable way. This encyclopedia deals with the atmospheres, surfaces and interiors of the planets and moons, and with the interplanetary environment of plasma fields, as well as with

J. H. Shirley; R. W. Fairbridge

1997-01-01

31

A prototype electronic encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a prototype electronic encyclopedia implemented on a powerful personal computer, in which user interface, media presentation, and knowledge representation techniques are applied to improving access to a knowledge resource. In itself, an electronic encyclopedia is an important information resource, but this work also illustrates the issues and approaches for many types of electronic information retrieval environments. In the

Stephen A. Weyer; Alan H. Borning

1985-01-01

32

Organomineralization Encyclopedia of Geobiology  

E-print Network

Organomineralization Encyclopedia of Geobiology Joachim Reitner and Volker Thiel (eds.) Springer Fax: 33/0 238 41 73 29 insu-00377021,version1-20Apr2009 Author manuscript, published in "Encyclopedia organisms (Défarge and Trichet, 1995). These definitions were supported by illustrations of organomineral

Boyer, Edmond

33

Encyclopedia Roundup 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second annual encyclopedia summary updates the American Library Association's (ALA) evaluation of 10 sets and analyzes the deletions and additions made to each encyclopedia within the context of each publisher's revision plans. The board looked specifically for significant changes in purpose, arrangement, content style, general quality, and…

American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

34

BERKSHIRE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SUSTAINABILITY  

E-print Network

BERKSHIRE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SUSTAINABILITY V O L U M E S 1-10 A ground-breaking interdisciplinary@berkshirepublishing.com | Tel +1 413 528 0206 19 April, 2012 In the 10-volume Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, experts, regional sustainability issues, and resource and ecosystem management. The ten volumes are available

Kammen, Daniel M.

35

Jewish Encyclopedia.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standing as a testament to the wide ranging contributions of the Jewish people to world culture and history, this Web site contains the complete contents of the massive 12-volume Jewish Encyclopedia, originally published between 1901-1906 by the Funk & Wagnall's Company. Conceived and funded by the Kopelman Foundation, this compilation is the only free encyclopedia of Judaica available on the Internet. While the encyclopedia obviously does not include such topics as the creation of the state of Israel or the Holocaust, it is a rather fascinating collection that recalls an interesting period in scholarship, and is a helpful historical document. Visitors can browse by the encyclopedia by letter, along with viewing a transcription of each entry and any accompanying images included with each entry. Those who might be interested in helping compile an updated version of the encyclopedia are also invited to join the mailing list.

36

Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Ohio University Professor Emeritus of History James Chastain, this online encyclopedia contains a large number of articles written by scholars from around the world on topics related to the "Springtime of the Peoples," the popular revolutions that spread across Europe in 1848. Users can browse the encyclopedia by alphabetical entry or by contributor, although the latter is not currently available. Typical entries contain one lengthy or several smaller paragraphs and a bibliography. The site also includes an introduction by Chastain which discusses the study of 1848 and the Encyclopedia's contents. Both scholars and students studying nineteenth-century Europe will find this site a handy reference resource.

Chastain, James.

37

Encyclopedia of Information Science  

E-print Network

-1-60566-026-4 (hardcover) -- ISBN 978-1-60566-027-1 (ebook) 1. Information science--Encyclopedias. 2. Information node is free to join and leave the network in a nondeterministic way. These networks do not have

Sanyal, Sugata

38

The Canadian Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In December 2000, Historica, a Canadian foundation dedicated to the preservation of Canadian cultural heritage, posted the first online edition of The Canadian Encyclopedia, a massive one-volume reference to Canada authored by over 4,000 Canadians. This searchable edition features more than 10,000 articles written by a broad base of Canadians who are experts in their individual subjects. (An aggressive act of intellectual egalitarianism, the work employs far more authors than the much larger, but more editorially driven, Encyclopedia Britannica.) In addition to entries written in hypertext format with bibliographies, the encyclopedia offers interactive elements, such as statistical graphs, multimedia presentations of key historical events, quizzes and games, student guides, monthly topical features, and more. The encyclopedia is accessible in French and English and has a separate student's edition as well. Note: we did find some brief instances of printer code in the entries; it would appear that another edit of the online version would be beneficial.

39

Concise encyclopedia of bioresource technology: a review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Journal of Environmental Quality requested a review of the book “The Concise Encyclopedia of Biotechnology” from the perspective of a scientist. Biotechnology is an emerging field and has rapidly become a buzzword in popular culture and politics today, yet it is not possible to be an expert in ...

40

Data-Mining and Informatics Approaches for Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

New and emerging environmental contaminants are chemicals that have not been previously detected or that are being detected at levels significantly different from those expected in both biological and ecological arenas (that is, human, wildlife, and environment). Many chemicals c...

41

High Throughput Screening For Hazard and Risk of Environmental Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

High throughput toxicity testing provides detailed mechanistic information on the concentration response of environmental contaminants in numerous potential toxicity pathways. High throughput screening (HTS) has several key advantages: (1) expense orders of magnitude less than an...

42

Project Overview: PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The human health and ecological assessment issues related to environmental contamination by perchlorate are complex and continue to emerge. Perchlorate, ClO4-, is an anion that originates as a contaminant from the solid salts of ammonium, potassium or sodium perchlorate. These ...

43

Environmental contaminants influencing immunefunction in marine bivalve molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased observation of pollution induced disease conditions in marine organisms has led to a growing interest on the effects of environmental contaminants on the immune system. Most studies on modulation of the immune system in bivalves by pollutants have concentrated on the effects of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The current literature on contaminant effects on specific

Richard K Pipe; Jackie A. Coles

1995-01-01

44

Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

45

Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Containing more than 450 entries by some 200 eminent contributors from all over the world, the Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences is the first book to present this information in an authoritative yet approachable way. This encyclopedia deals with the atmospheres, surfaces and interiors of the planets and moons, and with the interplanetary environment of plasma fields, as well as with asteroids and meteorites. Processes such as accretion, differentiation, thermal evolution and impact cratering form another category of entries. Remote sensing techniques employed in investigation and exploration, such as magnetometry, photometry, and spectroscopy are described in separate articles. In addition the Encyclopedia chronicles the history of planetary science, including biographies of pioneering scientists, and detailed descriptions of all major lunar and planetary missions and programs. The Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences is superbly illustrated throughout with over 450 line drawings, 180 black and white photographs, and 63 colour illustrations. It will be a key reference source for planetary scientists, astronomers, and workers in related disciplines such as geophysics, geology and the atmospheric sciences. Included in this book is a PC and Mac compatible CD-ROM containing over 200 relevant planetary and related images available from NASA. This CD-ROM has been specially compiled for the Encyclopedia by The United States National Space Science Data Center.

Shirley, J. H.; Fairbridge, R. W.

1997-09-01

46

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

This biennial Review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 20102011. Analytical Chemistry?s policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Ev...

47

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES WITH MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging contaminants that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other agencies are currently concerned...

48

Encyclopedia as Textbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the students. Encyclopedias adequately expressed this vision. Some of these professors, including Johannes Alsted, were invited to Hungary, Transylvania, to introduce the encyclopedic spirit to the local schools. This act fostered the first textbook in Hungarian language written by János Apáczai Csere. This book was an encyclopedia born mostly in the Netherlands where the author studied. The Cartesian philosophy combined with a Ramist system served as the basis of the book. Its history shows how the local conditions influence the content of knowledge incorporated into a textbook.

Palló, Gábor

2006-11-01

49

Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When I mentioned to a colleague that there was a new, six-volume encyclopedia in ocean sciences that I had agreed to review, all he said was, "That will keep you busy for awhile." Indeed, reviewing 3000-plus pages of condensed matter is quite an order. In addition to simply reading one item after another and skipping a lot, I decided to work with the encyclopedia for a month in a writing project involving general oceanography. On the whole, the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences is comprehensive, up-to-date, well illustrated, and well written, and the writing falls somewhere between that of an introductory textbook and a professional review. The marine biology portion, which is large, is particularly accessible. If you are studying oceanography, or teaching it, do gain access to this set of volumes. You will come to treasure it as a great source of information.

Berger, W. H.

50

The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells. Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:21706039

Mathur, Premendu Prakash; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia

2011-01-01

51

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  

E-print Network

) tissue analyses showed that concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se in fish and some clams but not in sediments is that these pollutants are biomagnified in the food chain al. 2000; Van Dolah et al. 2008). Such contaminants have also entered food chains, concentrated

Mallin, Michael

52

Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.  

PubMed

The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

2014-11-01

53

Encyclopedia of Rose Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural industries. A team of internationally renowned experts has contributed scores of articles,

A. Roberts; T. Debener; S. Gudin; D. B. Byrne; T. Cairns; Vries de D. P; L. A. M. Dubois; G. Forkmann; M. Fruchter; J. P. F. G. Helsper; R. K. Horst; M. Jay; T. A. M. Kwakkenbosch; B. Pemberton; H. M. C. Put; S. Rajapakse; M. Reid; A. Schum; J. D. Shorthouse; Y. Ueda; A. Vainstein; Pol van de P. A; N. Zieslin

2003-01-01

54

Encyclopedia of Terrorism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As recent terrorist attacks on the United States, such as the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing, and the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East have shown, terrorism is an unfortunate reality that can have potentially devastating effects on governments, businesses, and individuals. This encyclopedia provides students, researchers, journalists, and…

Combs, Cindy C.; Slann, Martin

55

Encyclopedia of Birth Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

Rengel, Marian

56

Encyclopedia of Information Ethics  

E-print Network

: Yurchak Printing Inc. Published in the United States of America by Information Science Reference (anEncyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security Marian Quigley Monash University, Australia Hershey · New York InformatIon ScIence reference #12;Acquisitions Editor: Kristin Klinger Development Editor

Ras, Zbigniew W.

57

Encyclopedia as Textbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the…

Pallo, Gabor

2006-01-01

58

The Microsoft Multimedia Encyclopedia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multimedia encyclopedia (MME) demonstration disk has been developed by the Microsoft Corporation, which contains five-page articles on 12 subjects. Each article contains text, images, audio, and in some cases, animation and full motion digital images. Each MME article is constructed as a network of linked text, image, and sound files. With mouse…

Ropiequet, Suzanne

1986-01-01

59

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bald Eagle eggs (1968-84) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury. DDE declined in WI, ME and the Chesapeake Bay. DDE was most closely related to shell thickness and reproduction at sampled breeding areas. Sixteen ppm DDE (wet weight) was associated with 15% shell thinning. Reproduction was normal when eggs at sampled breeding areas contained <3.6 ppm DDE; success was nearly halved between 3.6 and 6.3 ppm and halved again when concentrations exceeded 6.3 ppm. Other contaminants were associated with poor reproduction and eggshell thinning; however, their impact appeared secondary to that of DDE.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Bunck, C.M.; Stafford, C.J.

1991-01-01

60

HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2011-01-01

61

Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What?s New  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise; for example, potential adverse health effects (e.g., cancer, reproductive and developmental effects, and endocrine disruption), bioaccumulation, an...

62

Environmental Science and Pollution Research Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.  

E-print Network

Environmental Science and Pollution Research Meta-analysis of environmental contamination evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed of Environmental Engineering , University of Illinois-Chicago krockne@uic.edu Walter Giger giger@eawag.ch Powered

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

64

ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

65

Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%,

L. Zhang; M. H. Wong

2007-01-01

66

Birds and environmental contaminants in San Francisco and Chesapeake Bays  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The direct and indirect effects of human activities, including environmental contamination, upon bird populations in San Francisco Bay and Chesapeake Bay are imperfectly understood, and few data are available. that allow a comparison of the contamination levels in birds from these two areas. Certain trace elements and organochlorine compounds have been found at sufficiently high concentrations in bird tissues or their foods to expect adverse effects in these birds, based upon results of field and laboratory studies conducted with other avian species. The decline and recovery of populations of many avian species have been recorded, including some associated with organochlorine contamination. The present paper summarizes available information on the occurrence and potential effects of contaminants upon birds in these two regions.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Fleming, W.J.

1988-01-01

67

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology  

SciTech Connect

These are the first and second volumes under the new Editor of the series that is a continuation of Residue Reviews. The nine reviews in them are as follows: Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils; Maleic hydrazide residues in tobacco and their toxicological implications; Fate and persistence of aquatic herbicides; Organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables; Biological half-lives of chemicals in fishes; Propylene chlorohydrins; toxicology, metabolism and environmental fate; The pyrolysis of cannabinoids; Pesticide fate from vine to wine; Transport and transformation of organic chemicals in the soil-air-water ecosystem.

Ware, G.W. (ed.)

1987-01-01

68

Effect of environmental contaminants on Mammalian testis.  

PubMed

Exposure of humans and wildlife to pollutants released in the environment is a centre of attention nowadays. Many of these chemicals (generally referred to as environmental pollutants) have been shown to interfere with normal hormonal signalling and biological functions, leading to reproductive disorders or infertility, which has been a matter of concern within the recent decades. The present paper reviews adverse effects of these toxicants on mammalian testes, with emphasis on alteration of steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and histopathological effects. From the publications reviewed, it appears that environmental toxicants, especially heavy metals and organic chemicals of synthetic and microbiological origins, disrupt hormone production and action in the mammalian testes. Endocrine disruption leads to disorders of testicular function and thereby compromises the normal phenotypic development of male sexual characteristics, initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. The toxicants also induce impairment of testicular cells function, testicular histology, and sperm cells function directly. The release of the toxicants in the environment is still ongoing, despite alarming quantities that already exist in the atmosphere. If appropriate measures are not taken, their impact on the male reproductive function and especially on testicular function will be more serious. PMID:25620229

Manfo, Faustin P T; Nantia, Edouard A; Mathur, Premendu P

2014-01-01

69

Science and Engineering Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many online encyclopedias floating around the web, but relatively few that cover the world of engineering. This particular online encyclopedia will be of great use to students of engineering and science, and educators working in these broad areas may wish to pass it along to their students. Visitors can click around at their leisure through the alphabet of terms and concepts explained here, or they may also wish to start off in one of the topical areas, which include mechanical engineering, computing, chemistry, and physics. With several thousand entries, visitors can learn about acoustic mirrors, aerodynamic noise, auralization, and benzene rings. Overall, it's a nice find, and users will want to bookmark the site for future reference if they find themselves puzzled by Euler's equation and other weighty matters.

70

The Encyclopedia of Suns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Suns! Many people are interested in astronomical research that touches on the relationship between astronomy and biology, or at least the possibility of biology on planets other than Earth. The popularity of research efforts such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and extrasolar planet discovery, especially among the public, shows how strong a hold these ideas have. Currently, the Encyclopedia of Suns contains over 100 stars within 50 light years (15.3 parsecs) from the Sun. It contains all stars within that distance that meet specific criteria for being plausible locations for Earthlike planets. It also has some stars outside the 50 light year limit: those that are not only Sunlike, but which also have one or more planets orbiting them.

Nash, David

71

FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT DATA: A FORENSIC TOOL FOR EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have been conducted on behalf of the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify detection monitoring parameters for specific industries.1,2,3,4,5 One outcome of these studies was the evolution of an empirical multi-variant contaminant fingerprinting p...

72

Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

73

Italy Revisited: The Encyclopedia  

E-print Network

- standing job on poetry in this encyclopedia. It is to be expected that the major Şgures like Dante and Petrarch would receive long and excellent articles. Experts like Frede Jensen provide short pieces on what appears to be every known Italian poet, Joan... ap- pealed to medieval people. Lansing analyzes in detail the speciŞc roles that numerology played in works by Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio, and it is certainly the case that Dante especially loved numbers. James Brundage offers an incisive essay...

Epstein, Steven A.

2005-01-01

74

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, Len

1992-01-01

75

DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING AN ELECTROSPRAY INTERFACE COMBINED WITH AN ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development, was interested in determining environmental contaminants using a commercial electrospray which is interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) to analyze contaminants of concern. ptimi...

76

How To Choose an Encyclopedia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews CD-ROM encyclopedias to guide librarians and teachers in decision making. Encyclopedias are divided into two groups: mass market for ages 9 and up, and academic for ages 14 and above. A table lists products with addresses and Web sites, as well as information on price, minimum specs, number of articles, Internet connection, strengths, and…

Valenza, Joyce Kasman

1997-01-01

77

Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers.  

PubMed Central

Due to the use of a limited number of species and subchronic exposures, current ecological hazard assessment processes can underestimate the chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants resulting in adverse responses of sentinel species. Several incidences where sentinel species have responded to the effects of chronic exposure to ambient levels of environmental contaminants are discussed, including the development of neoplasia in fish, immunosuppression in marine mammals, pseudohermaphrodism in invertebrates, teratogenicity in amphibians, and aberrations in the sexual development of fish and reptiles. Biomarkers of chronic toxicity, including DNA mutations, alterations in specific protein and mRNA levels, and perturbations in metabolism, are presented. The incorporation of appropriate surrogate species and biomarkers of chronic toxicity into standard toxicity characterizations is proposed as a means of significantly refining the ecological hazard assessment process. PMID:9114278

LeBlanc, G A; Bain, L J

1997-01-01

78

Environmental contamination of groundwater in the Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental problems of groundwater contamination in the Gaza Strip are summarized in this paper. The Gaza Strip is a very narrow and highly populated area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (360 km2). Human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources in the area, while the unconfined nature of some parts of the coastal main aquifer favors groundwater contamination. Recent investigations show contamination of the aquifer with organic substances from detergents, agrochemicals, sewage (cesspools), and waste degradation. These effects enhance each other because there is no recycling industry, sewage system, or any type of environmental protection management at present. Inorganic contamination results from overpumping, which increases the salinity of the groundwater. Seawater intrusion also increases the salinity of the groundwater that are used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Consequently, at present about 80 percent of the groundwater in the Gaza Strip is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Solutions are very urgently needed for these problems in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases.

Al-Agha, M. R.

1995-03-01

79

Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); thesemeshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit is eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype sorber device for simultaneous CO2 and trace contarninant removal and its attendant weight and energy savings.

Roychoudhury, S.; Perry, J.

2004-01-01

80

Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants. Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (2) smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (3) smokers who expose their children to ETS. Setting: Homes of smokers and non-smokers. Participants: Smoking and non-smoking mothers and their infants ? 1 year. Main outcome measures: ETS contamination as measured by nicotine in household dust, indoor air, and household surfaces. ETS exposure as measured by cotinine levels in infant urine. Results: ETS contamination and ETS exposure were 5–7 times higher in households of smokers trying to protect their infants by smoking outdoors than in households of non-smokers. ETS contamination and exposure were 3–8 times higher in households of smokers who exposed their infants to ETS by smoking indoors than in households of smokers trying to protect their children by smoking outdoors. Conclusions: Dust and surfaces in homes of smokers are contaminated with ETS. Infants of smokers are at risk of ETS exposure in their homes through dust, surfaces, and air. Smoking outside the home and away from the infant reduces but does not completely protect a smoker's home from ETS contamination and a smoker's infant from ETS exposure. PMID:14985592

Matt, G; Quintana, P; Hovell, M; Bernert, J; Song, S; Novianti, N; Juarez, T; Floro, J; Gehrman, C; Garcia, M; Larson, S

2004-01-01

81

The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia  

PubMed Central

Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

2012-01-01

82

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. James Fieser (general editor) of the University of Tennessee at Martin, together with Dr. Bradley Dowden (philosophy of science and logic editor), has put together this online compendium of information about philosophy. The encyclopedia can be searched or browsed by keywords or browsed via a timeline of philosophical movements and thinkers. In addition, the site features a selection of texts, from Lao Tzu to Locke, which can be read online or downloaded. Currently, the articles are either adapted from public domain sources or from Feiser's course material or they are contributed by professional philosophers. In the future, the editors hope to replace all of the adapted articles with original contributions.

83

The transcription factor encyclopedia.  

PubMed

Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperričre, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

2012-01-01

84

Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.  

PubMed

Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. PMID:23917738

Bergé, Alexandre; Cladičre, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

2013-11-01

85

The Encyclopedia of Mineralogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume is the tenth in the ambitious Encyclopedia of Earth Science series. In addition to the standard short encyclopedia-style articles, it contains an alphabetical list of 3000 mineral species, groups, varieties, and mineraloids (which, following Fleischer, is called a glossary); this glossary presents basic physical and chemical properties for each entry.Editor Keith Frye has made a major effort, detailed in the preface, to assist the reader/user in avoiding many of the pitfalls in mineral nomenclature. For example, the book presents the names of valid mineral species in lower-case italic type, the names of series or groups in boldface italic letters, while varieties (and synonyms) are set in roman typeface. The worthwhile preface also contains a list, with addresses and date of first publication, of the world's 178 most important journals where mineral data are published. Also included are lists of the important mineral reference books and textbooks on mineralogy. The articles include one on museums with a 32-page table of museums with addresses, size of collection, and specialties.

Rapp, George, Jr.

86

Encyclopedia of Chicago History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Somewhere between Los Angeles and New York is a metropolis affectionately referred to by some as the "Second City". Also known as Chicago, this fair city has recently received its due with the publication of this outstanding reference volume. The online version offered on this site is even more authoritative than the print volume, as it contains a number of interactive maps and special features. Produced by the Chicago Historical Society, the Newberry Library and Northwestern University, this online edition allows users to search the entire contents of the Encyclopedia, and even browse digitized versions of the primary historical documents that serve as the research materials for the print articles. From the homepage, visitors can peruse a user's guide to the Encyclopedia. Each entry includes hypertext links, and in some cases, illustrative materials. For additional information, each entry also features some additional readings. Visitors will also want to take a look at the lovely maps produced for the volume, including a rather compelling map of Chicago's blues clubs. Finally, the special features area includes several interpretive digital essays on the Plan of Chicago of 1909 and galleries on such important topics as "How Chicagoans Remember Their History".

87

Online Nevada Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nevada is much more than the Hoover Dam and a certain large neon-drenched city, and the Online Nevada Encyclopedia revels in covering aspects of the state that include business, mining, politics, exploration, and the economy of the Silver State. Started in 2007, the Encyclopedia has been developed by the Nevada Humanities organization, with generous support of the U.S. Department of Education and the State of Nevada. It's a good idea to start a tour through the site by looking at one of the exhibit galleries, which include "Civil Rights in Nevada" and "Hoover Dam". All four of the current exhibits bring together primary documents with brief descriptions of each document. After that, visitors should head over to the topical areas to read high-quality articles about various facets of the state. All of the articles are authored by subject experts, and they cover everything from the archaeology of Tule Springs to the spooky world of the state's many ghost towns.

88

Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by alkylphenols.  

PubMed

Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE) are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are used in detergents, paints, herbicides, pesticides, emulsifiers, wetting and dispersing agents, antistatic agents, demulsifiers, and solubilizers. Many studies have reported the occurrence of alkylphenols in different environmental matrices, though none of these studies have yet to establish a comprehensive overview of such compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes APE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from the atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrence of compounds has been assessed for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [WWTP], atmosphere, and the natural environment), data are examined in order to understand the fate of APE in the environment and establish their geographical and historical trends. From this database, it is clear that the environment in Europe is much more contaminated by APE compared to North America and developing countries, although these APE levels have been decreasing in the last decade. APE concentrations in the WWTP effluent of developed countries have decreased by a factor of 100 over the past 30 years. This study is aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes that influence the fate and transport of these contaminants in the environment. In industrial countries, the concentrations observed in waterways now represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution in these countries, whereas sediment analyses conducted in developing countries show an increase in APE content over the last several years. Finally, similar trends have been observed in samples drawn from Europe and North America. PMID:22864754

Bergé, Alexandre; Cladičre, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

2012-11-01

89

Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to neurodevelopment, there is less information regarding the consequences of modest degrees of thyroid. The impact of low level TH disruptions induced by environmental contaminants has not been defined. This paper is a synopsis from four invited speakers who presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association meeting held in Xi'an, China during the summer of 2011. An overview of the role of TH in brain development and a review of human and animal data on the neurological sequelae of disruption of the thyroid axis in the pre- and early post-natal periods were presented by Mary Gilbert and Joanne Rovet. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of TH insufficiency and mental retardation in many countries, including China, was addressed by Zupei Chen. In this presentation the current incidence of iodine deficiency and neurological outcome in China and the efficacy of recently implemented iodinization programs to eliminate this cause of mental retardation were reviewed. Joanne Rovet described the impact of TH disruption during pregnancy and under conditions of congenital hypothyroidism. Children born with normal thyroid function, but who experienced TH insufficiency in the womb, display subtle cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain imaging. Despite early detection and treatment, deficiencies also exist in children born with thyroid disorders. Different patterns of cognitive effects result from prenatal versus postnatal TH insufficiency. Mary Gilbert reported on the effects of environmental contaminants with thyroid disrupting action on brain development in animals. Results of neurophysiological, behavioral, structural and molecular alterations that accompany modest perturbations of the thyroid axis were reviewed. Noriyuki Koibuchi described molecular targets of TH-mediated signalling accompanying exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are prevalent environmental contaminants that disrupt TH signalling at the receptor level. This action by these chemical classes could contribute to the negative impact of these chemicals on brain function. In summary, epidemiological, preclinical and animal research has clearly identified the critical role of TH in brain development. Additional work is required to understand the impact of low level perturbations of the thyroid axis to evaluate the risk associated with environmental contaminants with thyroid action. PMID:22138353

Gilbert, Mary E; Rovet, Joanne; Chen, Zupei; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

2012-08-01

90

Noble metals: a toxicological appraisal of potential new environmental contaminants.  

PubMed Central

The public health benefits expected by reducing known hazardous emissions from mobile sources should not be compromised by increasing levels of other potentially hazardous unregulated emissions. Catalytic converters are going to be used to meet the statutory requirements on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions from light duty motor vehicles. Platinum and palladium metals are the catalytic materials to be used in these emission control devices. Preliminary experimental evidence and analysis of the impact of these control devices on the future use and demand for platinum indicates that this metal may appear at detectable levels in the environment by the end of this decade. At the present time, platinum and palladium are not present in the public environment and represent potentially new environmental contaminants as a consequence of use of this new abatement control technology. There is relatively little information available to adequately assess the potential health hazards that may be associated with exposure to these metals and their compounds. Analysis of the environmental problems and concerns associated with possible new environmental contaminants are discussed. Limited estimates are made on community exposure by use of a meteorological dispersion model. Biodegradation potential and attention is also given to the limited toxicological information available. PMID:50939

Brubaker, P E; Moran, J P; Bridbord, K; Hueter, F G

1975-01-01

91

Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi  

SciTech Connect

Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

Grigoriev, Igor

2012-08-10

92

Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration "to help federal, state, and local officials and purchasers of seafood identify species substitution and economic deception in the marketplace." As such, the RFE is a compilation of data in several formats (including photographic and imaging parameters, specific isoelectric focusing, DNA sequence patterns, protein patterns, and taxonomic authentication) "that assists with the accurate identification of fish species." Fish and other seafood types are listed by common, regional, market, scientific, and family names, and the site also provides images of some whole fish and market cuts. Additional detailed scientific and taxonomic information is available for some species, but researchers will find the site's varied techniques for identification most useful.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (U.S.). Office of Seafood.

93

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance, or encycogov for short, is created and maintained by Henrik Mathiesen, a PhD candidate at the Department of International Economics and Management at the Copenhagen Business School. Content on the site is divided into two sections: Specific Topics and General Topics. Topics in both sections begin with a paragraph explaining the overarching definition of the principle, and link to a variety of tables, "exhibitions," and models that further illustrate the definition. For example, the Bankruptcy Systems section begins with the definition and is followed up by two tables: "Effects of bankruptcy systems on corporate performance and other kinds of institutions of relevance for corporate governance" and "International corporate governance- Tentative characterizations of legal and empirical state of large firm bankruptcy systems in various countries as of 1980-95: 1) Developing countries. 2)Germany. 3) Japan. 4) Anglo-American countries. 5) Denmark." Also included on the site are references and site users information.

94

Encyclopedia of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Alabama Humanities Foundation and Auburn University, the Encyclopedia of Alabama (EOA) is a veritable cornucopia of material about the Yellowhammer State. The EOA draws on the work of many trustworthy and learned authors, and as a statement of the homepage notes, "Alabama's problems are not glossed over, nor are its accomplishments and successes overlooked." Visitors who might not be familiar with the state in the least are encouraged to read historian Wayne Flynt's fine essay on Alabama featured on the homepage. After that, visitors can look over the entries alphabetically, or they can use of the thematic headings (such as "Peoples" and "Religion") to start their journey. The "Features" articles are a treat as well, and they include "Alabama and the Civil War" and "College Football in Alabama". The site also includes several photo galleries, a glossary, and some educational resources for teachers.

95

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

96

Encyclopedia of the New Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Wired magazine, the Encyclopedia of the New Economy is a compendium of the key issues and terms that define the creation, buying, and selling of communication technology products. Terms are listed in alphabetical order and include both catch phrases and overviews. Wired Encyclopedia authors not only create a useful list of concepts, they also stimulate further thought on the controversies inherent in information technologies by leaving many definitions open-ended.

97

Agricultural chemical application practices to reduce environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Current practices of applying agricultural chemicals play a major role in the environmental health concerns of agriculture. Those who mix, load, and handle the concentrated formulations run the greatest risk of exposure but field hands and others can encounter significant levels of pesticides. Drift can be a major source of contamination to residents, wildlife, and water sources. Improved methods of application and ways of reducing the total amount of pesticide applied can help reduce environmental contamination. Chemigation, direct injection, closed system handling, and fertilizer impregnation are examples of technology that affect the efficiency of applying agricultural chemicals. An area of beneficial research is related to leak and spill technology. Current surveys indicate that point sources such as spills, mixing and loading areas, back-siphoning, and direct routes for surface water movement into the ground are often a major cause of pesticides reaching groundwater. The commercial dealer/applicator provides storage, handling, mixing, and loading for large amounts of chemicals and has received limited guidance regarding the products. Education remains an important element of any rural environmental health strategy. With appropriate information about pesticide risks and groundwater, people will be better equipped to address environmental concerns. By design, agricultural chemicals are biologically active and, in most cases, toxic. Thus, they pose potential risks to humans, wildlife, water, and the environment in general. The magnitude of the risks depends to some degree on the methods and techniques used to apply the chemicals. Pesticides are applied by persons possessing a variety of skills, using equipment ranging from hand-operated systems to aircraft. PMID:2248252

Bode, L E

1990-01-01

98

DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE ASSAY FOR VITELLOGENIN TO MONITOR ESTROGEN-LIKE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many environmental contaminants have the potential to disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife and humans resulting in impairment of reproductive and other systems. A subset of these contaminants may initiate these effects by binding to the estrogen receptor. In oviparous vertebrate...

99

Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

Moody, R P; Chu, I

1995-01-01

100

[Environmental characterization of the National Contaminated Sites in SENTIERI project].  

PubMed

The concept of "polluted site" was firstly introduced in Italy with the definition of "environmental high risk areas" (Rule 349/86). Later, the decree 471/99 stated that a site is considered polluted if the concentration of even just one index pollutant in anyone of the matrices (soil or subsoil, surface or ground waters) exceeds the allowable threshold limit concentration. The boundaries of Italian polluted sites (IPS) were defined (Decree 152/06) on the basis of health, environmental and social criteria. SENTIERI Project includes 44 out of the 57 sites comprised in the "National environmental remediation program"; they correspond to the largest national industrial agglomerates. For each site, characterization data were collected, classified and arranged in tables. A great part of collected data came also from the environmental remediation programmes planned for the sites. These plans show that characterization and risk assessment activities were mainly undertaken for private industrial areas, as they were considered source of pollution. On the other hand, municipal and/or green and agricultural areas included in IPSs were poorly studied. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the exposure of the populations living inside and/or near the IPSs. The most probable population exposure come from the contamination of ground waters utilized for irrigation, or industrial emissions. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 Supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention devoted to SENTIERI Project. PMID:22166293

Musmeci, L; Bellino, M; Falleni, F; Piccardi, A

2011-01-01

101

Environmental contamination with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an outpatient setting.  

PubMed

Eleven cancer patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were followed as outpatients. Environmental cultures were obtained from clinic rooms before and after patients care. Environmental contamination occurred in 29% of encounters. Superficial disinfection did not eradicate contamination, although more thorough cleaning did. We conclude that environmental VRE contamination occurs in the outpatient setting. Infection control practices, similar to those used in the inpatient setting, may be necessary for outpatient clinics. PMID:9702578

Smith, T L; Iwen, P C; Olson, S B; Rupp, M E

1998-07-01

102

A Framework for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis for Remediation or Restoration of Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net environmental benefits are gains in value of environmental services or other ecological properties attained by remediation or ecological restoration minus the value of adverse environmental effects caused by those actions. Net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) is a methodology for comparing and ranking net environmental benefits associated with multiple management alternatives. A NEBA for chemically contaminated sites typically involves comparison

Rebecca A. Efroymson; Joseph P. Nicolette; Glenn W. Suter II

2004-01-01

103

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wikipedia is a free online, editable encyclopedia that "all Internet users can collaborate on by writing and submitting new articles or improving existing ones." The project, which claims to be "living proof that content and knowledge can also organize themselves," uses a wiki, i.e. software to allow users to revise content. The website encourages community participation by listing Open Tasks, such as copy-editing, merging, and peer reviewing needing to be done for particular entries. The texts and media presented on Wikipedia are available to the public "to process the content further and disseminate it." There are also wikipedias in 50 other languages, including one in Esperanto, the invented international language. Users must create an account to contribute to Wikipedia, but anyone can browse the entries by topic area or search on a specific term. Within each entry are links to related items and some of the more extended entries include a table of contents for ease of navigation. Other sections of the website let you view the most recent changes (within the past seven days) or browse entries related to current events.

104

Encyclopedia of Software Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

105

Encyclopedia of software components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

Vanwarren, Lloyd (inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (inventor)

1991-01-01

106

ADAPTIONS OF WILD POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS TO PERSISTENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many aquatic species, including the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichogs), adapt to local environmental conditions. We conducted studies to evaluate whether highly exposed populations of mummichogs adapt to toxic environmental contaminants. These fish populations are ...

107

Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils.  

PubMed

Estonia is currently one of the leading producers of shale oils in the world. Increased production, transportation and use of shale oils entail risks of environmental contamination. This paper studies the behaviour of two shale fuel oils (SFOs)--'VKG D' and 'VKG sweet'--in different soil matrices under natural climatic conditions. Dynamics of SFOs' hydrocarbons (C10-C40), 16 PAHs, and a number of soil heterotrophic bacteria in oil-spiked soils was investigated during the long-term (1 year) outdoor experiment. In parallel, toxicity of aqueous leachates of oil-spiked soils to aquatic organisms (crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri) and terrestrial plants (Sinapis alba and Hordeum vulgare) was evaluated. Our data showed that in temperate climate conditions, the degradation of SFOs in the oil-contaminated soils was very slow: after 1 year of treatment, the decrease of total hydrocarbons' content in the soil did not exceed 25 %. In spite of the comparable chemical composition of the two studied SFOs, the VKG sweet posed higher hazard to the environment than the heavier fraction (VKG D) due to its higher mobility in the soil as well as higher toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species. Our study demonstrated that the correlation between chemical parameters (such as total hydrocarbons or total PAHs) widely used for the evaluation of the soil pollution levels and corresponding toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms was weak. PMID:24865504

Kanarbik, Liina; Blinova, Irina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

2014-10-01

108

Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia is an initiative of the CHICO (Cultural Heritage Information and Community Outreach) project at the University of Michigan's School of Information (SI). SI cooperated with the School of Music's Stearns Museum of Musical Instruments to develop this comprehensive resource about instruments from around the world. Users may browse the encyclopedia by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme, by geographic origin, or by four major instrument types: percussion, string, wind, and electronic. Users may also conduct full-text searches, or they may search the encyclopedia by instrument title, origin, maker, materials, or description. In addition, an instrument glossary as well as links to other instrument reference resources are available at the site.

1999-01-01

109

Environmental Research 105 (2007) 3452 Spatial and temporal variations in silver contamination  

E-print Network

Environmental Research 105 (2007) 34­52 Spatial and temporal variations in silver contamination, of any estuarine system. Since then others have argued that silver contamination is higher elsewhere (e remobilization of silver from historically contaminated sediments being re-exposed to overlying surface waters

110

The Effect of Terminal Cleaning on Environmental Contamination Rates of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii environmental contamination before and after discharge cleaning in rooms of infected/colonized patients. 46.9% of rooms and 15.3% of sites were found contaminated at baseline. 25% of rooms, 5.5% of sites, were found contaminated post cleaning. Cleaning significantly decreased environmental contamination of A. baumannii, however, persistent contamination represents a significant risk factor for transmission. Further studies on this and more effective cleaning methods are needed. PMID:23199726

Strassle, P.; Thom, K.A.; Johnson, J.K.; Leekha, S.; Lissauer, M.; Zhu, J.; Harris, A.D.

2013-01-01

111

Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

Wang, J.

2013-12-01

112

E-Conflict World Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by EmulateMe, a Web-design company, this online Encyclopedia provides maps, history, weather, geography, and governmental and economic information for any country that users wish to select. (For younger users, the reference also offers audio versions of the national anthems and images of the flags for each country.) There is a wealth of information on-site, particularly in terms of economic, geographic, and demographic data, but users should observe their URL window as some links are external. Rounding out the encyclopedia is a moderated discussion forum allowing users to "speak out" about current world affairs.

113

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

114

Ref: In G. Bitton et al., ed., Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, 6: 3194-3202. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2002. TRACERS IN GROUNDWATER: USE OF  

E-print Network

as indicators or tracers of fecal contamination in groundwater environments, including recent groundwater of coliphages as tracers of groundwater contamination and the future of such uses remains unclear. A major. Reasons for the addi- tions include increasing oil recovery from less permeable zones, increasing rates

115

The Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Mating Dynamics and Population Viability in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish  

E-print Network

are genetically distinct from coastal populations but moderate levels of gene flow occur among sites, and gene flow between contaminated and non-contaminated population may be influencing how environmental contaminants are impacting genetic diversity...

Partridge, Charlyn G.

2010-07-14

116

Wolbachia pipientis - Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Encyclopedia of Life species page offers a comprehensive summary of the biology, ecology, evolution and relevance of Wolbachia pipientis. It includes an interactive media panel with images, videos and distribution maps, as well as a navigable classification structure. The page is supplemented with links to literature references, educational opportunities and additional research links.

Encyclopedia of Life

117

Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

First awareness that direct topical application of xenobiotics to bird eggs could be harmful to avian development dates back to the turn of the century. The most widely documented evidence of embryotoxicity following direct exposure comes from petroleum contaminant studies, conducted with at least 10 different avian species. Many petroleum crude oils, refined oils, and waste oils are embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic to different species; LD50s are often less than 5 iL of oil per egg. Toxicity is generally dependent upon the PAH concentration and composition (presence of higher weight PAHs). Five of seven industrial effluents caused significant reduction of embryonic growth in mallards following brief immersion of the eggs. Of the insecticides, organophosphates have been the most widely studied with respect to potential for direct embryotoxicity and teratogenicity following spraying or immersion of eggs. Phenoxy herbicides including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T have been the most widely studied class of herbicides with respect to potential embryotoxicity of spray application. However, more recent evaluations have indicated that this is not the most toxic class of herbicides. Paraquat was found to be highly toxic in at least three species. Herbicides with LC50s that occurred at ten times the field level of application or less for mallard embryos included bromoxynil with MCPA, methyldiclofop, paraquat, prometon, propanil, and trifluralin. Of different gaseous and particulate air pollutants, ozone and particulates rich in PAH content appeared to be potentially embryotoxic, based on laboratory studies. Environmental contaminants in all classes reviewed have been shown to cause physiological and biochemical disturbances in embryos or hatchlings indicative of contaminant exposure, organ damage, or delayed development. Residue studies have shown the presence of DDT, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, decamethrin, petroleum hydrocarbons, and methylmercury after direct exposure of eggs. Ability of xenobiotics to pass across the shell and its membranes as well as embryo uptake appear to be dependent both on the compound and the vehicle. Pesticides in aliphatic (nontoxic oil) vehicle were generally more toxic than ones in aqueous emulsion due to better penetration. Field studies have documented the embryotoxicity of petroleum following transfer from plumage of adult birds to their eggs. Few attempts to measure effects of spraying pesticides near bird nests have been documented. However, application of pesticide mixtures including organophosphate insecticides and fungicides to orchards resulted in embryo ic mortality in mourning dove nests. Future studies are needed to focus on field exposures in multiple species. Comparative laboratory studies are needed taking into consideration shell thickness and porosity to determine whether species such as passerines may be more sensitive. Additive and possibly synergistic effects may occur where xenobiotics may be only slightly to moderately toxic alone. Therefore, further studies examining the effects of pesticides routinely applied in combinations of two or more are needed, as are air pollution studies examining multiple contaminants and species.

Hoffman, D.J.

1990-01-01

118

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants  

E-print Network

November 2005 Key words: aerobic, biodegradation, BTEX, co-contaminant, MTBE, TBA Abstract Contamination to widespread groundwater contam- inations. The relative high water solubility has resulted in frequent; Fiorenza & Rifai Hanadi 2003). MTBE in groundwater is often found together with other gasoline contaminants

119

Application of solid phase microextraction to the analysis of chlorinated contaminants in environmental matrices  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of aquatic and terrestrial systems with organic contaminants is an increasing toxicological problem. In both the monitoring of such contamination and the determination of the success of remediation methods, straightforward and inexpensive analytical methodology increases the ease of environmental assessment and facilitates regulatory enforcement. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) technology is a recently developed solvent less extraction system with the potential for application to the analysis of a wide range of compounds. Application of SPME, in combination with gas chromatography and GC-MS, will be described for the analysis of chlorinated environmental contaminants such as pesticides and selected PCBs, dioxins, and furans in soils, sediments, and water.

Webster, G.R.B.; Sarna, L.P.; Anderson, K.L.; Graham, K.N. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

1994-12-31

120

Environmental mercury contamination in China: sources and impacts.  

PubMed

This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). The first case study indicated that after closure of the acetic acid plant 20 years at Songyuan City (Jilin Province), 16.7% of residents' hair still contained Hg concentration in excess of 1 mg/kg (the reference dosage value, RfD set by USEPA). The second case study indicated that the male residents of Hong Kong who consumed more than four or more meals of fish per week tended to contain higher Hg in their hair, which was linked to their subfertility. There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings. Adverse health effects of residents living in places with a higher background level of Hg, due to long-term exposure to chronic levels of Hg through oral intake should not be overlooked. PMID:16914205

Zhang, L; Wong, M H

2007-01-01

121

Decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mining sites.  

PubMed

Polluting mine accidents and widespread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe and elsewhere has triggered the improvement of related environmental legislation and of the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background pollution associated with natural mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination located in the three-dimensional sub-surface space, the problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites and abandoned mines in historic regions like Europe. These mining-specific problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the decision support methods that have been developed and applied to mining contamination. In this paper, only those methods that are both efficient decision support tools and provide a 'holistic' approach to the complex problem as well are considered. These tools are (1) landscape ecology, (2) industrial ecology, (3) landscape geochemistry, (4) geo-environmental models, (5) environmental impact assessment, (6) environmental risk assessment, (7) material flow analysis and (8) life cycle assessment. This unique inter-disciplinary study should enable both the researcher and the practitioner to obtain broad view on the state-of-the-art of decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mine sites. Documented examples and abundant references are also provided. PMID:23456223

Jordan, Gyozo; Abdaal, Ahmed

2013-09-01

122

Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Landrum, P.F. [Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

123

Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SNOW, ICE AND GLACIERS  

E-print Network

#12;Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SNOW, ICE AND GLACIERS Volume Editors Sciences University of Bristol University Road Bristol BS8 1SS UK Aims of the Series The Encyclopedia leading names in the subject, with copious illustrations and reference lists. These books represent one

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

124

Encyclopedia of the Human Genome--Author Stylesheet ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE HUMAN GENOME  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of the Human Genome--Author Stylesheet 267 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE HUMAN GENOME 2000 of an HMM Przytycka, Teresa M Teresa M Przytycka Johns Hopkins School of Medicine USA Hidden Markov Model;Encyclopedia of the Human Genome--Author Stylesheet biological sequence analysis applications. Current

Przytycka, Teresa

125

The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sitting on the banks of Lake Erie, the city of Cleveland has been an industrial powerhouse for over a century, and its history is a fascinating one. This online encyclopedia of Cleveland history was created with the cooperation of the history department at Case Western Reserve University, along with the assistance of other scholars. David D. VanTassel and John J. Grabowski compiled the encyclopedia, and visitors can perform a full-text search across all of the articles here as well as the image gallery. Visitors may wish to start by taking a look at the "Foreword" and the "Readers' Guide", both of which can be found in the "Supplementary Text" area. Visitors who wish to browse around in a thematic fashion will want to consult the "Subjects" area, which organizes the articles from "African American History" to "Zoo".

126

Encyclopedia of Law and Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conceived by the University of Ghent, Belgium, the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics Website is a broad-based collection of resources pertaining to economic and legal issues throughout the world. Showcasing a comprehensive index of searchable bibliographic resources, this site also includes abstracts of recent law and economics reviews. The hefty Law and Economics Web Resources section features working papers, bibliographies, and mailing lists. In addition, the site links to law and economics academic programs, associations, and an array of relevant Websites.

127

Environmental antimicrobial contamination from terraccumulation and diffuse pollution pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of antimicrobial pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic environment has become an increasing concern for researchers and regulators in the past decade, and recent research has focused on antimicrobial contamination from point sources, such as wastewater treatment facility outfalls. Terraccumulation is the concentration of pollutants in soils from land application of contaminated biosolids generated by agricultural practices and water and

Stephen J Rooklidge

2004-01-01

128

Development of novel biomarkers of fish exposure to environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomarkers of contaminant exposure and effect are useful tools in determining the degree to which toxic substances impact fish populations. Their usefulness, however, is often impeded by their lack of a direct association with chemical mode(s) of toxic action and their lack of chemical specificity. Therefore, the need to develop novel, effects-based biomarkers of fish exposure to contaminants exists. The

Brian C Sanchez

2009-01-01

129

FINAL REPORT. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, act as hormones or anti- hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major components of the research included: 1)a biotechnology based screening system ...

130

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL PREPARATION WASTES. A LITERATURE REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of collecting and evaluating available information on the chemistry and behavior of trace elements in coal preparation wastes, and assessing the potential for environmental contamination from the trace elements in these wastes. Only limited attention has ...

131

Studies in Avian Biology No. 26:168176, 2003. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN SURROGATE BIRDS AND  

E-print Network

. SFERRA, AND KIRKE KING Abstract. Several deformed Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii, Empidonax traillii extimus, inorganic elements, insectiv- orous birds, PCBs, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). Environmental contaminants

Mora, Miguel A.

132

Association between Indoor Environmental Contamination by Salmonella enterica and Contamination of Eggs on Layer Farms  

PubMed Central

This study involves longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella carriage and environmental contamination on two commercial cage layer farms positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (flock A age, 32 weeks; flock B age, 34 weeks). Salmonella-positive fecal, egg belt, and dust samples were all unconditionally associated with eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. The odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella were 91.8, 61.5, and 18.2 times higher when fecal, egg belt, and dust samples, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella. The agreement between the culture-based methods and real-time PCR on preenriched broths for detecting Salmonella was almost perfect for eggshell (observed agreement, 99.19%; kappa coefficient, 0.94) and egg belt samples (observed agreement, 95%; kappa coefficient, 0.88), and it was substantial for fecal (observed agreement, 87.14%; kappa coefficient, 0.47) and floor dust samples (observed agreement, 80.61%; kappa coefficient, 0.58). A 1-log increase in the load of Salmonella detected in the fecal, egg belt, and floor dust samples resulted in 35%, 43%, and 45% increases, respectively (P < 0.001), in the odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella. The multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) patterns of the S. Typhimurium strains isolated from flock A were distinct from those of flock B. S. Typhimurium strains detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited an MLVA pattern similar to those of the strains isolated from flocks A and B. PMID:24966362

Gole, Vaibhav C.; Torok, Valeria; Sexton, Margaret; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

2014-01-01

133

Muskrat populations in Virginia's Elizabeth River: Physiological condition and accumulation of environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the physiological condition and environmental contaminant concentrations in muskrats inhabiting the contaminated lower region of the Elizabeth River, Virginia, (USA). Muskrats trapped in the lower region of the Elizabeth River weighed less, had lower mean fat indexes, lower relative spleen weights, greater relative adrenal weights, and an increased incidence of disease and parasitism compared to muskrats trapped

Richard S. Halbrook; Roy L. Kirkpatrick; Patrick F. Scanlon; Michael R. Vaughan; Hugo P. Veit

1993-01-01

134

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane ( Grus canadensis pulla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained

Donald H. White; Clifford P. Rice; David J. Hoffman; George F. Gee

1994-01-01

135

Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill.

Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slavin, P. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerin, D. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

136

Modeling environmental loading rates of municipal wastewater contaminants: steroidal estrogens  

EPA Science Inventory

Estrogenic compounds in municipal wastewater are of substantial interest because of suspicion that they may cause reproductive disruption in aquatic invertebrates, and because of their potential to contaminate human drinking water sources. Previous work suggests the primary contr...

137

Contaminant modeling. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This note provides initial information on contaminant models that are potentially applicable to situations where the presence of toxic materials in sediments complicates Corps of Engineers (CE) dredging activities.

Bird, S.L.; Dortch, M.

1988-03-01

138

PPCPS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large, diverse array of contaminants that can enter the environment from the combined activities, actions, and behaviors of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http:...

139

MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

140

MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

141

MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

142

MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

143

Environmental Contaminants in Hospital Settings and Progress in Disinfecting Techniques  

PubMed Central

Medical devices, such as stethoscopes, and other objects found in hospital, such as computer keyboards and telephone handsets, may be reservoirs of bacteria for healthcare-associated infections. In this cross-over study involving an Italian teaching hospital we evaluated microbial contamination (total bacterial count (TBC) at 36°C/22°C, Staphylococcus spp., moulds, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, total coliform bacteria, Acinetobacter spp., and Clostridium difficile) of these devices before and after cleaning and differences in contamination between hospital units and between stethoscopes and keyboards plus handsets. We analysed 37 telephone handsets, 27 computer keyboards, and 35 stethoscopes, comparing their contamination in four hospital units. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Before cleaning, many samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms. After cleaning, CFUs decreased to zero in most comparisons. The first aid unit had the highest and intensive care the lowest contamination (P < 0.01). Keyboards and handsets had higher TBC at 22°C (P = 0.046) and mould contamination (P = 0.002) than stethoscopes. Healthcare professionals should disinfect stethoscopes and other possible sources of bacterial healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning technique used was effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Units with high patient turnover, such as first aid, should practise stricter hygiene. PMID:24286078

Ceriale, Emma; Lenzi, Daniele; Burgassi, Sandra; Azzolini, Elena; Manzi, Pietro

2013-01-01

144

Encyclopedia of the NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Highlighting the diverse marine life of America's ocean and Great Lakes treasures, the Encyclopedia of the Sanctuaries offers photos, streaming video and important facts for more than 100 key animal and plant species from each of the National Marine Sanctuaries. The encyclopedia entry for each species includes a photo, quick facts, information about its diet, habitat, distribution and status, and links to outside resources.

145

Mining the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences  

E-print Network

Mining the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences Hieu D. Nguyen and Douglas Taggart Department at mining the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences for new mathematical identities. We discuss methods, some which we believe to be new and interesting and some which illustrate how false matches can arise

Nguyen, Hieu D.

146

New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience -CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING  

E-print Network

New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience - CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING The text content, footnotes, and lists. Proofread the captions and credit lines of illustrations and tables. Ensure that any: The New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (NRSC) Article No.: 01229 Dear Author, During the preparation of your

Cossart, Rosa

147

New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience -CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING  

E-print Network

New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience - CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS PROOFREADING The text content, footnotes, and lists. Proofread the captions and credit lines of illustrations and tables. Ensure that any: The New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (NRSC) Article No.: 01408 Dear Author, During the preparation of your

van Ooyen, Arjen

148

An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor  

E-print Network

LETTER An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, Ôcanaries in a coal mineŐ, because, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative

Storfer, Andrew

149

GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children?s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

150

Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) as of mid-2005 produced by the California Air Resources Board and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as part of the process of identifying ETS as a toxic air contaminant. Part A of the report includes information about the chemical composition of secondhand smoke and

2005-01-01

151

Encyclopedia of Antarctica and the Southern Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With so much information just a keystroke away on the World Wide Web, is there still a need for encyclopedias? I think so. Yes, the Web provides access to a plethora of information, if you only know what to look for. It presupposes that you know enough to navigate the maze. An encyclopedia lays out information in neat alphabetical order. One can look up a specific item, as one can search the Web; this is, perhaps, the traditional way in which an encyclopedia is used. But the pages of an encyclopedia can be browsed more casually than can the Web, and perhaps more importantly, without a specific topic in mind, which provides more of a learning exercise. I have spent many hours randomly flipping through pages of an encyclopedia, always fascinated and absorbed by subjects I didn't know existed.

Gordon, Arnold L.

152

Robust decision analysis for environmental management of groundwater contamination sites  

E-print Network

In contrast to many other engineering fields, the uncertainties in subsurface processes (e.g., fluid flow and contaminant transport in aquifers) and their parameters are notoriously difficult to observe, measure, and characterize. This causes severe uncertainties that need to be addressed in any decision analysis related to optimal management and remediation of groundwater contamination sites. Furthermore, decision analyses typically rely heavily on complex data analyses and/or model predictions, which are often poorly constrained as well. Recently, we have developed a model-driven decision-support framework (called MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov) for the management and remediation of subsurface contamination sites in which severe uncertainties and complex physics-based models are coupled to perform scientifically defensible decision analyses. The decision analyses are based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT). We demonstrate the MADS capabilities by solving a decision problem related to optimal monitoring ...

Vesselinov, Velimir V; Katzman, Danny

2013-01-01

153

The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will complete 450 entries, which will populate the E3 collection to a level that fully spans earthquake science and engineering. Scientists, engineers, and educators who have suggestions for content to be included in the Encyclopedia can visit www.earthquake.info now to complete the "Suggest a Web Page" form.

Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

2003-12-01

154

Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the UK Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme, this site is designed as a one-stop resource for students and general users who have questions about atmospheric issues and terms. The encyclopedia is divided into sections, each of which contains a number of short definitions for selected terms. As a testament to the international appeal of the Simpsons, definitions for adults or younger users are noted by Mr. Burns and Bart Simpson icons, respectively. Also included are lengthy collections of related links and recommended reading.

United Kingdom. Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme.

2000-01-01

155

Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at Superfund sites  

E-print Network

Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective...

Wiles, Melinda Christine

2004-11-15

156

CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

157

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: Monitoring environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (PMustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from

R. S. Halbrook; J. H. Jenkins; P. B. Bush; N. D. Seabolt

1994-01-01

158

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Emerging Contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

159

Bromate Environmental Contamination: Review of Impact and Possible Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of drinking water with bromate (BrO3 ) at levels ranging from 0.4 to 60 ? g L may be found following ozonation of water containing background bromide (Br). Based on rodent studies, bromate is classified as a “possible human” carcinogen, and drinking water standards of 10–25 ? g L are now implemented in many countries. Bromate is highly soluble,

RAY BUTLER; ANDREW GODLEY; LUCY LYTTON; ELISE CARTMELL

2005-01-01

160

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and

T. C. Michot; T. W. Custer; A. J. Nault; C. A. Mitchell

1994-01-01

161

Mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon. Environmental and occupational aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) contamination of miners, riparian and Indian populations and fish in the Amazon region, due to gold extracting activities, has been studied. Samples of hair, urine, and blood of Indians and prospectors, and hair from riparian fish-eating population and fishes from Madeira river, respectively, were collected and analyzed by Cold Vapor, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) techniques. The results obtained

A. C. Barbosa; A. A. Boischio; G. A. East; I. Ferrari; A. Gonçalves; P. R. M. Silva; T. M. E. da Cruz

1995-01-01

162

Advancing passive sampling of contaminants in environmental science  

E-print Network

contaminants including POCIS, Chemcatcher and o- DGT. The understanding of uptake kinetics and sorption-density polyethylene (LDPE) samplers. For metals, DGT behavior is an area of active research, in particular of POCIS uptake are warranted. The DGT passive sampling technique is well-established for the analysis

Mosegaard, Klaus

163

The Encyclopedia of World History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The good people at Bartleby.com have long prided themselves on providing a host of important works online for the benefit of those seeking online edification. One of the more recent volumes they have placed on their site is The Encyclopedia of World History, edited by Peter N. Stearns and 30 fellow historians. As the preface to this, the sixth edition, announces: "Simply put, this is a volume that has always intended to convey the key features of world history". This is no small order, and this edition represents a substantial revision from previous editions, as it also reflects the growing body of knowledge about the histories of regions outside of Western Europe and North America. The encyclopedia is complemented by a number of illustrative and informative maps, including ones that visualize India before the Muslim conquest and Italy in the 15th century. Users of the volume are welcome to use the search engine to find the information they so desire, or they may browse at their leisure.

164

Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of an interdisciplinary international effort to take a critical look at the phenomenon of mass violence, the Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence is supported by a number of organizations, including The Center for International Research and Studies and The Foundation for the Memory of the Shoah. The primary purpose of the Encyclopedia Project is "to create a regularly updated electronic database focusing on massacres and genocides of the 20th century." First-time visitors can use the interactive map of the world on the homepage to begin their exploration of the site. Within each region of the world (and by extension, each individual country), visitors can read chronological indexes, case studies, and take a look at scholarly reviews of works related to each region or country's genocides or massacres. Visitors should not miss the "Latest contributions" area, which includes the latest works from the Project. Recently featured items here have included an evaluation of The Boxer Uprising and the Burundi Killings of 1972. Overall, it's a very ambitious project, and one that scholars and members of the general public will want to check up on from time to time.

2008-01-01

165

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

1993-01-01

166

Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences  

EPA Science Inventory

Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

167

Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will ...

168

Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).  

PubMed

The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (?PCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 ?g kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks. PMID:22934994

Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

2012-01-01

169

Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, the analysis of these samples is not only expensive, but can take weeks or months when sent to an off-site laboratory. In contrast, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) screening capability could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas.

G. J. Lockwood; R. A. Normann; L. B. Bishop; R. J. Floran; C. V. Williams

1995-01-01

170

A Look At Endocrine Disruptors: Assessing the threat of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants to birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volume 2, Number 1 (January 2001) of the Ornithological Council's newsletter BIRDNET includes this issue brief on the influence of hormone-disrupting environmental contaminants on birds. The issue brief covers the basics of endocrine disruptors, policy issues, a review of the state of our knowledge about endocrine disruptors and birds, and suggested research topics that would be useful in better determining the effects of these contaminants on wild birds.

171

Environmental effects of dredging. Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants; subcellular effects  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the first in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants for causing mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. This technical note describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the subcellular level.

NONE

1995-07-01

172

Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:25491153

Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

2014-01-01

173

Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

1994-01-01

174

Core sediment bacteria drive community response to anthropogenic contamination over multiple environmental gradients.  

PubMed

In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate sediment bacterial community response to contaminant disturbance across six estuaries with differing levels of 'modification'. We observed a significant influence of metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in shaping bacterial community composition, structure and diversity, with metals being the more influential contaminant. An abundant and pervasive 'core' set of bacteria found in every sample were largely responsible for mediating community response to contamination. These 13 core operational taxonomic units were mostly comprised of Gamma-, Delta-, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Sediment silt and metals together explained the most variation in bacterial community composition (19.7%). Following this strong contaminant signature, salinity and temperature represented important environmental variables predicting 10.9% of community variation. While overall network connectivity measures supported the idea of an inherently diverse soil microbiome with some degree of functional redundancy, lower values observed in contaminated sediments indicate potential structural perturbations in the community from fracturing or loss of bacterial associations. The large number of unclassified sequences obtained in this study contribute to improving our understanding of environmentally relevant strains in relation to anthropogenic contamination, which have been overlooked in laboratory studies. PMID:23647974

Sun, Melanie Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Brown, Mark V

2013-09-01

175

Metal resistant plants and phytoremediation of environmental contamination  

DOEpatents

The present disclosure provides a method of producing transgenic plants which are resistant to at least one metal ion by transforming the plant with a recombinant DNA comprising a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenic reductase under the control of a plant expressible promoter, and a nucleic acid encoding a nucleotide sequence encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme under the control of a plant expressible promoter. The invention also relates a method of phytoremediation of a contaminated site by growing in the site a transgenic plant expressing a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenate reductase and a nucleic acid encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme.

Meagher, Richard B.; Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om P.

2010-04-20

176

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n=70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

1994-01-01

177

Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n = 70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

1994-01-01

178

Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous type...

179

Potential effects of environmental chemical contamination in congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

There is compelling evidence that prenatal exposures to environmental xenobiotics adversely affect human development and childhood. Among all birth defects, congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent of all congenital malformations and remains the leading cause of death. It has been estimated that in most cases the causes of heart defects remain unknown, while a growing number of studies have indicated the potential role of environmental agents as risk factors in CHD occurrence. In particular, maternal exposure to chemicals during the first trimester of pregnancy represents the most critical window of exposure for CHD. Specific classes of xenobiotics (e.g. organochlorine pesticides, organic solvents, air pollutants) have been identified as potential risk factors for CHD. Nonetheless, the knowledge gained is currently still incomplete as a consequence of the frequent heterogeneity of the methods applied and the difficulty in estimating the net effect of environmental pollution on the pregnant mother. The presence of multiple sources of pollution, both indoor and outdoor, together with individual lifestyle factors, may represent a further confounding element for association with the disease. A future new approach for research should probably focus on individual measurements of professional, domestic, and urban exposure to physical and chemical pollutants in order to accurately retrace the environmental exposure of parents of affected offspring during the pre-conceptional and pregnancy periods. PMID:24452958

Gorini, Francesca; Chiappa, Enrico; Gargani, Luna; Picano, Eugenio

2014-04-01

180

The Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published from time to time from 1914 to 1967, The Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography was the product of the Lewis Publishing Company. These massive tomes profiled a range of persons who had risen to prominence in the Keystone State. Recently, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries digitized the first volumes published before 1923 and placed them online here. Visitors can search through all of the volumes, and they are also encouraged to type in keywords like "Drexel", "Franklin", and "Furness" to get started. The site also includes the "Who's Who in Pennsylvania" books from 1904 and 1908. These works feature notable personages from the early 20th century, and they can also be read as historical documents that offer a portrait of the movers and shakers of their era.

181

Encycogov: Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopedia of Corporate Governance, or encycogov for short, is created and maintained by Henrik Mathiesen, a PhD candidate at the Department of International Economics and Management at the Copenhagen Business School. Content on the site is divided into two sections: Specific Topics and General Topics. Topics in both sections begin with a paragraph explaining the overarching definition of the principle, and link to a variety of tables, "exhibitions," and models that further illustrate the definition. For example, the Bankruptcy Systems section begins with the definition and is followed up by two tables: "Effects of bankruptcy systems on corporate performance and other kinds of institutions of relevance for corporate governance" and "International corporate governance- Tentative characterizations of legal and empirical state of large firm bankruptcy systems in various countries as of 1980-95: 1) Developing countries. 2)Germany. 3) Japan. 4) Anglo-American countries. 5) Denmark." Also included on the site are references and site users information.

182

The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)

Martin, Ron

1994-01-01

183

Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online encyclopedia explains the terms and principles of laser physics and technology. It also includes content from other topics such as general optics and optoelectronics, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, fiber optics, ultrashort pulses, and optical communications.

Paschotta, RĂĽdiger

184

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS), an electronic publication of the MIT Press, is a new comprehensive reference work that encompasses the diverse theories and methodologies of the cognitive and brain sciences. The encyclopedia contains 471 specialized articles by preeminent researchers and scholars; articles include extensive bibliographies and provide multiple cross-references. MITECS spans six major topics: Philosophy; Psychology; Neuroscience; Computational Intelligence; Linguistics and Language; and Culture, Cognition, and Evolution. The introductory essays that precede each major section discuss topics within the larger framework of the cognitive sciences. The encyclopedia may be browsed by an author or a topic index, and the entire work is searchable by keyword. Please note that first-time users of the encyclopedia are required to register at the site; necessary registration information includes email address, full name, and research interests.

185

Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.  

PubMed

In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries. PMID:19117208

Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

2009-01-01

186

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and

McLachlan

1998-01-01

187

Endocrine disruptor activity of multiple environmental food chain contaminants.  

PubMed

Industrial chemicals, antimicrobials, drugs and personal care products have been reported as global pollutants which enter the food chain. Some of them have also been classified as endocrine disruptors based on results of various studies employing a number of in vitro/vivo tests. The present study employed a mammalian reporter gene assay to assess the effects of known and emerging contaminants on estrogen nuclear receptor transactivation. Out of fifty-nine compounds assessed, estrogen receptor agonistic activity was observed for parabens( n = 3), UV filters (n = 6), phthalates (n = 4) and a metabolite, pyrethroids (n = 9) and their metabolites (n = 3). Two compounds were estrogen receptor antagonists while some of the agonists enhanced 17b-estradiol mediated response.This study reports five new compounds (pyrethroids and their metabolites) possessing estrogen agonist activity and highlights for the first time that pyrethroid metabolites are of particular concern showing much greater estrogenic activity than their parent compounds. PMID:25449125

Wielogórska, E; Elliott, C T; Danaher, M; Connolly, L

2015-02-01

188

Environmental contaminants in canvasbacks wintering on San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of 11 trace elements, 21 organochlorines, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 13 aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined in canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering on San Francisco Bay, California during 1988. With the exception of Se, concentrations of potentially toxic elements were low. Similarly, concentrations of most organic compounds were near or below detection limits. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and DDE were common, but at levels lower than those known to be harmful to waterfowl. Innocuous trace elements (Cu, Fe, and Zn), which are often associated with anthropogenic contamination, occurred at high levels. Concentrations of toxic elements were several times lower and those of benign elements were similar or greater than concentrations reported for surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) or greater scaup (Aythya marila) from San Francisco Bay.

Miles, A.K.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

1993-01-01

189

Investigation of selected potential environmental contaminants: benzotriazoles. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzotriazoles are produced in approximately 5-6 million pounds per year in the United States. The majority are used in anticorrosion applications. Approximately 20-30% are used as UV stabilizers, many of which are 2-substituted benzotriazoles. Small amounts are used for photographic applications. Information on production, use, transport and handling, environmental fate, and toxicity are reviewed. The document contains: Physical and chemical

L. N. Davis; J. Santodonato; P. H. Howard; J. Saxena

1977-01-01

190

Environmental politics and science: the case of PBB contamination in Michigan.  

PubMed Central

This article examines how politics and science interacted against a background of uncertainty to shape policy in the case of environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in Michigan. In 1973, between 500 and 1,000 pounds of the flame retardant PBB were accidentally shipped and used instead of the dairy feed additive magnesium oxide, resulting in the widespread contamination of animal feeds, animals, and human food products. The contamination was initially perceived as the private trouble of a single farmer. The problem next became a public issue as public and private institutions grappled with questions of illness, safety, and disposal. To gain influence over those institutions, dissatisfied individuals and groups then turned the PBB contamination into a political controversy. The final section of the present article analyzes how science and politics interacted in: the ways bureaucratic organizations defined the three problems of contamination; the role political controversy played in redefining problems and influencing policy; and the political roles of scientists in controversies over environmental contamination. PMID:6297323

Reich, M R

1983-01-01

191

Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental  

E-print Network

Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental effects for several man-made surfaces asphalt, concrete, roofing shingles, and vehicles under varying amounts of sand-principles physics-based simulation model that uses computer-aided design CAD descriptions of natural and man-made ob

Salvaggio, Carl

192

A systems biology approach to understanding impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past decade, our research team at the US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division has employed systems biology approaches to examine and understand impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction. Our systems biology approach is one in which iterations of model cons...

193

Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

2001-01-01

194

Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may

R. L. Hothem; S. G. Zador

1995-01-01

195

Osprey: Worldwide Sentinel Species for Assessing and Monitoring Environmental Contamination in Rivers, Lakes, Reservoirs, and Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel

Robert A. Grove; Charles J. Henny; James L. Kaiser

2009-01-01

196

Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport  

SciTech Connect

This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

1998-08-31

197

Recent Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard as Recorded in Lake Sediments – an Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an interdisciplinary project on recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (76°30'N–80°30'N). It describes the rationale and aims of the project and summarises the location, climate, geology, vegetation, and land-use of Svalbard.

H. J. B. Birks; Vivienne J. Jones; N. L. Rose

2004-01-01

198

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

199

Investigation of environmental contamination in lichens of Gökçeada (Imbroz) Island in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to determine the type of environmental contamination in lichens in Gökçeada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey. We used two different lichen species Cladonia foliacea and Ramalina pollinaria. In the first part of the investigation, the beta activities of lichens have been measured by using a TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector.The

A. Kahraman; G. Kaynak; O. Gurler; S. Yalcin; S. Ozturk; O. Gundogdu

2009-01-01

200

DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF VULNERABILITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The susceptibility of the developing nervous system to damage following exposure to environmental contaminants is believed to be based upon the critical nature of the organizational events that occur in both a regionally- and temporally-dependent manner. The age-related susceptib...

201

Valuing Environmental Quality Changes Using Averting Expenditures: An Application to Groundwater Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public decision-makers require information on the benefits and costs of policies for groundwater protection. The averting expenditures method for valuing environmental improvements is examined and used to approximate the economic costs of groundwater degradation to households in a southeastern Pennsylvania community. Results indicate that households' knowledge of contamination, perception of risk, and presence of children determine whether they undertake averting

Charles W. Abdalla; Brian A. Roach; Donald J. Epp

1992-01-01

202

Epidemiologic Evidence of Relationships Between Reproductive and Child Health Outcomes and Environmental Chemical Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and\\/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures.

Donald T. Wigle; Tye E. Arbuckle; Michelle C. Turner; Annie Bérubé; Qiuying Yang; Shiliang Liu; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

203

HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

204

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,  

E-print Network

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist the importance of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development, it is of potential concern that a wide variety) THYROID HORMONE (TH) is essential for normal brain development in both humans (1, 2) and animals (3

Zoeller, R. Thomas

205

USING GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS TO DIAGNOSE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Advances in molecular biology allow the use of cutting-edge genomic and proteomic tools to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic organisms. Techniques are available to measure changes in expression of single genes (quantitative real-time PCR) or to measure g...

206

Vitellogenin as a potential biomarker for environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The authors have recently obtained N-terminal amino acid sequences for the egg protein vitellogenin (Vtg) from phylogenetically diverse teleost fish ranging from rainbow trout to the striped bass. Using the striped bass sequence as a template, the other teleost fish showed at least an 87% identity through the region of amino acids 7--20. The amino acid sequence was not as well conserved for other fishes; white sturgeon (60%) and brook lamprey (47%), the clawed frog Xenopus (47--60%) or the domestic chicken (40%). The authors synthesized a consensus peptide to this highly conserved region and have raised a polygonal antibody from rabbit. This antibody shows wide cross-reactivity to Vtg from many species of teleost fish. The authors have found that serum Vtg levels are elevated in both male and female brown bullheads with liver tumors from an area contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Serum levels of Vtg were also elevated in rainbow trout with liver tumors induced with aflatoxin B-1. The authors also describe an in-vitro system of plated hepatocytes to screen for estrogenic and antiestrogenic xenobiotic chemicals in the environment and using Vtg as a screening tool to establish structure-activity relationships for reproductive failure in female fish.

Denslow, N.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Molecular Biology; Folmar, L.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Sullivan, C.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1994-12-31

207

Sublethal concentrations of mercury in river otters: monitoring environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Hair, muscle, and liver mercury concentrations were determined in river otter (Lutra canadensis) carcasses collected from the lower coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia. Mean muscle and hair mercury concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in otters from the lower coastal plain (4.42 and 24.25 mg/kg wet wt, respectively) compared to otters from the piedmont (1.48 and 15.24 mg/kg, respectively). Liver tissue from lower coastal plain otters averaged 7.53 mg/kg mercury. Mean fetus brain and muscle mercury concentrations were 1.03 and 1.58 mg/kg wet wt, respectively, and fetal muscle mercury concentrations were correlated (r = 0.92) with maternal muscle mercury concentrations. Comparison of mercury concentrations found in Georgia otters to those associated with adverse effects in otter and mink (Mustela vison), indicate sublethal contamination with concentrations in some individuals approaching that observed in experimentally dosed individuals that developed clinical signs of mercurialism. Mercury concentrations in fish from the lower coastal plain approached or exceeded concentrations demonstrated to be toxic to experimentally dosed otters. PMID:7944553

Halbrook, R S; Jenkins, J H; Bush, P B; Seabolt, N D

1994-10-01

208

Popular Encyclopedias as a Source of Information about Copyright: A Critical Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rating of five multi-volume encyclopedias ("Collier's Encyclopedia,""Encyclopedia Americana,""Encyclopedia Britannica (EB3),""World Book Encyclopedia,""Academic American Encyclopedia") used 20 evaluation criteria to determine usefulness in answering reference questions concerning copyright. Results indicate that "Collier's" is most useful for…

Miller, Jerome K.

1983-01-01

209

Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities. PMID:18393576

Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

2008-07-01

210

Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive. Methods: Environmental and mathematical methods were used to identify the population potentially exposed to a point source of airborne pollution emanating from a waste incinerator. Soil sampling was undertaken at 83 sites throughout the city and environs. The concentrations of arsenic and copper were measured at each site. Computer software produced smoothed contour plots of the distribution of arsenic and copper in the soil based on the information derived from the sampling sites. The population at risk was also identified using concentric rings of varying radii, with the source of pollution at the centre. Lastly, we used the sites that had previously been selected and measured the frequency of wind direction, speed and distance from the source of pollution at each site. Theoretical contour plots were constructed using the distance from the source of pollution at each site, with and without incorporating wind frequency as a function of direction. Results: Each method identified different populations at risk from airborne pollution. The use of circles was a very imprecise way of identifying exposed populations. Mathematical modelling that incorporated wind direction was better. Soil sampling at many sites was accurate, as the method is direct; but it is very costly and the close proximity of high and low concentrations hindered interpretation. The smoothed contour plots derived from the soil sampling sites identified an exposed population that was similar to that derived from the spot sampling. Conclusions: Using circles as the only means of identifying the exposed population leads to dilution of the potential health effect. The best approach is to use local knowledge about wind direction and speed to estimate the population likely to be at risk; to back up this estimate by judicious use of soil sampling; to use contour mapping to guide the final selection of exposed and non-exposed populations; and finally, to interpret the populations identified as being at risk by incorporating information about other potential sources of pollution (past and present) in the area. PMID:11836461

Williams, F; Ogston, S

2002-01-01

211

Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitat types in addition to estuaries, and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional or national environmental quality assessments.

Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

2003-01-01

212

Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat (Rattner et al. 2001a) were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa, or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the nonmigratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species as excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle, which is highly vulnerable to all five of the contaminant groups examined. This index could be further enhanced by generation of additional comparative toxicity data to facilitate interspecific extrapolations. The Utility and Vulnerability Indices have application to many types of habitats in addition to estuaries and are of value to natural resource and risk managers that routinely conduct local, regional, or national environmental quality assessments. PMID:12442504

Golden, Nancy H; Rattner, Barnett A

2003-01-01

213

Environmental Contamination as a Risk Factor for Intra-Household Staphylococcus aureus Transmission  

PubMed Central

Background The household is a recognized community reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus. This study investigated potential risk factors for intra-household S. aureus transmission, including the contribution of environmental contamination. Methods We investigated intra-household S. aureus transmission using a sample of multiple member households from a community-based case-control study examining risk factors for CA-MRSA infection conducted in Northern Manhattan. During a home visit, index subjects completed a questionnaire. All consenting household members were swabbed, as were standardized environmental household items. Swabs were cultured for S. aureus. Positive isolates underwent further molecular characterization. Intra-household transmission was defined as having identical strains among two or more household members. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for transmission. Results We enrolled 291 households: 146 index cases, 145 index controls and 687 of their household contacts. The majority of indexes were Hispanic (85%), low income (74%), and female (67%), with a mean age of 31 (range 1–79). The average size of case and control households was 4 people. S. aureus colonized individuals in 62% of households and contaminated the environment in 54% of households. USA300 was the predominant clinical infection, colonizing and environmental strain. Eighty-one households had evidence of intra-household transmission: 55 (38%) case and 26 (18%) control households (P<.01). Environmental contamination with a colonizing or clinical infection strain (aOR: 5.4 [2.9–10.3] P<.01) and the presence of a child under 5 (aOR: 2.3 [1.2–4.5] P?=?.02) were independently associated with transmission. In separate multivariable models, environmental contamination was associated with transmission among case (aOR 3.3, p<.01) and control households (aOR 27.2, p<.01). Conclusions Environmental contamination with a colonizing or clinical infection strain was significantly and independently associated with transmission in a large community-based sample. Environmental contamination should be considered when treating S. aureus infections, particularly among households with multiple infected members. PMID:23152934

Knox, Justin; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Miller, Maureen; Hafer, Cory; Vasquez, Glenny; Vavagiakis, Peter; Shi, Qiuhu; Lowy, Franklin D.

2012-01-01

214

Environmental Contamination due to Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii surrounding Colonized or Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients colonized or infected with MDR-AB at a tertiary-care hospital from October 2008 to January 2009. For each patient, 10 surfaces in the patient room were sampled and evaluated for the presence of A. baumannii. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on all environmental isolates and a clinical isolate if available. RESULTS 50 rooms were sampled; 48% (24/50) were positive at one or more environmental sites. Supply carts (10/50, 20%); floors (8/50, 16%); infusion pumps (7/50, 14%); and ventilator touch pads (5/44, 11.4%) were most commonly contaminated. Patients with a recent history of MDR-AB were no more likely to contaminate their environment than patients with a remote history (51% vs. 36%, p-value = 0.50). In 85% (17/20) of cases the environmental isolate was classified as genetically similar to the patient isolate. CONCLUSIONS For patients with MDR-AB, the surrounding environment is frequently contaminated, even among patients with a remote history of MDR-AB. Surfaces often touched by healthcare workers during routine patient care are commonly contaminated and may be a source of nosocomial spread. PMID:22041290

Thom, Kerri A.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Lee, Mary S.; Harris, Anthony D.

2011-01-01

215

Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

2012-01-01

216

Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  

PubMed

Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

2014-07-01

217

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01

218

Physics in medicine and biology encyclopedia 2-volume set  

SciTech Connect

The Physics in Medicine and Biology Encyclopedia provides in two volumes a review of a wide range of topics of current interest in medical physics, bioengineering and biophysics. The Encyclopedia is extensively cross-referenced, indexed and illustrated, and all articles are complete with fully verified bibliographies. A glossary gives full details of specialized terms appearing in the Encyclopedia.

McAinsh, T.F.

1986-01-01

219

The Treatment of the Occult in General Encyclopedias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a content analysis of three general encyclopedias, "Encyclopedia Americana" (EA), "Encyclopaedia Brittanica" (EB), and "World Book Encyclopedia" (WBC), which quantifies the treatment of the occult. Entries are selected from each by starting with the article "Occultism" and tracing all cross-references. Cross-references are likewise…

Sonnenfeld, Gary F.

220

Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

2007-01-01

221

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg\\/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05–9.2 mg\\/kg) was recorded in urban

H. Taylor; J. d. Appletonsupasu; R. Lister; B. Smith; D. Chitamweba; O. Mkumbo; J. F. Machiwa; A. L. Tesha; C. Beinhoff

2005-01-01

222

Environmental metabolomics: new insights into earthworm ecotoxicity and contaminant bioavailability in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental metabolomics is a growing and emerging sub-discipline of metabolomics. Studies with earthworms have progressed\\u000a from the initial stages of simple contact exposure tests to detailed studies of earthworm responses in soil. Over the past\\u000a decade, a variety of endogenous metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of contaminant exposure. Furthermore,\\u000a metabolomic methods have delineated responses from sub-lethal exposure of

Myrna J. Simpson; Jennifer R. McKelvie

2009-01-01

223

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Logical Paradoxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those who believe the Web fosters only barely mindful surfing, we offer the following site as counterargument. Not to be confused with fallacies are paradoxes: "a puzzling conclusion we seem to be driven towards by our reasoning, but which is highly counterintuitive, nevertheless" -- also known as brainteasers for logicians. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (see the August 14, 1998 Scout Report) presents a thorough discussion of paradoxes in the context of the history of philosophy, covering paradoxes of both classical and modern origins in addition to those of self-reference and a few others. A bibliography is also available as well as links to further discussions of paradoxes within the Encyclopedia.

Slater, Barry H.

224

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Not Available

1991-10-01

225

Biomarker-based biomonitoring for evaluating health and ecological effects on environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a research approach for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment. The approach uses wild animals and introduced caged animals near hazardous waste sites as (1) sentinels of bioavailable contaminants, (2) predictors of adverse ecological effects, and (3) surrogates to estimate the potential exposure and risks to humans living near these sites. Evidence of exposure in animals on the site provides a temporally-integrated measure of bioavailable contaminant levels and is therefore much more relevant to the potential risk to humans than is the analytically measurable concentration of contaminants in the soil, water, or air. The research approach utilizes biomarkers (biochemical, molecular and cellular indicators of exposure) and measures of body burden of persistent compounds (such as polychlorinated biphenyls; PCBs) in wild animals captured on a hazardous waste disposal site and in adjacent uncontaminated reference areas to identify and quantify the potential for exposure to bioavailable contaminants. Unexposed animals confined at sites confirm the potential for environmental exposure. Relationships between biomarker response and adverse ecological effects are determined from measures of animal health and population structure. The potential risk to humans is extrapolated from the animal exposure data using pharmacodynamic models. 76 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

McCarthy, J.F.; Shugart, L.R.; Jimenez, B.D.

1991-01-01

226

Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

Boyce, J. I.

2009-05-01

227

Three-dimensional data interpolation for environmental purpose: lead in contaminated soils in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Monitoring of heavy metal contamination plume in soils can be helpful in establishing strategies to minimize its hazardous impacts to the environment. The objective of this study was to apply a new approach of visualization, based on tridimensional (3D) images, of pseudo-total (extracted with concentrated acids) and exchangeable (extracted with 0.5 mol L(-1) Ca(NO3)2) lead (Pb) concentrations in soils of a mining and metallurgy area to determine the spatial distribution of this pollutant and to estimate the most contaminated soil volumes. Tridimensional images were obtained after interpolation of Pb concentrations of 171 soil samples (57 points × 3 depths) with regularized spline with tension in a 3D function version. The tridimensional visualization showed great potential of use in environmental studies and allowed to determine the spatial 3D distribution of Pb contamination plume in the area and to establish relationships with soil characteristics, landscape, and pollution sources. The most contaminated soil volumes (10,001 to 52,000 mg Pb kg(-1)) occurred near the metallurgy factory. The main contamination sources were attributed to atmospheric emissions of particulate Pb through chimneys. The large soil volume estimated to be removed to industrial landfills or co-processing evidenced the difficulties related to this practice as a remediation strategy. PMID:24865382

Piedade, Tales Campos; Melo, Vander Freitas; Souza, Luiz Cláudio Paula; Dieckow, Jeferson

2014-09-01

228

Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants.

Albers, P.H.; Sileo, L.; Mulhern, B.M.

1986-01-01

229

Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

Patrick Matthews (N-I) and Robert Boehlecke (NSO)

2011-03-03

230

Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections  

PubMed Central

Background The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. Methods The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. Results The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. Conclusions This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible. PMID:25349693

Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Brenner, Nicole C.; Martin, Louise M.; Spencer, Emma; Delima, Jennifer; Singh, Gurmeet; McCann, Frances; Hudson, Carolyn; Johns, Tracy; Giffard, Philip M.

2014-01-01

231

Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Soled Phase Microextraction: Janusz Pawliszyn's Legacy in the Environmental Arena  

EPA Science Inventory

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has revolutionized the way samples are extracted, enabling rapid, automated, and solventless extraction of many different sample types, including air, water, soil, and biological samples. As such, SPME is widely used for environmental, food, fo...

232

New trends in the analytical determination of emerging contaminants and their transformation products in environmental waters.  

PubMed

Since the so-called emerging contaminants were established as a new group of pollutants of environmental concern, a great effort has been devoted to the knowledge of their distribution, fate and effects in the environment. After more than 20 years of work, a significant improvement in knowledge about these contaminants has been achieved, but there is still a large gap of information on the growing number of new potential contaminants that are appearing and especially of their unpredictable transformation products. Although the environmental problem arising from emerging contaminants must be addressed from an interdisciplinary point of view, it is obvious that analytical chemistry plays an important role as the first step of the study, as it allows establishing the presence of chemicals in the environment, estimate their concentration levels, identify sources and determine their degradation pathways. These tasks involve serious difficulties requiring different analytical solutions adjusted to purpose. Thus, the complexity of the matrices requires highly selective analytical methods; the large number and variety of compounds potentially present in the samples demands the application of wide scope methods; the low concentrations at which these contaminants are present in the samples require a high detection sensitivity, and high demands on the confirmation and high structural information are needed for the characterisation of unknowns. New developments on analytical instrumentation have been applied to solve these difficulties. Furthermore and not less important has been the development of new specific software packages intended for data acquisition and, in particular, for post-run analysis. Thus, the use of sophisticated software tools has allowed successful screening analysis, determining several hundreds of analytes, and assisted in the structural elucidation of unknown compounds in a timely manner. PMID:23456948

Agüera, Ana; Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2013-06-01

233

Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the United States: Importance of species traits and environmental factors  

EPA Science Inventory

We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg concentrations. Concentrations were generally lower than th...

234

REVIEW IV: SCIENCE LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURES WITH FERTILITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IMPACTS IN THE ADULT FEMALE  

EPA Science Inventory

Design: Reviewed articles indexed in PubMed from 1999-2007 addressing environment and puberty, menstrual and ovarian function, fertility, and menopause. Results: The strongest evidence of environmental contaminant exposures interfering with healthy reproductive function in adu...

235

Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

236

EFFECTS OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS ON MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY TROPHIC STRUCTURE IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Macrobenthic communities from estuaries throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico were studied to assess the influence of sediment contaminants and natural environmental factors on macrobenthic community trophic structure. Community trophic data were also used to evaluate whether re...

237

The Environmental Contaminant DDE Fails to Influence the Outcome of Sexual Differentiation in the Marine Turtle Chelonia mydas  

E-print Network

determines the sex of the offspring. The implication of steroid sex hormones as the proximate trigger for sex differentiated gonads. Kg, words: Chelonia, DDT, endocrine-disrupting contaminant, tempera- ture-dependent sexThe Environmental Contaminant DDE Fails to Influence the Outcome of Sexual Differentiation

Canberra, University of

238

Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

239

Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

Bengelsdorf, I.

1988-01-01

240

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The encyclopedia is designed as a reference work on the history, structure, and use of English. The first section outlines five phases in the development of the English language (origins, Old English, Middle English, Early Modern English, Modern English) and then proceeds to the varieties of world English and perceptions of English and its future.…

Crystal, David

241

The American Indian: A Multimedia Encyclopedia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "The American Indian: A Multimedia Encyclopedia," Version 1.0 (New York, Facts on File, Inc., 1993). This electronic product (compact disk) presents a great amount of material on American Indians from various formats, but its effectiveness is limited by the dated nature of some materials. Software design and searching features are…

Carter, Christina E.

1993-01-01

242

Idea Bank: The Encyclopedia of Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For reliable information on the environment, students and teachers can turn to the Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE). Based at Boston University (BU) and operated in partnership with the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE), the EoE is a free

Cynthia Barakatt

2010-02-01

243

Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia is designed to promote bilingualism in a comprehensive and comprehensive manner and to be academically sound while remaining accessible to as wide an audience as possible. Each topic is presented in a clear, understandable style. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Individual Bilingualism" (e.g., bilingualism and the…

Baker, Colin; Jones, Sylvia Prys

244

Encyclopedia of materials science and engineering  

SciTech Connect

A new eight-volume reference work provides coverage of the materials science and engineering field. The set contains over 1600 articles, averaging 3000 words in length with detailed bibliographies. The Encyclopedia is extensively cross-referenced, carefully indexed and illustrated, and in addition to its scientific and technological coverage contains many articles on the policy and social aspects of materials.

Beuer, M.B.

1984-01-01

245

Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, 2 Volume Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart materials--materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device--are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. Now, practictioners and researchers have an authoritative source to go to for answers about this emerging new area. Encyclopedia of

Mel Schwartz

2002-01-01

246

A chrestomathy Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia  

E-print Network

by Daniel Pauly Cambridge University Press: 2004. 366 pp. ÂŁ55, $80 John C. Avise Charles Darwin is renownedA chrestomathy on fishes Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia of Ichthyology, Ecology and Evolution be associated with some other taxonomic groups, notably Darwin's finches. During his career, Darwin wrote some 6

Avise, John

247

UNESCO EOLSS ENCYCLOPEDIA The Milky Way galaxy  

E-print Network

UNESCO EOLSS ENCYCLOPEDIA The Milky Way galaxy James Binney Physics Department Oxford University Key Words: Milky Way, galaxies Contents · Summary · Introduction · Recognition of the size density · The dark halo Summary Our Galaxy is typical of the galaxies that dominate star formation

248

Treatability studies for uranium and plutonium contaminated soils using physical separation methods. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Field Office of the Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has stated in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) Site Specific Plan for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that DOE/NV is committed to achieving compliance with all applicable environmental laws, regulations, guidelines, and agreements covering operations at the NTS. The primary DOE/NV objective identified by the Site-Specific Plan is to comply with all laws and regulations aimed at protecting human health and the environment. These include Nevada statutes and regulations which may be applicable, including federally delegated authorities. This environmental assessment discusses limited bench-scale soil treatability testing of physical processes for decontamination of plutonium- and uranium-contaminated soil. The proposed location of these studies would be the Treatability Testing Facility (TTF), Building 3124 at Test Cell ``All in Area 25 of the NTS.

none,

1992-07-01

249

Relationships of environmental contaminants to reproductive success in red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) from Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1977 and 1978, we studied red-breasted mergansers Mergus serrator nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan to determine whether environmental contaminants were having effects on reproduction. Seventeen contaminants were measured in randomly chosen eggs from 206 nests under study. Using a variety of statistical approaches, we looked for effects of individual contaminants and combinations of contaminants on reproductive measurements such as nest desertion, failure of eggs to hatch, death of newly hatched ducklings, percentage hatching success, number of ducklings leaving the nest and eggshell thickness. We also looked for relationships between the levels of some contaminants in blood samples of 39 incubating females and reproductive success. A small degree of eggshell thinning was attributed to DDE and a few other statistical tests were significant, but no contaminant or combination of contaminants we measured seemed to have a pronounced effect on the aspects of reproduction we followed.

Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Reichel, W.L.; Hensler, G.L.

1983-01-01

250

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. PMID:10870697

Petty, J D; Orazio, C E; Huckins, J N; Gale, R W; Lebo, J A; Meadows, J C; Echols, K R; Cranor, W L

2000-05-19

251

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Gale, R.W.; Lebo, J.A.; Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Cranor, W.L.

2000-01-01

252

Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

253

Environmental contaminant concentrations in Canada goose (Branta canadensis) muscle: probabilistic risk assessment for human consumers.  

PubMed

The issue of food insecurity affects millions of people in the United States every year. Often these people rely on soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters for proper meals, and these organizations often depend on donations to meet needs. One of the most limited food resources is meat. To help alleviate this problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services donates more than 60 tons of wild game (deer, moose, feral hogs, goats, geese, and ducks) to a variety of charitable organizations each year. Although commercially produced meat routinely undergoes screening for contaminants, potential exposure to environmental contaminants from eating wild game is not well characterized. In this study, the concentration of 17 contaminants of concern in the breast meat of wild geese was examined. These concentrations were then used in a probabilistic model to estimate potential risk associated with consumption of this meat. Based on model predictions, more than 99 % of all adults were below exposure limits for all of the compounds tested. For all consumer age classes modeled, consumption of wild goose meat may expose a small fraction of these populations to levels of lead higher than the recommended exposure limits. Similarly, mercury exposure was predicted to be higher than the recommended limits when the meat was served as steaks. This information about concentrations of contaminants of concern in goose meat and potential exposures associated with meat consumption based on probabilistic models will enable others to make informed decisions about the risks associated with the consumption of wild meat. PMID:25198860

Horak, Katherine; Chipman, Richard; Murphy, Lisa; Johnston, John

2014-09-01

254

Environmental Contaminants and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Effects on Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The desire of resource managers, risk assessors, and the general public to better understand the consequences of environmental contamination has produced a strong and growing need for information on the effects of contaminants on populations and groups of species, and over moderate to large areas of land or water. However, the problems associated with research involving populations and groups of species or large and complex geographic areas, especially in terrestrial environments, are well known within the scientific community. With the previous thoughts in mind, an interactive symposium was held at the University of Maryland in October 1998. The purpose of the symposium was to review and critically evaluate our understanding of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at levels of organization above that of the individual. Invited background and technical presentations provided a common baseline of information for symposium participants. Discussion groups were then asked to critically evaluate the topics of two technical sessions. Several presentations of recent or ongoing research provided participants with examples of current approaches to assessments of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at the population or higher level of organization. The book consists of 10 chapters written by presenters at the symposium and three chapters conveying the reports of discussion group.

2000-01-01

255

Possible environmental contaminant effects in neotropical migrants nesting at a Superfund site  

SciTech Connect

Forest fragmentation, insularization, and tropical deforestation have been named as significant factors in the decline of many neotropical migrant bird species, however, contamination of breeding grounds also may be of concern. Additionally, neotropical migrants may serve as a route of transport of contaminants from breeding grounds in North America to wintering grounds in the tropics. Accumulation and effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and heavy metal concentrations in avian species were evaluated at a Superfund site (Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois) using the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) as a model. Starlings were monitored at 12 nest boxes constructed at each of 3 study and 2 reference sites. Behavior of adult starlings was observed in the field to assess possible contaminant effects on nest attentiveness and reproductive success was recorded as the number of chicks surviving to 15 days post-hatch. Effects included a significant reduction in nest attentiveness behavior and increased chick mortality between PCB and reference sites. There were no significant differences among study and reference sites in number of eggs laid and percent of eggs hatched. Because Crab Orchard NWR serves as breeding ground for approximately 80 neotropical migrant species, the results suggest that species with feeding habits similar to starlings also may have greater body burdens of metals and PCBs and may suffer similar reductions in nesting success. The potential exists for transport and incorporation of environmental contaminants into the food chain at sites along the migration route.

Arenal, C.; Halbrook, R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

1995-12-31

256

Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems  

SciTech Connect

Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

Forstner, U.

1989-01-01

257

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01

258

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PHOSPHATE-BASED REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGY IN METAL CONTAMINATED URBAN AND MINING AREAS IN A SELECTED MISSOURI SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project provided important data on fundamental processes responsible for health and environmental risk reductions and environmental safety of the phosphate-based treatments in metal, specifically Pb, contaminated soils. By an integrated approach of environmental risk asse...

259

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla).  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants. PMID:24213965

White, D H; Rice, C P; Hoffman, D J; Gee, G F

1994-07-01

260

Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

1994-01-01

261

A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

2013-11-01

262

Prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver colony and the resulting environmental contamination.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver (Castor canadensis) colony in Colorado was determined by the collection and analysis of fecal samples over a period of 14 mo. Environmental contamination was monitored through the use and analysis of water filter samples. Beaver shed cysts of Giardia sp. in their feces throughout the year with temporal variations in the prevalence, and became infected as kits and remained infected as juveniles and adults. Beaver served as amplification hosts for Giardia sp. and contaminated surface waters downstream from their dams in late spring and early fall. In slow moving waters the cysts of Giardia sp. settled rapidly. Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were the only other species of wildlife shedding cysts of Giardia sp. on the study area. PMID:3682082

Monzingo, D L; Hibler, C P

1987-10-01

263

The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species  

SciTech Connect

Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3,000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 {mu}g/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 {mu}g/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption.

Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.; van Belle, G.; Mottet, N.K.; Polissar, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Bolgiano, D. (Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Coble, K. (Tacoma-Pierce County Health Dept., WA (USA))

1990-11-01

264

The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species.  

PubMed Central

Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 microgram/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 micrograms/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant (p less than 0.001) increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced in males (5-fold increase in median sum of species concentration over control group) than in females (2-fold increase in median sum of species concentration over control group) and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption. PMID:2088741

Kalman, D A; Hughes, J; van Belle, G; Burbacher, T; Bolgiano, D; Coble, K; Mottet, N K; Polissar, L

1990-01-01

265

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

Not Available

1991-10-01

266

Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

Siegel, S. M.

1973-01-01

267

Characterization of organic contaminants in environmental samples associated with mount St. Helens 1980 volcanic eruption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic ash, surface-water, and bottom-material samples obtained in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens after the May 18, 1980, eruption were analyzed for organic contaminants by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer techniques. Classes of compounds identified include n-alkanes, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, aromatic acids and aldehydes, phenols, resin acids, terpenes, and insect juvenile hormones. The most probable source of these compounds is from pyrolysis of plant and soil organic matter during and after the eruption. The toxicity of selected compounds and their environmental significance are discussed.

Pereira, W.E.

1982-01-01

268

PCBs as environmental estrogens: Turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, low-level environmental pollutants associated with adverse health effects such as immune suppression and teratogenicity. There is increasing evidence that some PCB compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans, particularly during development. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds act to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, whereby the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. Here we demonstrate the estrogenic effect of some PCBs by reversing gonadal sex in a reptile species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Bergeron, J.M.; Crews, D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); McLachlan, J.A. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1994-09-01

269

Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

1987-01-01

270

The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies  

SciTech Connect

Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site.

Wendling, M.A.

1993-05-01

271

Digital Encyclopedia: George Washington's Mount Vernon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was George Washington's life like at Mount Vernon? This frequent question is answered in fine form by this Digital Encyclopedia, compiled by a variety of scholars in collaboration with the Mount Vernon Estate. It is particularly appropriate that there is such a copious compendium of facts on the goings-on at Mt. Vernon, as Washington was enamored of encyclopedias during his life. Drawing on a range of primary sources, this project brings together hundreds of entries divided into over a dozen topics, including Military, Slavery, Food and Drink, and Animals. The Personal area is quite compelling, as it includes entries on Barbados, smallpox and, of course, the celebrated myths surrounding Washington's false teeth.

272

Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When thinking about the Volunteer State, many people's minds may immediately turn to the accomplishments of President Andrew Jackson or the far-reaching impact of the massive public works project that resulted in the formation of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Interested parties can learn about these aspects of the state's history and culture, along with many other facets of the state, at this fine site which is the digital version of The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Originally released in 1998 as a large print volume, the Encyclopedia was placed online in a searchable format in 2002. Here visitors can browse through more than 1500 entries, along with 500 additional images and some audio and video files as well. For those interested in looking at the material by themes, they will be pleased to learn that the materials are also divided into categories, such as medicine, sports, county history, and industry.

273

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Claude Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth, this online encyclopedia is an excellent resource for information about many aspects of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender culture. From the main page, users can search the encyclopedia by keyword, or move through one of the thematic sections offered here, such as literature or the arts. Each of these sections contains an alphabetical subject guide and a popular topics section. Also featured is a Spotlight section that, in March 2003, features an extended essay on lesbian photography before Stonewall. The site also has a lively, monitored discussion area, featuring commentaries on literature, a suggestion area, and feedback on technical issues related to the site. Finally, the site has a list of all contributors to the project, with links to each of their entries.

274

Better Homes and Gardens Home Improvement Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the commercial intentions of the site, this free online guide to home repair is superior to many similar offerings on the Web. Organized in five principle sections (Plumbing, Wiring, Carpentry, Decks, and Masonry & Concrete), the Encyclopedia covers a good variety of subtopics, from selecting and buying lumber to replacing a faucet or water heater to pouring concrete. Generally aimed at users with some skills but not necessarily much experience in home repair, the projects are clearly explained, with generous illustrations and, in some cases, an "Animated How-To." Project information includes estimated time, required skills and tools, cautions, and links to related projects. Additional resources include a glossary, tool encyclopedia, and an internal search engine.

275

Encyclopedia of the NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Encyclopedia of the Sanctuaries offers photos, streaming video and important facts for more than 100 key animal and plant species from each of the national marine sanctuaries. It allows users to search for their favorite species or browse the wildlife of each sanctuary by category, ranging from spiny lobster to killer whales and from white-tipped reef sharks to sea anemones. The encyclopedia entry for each species includes a photo, quick facts, information about its diet, habitat, distribution and status, and links to outside resources. Many of the entries also offer engaging, high-quality video clips of species in their natural habitats, making this an entertaining and informative resource for educators, students of all ages, zoos and aquaria, science and technology centers, and natural history museums.

2005-10-10

276

Evaluating determinants of environmental risk perception for risk management in contaminated sites.  

PubMed

Understanding the differences in the risk judgments of residents of industrial communities potentially provides insights into how to develop appropriate risk communication strategies. This study aimed to explore citizens' fundamental understanding of risk-related judgments and to identify the factors contributing to perceived risks. An exploratory model was created to investigate the public's risk judgments. In this model, the relationship between laypeople's perceived risks and the factors related to the physical nature of risks (such as perceived probability of environmental contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences) were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological factors, such as the ability to control the risks, concerns, experiences, and perceived benefits of industrial development were also included in the analysis. The Maptaphut industrial area in Rayong Province, Thailand was selected as a case study. A survey of 181 residents of communities experiencing different levels of hazardous gas contamination revealed rational risk judgments by inhabitants of high-risk and moderate-risk communities, based on their perceived probability of contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and perceived catastrophic consequences. However, risks assessed by people in low-risk communities could not be rationally explained and were influenced by their collective experiences. PMID:24937530

Janmaimool, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

2014-06-01

277

Environmental monitoring of organo-halogenated contaminants (OHCs) in surface soils from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Extensive monitoring of organo-halogenated contaminants (OHCs) from surface soils of different land-use types from Pakistan was carried out during 2010. The concentrations (ng g(-1); dry weight) and profiles clearly indicated the dominance of ?DDT contaminants followed by the ?HCHs, ?30PCBs, chlordanes, and ?10PBDEs in descending order. Concerning the spatial patterns of occurrence, industrial soils exhibited relatively higher concentration of DDTs, heavy PCBs, and PBDEs (noticeably BDE-47 and -99 congeners), while the urban soils were characterized by high total PCBs (with relatively higher levels of light PCBs), following the agricultural soils. Compared to available criterion guidelines, the current results suggested that 10% of soil samples from industrial sites exhibited slightly higher levels (>50 ng g(-1)) of DDTs. The ?TEQ levels for mono-ortho DL-PCBs ranged from 0.7 to 5.65 (1.9) pgTEQg(-1) dw in all the studied samples and PCB-118 contributed significantly towards the total calculated TEQs. The results of this study will contribute to the environmental management of OHCs contaminated areas of Pakistan. PMID:25460969

Zehra, Ainy; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Schuster, Jasmin K; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

2015-02-15

278

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I, Task 5, Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) has been prepared as part of the Environmental Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Project being conducted by Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). The primary objective of this FFS was to select a cost-effective method of preventing migration of contaminated ground water across the southwestern boundary of Area C of the Base. The FFS presented in this document is a portion of a much larger effort being conducted at WPAFB. The detailed analysis of alternatives for the extraction, treatment, and discharge of contaminated ground water migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C at WPAFB led to the selection of a preferred removal action alternative. Specifically, this alternative is that ground water be extracted utilizing a three well array pumping at a total of 400 to 800 gpm, removed water be treated via air stripping to achieve appropriate effluent concentrations, and treated water be discharged to the Mad River in accordance with a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and other relevant permits.

Not Available

1992-03-01

279

Evaluating Determinants of Environmental Risk Perception for Risk Management in Contaminated Sites  

PubMed Central

Understanding the differences in the risk judgments of residents of industrial communities potentially provides insights into how to develop appropriate risk communication strategies. This study aimed to explore citizens’ fundamental understanding of risk-related judgments and to identify the factors contributing to perceived risks. An exploratory model was created to investigate the public’s risk judgments. In this model, the relationship between laypeople’s perceived risks and the factors related to the physical nature of risks (such as perceived probability of environmental contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences) were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological factors, such as the ability to control the risks, concerns, experiences, and perceived benefits of industrial development were also included in the analysis. The Maptaphut industrial area in Rayong Province, Thailand was selected as a case study. A survey of 181 residents of communities experiencing different levels of hazardous gas contamination revealed rational risk judgments by inhabitants of high-risk and moderate-risk communities, based on their perceived probability of contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and perceived catastrophic consequences. However, risks assessed by people in low-risk communities could not be rationally explained and were influenced by their collective experiences. PMID:24937530

Janmaimool, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

2014-01-01

280

P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.  

PubMed

Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

2014-04-01

281

Widespread environmental contamination with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) detected in a prolonged hotel outbreak of gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

A protracted outbreak of Norwalk-like virus (NLV)-associated gastroenteritis occurred in a large hotel in North-West England between January and May 1996. We investigated the pattern of environmental contamination with NLV in the hotel during and after the outbreak. In the ninth week, 144 environmental swabs taken from around the hotel were tested for NLV by nested RT-PCR. The sites were categorized according to the likelihood of direct contamination with vomit/faeces. The highest proportion of positive samples were detected in directly contaminated carpets, but amplicons were detected in sites above 1.5 m which are unlikely to have been contaminated directly. The trend in positivity of different sites paralleled the diminishing likelihood of direct contamination. A second environmental investigation of the same sites 5 months after the outbreak had finished were all negative by RT-PCR. This study demonstrates for the first time the extent of environmental contamination that may occur during a large NLV outbreak. PMID:11057964

Cheesbrough, J S; Green, J; Gallimore, C I; Wright, P A; Brown, D W

2000-08-01

282

Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.  

PubMed Central

Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Changes in immune function were monitored over a 2 1/2-year period. The seals that were fed contaminated Baltic herring developed significantly higher body burdens of potentially immunotoxic organochlorines and displayed impaired immune responses as demonstrated by suppression of natural killer cell activity and specific T-cell responses. During a 2-week fasting experiment performed at the end of the feeding study, mobilization of organochlorines from the blubber did not lead to a strong increase of contaminant levels in the blood, and no enhancement of the existing immunosuppression was observed. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain affects immune function in harbour seals, whereas short-term fasting periods, which are normal for seals, do not seem to pose an additional risk. The seals of this study were not exposed perinatally to high levels of environmental chemicals, and body burdens of organochlorines measured near the end of the study were lower than those generally observed in free-ranging seals inhabiting many contaminated regions. Therefore, it may be expected that environmental contaminants adversely affect immune function of free-ranging seals inhabiting contaminated regions at least as seriously as observed in these studies. PMID:8880005

de Swart, R L; Ross, P S; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D

1996-01-01

283

Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed

It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to be heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon polychlorinated (PCB) mixture. The microarray was able to distinguish dolphins by sex, geographic location, and corroborate previously published health irregularities for the Georgia dolphins. Genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, development/differentiation and oncogenic pathways were found to be differentially expressed in GA dolphins. The report bridges the advancements in dolphin genome sequencing to the first step towards providing a cost-effective means to screen for indicators of chemical toxin exposure as well as disease status in top level predators. PMID:25479946

Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

2015-02-01

284

Encyclopedia of artificial intelligence: 2 Vol. set  

SciTech Connect

Drawing on the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, linguistics, mathematics, philosophy, psychology, and physiology, this one-volume encyclopedia brings together the core of knowledge on artificial intelligence. It provides an overview of how to program computers to emulate human behavior, offering a wide range of techniques for speech and visual generation, problem-solving and more. Over 250 entries are organized alphabetically, cross-referenced and indexed.

Shapiro, S.C.

1987-01-01

285

Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, 2 Volume Set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart materials--materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device--are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. Now, practictioners and researchers have an authoritative source to go to for answers about this emerging new area. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials provides A-to-Z coverage of the entire field of intelligent materials. Discussions of theory, fabrication, processing, applications, and uses of these unique materials are presented here in a collection of concise entries from the world's foremost experts in the field--including scientists, educators and engineers. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions. Illustrated with photographs, tables, line drawings, and equations, Encyclopedia of Smart Materials is the premier reference for material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, consultants, patent attorneys and students in these areas. An essential resource on the shelves of laboratories, government facilities, and academic libraries. Editor-in-Chief, Mel Schwartz has over forty years of experience with metals, ceramics, and composites, with special expertise in brazing. The holder of five patents, he has authored thirteen books and more than one hundred technical papers and articles. Reach the information you need rapidly and easily with the ONLINE edition of the Encyclopedia of Smart Materials. The online edition delivers all the rich content of the print edition with the added benefits of an advanced search engine and the desktop convenience of web access. For more information or to license the online edition (beginning July 2002) please visit: www.interscience.wiley.com/reference/esm

Schwartz, Mel

2002-03-01

286

The rodent research animal holding facility as a barrier to environmental contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

1989-01-01

287

The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility as a barrier to environmental contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

1989-01-01

288

Corynebacterium bovis: Epizootiologic Features and Environmental Contamination in an Enzootically Infected Rodent Room  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium bovis is a common pathogen in athymic nude mouse colonies. Control and eradication of the organism are challenging because depopulation and restricted colony access are often not options within vivaria. We evaluated potential sources and dissemination routes of C. bovis in an enzootically infected colony. Immunocompetent mice and personnel were evaluated for their potential to carry C. bovis, and husbandry and sanitation methods were evaluated for their efficacy in preventing cross-contamination. C. bovis was detected in furred immunocompetent mice previously exposed to infected athymic nude mice and in the nasopharynx of humans. Microisolation cages were not effective in maintaining athymic nude mice C. bovis-free when they were housed in a room known to contain immunodeficient mice with C. bovis infections. A tunnel washer that provided a ?180 °F final rinse provided effective elimination of C. bovis from cage components. Passive and active air sampling techniques showed airborne dispersal of C. bovis despite the use of individually ventilated caging systems and stringent operational standards. Bacterial growth was not observed in settle plates placed inside autoclaved individually ventilated microisolation cages on various ventilated racks for 24-h periods. C. bovis aerosolization was shown to be a means of spread of the bacterium during cage-change procedures inside a class II type A2 biosafety cabinet. Our findings indicate that C. bovis can be a pervasive environmental contaminant in infected rodent holding rooms and successful eradication strategies must include environmental decontamination and attention to air quality. PMID:22776119

Burr, Holly N; Wolf, Felix R; Lipman, Neil S

2012-01-01

289

Microbially driven fenton reaction for degradation of the widespread environmental contaminant 1,4-dioxane.  

PubMed

The carcinogenic cyclic ether compound 1,4-dioxane is employed as a stabilizer of chlorinated industrial solvents and is a widespread environmental contaminant in surface water and groundwater. In the present study, a microbially driven Fenton reaction was designed to autocatalytically generate hydroxyl (HO•) radicals that degrade 1,4-dioxane. In comparison to conventional (purely abiotic) Fenton reactions, the microbially driven Fenton reaction operated at circumneutral pH and did not the require addition of exogenous H2O2 or UV irradiation to regenerate Fe(II) as Fenton reagents. The 1,4-dioxane degradation process was driven by pure cultures of the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis manipulated under controlled laboratory conditions. S. oneidensis batch cultures were provided with lactate, Fe(III), and 1,4-dioxane and were exposed to alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The microbially driven Fenton reaction completely degraded 1,4-dioxane (10 mM initial concentration) in 53 h with an optimal aerobic-anaerobic cycling period of 3 h. Acetate and oxalate were detected as transient intermediates during the microbially driven Fenton degradation of 1,4-dioxane, an indication that conventional and microbially driven Fenton degradation processes follow similar reaction pathways. The microbially driven Fenton reaction provides the foundation for development of alternative in situ remediation technologies to degrade environmental contaminants susceptible to attack by HO• radicals generated by the Fenton reaction. PMID:25313646

Sekar, Ramanan; DiChristina, Thomas J

2014-11-01

290

POPTOX: Population-level responses of an amphipod to contaminated marine sediments and other environmental stresses  

SciTech Connect

Experimental measurements of population-level responses are useful to environmental management in two ways: (1) to estimate the fitness of populations in an ecological-risk study, and (2) to evaluate the ecological relevance of shorter-term acute and chronic toxicity tests that use the same test species. An experimental system was developed for modeling the population-level responses of the burrowing, estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, to environmental stresses, including chemical contamination. Replicate cohorts of newborn amphipods were exposed to natural and anthropogenic (PAH-contaminated sediment) stresses under static-renewal conditions over periods varying up to their full life-span. The amphipods were periodically removed from the sediment, censused, measured, and returned alive to the exposure chamber; the resulting life-history data were used to develop age-based, matrix-algebraic, population-projection models. Preliminary experiments revealed that an exposure period of 12 weeks with a sampling frequency of 2 weeks was sufficient to model the population dynamics of this amphipod. This experimental system may also be,used to study the interaction between anthropogenic stresses and ecological stresses under controlled and long-term exposures.

DeWitt, T.H. [Oregon State Univ., Newport, OR (United States); [Battelle PNL Marine Science Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1994-12-31

291

Contaminant exposures in various environmental media: How can toxicity comparisons be made?  

SciTech Connect

Environmental protection is usually based upon guidelines or standards expressed as chemical values in environmental media such as air, sediment, soil, and water. The basis for such guidelines is laboratory toxicity test data, often time-dependent LC50 values (e.g., 96-h LC50s), where toxicity is expressed in terms of the concentration of chemical contaminant in the exposure medium. This preoccupation with exposure-based estimates of toxic dose has led to many difficulties when attempting to compare the relative toxicity of compounds between species and under various modifying conditions in the same medium. Furthermore, viable comparisons of toxic potencies between organisms inhabiting different environmental media has been all but impossible. This paper exploits the relationship between body residues and adverse biological effects to compare the effects of certain modifying factors (e.g., temperature) on expressed toxicity and toxic potency both within and between different species in one medium. As well, this approach is used to make comparisons of toxic potency between different species in different environmental media. Such comparisons are made by standardizing toxic responses to time-independent toxicity thresholds and using the critical body residue at the chosen biological response endpoint as the dose surrogate rather than the concentration of chemical in the exposure medium. Comparisons of exposure-based and organism residue-based toxicity between fish, and invertebrates in soil (earthworms) and sediment (amphipods) are presented. Recommendations to facilitate such comparisons are reviewed.

Lanno, R.P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology; McCarty, L.S. [L.S. McCarty Scientific Research and Consulting, Oakville, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

292

MCNP{trademark} simulations for identifying environmental contaminants using prompt gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture reactions  

SciTech Connect

The primary purposes of the Multispectral Neutron Logging Project, (MSN Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy), were to assess the effectiveness of existing neutron- induced spectral gamma-ray logging techniques for identifying environmental contaminants along boreholes, to further improve the technology, and to transfer that technology to industry. Using a pulsed neutron source with a high-resolution gamma-ray detector, spectra from thermal neutron capture reactions may be used to identify contaminants in the borehole environment. Direct borehole measurements such as this complement physical sampling and are useful in environmental restoration projects where characterization of contaminated sites is required and long-term monitoring may be needed for many years following cleanup or stabilization. In the MSN Project, a prototype logging instrument was designed which incorporated a pulsed 14-MeV neutron source and HPGe detector. Experimental measurements to determine minimum detection thresholds with the prototype instrument were conducted in the variable-contaminant test model for Cl, Cd, Sm, Gd, and Hg. We benchmarked an enhanced version of the Monte Carlo N-Particle computer code MCNP{trademark} using experimental data for Cl provide by our collaborators and experimental data from the variable-contaminant test model. MCNP was then used to estimate detection thresholds for the other contaminants used in the variable-contaminant model with the goal of validating the use of MCNP to estimate detection thresholds for many other contaminants that were not measured.

Frankle, S.C.; Conaway, J.G.

1996-12-31

293

Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.  

PubMed

Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying their resources during incidents of lesser significance, for special projects, and for routine surveillance and monitoring as part of ongoing activities of the environmental laboratory community. PMID:24534702

Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

2014-11-01

294

Environmental contaminants perturb fragile protein assemblies and inhibit normal protein function  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms whereby small molecules that contaminate our environment cause physiological effects are largely unknown, in terms of both targets and mechanisms. The essential human enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (HsPBGS, a.k.a. 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase, ALAD) functions in heme biosynthesis. HsPBGS catalytic activity is regulated allosterically via an equilibrium of inactive hexamers and active octamers, and we have shown that certain drugs and drug-like small molecules can inhibit HsPBGS in vitro by stabilizing the hexamer. Here we address whether components of the National Toxicology Program library of environmental contaminants can stabilize the HsPBGS hexamer and inhibit activity in vitro. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to screen the library (1,408 compounds) for components that alter the oligomeric distribution of HsPBGS. Freshly purchased samples of 37 preliminary hits were used to confirm the electrophoretic results and to determine the dose-dependence of the perturbation of oligomeric distribution. Seventeen compounds were identified which alter the oligomeric distribution toward the hexamer and also inhibit HsPBGS catalytic activity, including the most potent HsPBGS inhibitor yet characterized (Mutagen X, IC50 = 1.4 ?M). PBGS dysfunction is associated with the inborn error of metabolism know as ALAD porphyria and with lead poisoning. The identified hexamer-stabilizing inhibitors could potentiate these diseases. Allosteric regulation of activity via an equilibrium of alternate oligomers has been proposed for many proteins. Based on the precedent set herein, perturbation of these oligomeric equilibria by small molecules (such as environmental contaminants) can be considered as a mechanism of toxicity. PMID:25045409

Lawrence, Sarah H.; Selwood, Trevor; Jaffe, Eileen K.

2013-01-01

295

Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as other peripheral areas that are recovering with pioneering vegetation on their own. This allows us to develop an adaptive management strategy in ecological restoration and inform decisions about managing the trajectory of succession. The Palmerton area could serve as an excellent example of how profoundly contaminated areas can be restored.

Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

2006-12-01

296

Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification To Access Microbial Populations in Contaminated Sediments  

PubMed Central

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2% genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small-subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9% of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and “clusters of orthologous groups” (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible. PMID:16672469

Abulencia, Carl B.; Wyborski, Denise L.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Podar, Mircea; Chen, Wenqiong; Chang, Sherman H.; Chang, Hwai W.; Watson, David; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Keller, Martin

2006-01-01

297

Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

2005-12-10

298

Differential exposure, duration, and sensitivity of unionoidean bivalve life stages to environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea) are in serious global decline and in urgent need of protection and conservation. The declines have been attributed to a wide array of human activities resulting in pollution and water-quality degradation, and habitat destruction and alteration. Linkages among poor water quality, pollutant sources, and mussel decline in rivers and streams have been associated with results of laboratory-based tests of specific pollutants. However, uncertainties remain about the relationship of laboratory data to actual contaminant exposure routes for various mussel species, life stages, and in the habitats occupied during these exposures. We evaluated the pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants for all 4 life stages (free glochidia, encysted glochidia, juveniles, adults) of unionoidean mussels and found that each life stage has both common and unique characteristics that contribute to observed differences in exposure and sensitivity. Free glochidia typically are exposed only briefly (e.g., seconds to days) through surface water, whereas adults sustain exposure over years to decades through surface water, pore water, sediment, and diet. Juveniles live largely burrowed in the sediment for the first 0 to 4 y of life. Thus, sediment, pore water, and diet are the predominant exposure routes for this life stage, but surface water also might contribute to exposure during certain periods and environmental conditions. The obligate parasitic stage (encysted glochidia stage) on a host fish might be exposed from surface water while partially encysted or from toxicants in host-fish tissue while fully encysted. Laboratory methods for testing for acute and chronic exposures in water have advanced, and toxicant-specific information has increased in recent years. However, additional research is needed to understand interactions of life history, habitat, and long-term exposure to contaminants through water, pore water, sediment, and diet so that the risks of environmental exposures can be properly assessed and managed. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

Cope, W.G.; Bringolf, R.B.; Buchwalter, D.B.; Newton, T.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Dwyer, F.J.; Barnhart, M.C.; Neves, R.J.; Hammer, E.

2008-01-01

299

Partitioning of trace elements in contaminated estuarine sediments: the role of environmental settings.  

PubMed

Estuarine sedimentary environments safeguard aquatic ecosystem health by attenuating and transforming catchment-derived contaminants. Currently these environments are under severe stress from trace element contamination due to urbanization. Sediments of Sydney estuary (Australia) are highly elevated in a range of metals due to a long period of intense urbanization and industrialization, which has had a considerable influence on coastal ecosystem health and functioning. A three-stage sequential procedure following Bureau Communautaire de Référence (Community Bureau of Reference-BCR) technique was applied to sediments collected from Sydney estuary to determine their quality, elemental partitioning and ecosystem risk in three human-impacted environmental settings (i.e., mangrove-dominated, stormwater-dominated and industrial-dominated sites) and a control site in this coastal ecosystem. In all three environmental settings, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines-High (ISQG-High) values and were mostly associated with the reducible and acid soluble fractions, respectively. Copper and Cr also exceeded ISQG-High values (especially in the industrial-dominated site), however the majority of these metals were associated with the oxidizable fraction. Arsenic and Ni concentrations were mostly below ISQG-High values (except one of the stormwater-dominated sites) and were associated with the residual fraction. These results suggest that the most easily mobilized metal was Zn followed by Pb and these metals together presented a risk to estuarine ecosystems in the three selected environmental settings. However, these metals are not always the most abundant in tissue of mangroves, oysters or prawns suggesting other mechanisms are important in a complex uptake process. PMID:25265026

Shaike, Mohmmad M; Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin F

2014-12-01

300

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

301

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

1992-09-01

302

The toxicology of climate change: environmental contaminants in a warming world.  

PubMed

Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. This review examines one of the consequences of climate change that has only recently attracted attention: namely, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemical pollutants. A review was undertaken of the scientific literature (original research articles, reviews, government and intergovernmental reports) focusing on the interactions of toxicants with the environmental parameters, temperature, precipitation, and salinity, as altered by climate change. Three broad classes of chemical toxicants of global significance were the focus: air pollutants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including some organochlorine pesticides, and other classes of pesticides. Generally, increases in temperature will enhance the toxicity of contaminants and increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone regionally, but will also likely increase rates of chemical degradation. While further research is needed, climate change coupled with air pollutant exposures may have potentially serious adverse consequences for human health in urban and polluted regions. Climate change producing alterations in: food webs, lipid dynamics, ice and snow melt, and organic carbon cycling could result in increased POP levels in water, soil, and biota. There is also compelling evidence that increasing temperatures could be deleterious to pollutant-exposed wildlife. For example, elevated water temperatures may alter the biotransformation of contaminants to more bioactive metabolites and impair homeostasis. The complex interactions between climate change and pollutants may be particularly problematic for species living at the edge of their physiological tolerance range where acclimation capacity may be limited. In addition to temperature increases, regional precipitation patterns are projected to be altered with climate change. Regions subject to decreases in precipitation may experience enhanced volatilization of POPs and pesticides to the atmosphere. Reduced precipitation will also increase air pollution in urbanized regions resulting in negative health effects, which may be exacerbated by temperature increases. Regions subject to increased precipitation will have lower levels of air pollution, but will likely experience enhanced surface deposition of airborne POPs and increased run-off of pesticides. Moreover, increases in the intensity and frequency of storm events linked to climate change could lead to more severe episodes of chemical contamination of water bodies and surrounding watersheds. Changes in salinity may affect aquatic organisms as an independent stressor as well as by altering the bioavailability and in some instances increasing the toxicity of chemicals. A paramount issue will be to identify species and populations especially vulnerable to climate-pollutant interactions, in the context of the many other physical, chemical, and biological stressors that will be altered with climate change. Moreover, it will be important to predict tipping points that might trigger or accelerate synergistic interactions between climate change and contaminant exposures. PMID:19375165

Noyes, Pamela D; McElwee, Matthew K; Miller, Hilary D; Clark, Bryan W; Van Tiem, Lindsey A; Walcott, Kia C; Erwin, Kyle N; Levin, Edward D

2009-08-01

303

Environmental assessment on electrokinetic remediation of multimetal-contaminated site: a case study.  

PubMed

In this study, an environmental assessment on an electrokinetic (EK) system for the remediation of a multimetal-contaminated real site was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool. The entire EK process was classified into major four phases consisting of remedial investigations (RIs), remedial action construction (RAC), remedial action operation (RAO), and long-term monitoring (LTM) for environmental assessment. The environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, total energy used, air emissions of criteria pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, and PM10, and water consumption, were calculated, and the relative contribution in each phase was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In the RAC phase, the relative contribution of the GHG emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases because the material consumption and equipment used for system construction were high. In the RAO phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases, because the water and electricity consumption required for system operation was high. In the RIs and LTM phases, the environmental footprints were negligible because the material and energy consumption was less. In conclusion, the consumable materials and electrical energy consumption might be very important for GSR in the EK remediation process, because the production of consumable materials and electrical energy consumption highly affects the GHG emissions, total energy used, and air emissions such as NOx and SOx. PMID:24515871

Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

2014-05-01

304

Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

2014-11-01

305

Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants. This research will form the foundation for future experiments into the genetic manipulation of plants to potentially promote greater or more specific symbiotic relationships between plant and Rhizobium allowing this biological phenomenon to be used in a greater number of crop types. Future technology developments could include the genetic engineering of crops suitable for in situ vadose zone 2 bioremediation (via microbes) and phytoremediation (through the crop, itself) in contaminated DOE sites.

McLachlan, John A.

2000-06-01

306

Relationship of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination among environmental solid media.  

PubMed

This study compared the contamination levels and compositional characteristics of PAHs in soil, SS and sediment to understand the cross media characteristics among the three solid media and ecological risk implications for the purpose to help manage in a more integrated manner the environmental quality objectives or the ecological risk in the media. The study area included urban (metropolis and industrial zone), suburban and rural sites. Seasonal samples were concurrently collected in surface soils, surface waters (dissolved and suspended solid (SS) phases separately) and sediments. The emission estimate and source characterizing PAH indices consistently indicated that PAHs were from pyrogenic sources. The level of total PAHs in soil declined along the wind direction from the urban areas to the rural areas. The sorption power of soil appeared distinctly different between the urban and rural areas. The contamination levels and PAH profiles in soil and sediment were closely related to each other while no such correlation was observed between SS and sediment or SS and soil. Comparisons of the observed partitioning coefficients with three different partitioning equilibrium models strongly suggested that PAHs in water appeared to undergo partitioning among the dissolved phase in water, dissolved organic matter, and organic and soot carbons in SS, which might account for the level and profile of PAHs in SS that were not correlated with those in soil or sediment. The observed results suggested that PAHs of pyrogenic origins entered into soil, sediment, and water by the atmospheric deposition and subsequent other cross-media transfers of PAHs. The results also evidenced that sediments were principally contaminated with PAHs delivered via surface run-off from soil although in the urban areas the run-off influence appeared less immediate than in the rural areas. Environmental quality objectives for PAHs in soil and sediment should be set in a coherent manner and the protection efforts for the sediment quality should be made with the consideration of the soil quality particularly where the river bottom sediment is renewed periodically with eroded soil due to heavy rain and/or large river regime coefficient. In spite of the difference in PAH profiles among the three solid media, BaP commonly appeared to present the greatest TEQ, suggesting that strict regulation of BaP is necessary to efficiently and substantially minimize the total risk of the environmental PAHs. PMID:19513456

Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Seung Kyu; Lee, Dong Soo

2009-06-01

307

Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental  

E-print Network

Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations., Abbott, M.M., 2007, Geochemical data from produced water contamination investigations: Osage

308

Encyclopedia of computational neuroscience: The end of the second millennium  

E-print Network

1 Encyclopedia of computational neuroscience: The end of the second millennium ROMAN BORISYUK under the same cover a brilliant and nicely illustrated introduction into neuroanatomy/neurophysiology and an encyclopedia of mathematical/computational models in neuroscience. The book contains two chapters: I) Three

Borisyuk, Roman

309

CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS FOR ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INLAND WATERS PROOFREADING  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTORS' INSTRUCTIONS FOR ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INLAND WATERS PROOFREADING Your proofs have been for illustrations and tables. Ensure that any material requiring permissions has the required credit line. Note of the encyclopedia, and are for content checking only. Artwork will have been redrawn/relabelled as necessary

Canberra, University of

310

Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter.  

PubMed Central

Occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. Thirty of 37 employees (81 per cent) has blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 mug/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels greater than 60mug/100ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells; eight current and previous employees had been hospitalized with lead colic, and another with encephalopathy. Levels of lead in surface soil (1,800 ppm) and vegetation (20,000 ppm) at the smelter were high and decreased with distance. Animals on nearby pasture had died, and lead levels in the blood, milk, and hair of large and small animals were elevated. Adults living within 100 meters of the smelter had higher blood and hair lead levels than controls, who lived at greater distances, but there was no evidence in them of lead toxicity. PMID:937600

Levine, R J; Moore, R M; McLaren, G D; Barthel, W F; Landrigan, P J

1976-01-01

311

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

2007-12-14

312

Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

1972-01-01

313

Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter.  

PubMed

Occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. Thirty of 37 employees (81 per cent) has blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 mug/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels greater than 60mug/100ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells; eight current and previous employees had been hospitalized with lead colic, and another with encephalopathy. Levels of lead in surface soil (1,800 ppm) and vegetation (20,000 ppm) at the smelter were high and decreased with distance. Animals on nearby pasture had died, and lead levels in the blood, milk, and hair of large and small animals were elevated. Adults living within 100 meters of the smelter had higher blood and hair lead levels than controls, who lived at greater distances, but there was no evidence in them of lead toxicity. PMID:937600

Levine, R J; Moore, R M; McLaren, G D; Barthel, W F; Landrigan, P J

1976-06-01

314

Assessment of the environmental contamination with long-lived radionuclides around an operating RBMK reactor station.  

PubMed

The presence of man-made gamma emitting radionuclides in the region within 32km radius of the Ignalina NPP/Lithuania has been investigated during the period 2001-2004, prior to the closure of the first of the two operating RBMK 1500-type reactors. Gamma spectrometric measurements of various terrestrial and aquatic plants as well as of soil samples showed moderate environmental contamination with the fission product (137)Cs and with the neutron activation products (60)Co and (54)Mn. Traces of the activation products (65)Zn and (110m)Ag were found in the nearest vicinity of the NPP. Activity concentrations were inhomogeneously distributed in the area of interest. Moss and algae samples showed the highest uptake of radionuclides. In addition to the gamma spectrometric measurements, the levels of (14)C were determined in the same bio-indicator samples using accelerator mass spectrometry. PMID:16860912

Adliene, Diana; Rääf, Christopher; Magnusson, Asa; Behring, Jon; Zakaria, Mohamad; Adlys, Gediminas; Skog, Göran; Stenström, Kristina; Mattsson, Sören

2006-01-01

315

The occurrence of organic contaminants in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Poland: an environmental quality assessment.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to provide information on the levels of pollutants in the tissues of eels caught in Polish waters. The contaminants included in the study are those which have not yet been widely studied in eel stocks, but which arouse concern in relation to the environment. An overview of the pollutant levels in eels caught in other European waters was also conducted. The results are evaluated in terms of environmental quality and consumer health. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs and ?HBCDs in muscles of eels sampled in Polish waters were between 1 and 2 ng g(-1) ww. The mean TBT concentrations were between 2 and 4 ng g(-1)ww with the exception of samples from the Szczecin Lagoon, in which the mean TBT concentration was about tenfold higher. PMID:25113214

Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Ruczynska, Wies?awa; Nermer, Tomasz; Usydus, Zygmunt; Robak, Stanis?aw

2014-11-01

316

Environmental contaminant exposure data and monitoring priorities for wild terrestrial vertebrates at national parks in coastal and estuarine habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on select species and habitats in the United States. One of the many BEST Project activities entails the development of decision-support tools to assist in the identification of chemical threats to species and lands under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior. Although there are many ecotoxicological monitoring programs that focus on aquatic species and habitats, there are currently no large-scale efforts that are focused on terrestrial vertebrates in the United States. Nonetheless, organochlorine contaminants, metals, and new pollutants continue to pose hazards to terrestrial vertebrates at many spatial scales (ranging from small hazardous-waste-site point sources to entire watersheds). To evaluate and prioritize pollutant hazards for terrestrial vertebrates, a ?Contaminant Exposure and EffectsTerrestrial Vertebrates? (CEE-TV) database (www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online) was developed. The CEE-TV database has been used to conduct simple searches for exposure and biological effects information for a given species or location, identification of temporal contaminant exposure trends, information gap analyses for national wildlife refuge and national park units, and ranking of terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological information needs based on data density and water quality problems. Despite widespread concerns about environmental contamination, during the past decade only about one-half of the coastal National Park units appear to have terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data. Based upon known environmental contaminant hazards, it is recommended that regionalized monitoring programs or efforts focused on lands managed by the Department of the Interior should be undertaken to prevent serious natural resource problems.

Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.; Eisenreich, K.M.; McKernan, M.A.

2006-01-01

317

Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th  

SciTech Connect

Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) Rua General Severiano, 90, RJ de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil); Wieland, Patricia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ), Dept. Eng. Ind., RJ (Brazil)

2008-08-07

318

Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) as biomonitors of environmental metal contamination.  

PubMed

We live-trapped 40 northern pocket gophers across two years from the Anaconda Smelter Superfund Site, Anaconda, Montana, USA, to determine their exposure to five metal contaminants and effects of exposure on selected measurements. Soil, gopher blood, liver, kidney, and carcass samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. Hematological parameters, kidney and liver porphyrins, and red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity were also measured. Micronutrients Cu and Zn were detected in all tissues analyzed, and Cd, Pb, and As were detected less frequently. We report differences in metal distribution among different tissues and differences in bioaccumulation for different metals within the same tissue. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of Zn or Cu in any tissue across the study site, but relationships between lead in soil and lead in carcass proved especially strong (r2 = 0.80; p < 0.001; n = 18). Among biomarker data, we observed a negative relationship between concentration of lead in the soil and ALAD activity in gophers with detectable concentrations of lead in their blood (r2 = 0.45; p = 0.006; n = 15). Results of this study suggest that northern pocket gophers are useful biomonitors of environmental Pb, Cd, and As contamination, and their broad geographic range across North America could allow them to be an important component of site-specific metals assessments. PMID:16519307

Reynolds, Kevin D; Schwarz, Matthew S; McFarland, Craig A; McBride, Toby; Adair, Blakely; Strauss, Richard E; Cobb, George P; Hooper, Michael J; McMurry, Scott T

2006-02-01

319

Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

2008-08-01

320

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

Not Available

1991-10-01

321

Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). College of Pharmacy; Hartley, W. [Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-31

322

White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed {sup 137}Cs concentrations [> 10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (> 10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h{sup 1} 1 m above the soil surface.

Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

1993-01-01

323

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

Not Available

1992-03-01

324

Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.  

PubMed

A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1-14. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:25376148

Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline

2015-02-01

325

Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.  

PubMed

The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/?l of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/?l in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. PMID:24484767

Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

2014-03-17

326

Transfer of multidrug-resistant bacteria to healthcare workers’ gloves and gowns after patient contact increases with environmental contamination  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the role of environmental contamination in the transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria to healthcare workers’ clothing. Design Prospective cohort. Setting Six intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. Subjects Healthcare workers including registered nurses, patient care technicians, respiratory therapists, occupational/physical therapists, and physicians. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results One hundred twenty of 585 (20.5%) healthcare worker/patient interactions resulted in contamination of healthcare workers’ gloves or gowns. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii contamination occurred most frequently, 55 of 167 observations (32.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 25.8% to 40.0%), followed by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 15 of 86 (17.4%; 95% CI 9.4% to 25.4%), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, 25 of 180 (13.9%, 95% CI 8.9, 18.9%) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 21 of 152 (13.8%; 95% CI 8.3% to 19.2%). Independent risk factors associated with healthcare worker contamination with multidrug-resistant bacteria were positive environmental cultures (odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% CI 2.7–6.5), duration in room for >5 mins (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.4), performing physical examinations (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1–2.8), and contact with the ventilator (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.8). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis determined that 91% of healthcare worker isolates were related to an environmental or patient isolate. Conclusions The contamination of healthcare workers’ protective clothing during routine care of patients with multidrug- resistant organisms is most frequent with A. baumannii. Environmental contamination was the major determinant of transmission to healthcare workers’ gloves or gowns. Compliance with contact precautions and more aggressive environmental cleaning may decrease transmission. PMID:22202707

Morgan, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Elizabeth; Thom, Kerri A.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Perencevich, Eli N.; Shardell, Michelle; Leekha, Surbhi; Harris, Anthony D.

2012-01-01

327

An overview of the ERICA Integrated Approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERICA project (environmental risks from ionising contaminants: assessment and management, EC contract no. FI6R-CT-2004-508847) concluded with the publication of two main outputs: the ERICA Integrated Approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising radiation, of which also introduces the user to the second main output, the ERICA Tool, which is a software programme with supporting databases,

Carl-Magnus Larsson

2008-01-01

328

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, an ongoing project from Kyoto University, has recently updated this collection of molecular interaction information. The Introduction section provides substantial information on the project background and data, as well as user guides and manuals to help users orient themselves to the database. Users can search for information on specific interactions in selected species, or browse to find metabolic pathways or gene sequences of interest. Computational tools include the ability to find similar sequences and generate possible reactions between compounds.

2002-01-01

329

Design of the diagnostic encyclopedia workstation (DEW).  

PubMed

The Diagnostic Encyclopedia Workstation (DEW) contains reference knowledge for diagnostic support in pathology. Illustrations are accessible via a video disc device. DEW can hold more knowledge, pictures and case histories than books, and its information is accessible via several entries. Software for data entry has been written in MUMPS with use of the relational database toolkit AIDA, which is particularly suited for manipulation of free text. The graphical mouse-driven user interface is written in C using MetaWindows. The DEW contains 85 diagnoses in ovarian pathology, covering all frequent cases and many rarities, illustrated by approximately 3000 pictures, divided among 158 cases. PMID:2225784

van Ginneken, A M; Smeulders, A W; Jansen, W; Baak, J P; Brooymans, I

1990-01-01

330

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants; cellular and organ/organism effects. Technical Notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the second in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants for causing mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. This technical note describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/ organism level.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

331

MERCURY CONTAMINATION OF THE FISH COMMUNITY OF A SEMI-ARID AND ARID RIVER SYSTEM: SPATIAL VARIATION AND THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS  

E-print Network

MERCURY CONTAMINATION OF THE FISH COMMUNITY OF A SEMI-ARID AND ARID RIVER SYSTEM: SPATIAL VARIATION October 2009; Accepted 24 February 2010) Abstract--Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic ecosystems Environmental gradients INTRODUCTION Mercury (Hg) contamination of food webs is an environ- mental problem

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

332

Virtual Knowledge: The Best Buys in 1998 CD-ROM Encyclopedias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses questions to consider and features to look for in selecting a CD-ROM encyclopedia. Reviews Encyclopaedia Britannica CD 98 Multimedia Edition, Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia 1998, Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, and Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1998. Contact information, price, and system requirements are listed. (JAK)

Burg, Barbara; Kautzman, Amy M.

1998-01-01

333

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Field Procedures for Assessing the Exposure of Fish to Environmental Contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document describes procedures used to collect information, tissues, and fluids for documenting the exposure of fish to environmental contaminants. For the procedures described here, fish are captured (preferably by electrofishing) and held alive until processing (generally <1 h). Fish are weighed, measured, and examined for grossly visible external lesions and pathologies. A blood sample is collected by caudal veinipuncture using a needle and syringe. The fish is subdued and it's abdominal cavity opened. The internal organs are dissected from the fish for examination. The sex of the fish is determined by direct observation of its gonads. The liver is weighed (most species) and cut into small cubes and flash-frozen in cryogenic vials, which are stored and shipped in dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Additional liver cubes plus all grossly visible anomalies are preserved for histopathology. The gonads and spleen are weighed, and samples are preserved for histopathology. The kidneys are examined, and histopathology samples collected. A gill sample is also collected and preserved. All remaining tissues are returned to the carcass, which is wrapped in foil, labeled for chemical analysis, and chilled. Individual fish carcasses are composited by station, species, and gender; frozen; and shipped to the analytical laboratory. Procedures are also described for record keeping; processing blood to obtain serum and plasma; flash-freezing samples; cleaning equipment; and preventing the transport of living organisms among waterways. A list of necessary equipment and supplies is also provided.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gross, Timothy S.; Bryant, Wade L.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Smith, Stephen B.; Goede, Ronald W.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Kubiak, Timothy J.

1999-01-01

334

Phorbol ester-modulation of estrogenic genomic effects triggered by the environmental contaminant benzanthracene.  

PubMed

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent genomic effects of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be modulated by non-genomic protein kinase C (PKC)-related pathways. The present study was designed to determine whether PKC activation may also impair estrogenic genomic response triggered by PAHs. Treatment by the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was found to markedly and differentially impair the up-regulation of estrogenic markers triggered by the estrogenic PAH benzanthracene (BZA) in cultured human mammary cells; BZA-mediated mRNA up-regulation of pS2 and amphiregulin was thus increased, whereas that of progesterone receptor and CXCL12 was repressed. BZA/PMA cotreatment however failed to alter BZA-mediated increase of activity of a luciferase gene reporter construct driven by an estrogen response element, thus discarding any global effect of PMA toward BZA-triggered estrogen receptor activation. Various chemicals inhibiting PKCs or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as well as the knock-down of PKC? expression counteracted the PMA-mediated increase of pS2 mRNA up-regulation triggered by BZA, demonstrating that it was dependent on PKCs, including PKC? isoform, and ERKs. This non-genomic modulation of estrogenic effects of PAHs by PKC activation may have to be considered when considering the deleterious effects of these environmental contaminants towards the endocrine system. PMID:22643241

Kolasa, Elise; Balaguer, Patrick; Houlbert, Noémie; Fardel, Olivier

2012-09-01

335

Induction of cytochrome p?450 in the norway rat, rattus norvegicus, following exposure to potential environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P?450 (CYP) induction (consisting of increases in cellular RNA and protein content and associated catalytic activities) occurs predominantly in the liver, but also in small intestine, lung, kidney, and placenta, of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.) exposed to certain types of potential environmental contaminants. The specific isoform(s) induced in the rat and the magnitudes of the increases observed depend upon

Raymond W. Nims; Ronald A. Lubet

1995-01-01

336

ReproducedfromJournalofEnvironmentalQuality.PublishedbyASA,CSSA,andSSSA.Allcopyrightsreserved. Simulation of Phytoremediation of a TNT-Contaminated Soil  

E-print Network

JournalofEnvironmentalQuality.PublishedbyASA,CSSA,andSSSA.Allcopyrightsreserved. Simulation of Phytoremediation of a TNT-Contaminated Soil Using the CTSPAC Model Y. Ouyang,* D. Shinde, and L- ate the success of phytoremediation practices. This study investigated centrations of target Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate further reveal that no TNT was found in the stem and leaves

Ma, Lena

337

Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

2009-01-01

338

Environmental contaminants in prey and tissues of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend Region, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) have been recorded nesting in Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA and other areas of the Chihuahuan Desert since the early 1900s. From 1993 to 1996, peregrine falcon productivity rates were very low and coincided with periods of low rainfall. However, low productivity also was suspected to be caused by environmental contaminants. To evaluate potential impacts

M. Mora; R. Skiles; B. Mckinney; M. Paredes; D. Buckler; D. Papoulias; D. Klein

2002-01-01

339

Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

340

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05-9.2 mg/kg) was recorded in urban soils and vegetable plot soils where these are impacted by Hg-contaminated water and sediment derived from mineral processing activities. Hg in vegetable and grain samples is mostly below the detection limit of 0.004 mg/kg Hg, apart from 0.007 and 0.092 mg/kg Hg in two yam samples and 0.011 to 0.013 mg/kg Hg in three rice samples. The standardized (i.e., standardized to 10 cm length) Hg concentrations in Clarias spp. increase from about 0.01 mg Hg/kg for the River Malagarasi delta to 0.07, 0.2, and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa 'background', moderately and most contaminated sites. For piscivorous (Lates, Brycinus, and Hydrocynus spp.), insectivorous (Barbus spp.), and planktivorous (Haplochromis spp.) fish species, the 10-cm standardized Hg concentrations increase from about 0.006 mg/kg for the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika area to 0.5 and 3.5 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa moderately and most contaminated sites. The low concentrations of Hg in fish from the Malagarasi River delta and Lake Tanganyika indicate that Hg contamination from the Rwamagasa area does not have a readily discernible impact on the biota of Lake Tanganyika. Many of the fish samples from Rwamagasa exceed guidelines for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg) as well as the WHO recommended limit for vulnerable groups (0.2 mg/kg). Tissue total Hg (THg) of all fish collected from the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika subarea is well below these guidelines. Potential human exposure through consumption of 300 g/day of rice grown on Hg-contaminated soils is 5.5 microg/week. Consumption of 250 g Nile perch (Lates spp.), 500 g tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), and 250 g of catfish (Clarias spp.) each week would result in an intake of 65 microg Hg/week for people consuming only fish from the Mara and Mwanza regions of Lake Victoria and 116 microg Hg/week for people in the Rwamagasa area consuming tilapia and Nile perch from Lake Victoria and catfish from mining-impacted streams. This is lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 300 microg for Hg in the diet set by the WHO and the FAO. Inadvertent ingestion of soil containing 9 mg Hg/kg at a rate of 80 mg/day would give an additional estimated weekly intake of 5 microg THg, whereas the persistent and purposeful consumption of soil (geophagia) at a rate of 26 g soil/day would produce an additional chemical exposure of 230 microg Hg/day. PMID:15862840

Taylor, H; Appleton, J D; Lister, R; Smith, B; Chitamweba, D; Mkumbo, O; Machiwa, J F; Tesha, A L; Beinhoff, C

2005-05-01

341

The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Widely considered to be one of the crowning achievements of the Enlightenment, the Encyclopedia edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert in the 18th century has proved to be fertile ground for those who have sought to classify and chronicle the various branches of knowledge. This highly ambitious project was published during the period 1751 to 1777, and included 32 volumes amply illustrated with engraved plates. Close to 150 years later, a group of talented individuals sought to create an online version of the Encyclopedia translated into English, with links to the original French versions. The project is based at the University of Michigan Library, although contributors to the project are scattered across the world. Visitors to the site can search the currently available articles or browse by title, French title, or subject. Finally, visitors will want to take a look at the famous "Map of the System of Human Knowledge" that is immediately identified with this most celebrated human endeavor.

342

Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n?=?461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p?=?.002) and after using the toilet (p?=?.001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n?=?367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. PMID:24312303

Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

2013-01-01

343

Environmental forensics evaluation of sources of sediment hydrocarbon contamination in Milford Haven Waterway.  

PubMed

Current and historic petroleum-related activities in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW; Wales, UK) contribute to hydrocarbon contamination of surficial sediments. Three main hydrocarbon components of sediments were analyzed: (1) aliphatic hydrocarbons of predominantly biogenic origin, representing about 5-15% of total hydrocarbons (THC); (2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from recent petrogenic and mainly older pyrogenic sources, representing about 2-6% of THC; (3) unresolved complex mixture from spill-related and heavily-weathered petrogenic sources, representing as much as 70-85% of THC. Environmental forensics evaluation of the data demonstrate that although 72?000 tonnes (t) crude oil spilled from the Sea Empress in 1996, the Forties blend cargo was not identified in 2010. However, using biomarkers, heavy fuel oil (HFO) from Sea Empress' bunkers (480 t spilled) was detected further upstream and more widely than previously. Iranian crude (100 t) spilled by the El Omar in 1988 and fuel (130?000 t) lost during bombing in 1940 also were tentatively identified. The PAH source ratios demonstrate that the historic pyrogenic PAHs come mainly from biomass and coal combustion. The distribution pattern of PAHs appeared more pyrogenic in 2012 than in 1996, as if recovering from the more petrogenic signature, in places, of the Sea Empress. The heavier PAH distributions were pyrogenic at most stations, and similar to those in sediments from oil terminal berths up to 2006, when dredging operations peaked. Partly as a result of this, in 2007 the concentrations of PAHs peaked throughout the waterway. Apart from effluent, atmospheric and runoff inputs, most of the identified inputs to the surficial sediments are historic. Therefore, likely processes include disturbance by construction (e.g. pile-driving) and dredging of contaminants sequestered in sediments, followed by their wide redistribution via suspended sediment transport. PMID:25536472

Little, David I; Galperin, Yakov; Bullimore, Blaise; Camplin, Mike

2015-02-11

344

Environmental considerations for the disposal of PBB-contaminated animals and wastes.  

PubMed Central

Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal of contaminated carcasses and to prevent any migration of PBBs into ground and surface waters of the area. Materials underneath the site are predominantly sand with layers of silts and clays of glacial origin. The vertical isolation from the surface to the water table is over 90 ft, and the horizontal isolation to the privately owned properties and surface water bodies is well over 1.5 mile in all directions. The site design provides necessary safeguards for minimizing surface water infiltration into disposal trenches and maximizing the protection to the environment. A series of water wells in the direction of flow are established for monitoring groundwater quality for years to come. A 40-acre Gratiot County landfill located near St. Louis, Michigan, has received 269,000 lb of wastes containing 60 to 70% PBBs between 1971 and 1973. PBB wastes are intermixed with general refuse at various depths predominantly in the eastern half of the landfill. Phase I of the hydrogeological investigation shows that the landfill is situated immediately above the groundwater aquifer and a divide. Recently drilled test wells show traces of PBBs in the aquifer in all directions. Additional studies are planned in the near future for corrective measures and monitoring. Images FIGURE 4. PMID:209986

Shah, B P

1978-01-01

345

Environmental effects of dredging: A preliminary evaluation of contaminant release at the point of dredging. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this technical note is to present a preliminary evaluation of the standard elutriate test as a predictor of contaminant release (dissolved form) to the water column at the point of dredging. This note is meant to extend previous notes (Hayes 1987, Havis 1987) which dealt with resuspension of sediments due to dredging and the release of adsorbed chemicals which could enter the water phase at the point of dredging. Data collected under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP) showed that the standard elutriate test (Keeley and Engler 1974, US Environmental Protection Agency and US Army Corps of Engineers 1977, Environmental Effects Laboratory 1976) predicted, within an order of magnitude, dissolved chemical concentrations in water at dredged material disposal sites (Jones and Lee 1978). The potential for contaminant release also exists, however, at the point of dredging. This source of contaminant release during dredging was investigated by McLellan et al. (in preparation) under the Improvement of Operations and Maintenance Techniques (IOMT) program. Because of the success of the standard elutriate test for simulating dissolved contaminant release at the disposal site it was investigated as a tool for predicting contaminant release at the point of dredging.

Havis, R.N.; Amande, R.A.

1988-04-01

346

A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Furlong, E.T.

2004-01-01

347

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: Propellants and their co-contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The demilitarization of propellants by open burning results in the deposition of residues on soils. Residues can consist of the main ingredients in propellant formulations, namely, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine. Co-contaminants, consisting of plasticizers and stabilizers present in propellant formulations as well as environmental degradation products of the propellants, represent additional soil contaminants. These substances include nitrosoguanidine, dibutylphthlate, diethylphthlate, dipenylamine, and ethyl centralite. To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by propellants and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Importantly, information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates species are also addressed. 284 refs.

Mallon, B.; Layton, D.; Fish, R.; Hsieh, P.; Hall, L.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.

1988-08-01

348

THE THREE INTERACTING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS, FOOD CONTAMINATION, AND CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The dietary contribution to an aggregate exposure assessment is potentially an important pathway of exposure especially for young children. Enviornmental contamination appearing in the child's diet can result from contamination in the food as purchased or due to preparing, servin...

349

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

McLachlan, J.

1998-06-01

350

Direct contact and environmental contaminations are responsible for HEV transmission in pigs  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause enterically-transmitted hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic nature of Hepatitis E infections has been established in industrialized areas and domestic pigs are considered as the main reservoir. The dynamics of transmission in pig herds therefore needs to be understood to reduce the prevalence of viremic pigs at slaughter and prevent contaminated pig products from entering the food chain. An experimental trial was carried out to study the main characteristics of HEV transmission between orally inoculated pigs and naďve animals. A mathematical model was used to investigate three transmission routes, namely direct contact between pigs and two environmental components to represent within-and between-group oro-fecal transmission. A large inter-individual variability was observed in response to infection with an average latent period lasting 6.9 days (5.8; 7.9) in inoculated animals and an average infectious period of 9.7 days (8.2; 11.2). Our results show that direct transmission alone, with a partial reproduction number of 1.41 (0.21; 3.02), can be considered as a factor of persistence of infection within a population. However, the quantity of virus present in the environment was found to play an essential role in the transmission process strongly influencing the probability of infection with a within pen transmission rate estimated to 2???10??6g ge??1d??1(1???10??7;?7???10??6). Between-pen environmental transmission occurred to a lesser extent (transmission rate: 7???10??8g ge??1d??1(5???10??9;?3???10??7) but could further generate a within-group process. The combination of these transmission routes could explain the persistence and high prevalence of HEV in pig populations. PMID:24165278

2013-01-01

351

Radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells: an environmental health assessment examining a rural Colorado mountain community's exposure.  

PubMed

In the study discussed in this article, 27 private drinking water wells located in a rural Colorado mountain community were sampled for radon contamination and compared against (a) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL), (b) the U.S. EPA proposed alternate maximum contaminate level (AMCL), and (c) the average radon level measured in the local municipal drinking water system. The data from the authors' study found that 100% of the wells within the study population had radon levels in excess of the U.S. EPA MCL, 37% were in excess of the U.S. EPA AMCL, and 100% of wells had radon levels greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. Radon contamination in one well was found to be 715 times greater than the U.S. EPA MCL, 54 times greater than the U.S. EPA AMLC, and 36,983 times greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. According to the research data and the reviewed literature, the results indicate that this population has a unique and elevated contamination profile and suggest that radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells can present a significant public health concern. PMID:24341157

Cappello, Michael Anthony; Ferraro, Aimee; Mendelsohn, Aaron B; Prehn, Angela Witt

2013-11-01

352

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus).  

PubMed

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture carcasses and nearly all raven carcasses at generally moderate concentrations. Other organochlorines occurred infrequently in carcasses and generally at low concentrations. Turkey vulture eggshells were 16% thinner than the pre-DDT mean; there was no change in shell thickness of raven eggs. Vulture eggs contained an average of 6.9 ppm DDE and two contained excessive concentrations of endrin. DDE concentrations were low in raven eggs. Residues of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Se, Tl, and Zn in tissues of vultures and ravens appeared normal when compared with reference values for other species. Lead concentrations in bone of turkey vultures and feathers of condors appeared to be elevated above normal background concentrations in some cases. Current exposure of condors to organochlorines appears low; however, we are concerned about the excessive exposure of turkey vultures to organochlorines, possibly in Central America. Lead exposure to vultures and condors has occurred, but its significance to their populations is unknown. PMID:24254546

Wiemeyer, S N; Jurek, R M; Moore, J F

1986-01-01

353

Significance of environmental dredging on metal mobility from contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor, Sweden.  

PubMed

Metals are often seen as immobile in bottom sediments as long as these environmental sinks remain undisturbed. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential metal mobility due to resuspension under pseudo-dredging conditions of contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor that are likely to be dredged as part of a remediation program established in Sweden. To address this concern, mixtures of water slurries were sampled from pore, leaching, and surface water over a period of nearly 36 d, and the major ions and trace metal concentrations determined. The results of this study pointed out the potential mobility and toxicity of metals posed by temporary changes during dredging operations, and highlighted the potential release of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Ni to the environment. Among the toxic metals, regarding pre and post dredging, Cu and Pb significantly demonstrated to be in ionic form, apparently because of dissolution of Fe-Mn oxy/hydroxides and decomposition of organic matter. PMID:25084063

Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun; Kaczala, Fabio; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

2015-01-01

354

Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture carcasses and nearly all raven carcasses at generally moderate concentrations. Other organochlorines occurred infrequently in carcasses and generally at low concentrations. Turkey vulture eggshells were 16% thinner than the pre-DDT mean; there was no change in shell thickness of raven eggs. Vulture eggs contained an average of 6.9 ppm DDE and two contained excessive concentrations of endrin. DDE concentrations were low in raven eggs. Residues of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Se, Tl, and Zn in tissues of vultures and ravens appeared normal when compared with reference values for other species. Lead concentrations in bone of turkey vultures and feathers of condors appeared to be elevated above normal background concentrations in some cases. Current exposure of condors to organochlorines appears low; however, we are concerned about the excessive exposure of turkey vultures to organochlorines, possibly in Central America. Lead exposure to vultures and condors has occurred, but its significance to their populations is unknown.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Jurek, R.M.; Moore, J.F.

1986-01-01

355

Monitoring environmental Aspergillus spp. contamination and meteorological factors in a haematological unit.  

PubMed

The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward. PMID:24158616

Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L

2013-12-01

356

Long-term environmental and health implications of morphological change and sediment transport with respect to contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EPSRC-funded Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply (ARCoES) project encompasses four research strands, involving 14 institutions and six PhD studentships. ARCoES aims to determine the threats posed to future energy generation and the distribution network by flooding and erosion, changing patterns of coastal sedimentation, water temperature and the distribution of plants and animals in the coastal zone. Whilst this research has direct benefits for the operation of coastal power stations, ARCoES aims to have a wider stakeholder engagement through assessing how the resilience of coastal communities may be altered by five hundred years of coastal evolution. Coastal evolution will have substantial implications for the energy sector of the North West of England as former waste storage sites are eroded and remobilised within the intertidal environment. The current intertidal environmental stores of radioactivity will also experience reworking as ocean chemistry changes and saltmarsh chronologies are reworked in response to rising sea levels. There is a duel requirement to understand mass sediment movement along the North West coast of England as understanding the sediment transport dynamics is key to modelling long term coastal change and understanding how the environmental store of radioactivity will be reworked. The University of Stirling is researching the long-term environmental and health implications of remobilisation and transport of contaminated sediments around the UK coastline. Using a synergy of hyperspectral and topographic information the mobilisation of sediment bound contaminants within the coastal environment will be investigated. Potential hazards posed by contaminants are determined by a set of environmental impact test criteria which evaluate the bio-accessibility and ionising dose of contaminants. These test criteria will be used to comment on the likely environmental impact of modelled sediment transport and anticipated changes in ocean chemistry.

Sneddon, Christopher; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Hunter, Peter; Smith, Nick

2014-05-01

357

Summarization of an online medical encyclopedia.  

PubMed

We explore a knowledge-rich (abstraction) approach to summarization and apply it to multiple documents from an online medical encyclopedia. A semantic processor functions as the source interpreter and produces a list of predications. A transformation stage then generalizes and condenses this list, ultimately generating a conceptual condensate for a given disorder topic. We provide a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the condensates produced for a sample of four disorders. The overall precision of the disorder conceptual condensates was 87%, and the compression ratio from the base list of predications to the final condensate was 98%. The conceptual condensate could be used as input to a text generator to produce a natural language summary for a given disorder topic. PMID:15360864

Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Kilicoglu, Halil

2004-01-01

358

Encyclopedia of materials science and engineering  

SciTech Connect

A new eight-volume reference work providing the first complete coverage of the materials science and engineering field. Over 1600 authoritative articles, averaging 3000 words in length and complete with detailed bibliographies, make the encyclopedia is extensively crossreferenced, carefully indexed and illustrated, and in addition to its uniquely comprehensive scientific and technological coverage contains many articles on the policy and social aspects of materials. Contents (partial): Production, processing and properties of all the basic classes of materials such as metals, ceramics and polymers. Materials for specific applications including electronic, nuclear, biomedical and building materials. Materials-related phenomena and methods such as investigative and analytical techniques, nondestructive evaluation, materials degradation, failure analysis, and surfaces and interfaces. Overview articles to provide guidance in more than 40 specific areas of materials science and engineering. General subjects including materials science, materials engineering, materials resources, materials policy and economics.

Bever, M.B.

1985-01-01

359

The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture is "to collect and disseminate information on all aspects of the state's history and culture and to provide a comprehensive reference work for historians, teachers, students and individuals for the purpose of promoting the study, understanding, and appreciation of Arkansas's heritage." First-time visitors should check out the This Day in Arkansas History feature, which provides easy access to the lore, culture, history, and geography of the state. Moving on, visitors can use the Browse Entries area to look around the material by category, type, time period, or race & ethnicity. Those persons looking for a bit of audio-visual inspiration will want to click on over to the Browse Media area. Here, they can find songs performed by sons and daughters of Arkansas (including the legendary Al Hibbler), maps, and video clips from films like "Emerson County Shaping Dream" and "Unhooking the Hookworm."

360

CAMEO: Conservation & Art Material Encyclopedia Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Art historians, preservationists, and other types will be most glad to learn about the existence of the Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO). This is, of course, if they don't know about it already. The original CAMEO was first placed online in November 2000, and it has been significantly enlarged and updated over the past several years. This online resource contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials. While some visitors may wish to use the embedded search engine, some may just wish to browse the materials by letter. Visitors can also perform a material search by entering a word, partial word, or a variety of other fields, including composition, density, and boiling point.

361

The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap and the Long Term Monitoring Sensors and Analytical Methods Workshop, and (2) AMSI operating characteristics and progress in addressing those needs. Topics addressed will include: vadose zone and groundwater tritium monitoring, a wireless moisture monitoring system, Cr(VI) and CCl4 monitoring using a commercially available "universal sensor platform", strontium-90 and technetium-99 monitoring, and area chemical monitoring using an array of multi-chemical sensors.

Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

2005-05-01

362

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome  

E-print Network

The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of ...

Altshuler, Robert Charles

363

Encyclopedias of Astronomical Biographies - Status and Prospects --  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple requests for biographies of famous astronomers can easily be satisfied. Short accounts of their lives are to be found in many books and encyclopedias. However, most of these sources are very incomplete, i. e.\\ do not provide information on less famous persons, and are not up to scientific standards. The most comprehensive sources of scientific biographies, Poggendorffs Biographisch-Literarisches Handwoerterbuch and Dictionary of Scientific Biography, are also not complete, partly not up-to-date and for most users not easily accessible. The most recent and most comprehensive dictionary of astronomical biography, containing 500 short entries, was written in Russian. Although a lot of information on biographies is available in publications, these are spread over thousands of volumes. There is no bibliography of these papers and books. During the last three years, short biographies of astronomers were also published in the World Wide Web. Some of these are on a very high scientific level. The author's collection of links to such WWW pages (http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/~pbrosche/hist\\_astr/ ha\\_pers.html}) contains currently several thousand entries for more than 1200 persons related to the history of astronomy. This electronic ``encyclopedia'' in distributed form is now the most comprehensive and concentrated source for astronomical biographies. However, there are several problems arising from the electronic form of publication and from the uncoordinated and not always qualified efforts of the authors. The paper will discuss proposals, plans and first results of filling the gaps and increasing the quality, as well as some principal problems of writing short biographies and making them available to the public.

Dick, W. R.

364

Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites  

SciTech Connect

Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

Melinda Christine Wiles [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health

2004-08-15

365

Assessing noxious effects of dietary exposure to methylmercury, PCBs and Se coexisting in environmentally contaminated rice in male mice.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury are two of the most ubiquitous environmental contaminants in Guizhou province. Rice is eaten with almost every meal and provides more calories than any single food in Guizhou province. The estimated tolerable daily intake of total mercury, MeHg, Se and PCBs from Guizhou contaminated rice by Chinese people showed that MeHg and/or PCBs exceeded the corresponding limits. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of exposure to environmental contaminated rice on neurobehavioral development and neurobiological disruptions in mice. Animals were treated from postnatal day (PND) 22 to 91. At PND 26-91 days of age, mice were tested for neurobehavioural development and neurochemical level changes. We showed that dietary exposure to environmentally contaminated rice gave rise to different changes in antioxidants. Reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and excess increased nitric oxide (NO) indicated aggravation of oxidative status after long-term dietary intake of Hg and PCBs. Neurobehavioral derangement in the central nervous system and significant delay in the Morris water maze test response on PND 91 are correlated with the increased of c-fos/c-jun expression levels in the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that MeHg neurotoxicity might be a greater hazard than that associated with PCB, but PCB may augment the neurobehavioral deficits caused by increased levels of mercury exposure. The simultaneous intake of selenium might have a protective effect on Hg accumulation in the body, and vitamin C might protect mice against the toxic effects of PCBs. However, the protective role of Se and vitamin C is very limited for multiple-agent pollution. Immediately early genes in the brain response to contaminated rice might be dependent on interaction among NO, NO synthase (NOS), SOD and reduced glutathione (GSH). We should be alert to mental health problems in human beings when any kind of Hg- and PCB-polluted food is consumed. PMID:19167073

Cheng, Jinping; Yang, Yichen; Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenhua; Liu, Xiaojie; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Qu, Yiya; Shi, Wei

2009-04-01

366

Generic Escherichia coli contamination of spinach at the preharvest stage: effects of farm management and environmental factors.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

2013-07-01

367

Generic Escherichia coli Contamination of Spinach at the Preharvest Stage: Effects of Farm Management and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

2013-01-01

368

Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

Fontaine, T.A.

1991-11-01

369

Decline in heavy metal contamination in marine sediments in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia due to increasing environmental regulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 210Pb geochronology, heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, and Pb), and stable Pb isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 207Pb) of three sediment cores collected from Jakarta Bay were analyzed to decipher the history of heavy metal contamination in the period 1900-2006. The chemical and isotopic analyses clearly suggest that anthropogenic metal accumulation in the sediments began in the 1920s and increased greatly from the 1970s until the end of the 1990s. From the end of the 1990s to 2006, accumulation rates were constant or decreased for Zn and Pb near the coastal industrialized area. Comparison of economic data and sociological information suggests that the decline in the concentrations of heavy metals could be attributed to the stricter environmental regulations which were enforced at the end of 1990s. However, metal contamination is currently still an important cause of concern in dealing with environmental preservation and protection in Jakarta Bay.

Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Delinom, Robert; Umezawa, Yu; Toyota, Tomoyo; Kaneko, Shinji; Taniguchi, Makoto

2011-04-01

370

Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health

S. N. Burman; D. C. Landguth; M. S. Uziel; T. L. Hatmaker; P. F. Tiner

1992-01-01

371

DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil†  

PubMed Central

Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as ?(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

372

DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil.  

PubMed

Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as ?(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu; Kool, Eric T

2013-08-01

373

SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of

S. Kwong; J. Small; B. Tahar

2007-01-01

374

Serum Concentrations of Various Environmental Contaminants and Their Relationship to Sex Steroid Concentrations and Phallus Size in Juvenile American Alligators  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recent studies have reported a number of abnormalities in the hatchling and juvenile alligators of Lake Apopka, FL (USA).\\u000a These abnormalities include modifications of plasma concentrations of sex steroids in males and females as well as abnormalities\\u000a in gonadal morphology, gonadal enzyme activity, and steroidogenesis. Embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants in the\\u000a eggs has been hypothesized to be the

L. J. Guillette Jr.; J. W. Brock; A. A. Rooney; A. R. Woodward

1999-01-01

375

MOBILE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER OPERATED BY PACE ENVIRONMENTAL FOR METALS-CONTAMINATED SOIL CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the Environmental Technology Verification Program, is working to accelerate the acceptance and use of innovative technologies that improve the way the United States manages its environmental problems. This report describes ...

376

Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA (United States). Northwest Fisheries Science Center

1995-12-31

377

Pentamidine aerosols and environmental contamination: health-care workers at risk.  

PubMed

In our hospital safety guidelines are available for the handling of pentamidine in the day-care department, but no safety ventilation cabin is used because only one patient a day has been treated, The number of patients to be treated, however, is growing, resulting in the need to treat more than one patient a day. To determine the environmental contamination and exposure of health-care workers during and after aerosolised pentamidine treatment of more than one patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome a day a high-performance liquid chromatographic method is used for the detection and quantification of pentamidine. High volume air samples were taken before, immediately after and the day after a treatment session of up to three patients. Also, sediment samples and personal air samples close to the mouth of the health-care workers were taken. Immediately after a treatment session the air in the room contains 1.0-99.7 micrograms pentamidine per m3 of air. Before and the morning after treatment no pentamidine could be detected in the air. Sediment samples vary in detectable amounts of pentamidine from < 5 to 1165 micrograms. pentamidine/cm2. The personal air samples also show a large variation in quantities of pentamidine: < 5-170 ng a filter. When large amounts of pentamidine in the high volume air samples are found high amounts of pentamidine on the sediment samples and the personal air samples are found as well. This means that the patients treated should be instructed well on how to use the nebulizer correctly and be monitored during treatment. Additional safety measures (for example the use of a safety ventilation cabin) should be taken when more than one patient is treated a day. PMID:8873231

Ros, J J; Langen, M C; Stallen, P C; Lenderink, A W

1996-08-01

378

Differentiation of human placental BeWo cells by the environmental contaminant benzo(a)pyrene.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are widely-distributed environmental contaminants known to exert toxic effects in various tissues, including placenta. PAHs have notably been shown to inhibit proliferation of trophoblastic cells. The present study was designed to determine whether PAHs can concomitantly affect differentiated functions of trophoblastic cells. BaP was found to induce expression and secretion of ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) in human trophoblastic BeWo cells. The PAH also increased mRNA expressions of other trophoblastic differentiation markers, including those of the steroid metabolism enzymes CYP19A1 and HSD11B2 and of the fusogenic protein syncytin-2; in parallel, it triggered syncytialisation of BeWo cells. BaP-mediated ?-hCG and syncytin-2 up-regulation was prevented by co-treatment by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist CH-223191 or by knocking-down AhR expression through siRNA transfection. However, the potent AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) failed to induce expression of ?-hCG and syncytin-2, indicating that activation of the AhR pathway, known to be implicated in most, if not all, effects of PAHs, was required, but not sufficient. Interestingly, the p53 signaling pathway was activated by BaP, but not by TCDD, in BeWo cells and co-treatment by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-? or siRNAs-mediated silencing of p53 prevented up-regulation of ?-hCG and syncytin-2 induced by BaP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that BaP induces differentiation of placental trophoblastic BeWo cells in an AhR- and p53-dependent manner. PMID:24361490

Le Vee, Marc; Kolasa, Elise; Jouan, Elodie; Collet, Nicolas; Fardel, Olivier

2014-03-01

379

Environmental influences on the partitioning and diffusion of hydrophobic organic contaminants in microbial biofilms.  

PubMed

A biofilm reactor was used to investigate kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as model compounds for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) to intact microbial biofilms. Effective diffusion coefficients are in the range of 10(-10) cm2 x s(-1) resulting in equilibration times of more than 3 days for a biofilm of 100 microm thickness. Diffusion in the biofilm was strongly temperature-dependent and increased by a factor of 3 (phenanthrene) to 6 (fluoranthene, pyrene) between 5 and 35 degrees C. Drying and rewetting of the biofilm as well as the inclusion of Ca2+ ions and of humic acids all strengthened the biofilm rigidity and slowed down the diffusion of PAH. The later two factors also influenced the thermodynamics of the process as they supported the partitioning of PAH into the biofilm. Humic acid inclusion from solution into the biofilm illustrates that a microbial biofilm can act as a primer allowing for the buildup of a particulate organic phase from dissolved organic matter. PAH metabolites (3-hydroxy-phenanthrene and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid) showed lower partition coefficients as compared to their parent compounds and 3-hydroxy-phenanthrene also showed a higher diffusion constant, indicating that these transformation products would be easily released into the water phase upon formation during PAH biodegradation in a biofilm. These results allow the quantification of the influence of environmental conditions on a biofilm's function as a sink or as a diffusion barrier for PAH from aqueous solution, and they indicate the importance of kinetic aspects of this partitioning process. PMID:18409626

Wicke, Daniel; Böckelmann, Uta; Reemtsma, Thorsten

2008-03-15

380

Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.  

PubMed

Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity. However, the same techniques discussed could also have application to catastrophes resulting from other incidents, such as natural disasters or industrial accidents. Further, the high sample throughput enabled by the techniques discussed could be employed for conventional environmental studies and compliance monitoring, potentially decreasing costs and/or increasing the quantity of data available to decision-makers. PMID:24568927

Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

2014-11-01

381

Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J. [and others

1995-06-01

382

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disrupters. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals an...

383

Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Trace Contaminant Control Through FY 2012  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace contaminant control has been a concern of spacecraft designers and operators from early in the progression of manned spaceflight. Significant technological advancement has occurred since the first designs were implemented in the 1960s, culminating in the trace contaminant control system currently in use aboard the International Space Station as part of the atmosphere revitalization system.

Perry, J. L.; Pruitt, M. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Monje, O.

2013-01-01

384

FASTER SCIENCE FOR BETTER DECISIONS: CHARACTERIZING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT RISK FROM HIGH THROUGHPUT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Tens of thousands of chemicals and other man-made contaminants exist in our environment, but only a fraction of these have been characterized for their potential risk to humans and there is widespread interest in closing this data gap in order to better manage contaminant risk. C...

385

Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the

Lolita Tsanaclis; John F. C. Wicks

2008-01-01

386

Zinc speciation in a contaminated aquatic environment: Characterization of environmental particles by analytical electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) was used to characterize individual aquatic particles in a lake that has been contaminated by zinc smelting operations. Samples were collected from the sediments and the water column of the lake along a gradient of metal contamination. The samples were prepared to preserve their aqueous nature, and thin sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Samuel M. Webb; Gary G. Leppard; Jean-François Gaillard

2000-01-01

387

Washing of field weathered crude oil contaminated soil with an environmentally compatible surfactant, alkyl polyglucoside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weathered crude oil contaminated soils (COCSs), which are much more difficult to remediate than those freshly contaminated, are widespread especially at the sites of oil fields and industries. Surfactant enhanced ex situ soil washing could be used to remediate COCSs, but surfactant toxicity becomes one of the major concerns. In this study, a class of green surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APGs),

Mei Han; Guodong Ji; Jinren Ni

2009-01-01

388

PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate (ClO4-) is an anion that originates as a contaminant in ground water and surface waters when the salts of ammonium, potassium, magnesium, or sodium dissolve in water. One major source of contamination is the manufacture or improper disposal of ammonium perchlorate th...

389

Microbial environmental contamination in Italian dental clinics: A multicenter study yielding recommendations for standardized sampling methods and threshold values.  

PubMed

A microbiological environmental investigation was carried out in ten dental clinics in Italy. Microbial contamination of water, air and surfaces was assessed in each clinic during the five working days, for one week per month, for a three-month period. Water and surfaces were sampled before and after clinical activity; air was sampled before, after, and during clinical activity. A wide variation was found in microbial environmental contamination, both within the participating clinics and for the different sampling times. Before clinical activity, microbial water contamination in tap water reached 51,200cfu/mL (colony forming units per milliliter), and that in Dental Unit Water Systems (DUWSs) reached 872,000cfu/mL. After clinical activity, there was a significant decrease in the Total Viable Count (TVC) in tap water and in DUWSs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 2.38% (7/294) of tap water samples and in 20.06% (59/294) of DUWS samples; Legionella spp. was found in 29.96% (89/297) of tap water samples and 15.82% (47/297) of DUWS samples, with no significant difference between pre- and post-clinical activity. Microbial air contamination was highest during dental treatments, and decreased significantly at the end of the working activity (p<0.05). The microbial buildup on surfaces increased significantly during the working hours. This study provides data for the establishment of standardized sampling methods, and threshold values for contamination monitoring in dentistry. Some very critical situations have been observed which require urgent intervention. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the need for research aimed at defining effective managing strategies for dental clinics. PMID:22335883

Pasquarella, Cesira; Veronesi, Licia; Napoli, Christian; Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Rizzetto, Rolando; Torre, Ida; Righi, Elena; Farruggia, Patrizia; Tesauro, Marina; Torregrossa, Maria V; Montagna, Maria T; Colucci, Maria E; Gallč, Francesca; Masia, Maria D; Strohmenger, Laura; Bergomi, Margherita; Tinteri, Carola; Panico, Manuela; Pennino, Francesca; Cannova, Lucia; Tanzi, Marialuisa

2012-03-15

390

Perinatal exposure to environmental contaminants detected in Canadian Arctic human populations changes bone geometry and biomechanical properties in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Arctic inhabitants consume large proportions of fish and marine mammals, and are therefore continuously exposed to levels of environmental toxicants, which may produce adverse health effects. Fetuses and newborns are the most vulnerable groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in bone geometry, mineral density, and biomechanical properties during development following perinatal exposure to a mixture of environmental contaminants corresponding to maternal blood levels in Canadian Arctic human populations. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were dosed with a Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM) from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. NCM contains 27 contaminants comprising polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury. Femurs were collected on PND 35, 77 and 350, and diaphysis was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and three-point bending test, while femoral neck was assessed in an axial loading experiment. Dose-response modeling was performed to establish the benchmark dose (BMD) for the analyzed bone parameters. Exposure to the high dose of NMC resulted in short and thin femur with reduced mechanical strength in offspring at PND35. BMD of femur length, cortical area, and stiffness were 3.2, 1.6, and 0.8 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. At PND77 femur was still thin, but at PND350 no treatment-related bone differences were detected. This study provides new insights on environmental contaminants present in the maternal blood of Canadian Arctic populations, showing that perinatal exposure induces bone alterations in the young offspring. These findings could be significant from a health risk assessment point of view. PMID:21830859

Elabbas, Lubna E; Finnilä, Mikko A; Herlin, Maria; Stern, Natalia; Trossvik, Christina; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie; Tuukkanen, Juha; Heimeier, Rachel A; Ĺkesson, Agneta; Hĺkansson, Helen

2011-01-01

391

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Rio Grande Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites in the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998. Four sites were National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. The other six were USGS-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations where water quality is monitored. The objectives were to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative organic and inorganic contaminants in RGB fish and the effects of contaminants on the fish; to continue testing the feasibility of incorporating biomarkers (that is, biochemical, histopathological, and other biological indicators of contaminant exposure or effects) into a monitoring program for large U.S. rivers; and to evaluate the compatibility of monitoring methods based on the analysis of fish with those used to monitor water by NASQAN. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus sp.; bass) were the targeted species; together, they represented 77% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed by instrumental methods for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from stations in the lower RGB contained greater concentrations of some contaminants and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by general gradient of pesticide concentrations and biomarker responses from upstream to downstream. In the upper RGB, a minimal number of altered biomarkers and few or no elevated contaminant concentrations were noted. The exception was elevated concentrations [up to 0.46 ug/g wet-weight (ww)] of total mercury (Hg) in predatory species from Station 63 (Rio Grande at Elephant Butte Reservior, NM), a condition noted in the past.

Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Coyle, James J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

392

Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer  

E-print Network

Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer David;Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics Mantle Convection, David Bercovici MANTLE CONVECTION Synonyms Mantle dynamics. Mantle circulation. Definition Mantle convection: Thermal convection in the terrestrial planetary

393

Weathering processes and landforms The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth,  

E-print Network

ForReview Only Weathering processes and landforms Journal: The International Encyclopedia Keywords: Abstract: The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment illustrate how the appearance of bare-rock landforms relates to rock decay. The last section details

Dorn, Ron

394

Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.  

PubMed

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2008-08-01

395

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

396

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

1999-01-01

397

Development of an in situ mammalian biomonitor to assess the effect of environmental contaminants on population and community health  

SciTech Connect

The influence of environmental contaminants (e.g., lead, benzene, organic hydrocarbons) on immune function of laboratory and field cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and population and community dynamics of small mammals residing on an oil refinery were studied. Cellular immune function in benzene and lead exposed cotton rats were assessed to determine the sensitivity of immune function as a potential biomarker of toxicant exposure. Additionally, cellular immune function, population density, reproduction, recruitment, and survival were assessed for wild cotton rats collected from an abandoned oil refinery to field test the utility of cotton rats as an in situ bioindicator. Cellular immune function in juvenile and adult cotton rats was sensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of lead and benzene. However, benzene-induced immunosuppression was marginal presumably due to the ability of cotton rats to quickly metabolize the compound and recover from the toxic effects. Wild cotton rats collected on the refinery also demonstrated sensitivity in immune function to the complex mixtures of contaminants found on site. Lymphoproliferative responses of splenocytes was the most consistent indicator toxicant exposure. Population parameters of cotton rats indicated marked depression in density, recruitment, and survival. Results also indicated a shift in community structure due to large numbers of house mice (Mus musculus) on toxic sites. Immune function and population parameters appear to be good prospects in situ bioindicators of environmental contamination.

McMurray, S.T.

1993-01-01

398

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01

399

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

Not Available

1991-10-01

400

Environmental health: an analysis of available and proposed remedies for victims of toxic waste contamination.  

PubMed

Past and present residents of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, New York, fear that they and their homes have been contaminated by toxic wastes seeping out from nearby chemical disposal sites. Hundreds of landfills nationwide are as potentially dangerous as Love Canal. In the absence of a statutory remedy, victims of contamination must rely upon common law theories of lability in order to recover damages for injuries suffered as a result of toxic waste contamination. This Note examines the merits and deficiencies of four common law theories: negligence, strict liability, nuisance and trespass. The Note concludes that none of these remedies is adequate to assure recovery to a person injured by toxic waste disposal, and recommends that legislation be adopted to ensure that victims of toxic waste contamination can be compensated for their injuries. PMID:7258193

Hurwitz, W J

1981-01-01

401

Reading contamination : an environmental education center at the Wells G&H Superfund Site  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes and architectural and programmatic methodology which makes legible the processes and consequences of site contamination. This methodology is chiefly demonstrated through a plan for the site which emerges ...

Berry, Rebecca Lynn, 1973-

1999-01-01

402

SLIDE PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

While pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous trace contaminants in the environment, thetypes, concentrations, and relative abundances of individual residues will vary depending on thegeographic locale and time of year, primarily a reflection of differing and varying prescribing andconsum...

403

Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

Meyers-Schoene, L. (IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-04-01

404

Effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing the spread of Norovirus contamination via environmental surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay was used to study the transfer of Norovirus (NV) from contaminated faecal material via fingers and cloths to other hand-contact surfaces. The results showed that, where fingers come into contact with virus-contaminated material, NV is consistently transferred via the fingers to melamine surfaces and from there to other typical hand-contact surfaces, such as

J. Barker; I. B. Vipond; S. F. Bloomfield

2004-01-01

405

Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

1993-09-01

406

Boyhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia is the first reference work to focus on the life and history of U.S. boyhood through the centuries. Coverage in the encyclopedia spans education, ethnicity, sports, work, religion, and health issues. The encyclopedia's expert contributors approach topics from many disciplines, including history, cultural studies, media studies,…

Clement, Priscilla Ferguson, Ed.; Reinier, Jacqueline S., Ed.

407

Encyclopedia of Youth and War: Young People as Participants and Victims.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia provides comprehensive information on youth and war. Beginning with the 30 Years' War in the 17th century and ending with the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo, the encyclopedia covers children and youth from birth to age 18, with additional materials on young adults from 18 to 24 years of age. The encyclopedia includes over 300…

Sherrow, Victoria

408

In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20h at 4A?C or 10A?C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

2002-01-01

409

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Columbia River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project examined and analyzed 560 fish representing eight species from 16 sites in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998. Ten of the 16 sampling locations were historical National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) sites where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. Five sites were co-located at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations at which water quality is monitored. The sampling location at Marine Park in Vancouver, Washington did not correspond to either of the established monitoring programs. Eight of the sampling locations were located on the Columbia River; three were on the Snake River; two were on the Willamette River, and one site was on each of the Yakima, Salmon and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black basses (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) together accounted for 80% of the fish sampled during the study. Fish were weighed and measured then field-examined for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

410

The Encyclopedia of Life: Describing Species, Unifying Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Harvard biologist E. O. Wilson affirmed a perennial hope of biologists, taxonomists, and naturalists when in 2003 he wrote, â??An all-species encyclopedia of life is logically inevitable if for no other reason that the consolidation of biological knowledge is urgently overdue.â?ť Wilson proceeded with his vision of a Web-based encyclopedia in which there is a page devoted to each species on Earth, with links to diverse scientific databases. The species page, as envisaged, would summarize everything known about the species, from its genome and proteome to its distribution, habitat, and ecological relationships, as well as â??its practical importance for humanity.â?ť In May 2007, the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) was officially launched, with support from the Sloan and MacArthur foundations.

Richard Blaustein (freelancer; )

2009-07-01

411

Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida: Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, the Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia is great resource for information and stories about the ancient cycads. The Encyclopedia comprises numerous articles organized under such topics as Cycad Taxonomy, Biology, Evolution, Horticulture, Conservation, and more. Examples of encyclopedia articles include: a 59-frame slide show on Growing and Collecting Cycads; an interactive Key to Cycad Genera; an older article on Pollination Biology of Cycads co-authored by staff at the New York Botanical Garden and the Fairchild Tropical Garden; and a Compiled List of Cycad Genera. The site also contains a Photo Gallery with many good-quality cycad images listed by scientific name. Site visitors will also find a collection of related links, and a list of reference books.

412

Lead (II) detection and contamination routes in environmental sources, cookware and home-prepared foods from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico.  

PubMed

An interdisciplinary investigation, involving environmental geochemists, epidemiologists, nurses, and anthropologists, was undertaken to determine the contamination source and pathway of an on-going outbreak of lead poisoning among migrants originating from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico and living in Seaside, California, and among their US-born children. An initial investigation in Seaside identified grasshopper foodstuff ("chapulines") imported from Mexico and consumed as snacks, as containing alarmingly high lead concentrations (up to 2300 mg/kg). The focus in the present work concentrates on the Oaxacan area of origin of the problem in Mexico, and two potential sources of contamination were investigated: wind-borne dusts from existing mine residues as potential contaminants of soil, plant, and fauna; and food preparation practices using lead-glazed ceramic cookware. Over a three year period, sampling was conducted in Oaxaca using community-level sampling and also targeted sampling with families of cases with lead poisoning in California. In addition to fresh field chapulines, we analyzed for total lead: soil, water, mine residues, and plant materials, both from areas adjacent to or at an abandoned waste site containing mine tailings, and from fields where chapulines are collected; foodstuffs gathered in community markets or in a food transport business; and foodstuffs and cookware gathered from relatives of case families in California. Also, selected new and used lead-glazed clay cookware was extracted for lead, using 0.02 M citric acid and with 4% acetic acid. The results indicated significant presence of lead in mine wastes, in specific foodstuffs, and in glazed cookware, but no extensive soil contamination was identified. In-situ experiments demonstrated that lead incorporation in food is made very efficient through grinding of spices in glazed cookware, with the combination of a harsh mechanical action and the frequent presence of acidic lime juice, but without heating, resulting in high but variable levels of contamination. PMID:19185330

Villalobos, M; Merino-Sánchez, C; Hall, C; Grieshop, J; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M E; Handley, M A

2009-04-01

413

Groundwater Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by the Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum presents an interactive module that provides an introduction to groundwater quality issues. The information is presented as a series of slides with text, animations, quiz questions and interactive features. Topics include types of aquifers, groundwater movement, sources of contamination, the concentration and dispersion of contaminants, plumes and remediation.

Matthew Babcock

414

Environmental impacts and metal exposure of aquatic ecosystems in rivers contaminated by small scale gold mining: the Puyango River basin, southern Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold mining in the Portovelo-Zaruma district in southern Ecuador is causing considerable environmental impacts; the most important ones are related to the discharge of cyanide, mercury and metal rich tailings into rivers of the Puyango catchment area. Cyanide and metal levels in rivers regularly exceed environmental quality criteria. The contamination impacts biodiversity, with cyanide causing a direct lethal effect on

N. H Tarras-Wahlberg; A Flachier; O Sangfors

2001-01-01

415

Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) phase 3 simplified integrated test trace contaminant control subsystem performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system testing has been conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center since 1986. The phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted from July 30, 1989, through August 11, 1989, tested an integrated air revitalization system. During this test, the trace contaminant control subsystem (TCCS) was directly integrated with the bleed stream from the carbon dioxide reduction subsystem. The TCCS performed as expected with minor anomalies. The test set the basis for further characterizing the TCCS performance as part of advance air revitalization system configurations.

Perry, J. L.

1990-01-01

416

A mixture of environmental organic contaminants in lake sediments affects hatching from Daphnia resting eggs.  

PubMed

Despite the relevance of resting eggs for ecology and evolution of many aquatic organisms and their exposure to contaminants accumulating in sediments, ecotoxicological studies using resting eggs are vastly underrepresented. The authors established a method to perform exposure assays with resting eggs produced by the Daphnia longispina species complex, key species in large lake ecosystems. A mixture of organic contaminants previously detected in sediments of Lake Greifensee was selected to test the potential effect of organic contaminants present in sediments on the hatching process. Resting eggs were exposed to a mix of 10 chemicals, which included corrosion inhibitors, biocides, pesticides, and personal care products, for a period of 15?d. Using an automated counting software, the authors found a significant increase in hatching success in the exposed resting eggs compared with controls. Such an effect has not yet been reported from ecotoxicological assays with resting eggs. Possible mechanistic explanations as well as the potential implications on the ecology and evolution of aquatic species that rely on a resting egg banks are discussed. Observed increased mortality and developmental abnormalities for hatchlings in the exposure treatments can be explained by toxic contaminant concentrations. The results of the present study highlight the need for additional studies assessing the effects of organic contaminants on resting egg banks and aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25394187

Möst, Markus; Chiaia-Hernandez, Aurea C; Frey, Martin P; Hollender, Juliane; Spaak, Piet

2015-02-01

417

Drinking water from dug wells in rural ghana - salmonella contamination, environmental factors, and genotypes.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis is an important but neglected disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Food or fecal-oral associated transmissions are the primary cause of infections, while the role of waterborne transmission is unclear. Samples were collected from different dug wells in a rural area of Ghana and analyzed for contamination with bacteria, and with Salmonella in particular. In addition, temporal dynamics and riks factors for contamination were investigated in 16 wells. For all Salmonella isolates antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed, serovars were determined and strains from the same well with the same serovar were genotyped. The frequency of well water contamination with Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was 99.2% (n = 395). Out of 398 samples, 26 (6.5%) tested positive for Salmonella spp. The serovar distribution was diverse including strains not commonly isolated from clinical samples. Resistance to locally applied antibiotics or resistance to fluoroquinolones was not seen in the Salmonella isolates. The risk of Salmonella contamination was lower in wells surrounded by a frame and higher during the rainy season. The study confirms the overall poor microbiological quality of well water in a resource-poor area of Ghana. Well contamination with Salmonella poses a potential threat of infection, thus highlighting the important role of drinking water safety in infectious disease control. PMID:25826395

Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Frickmann, Hagen; Boahen, Kennedy Gyau; Frimpong, Michael; Asare, Renate; Larbi, Richard; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Marks, Florian; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

2015-01-01

418

Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

NONE

1997-01-01

419

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Bees, honey and pollen as sentinels for environmental chemical contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three beehive matrices, sampled in six different apiaries from West France, were analyzed for the presence of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4: benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and chrysene). Samples were collected during four different periods in both 2008 and 2009. Honey samples showed the lowest levels of PAH4 contamination (min=0.03?gkg?1; max=5.80?gkg?1; mean=0.82?gkg?1; Sd=1.17). Bee samples exhibited higher levels of PAH4 contamination

Olivier Lambert; Bruno Veyrand; Sophie Durand; Philippe Marchand; Bruno Le Bizec; Mélanie Piroux; Sophie Puyo; Chantal Thorin; Frédéric Delbac; Hervé Pouliquen

420

[Correlation of bacteria in the contaminated drug and the environmental microbes in the clean room for pharmaceutical microbial test investigated by FTIR].  

PubMed

The FTIR method was used to investigate the correlation of bacteria in the contaminated drug and the environmental microbes in the clean room for pharmaceutical microbial test. The similarity of bacteria in the contaminated drug and environmental microbes was compared by critical hit value method and cluster analysis method. This constructed the FTIR spectra library of clean room environmental microbe, and determined the criterion to promptly judge if the bacteria isolated from pharmaceuticals were contaminated by environment or not, hence the exactness of "one-off report" of sterile test result can be guaranteed, and can be used for the dynamic monitoring of environmental bacteria of clean room. The method is proven to be simple, accurate and rapid, and can be easily spread to the pharmaceutical microbial control. PMID:18300477

Pei, Lin; Hu, Chang-qin; Ma, Shi-hong; Dai, Hui; Hang, Tai-jun

2007-11-01

421

Reduction of Clostridium Difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods  

PubMed Central

Background Contaminated environmental surfaces may play an important role in transmission of some healthcare-associated pathogens. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of cleaning practices in rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection and examined whether an intervention would result in improved decontamination of surfaces. Methods During a 6-week period, we cultured commonly touched surfaces (i.e. bedrails, telephones, call buttons, door knobs, toilet seats, and bedside tables) in rooms of patients with CDAD and VRE colonization or infection before and after housekeeping cleaning, and again after disinfection with 10% bleach performed by the research staff. After the housekeeping staff received education and feedback, additional cultures were collected before and after housekeeping cleaning during a 10-week follow-up period. Results Of the 17 rooms of patients with VRE colonization or infection, 16 (94%) had one or more positive environmental cultures before cleaning versus 12 (71%) after housekeeping cleaning (p = 0.125), whereas none had positive cultures after bleach disinfection by the research staff (p < 0.001). Of the 9 rooms of patients with CDAD, 100% had positive cultures prior to cleaning versus 7 (78%) after housekeeping cleaning (p = 0.50), whereas only 1 (11%) had positive cultures after bleach disinfection by research staff (p = 0.031). After an educational intervention, rates of environmental contamination after housekeeping cleaning were significantly reduced. Conclusion Our findings provide additional evidence that simple educational interventions directed at housekeeping staff can result in improved decontamination of environmental surfaces. Such interventions should include efforts to monitor cleaning and disinfection practices and provide feedback to the housekeeping staff. PMID:17584935

Eckstein, Brittany C; Adams, Daniel A; Eckstein, Elizabeth C; Rao, Agam; Sethi, Ajay K; Yadavalli, Gopala K; Donskey, Curtis J

2007-01-01

422

Environmental risk increase due to heavy metal contamination caused by a copper mining activity in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Camaquă Copper Mines (CCM) were the main sulphide deposit in Southern Brazil and have been in operation from last century to 1996. To evaluate water contamination and environmental risk increase by heavy metals from mining operations, two points on the Joăo Dias Creek were sampled (Station 1, background area and Station 2, contaminated area). Mining activity increased the natural weakly heavy metal fluxes by approximately 5424 kg. (approximately 60%) of the total metal flux, 1542 kg. (approximately 49%) of dissolved and 3881 kg (approximately 66%) of particulate metal flux. Total metal flux of anthropic origin was mostly due to Fe followed by Cu > Zn > Mn whereas Cd, As and Pb fluxes were negligible. The potential human health hazards and risk assessment related to daily intake of water from Joăo Dias Creek are mostly due to Mn and should be of concern for the contaminated area. The ingestion of water from station 2 represents incremental risks of 130% and 59% respectively, considering the non-carcinogenic and the carcinogenic effects. The real increase of human health hazards may be greater than those related to the total concentrations since Mn and As dissolved concentrations were 5.5 and 2.0 higher than acceptable, respectively. PMID:11404788

Bidone, E D; Laybauer, L; Castilhos, Z C; Maddock, J L

2001-06-01

423

Further assessment of environmental contaminants in avian prey of the peregrine falcon in big bend National Park, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A small resident population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum) in the Big Bend region of Texas has suffered reproductive failures since 1990. To continue our assessment of the effects of environmental contaminants on the peregrine falcon, we collected representative avian prey species during 2001 at Mariscal Canyon, Big Bend National Park. The avian carcasses were analyzed for inorganic and organochlorine contaminants. Concentrations of Se and Hg were present at high levels (up to 11 and 2.2 ??g/g dry weight, respectively) in some avian prey and could be implicated in reproductive failures of the peregrine falcon in Big Bend National Park. All other inorganic elements were below concentrations known to affect reproduction or to be associated with other deleterious effects in birds. Of all the organochlorines analyzed, only DDE and total PCBs were present above detection limits in all species, although at low concentrations. Our study provides further support to the hypothesis that contaminants in potential avian prey of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend region are implicated in the productivity failures observed in this species since 1990.

Mora, M.A.; Skiles, R.S.; Paredes, M.

2007-01-01

424

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 8, Focused feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I, Task 5, Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) has been prepared as part of the Environmental Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Project being conducted by Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). The primary objective of this FFS was to select a cost-effective method of preventing migration of contaminated ground water across the southwestern boundary of Area C of the Base. The FFS presented in this document is a portion of a much larger effort being conducted at WPAFB. The detailed analysis of alternatives for the extraction, treatment, and discharge of contaminated ground water migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C at WPAFB led to the selection of a preferred removal action alternative. Specifically, this alternative is that ground water be extracted utilizing a three well array pumping at a total of 400 to 800 gpm, removed water be treated via air stripping to achieve appropriate effluent concentrations, and treated water be discharged to the Mad River in accordance with a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and other relevant permits.

Not Available

1992-03-01

425

Aflatoxin contamination of corn under different agro-environmental conditions and biocontrol applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biological control of the fungus Aspergillus flavus has been shown to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study compared field application of a bioplastic-based formulation for delivering atoxigenic A. flavus isolates in Northern Italy and the Mississippi Delta. RESULTS:...

426

The environmental and ethical implications of lead shot contamination of rural lands in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead shot deposited in fields and woodlands near shooting rangesand intense, upland, hunting adds an enormous tonnage of lead toenvironments, worldwide. This contamination is not remedied bybanning lead shot use only for waterfowl hunting. Lead pelletsdisintegrate extremely slowly, during which time they may beingested from the soil by wild birds, livestock, or silage-makingmachinery, and cause sublethal or fatal lead poisoning.

V. G. Thomas

1997-01-01

427

PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION BASED ON EMERGING INFORMATION (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) 1998  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate (ClO4-) is an anion that originates as a contaminant in ground water and surface waters from the dissolution of ammonium, potassium, magnesium, or sodium salts. Because perchlorate is nonlabile kinetically (i.e., the reduction of the central chlorine atom occurs extre...

428

Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment\\/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol–water partition coefficient. Techniques

J. D Petty; C. E Orazio; J. N Huckins; R. W Gale; J. A Lebo; J. C Meadows; K. R Echols; W. L Cranor

2000-01-01

429

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

Not Available

1992-03-01

430

Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

Siegel, S. M.

1973-01-01

431

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT/COMMUNICATION TOOLS FOR REVITALIZATION OF POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED SITES CD  

EPA Science Inventory

Revitalization of potentially contaminated sites is often at a disadvantage compared to greenfield development. Apart from the lower cost of land in rural areas, redevelopment is very often still seen as a rather complex time- and cost-consuming process. Additionally, the potenti...

432

Organochlorines and other environmental contaminants in muscle tissues of sportfish collected from San Francisco Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible fish species were collected from 13 locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminant levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut. 66 composite tissue samples were analysed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (P0CBs), pesticides,

Russell Fairey; Karen Taberski; Stewart Lamerdin; Eric Johnson; Ross P. Clark; James W. Downing; John Newman; Myrto Petreas

1997-01-01

433

Comparison of Two Freshwater Turtle Species as Monitors of Environmental Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemvs scrinta (Agassiz) (yellow-bellied slider) and Chelvdra sernentina (Linnaeus) (common snapping turtle) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-go, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. Significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and mercury were detected in turtles from White Oak Lake than in turtles from the reference site. In addition, turtles from White Oak Lake contained a significantly greater amount of DNA damage than those from the reference site. Although this suggests greater exposure of White Oak Lake turtles to genotoxic agents, further studies are needed to establish the cause of the enhanced amount of single-stranded breaks. Interspecific comparisons of the turtles from White Oak Lake indicated that diet may play a significant role in the exposure of turtles to certain contaminants. No difference was detected between the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co between the two species.

Meyers-Schone, L.

1990-01-01

434

Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking). In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples. PMID:23762826

Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Rusińol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Carratalŕ, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet

2013-01-01

435

Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 2: Environmental and physiological factors governing mercury flux to the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of physiological and environmental factors in governing the flux of elemental mercury from plants to the atmosphere. Five species (Lepidium latifolium, Artemisia douglasiana, Caulanthus sp., Fragaria vesca, and Eucalyptus globulus) with different ecological and physiological attributes and growing in soils with high levels of mercury contamination were examined. Studies were conducted in a whole-plant, gas-exchange chamber providing precise control of environmental conditions, and mercury flux was estimated using the mass balance approach. Mercury flux increased linearly as a function of temperature within the range of 20 to 40 C, and the mean temperature coefficient (Q{sub 10}) was 2.04. The temperature dependence of mercury flux was attributed to changes in the contaminant`s vapor pressure in the leaf interior. Mercury flux from foliage increased linearly as a function of irradiance within the range of 500 to 1,500 {micro}mol m/s, and the light enhancement of mercury flux was within a factor of 2.0 to 2.5 for all species. Even though the leaf-to-atmosphere diffusive path for mercury vapor from foliage is similar to that of water vapor, stomatal conductance played a secondary role in governing mercury flux. In a quantitative comparison with other studies in both laboratory and field settings, a strong linear relationship is evident between mercury vapor flux and the natural logarithm of soil mercury concentration, and this relationship may have predictive value in developing regional- and continental-scale mercury budgets. The most critical factors governing mercury flux from plants are mercury concentration in the soil, leaf area index, temperature, and irradiance.

Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Taylor, G.E. Jr. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01

436

Listeria spp. contamination in piggeries: comparison of three sites of environmental swabbing for detection and risk factor hypothesis.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of major concern for public health in industrialized countries. Listeria carriage by pigs at the herd level could be a primary source for carcass contamination. Forty-seven finishing pig facilities were involved in the present study designed to compare three environmental swabbing sites in order to detect Listeria spp. in piggeries. Swabs were taken from the pen walls, the perianal regions of the pigs and the trough/feeder of the piggery premises. Listeria contamination of wet or dry feed given to the pigs was also investigated. The capacity of the various sampling sites for Listeria spp. detection were compared with a maximum likelihood estimation method. Listeria spp. were recovered in 74% of the pens studied and L. monocytogenes was detected in 15% of pens. With a specificity of 99%, sensitivity estimates (and 95% CI) of the Listeria spp. detection method were 93.4% (72.7-98.7) for pen walls, 73.1% (54.9-85.9) for pigs and 66.6% (48.6-80.7) for the trough/feeder. Listeria spp. were isolated from 84% of wet feed samples and 5% of dry feed samples. Listeria monocytogenes was found in 13% of wet feed samples. The type of feeding (wet versus dry) was associated (P < 0.001) with Listeria spp. contamination of both the pen and the feed. The results of this study confirm that Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, are present in pig facilities. Pen wall swabbing appears to be an effective way to assess Listeria spp. status of finishing pigs. The type of feeding (wet versus dry) could play a role in pig contamination. PMID:12916687

Belceil, P A; Fravalo, P; Chauvin, C; Fablet, C; Salvat, G; Madec, F

2003-05-01

437

Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning.

Hull, R.N. [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States); [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-06-01

438

Biomarkers of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on swallows nesting along the Rio Grande, Texas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected adult cave swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (P. pyrrhonota) during the breeding seasons in 1999 and 2000 from eight locations along the Rio Grande from Brownsville to El Paso (unless otherwise specified, all locations are Texas, USA) and an out-of-basin reference location. Body mass, spleen mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), thyroxine (T4) in plasma, DNA damage measured as the half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA content (HPCV) in blood cells, as well as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in brain were compared with concentrations of organochlorines, metals, and metalloids in carcasses to determine potential effects of contaminants on swallows during the breeding season. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p???-DDE) were significantly greater in swallows from El Paso than in those from most locations, except for Pharr and Llano Grande. All swallows from these three locations had p,p???-DDE concentrations of 3 ??g/g wet weight or greater. Swallows from El Paso either had or shared the highest concentrations of p,p???-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 13 inorganic elements. Swallows from El Paso exhibited greater spleen mass and HPCV values as well as lower T4 values compared with those from other locations. Thyroxine was a potential biomarker of contaminant exposure in swallows of the Rio Grande, because it was negatively correlated with p,p???-DDE and Se. Spleen mass was positively correlated with selenium and HSI and negatively correlated with body mass, GSI, Mn, and Ni. Overall, the present study suggests that insectivorous birds living in areas of high agricultural and industrial activity along the Rio Grande bioaccumulate environmental contaminants. These contaminants, particularly p,p???-DDE, may be among multiple factors that impact endocrine and hematopoietic function in Rio Grande swallows. ?? 2006 SETAC.

Mora, M.A.; Musquiz, D.; Bickham, J.W.; MacKenzie, D.S.; Hooper, M.J.; Szabo, J.K.; Matson, C.W.

2006-01-01

439

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and their Effects on Fish in the Mississippi River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected, examined, and analyzed 1378 fish of 22 species from 47 sites in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) during 1995 and from a reference site in 1996. The sampling sites in the MRB represented National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations situated at key points on major rivers and National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations located on lower-order rivers and streams in the Eastern Iowa Basins (EIB) and Mississippi Embayment (MSE) Study Units. The reference site was the water supply system of the USGS-Leetown Science Center in rural Jefferson County, WV. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus spp.; bass), the targeted species, together represented 82% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organo-somatic indices, and selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of biomarkers. Fish health indicators included splenic macrophage aggregates, lysozyme activity, and hispathological analysis of liver, kidney, and other tissues. Reproductive biomarkers included analysis of plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (vtg) and the sex steroid hormones 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11- kt); and the histological determination of percent oocyte atresia (in female fish) and gonadal stage. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also measured. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organochlorine and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Organochlorine and inorganic contaminant concentrations in fish were generally low relative to historical levels at most sites, but remained present at concentrations representing threats to piscivorous wildlife in some locations. Toxaphene and DDT (mostly as p,p?-DDE) concentrations remained elevated in fish from the cottongrowing regions of the lower Mississippi valley, and were generally greater in the smaller streams draining agricultural areas (that is, in the MSE Study Unit) than at large river sites. Cyclodiene pesticide concentrations were also greatest in the EIB Study Unit and elsewhere in the corn-growing regions of the mid-MRB. Former point-sources of organochlorine pesticides also remained evident, especially in the Mississippi River near Memphis, TN. Consistent with previous findings, total PCB concentrations tended to be greatest (1-3 ?g/g) in the industrialized and urbanized Ohio River and Upper Mississippi sub-basins and at Memphis, TN, and were generally correlated with TCDD-EQ and EROD activity. Conversely, PCB concentrations were low (0.3 ?g/g) in bass from the Mississippi River at Memphis and several other sites and in carp from one MSE site. Concentrations of Se were also great enough to constitute a hazard to piscivorous wildlife (>0.6 ?g/g) at several MRB sites in the western parts of the MRB and were especially high (4-5 ?g/g) in fish from John Martin Reservoir, CO, where elevated concentrations were reported previously. Biomarker results indicated that fish from many stations had been exposed to contaminants, but at no sites did findings indicate exposure to high concentrations of toxic chemicals. Noteworthy among biomarker findings was that 73% of the male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) from the Mississippi River at Lake City, MN (Lake Pepin) were intersex as indicated by the histological detection of ovotestes; and the combined EROD and H4IIE results indicated that fish from several rural sites in the

Schmitt, Christopher J.

2002-01-01

440

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

441

The Focal Encyclopedia of Film and Television Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing convergence between film and television has brought about a need for an encyclopedia linking the two media. The volume covered here is devoted to the area of technology, to film and to television individually, and to the interrelationships which have developed between them. A historical framework is also provided, as is a survey of…

Spottiswoode, Raymond, Ed.; And Others

442

A Look at Four Encyclopedias of 1974--Especially Britannica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a panel presentation, Americana, Colliers, Britannica, and World Book encyclopedias were compared. One member described her daughter's experiences in working on Britannica II. The organization of Britannica into a Propaedia, Micropaedia, and a Macropaedia was compared with the alphabetical arrangement of the others. The complex new form was…

Youngstown and Mahoning County Public Library, Youngstown, OH.