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Sample records for environmental contaminants encyclopedia

  1. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a ... dozens of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. ...

  2. Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html Medical Encyclopedia To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia includes over 4,000 articles about diseases, ...

  3. Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/encyclopedia.html Medical Encyclopedia To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia includes over 4,000 articles about diseases, ...

  4. Encyclopedia of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert, Ed.

    This encyclopedia contains 106 articles on adult development that were written by more than 75 specialists in such diverse fields as anthropology, communication, education, health sciences, history, and psychology. In a guide to related topics that is presented at the beginning of the encyclopedia, the 106 articles are grouped under the following…

  5. Environmental contaminants and intestinal function

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, John G.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

  6. Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

  7. Environmental contaminants in California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Scott, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.; Bloom, P.H.; Stafford, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Five wild Califorinia condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumably of cyanide (CN) poisoning, and 1 nestling of handling shock. Organochlorine concentrations were low in 4 condors that were analyzed for these contaminants. Blood samples from 14 wild and 14 captive condors were analyzed primarily for Pb. Five of 14 wild condors sampled had elevated (> 0.70 ppm) concentrations of Pb in blood whereas Pb concentrations in all captive condors were low. Lead levels in individual birds often fluctuated over time. Lead exposure, especially poisoning, was a major factor affecting the wild California condor population during 1982-86. The probable source of Pb was bullet fragments in carrion on which condors were feeding.

  8. Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Noble, David G

    2009-01-01

    Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT followed by SigmaCHL were most frequently found above trace level in the shorebird carcasses. In general, the plover species (American golden, semipalmated, black-bellied) appear to be the most contaminated with organochlorines, whereas Hudsonian and marbled godwits appear to be the least contaminated. Among adult birds, the greater and lesser yellowlegs had the highest hepatic Hg concentrations (2.4-2.7 microg g(-1) dw), whereas American golden plovers as well as Hudsonian and marbled godwits contained relatively low levels of Hg (<1 microg g(-1) dw). Renal Se concentrations varied from 3.2 to 16.7 microg g(-1) dw and exhibited little interspecific or seasonal variation. Renal Cd levels in adult birds were highest in Hudsonian godwits from Quill Lakes (43 microg g(-1) dw) and Cape Churchill (12 microg g(-1) dw), and lowest (0.8-1.5 microg g(-1) dw) in greater and lesser yellowlegs from Cape Churchill and Bay of Fundy. Renal As concentrations varied from 0.06 microg g(-1) dw in golden plovers from Cape Churchill to 4.6 and 5.1 microg g(-1) dw in dunlin samples from the Pacific coast. There is no evidence that contaminants were adversely affecting the shorebirds sampled from the Canadian locations in this study. PMID:18340543

  9. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  10. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, W. H.

    When I mentioned to a colleague that there was a new, six-volume encyclopedia in ocean sciences that I had agreed to review, all he said was, "That will keep you busy for awhile." Indeed, reviewing 3000-plus pages of condensed matter is quite an order. In addition to simply reading one item after another and skipping a lot, I decided to work with the encyclopedia for a month in a writing project involving general oceanography. On the whole, the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences is comprehensive, up-to-date, well illustrated, and well written, and the writing falls somewhere between that of an introductory textbook and a professional review. The marine biology portion, which is large, is particularly accessible. If you are studying oceanography, or teaching it, do gain access to this set of volumes. You will come to treasure it as a great source of information.

  11. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palló, Gábor

    2006-11-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the students. Encyclopedias adequately expressed this vision. Some of these professors, including Johannes Alsted, were invited to Hungary, Transylvania, to introduce the encyclopedic spirit to the local schools. This act fostered the first textbook in Hungarian language written by János Apáczai Csere. This book was an encyclopedia born mostly in the Netherlands where the author studied. The Cartesian philosophy combined with a Ramist system served as the basis of the book. Its history shows how the local conditions influence the content of knowledge incorporated into a textbook.

  12. Encyclopedia of Terrorism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Cindy C.; Slann, Martin

    As recent terrorist attacks on the United States, such as the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing, and the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East have shown, terrorism is an unfortunate reality that can have potentially devastating effects on governments, businesses, and individuals. This encyclopedia provides students, researchers, journalists, and…

  13. The Microsoft Multimedia Encyclopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropiequet, Suzanne

    1986-01-01

    A multimedia encyclopedia (MME) demonstration disk has been developed by the Microsoft Corporation, which contains five-page articles on 12 subjects. Each article contains text, images, audio, and in some cases, animation and full motion digital images. Each MME article is constructed as a network of linked text, image, and sound files. With mouse…

  14. Concise Encyclopedia of Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This book provides comprehensive information on all aspects of sociolinguistics. It includes 285 articles, of which 80 are short biographical entries. Fifty of the biographies and 42 other articles are entirely new, while the remaining entries are revised and updated from the "Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics." The book provides access to…

  15. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  16. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallo, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the…

  17. [Environmental contaminants and endocrine disruptors].

    PubMed

    Fontenele, Eveline Gadelha Pereira; Martins, Manoel Ricardo Alves; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães

    2010-02-01

    The toxicity of various pollutants has been routinely investigated according to their teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. In the last few decades, however, many of such pollutants have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of human beings and other species. Currently, more than eleven million chemical substances are known in the world, and approximately 3,000 are produced on a large scale. Numerous chemical composites of domestic, industrial and agricultural use have been shown to influence hormonal activity. Examples of such chemical products with estrogenic activity are substances used in cosmetics, anabolizing substances for animal feeding, phytoestrogens and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These agents are seen in residential, industrial and urban sewerage system effluents and represent an important source of environmental contamination. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) defines as endocrine disruptors substances or mixtures seen in the environment capable of interfering with endocrine system functions resulting in adverse effects in an intact organism or its offspring. In this article the authors present a current literature review about the role of these pollutants in endocrine and metabolic diseases, probable mechanisms of action, and suggest paths of investigation and possible strategies for prevention and reduction of its possible damages. PMID:20414542

  18. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Sharon S.

    1988-01-01

    This review compares "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" with the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology," two prominent encyclopedias of chemical technology and industry. Cost, quantity of information, organization, illustrations, authorship, abbreviations, online availability, and content of articles are discussed. (MES)

  19. Information Seeking in Electronic Encyclopedias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionini, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the process involved in information seeking focuses on studies of high school students that were conducted to determine how mental models for a print encyclopedia are adapted to a full-text electronic encyclopedia. Three case studies are analyzed, and recommendations for designers of electronic encyclopedias and instructional…

  20. Concise encyclopedia of bioresource technology: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Journal of Environmental Quality requested a review of the book “The Concise Encyclopedia of Biotechnology” from the perspective of a scientist. Biotechnology is an emerging field and has rapidly become a buzzword in popular culture and politics today, yet it is not possible to be an expert in ...

  1. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. Emerging c...

  2. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

  3. The transcription factor encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

  4. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  5. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  6. Designing a Hypertext Electronic Encyclopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glushko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Identifies five design requirements for electronic encyclopedias, based on the content and structure of printed encyclopedias and the uses that people make of them. Three existing hypertext programs (Owl International's Guide, HyperCard, and HyperTIES) are compared in terms of their ability to satisfy these design requirements. (CLB)

  7. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on owls has been largely understudied. Research primarily has focused on two species, the eastern screech owl (Otus asio) and barn owl (Tyto alba). Most of this work has been conducted with captive populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, MD. In the wild, work has been, or is currently being, conducted with great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) at a Superfund site in Colorado and in agricultural croplands in Iowa, and barn owls at a Superfund site in Texas and in metal-contaminated regions of the Netherlands. As higher order consumers, owls bioconcentrate many different environmental contaminants through their prey. Owls have proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of toxic compounds, including PCB`s, metals, and fluoride. Endpoints examined include reproductive effects, eggshell thickness, residue analyses, cholinesterase inhibition, and induction of liver MFO`s. Much more work remains to be done using owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination, particularly with captive populations, salvaged individuals, raptor rehabilitation center birds, and with wild populations in areas around hazardous waste sites, smelters, landfills, agricultural croplands, and other major sources of environmental contamination.

  8. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  9. Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1996-01-01

    Covers the complex issue of how to evaluate contaminants in wildlife. This comprehensive resource deals with the question: 'How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?' Features: Authoritative and sound advice is provided on many environmental contaminants, including what the contaminants are and how to interpret the data on them. Each chapter includes a review of the literature on a specific chemical, followed by a clear technical summary that provides research guidance. Direction is given on how to interpret data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient. Data are presented in easy to use tables. Primary attention is given to toxic concentrations of contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, and fluorides.

  10. Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5299747

  11. DERMAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards from environmental contaminants have become a necessary part of life in industrial countries. In the past few decades, a number of 'new' problems have arisen (termiticide-treated premises, reentry into pesticide-treated fields, acid rain, aldicarb in ground water, dioxins...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  13. MEASUREMENT OF CONTAMINATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of environmental samples and measurement system can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. uring the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specification of appropriate blan...

  14. Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

    Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

  15. Encyclopedia of Software Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  16. Encyclopedia of software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwarren, Lloyd (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  17. Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Longnecker, M P; Daniels, J L

    2001-01-01

    For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimulate an immune response, are associated with the occurrence of these diseases. We reviewed the epidemiologic data that addressed whether environmental contaminants might cause type 1 or type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, higher intake of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, as well as higher serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with increased risk. Overall, however, the data were limited or inconsistent. With respect to type 2 diabetes, data on arsenic and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin relative to risk were suggestive of a direct association but were inconclusive. The occupational data suggested that more data on exposure to N-nitroso compounds, arsenic, dioxins, talc, and straight oil machining fluids in relation to diabetes would be useful. Although environmental factors other than contaminants may account for the majority of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the etiologic role of several contaminants and occupational exposures deserves further study. PMID:11744505

  18. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between

  19. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. )

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

  20. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, G.

    2007-07-01

    Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

  1. Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

  2. 2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

  3. Book review of "Encyclopedia of soil science"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book review describes "Encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Chesworth et al. (2008), an update of the 1979 version of "The encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Fairbridge and Finkl. It is compared with Hillel et al. (2004) second edition of "Encyclopedia of soils in the environment" and w...

  4. Mapping Environmental Contaminants at Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, Ian; Lang, Harold

    2000-01-01

    Airborne Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data was collected over Ray Mine as part of a demonstration project for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through the Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI). The overall goal of AMI is to accelerate adoption and application of advanced measurement technologies for cost effective environmental monitoring. The site was selected to demonstrate the benefit to EPA in using advanced remote sensing technologies for the detection of environmental contaminants due to the mineral extraction industry. The role of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in this pilot study is to provide data as well as performing calibration, data analysis, and validation of the AVIRIS results. EPA is also interested in developing protocols that use commercial software to perform such work on other high priority EPA sites. Reflectance retrieval was performed using outputs generated by the MODTRAN radiative transfer model and field spectra collected for the purpose of calibration. We are presenting advanced applications of the ENVI software package using n-Dimensional Partial Unmixing to identify image-derived endmembers that best match target materials reference spectra from multiple spectral libraries. Upon identification of the image endmembers the Mixture Tuned Match Filter algorithm was applied to map the endmembers within each scene. Using this technique it was possible to map four different mineral classes that are associated with mine generated acid waste.

  5. Environmental contamination due to shale gas development.

    PubMed

    Annevelink, M P J A; Meesters, J A J; Hendriks, A J

    2016-04-15

    Shale gas development potentially contaminates both air and water compartments. To assist in governmental decision-making on future explorations, we reviewed scattered information on activities, emissions and concentrations related to shale gas development. We compared concentrations from monitoring programmes to quality standards as a first indication of environmental risks. Emissions could not be estimated accurately because of incomparable and insufficient data. Air and water concentrations range widely. Poor wastewater treatment posed the highest risk with concentrations exceeding both Natural Background Values (NBVs) by a factor 1000-10,000 and Lowest Quality Standards (LQSs) by a factor 10-100. Concentrations of salts, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbons exceeded aquatic ecotoxicological water standards. Future research must focus on measuring aerial and aquatic emissions of toxic chemicals, generalisation of experimental setups and measurement technics and further human and ecological risk assessment. PMID:26845179

  6. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  7. An Electronic Encyclopedia of Remedial Options

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-10-01

    REOPT has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information about remedial action technologies, including application and regulatory information for over 700 contaminants. REOPT is a user-friendly personal computer program and database that functions like an electronic encyclopedia, sorting and presenting information to quickly familiarize engineers and planners with available remediation technologies. The system will help users focus quickly on the remediation technologies most likely to be effective for a particular site and problem,more » and presents concise, easy-to-use information about those technologies, helping users identify the key factors and constraints to consider in evaluating the use of each technology. REOPT contains information on approximately 90 established (i.e., proven) remediation technologies that could potentially be used for DOE waste-site cleanup. REOPT also contains auxiliary information about hazardous and radioactive contaminants and the federal regulations that govern their disposal. REOPT contains data for approximately 90 remedial action technologies, divided into categories according to the portion of a remedial action (i.e., containment, treatment, disposal, etc.) that they relate to or perform. Technologies are also classified according to the contaminants to which they may be applied. Contaminants may be selected from a list of approximately 700 in ten organic and four inorganic categories. The information for each technology is organized into the broad categories of descriptive information, application information, and additional information sources; these are then subdivided to allow the user to access more specific information about the technology.« less

  8. [An encyclopedia for the empire].

    PubMed

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In the preface to the universal encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The Culture of the Present), the editor-in-chief Paul Hinneberg places his project--not openly but nevertheless unequivocally--in the tradition of the French Encyclopédie that Diderot and d'Alembert had organized from 1751 until 1765. The attempt to accomplish anew such a large-scale project and, in this way, to win the German Empire the kind of intellectual leadership which the Encyclopédie, in historical retrospect, had achieved for the epoch of Enlightenment, required to convince the leading scholars, scientists, and technicians of the nation to participate in the endeavor and to assemble their contributions under a common systematic agenda through which this universal encyclopedia would distinguish itself from all dictionaries and disciplinary encyclopedias. While the Encyclopédie followed to a large extent an empiricist philosophy, Hinneberg trusted in the integrative function of the concept of culture and the ability of his contributors to elucidate the history of their respective disciplines and to connect them with neighboring fields of culture. The present contributions argues that although, from a philosophical point of view, the historicist tack taken by Hinneberg makes the concept of culture quite blurry, it nevertheless provides enough cohesive structure such that the work, even though unfinished as a consequence of war and inflation, represents a faithful picture of its epoch that Hinneberg understands as an epoch of transition. PMID:19044040

  9. The ESPERE Climate Encyclopedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Uherek, E.; Moneo, M.

    2004-12-01

    ESPERE (Environmental Science Published for Everybody Round the Earth) is a project that seeks to bring current scientific knowledge of the climate system to schools and to make it understandable for teachers, pupils and a wider public. Within ESPERE-ENC a climate encyclopaedia is being developed for use in classes. This Internet publication (URL: www.espere.net) should not only deliver peer-reviewed, reliable and topical information, but promote also the interactive exchange of scientist and non-scientists. The consortium working on this plan consists of Earth scientists on the one hand and representatives of the national educational systems on the other hand. The English master version of the encyclopaedia has been finished end of 2003 and the translation into six other languages is currently taking place, making ESPERE one of the largest providers of climate information in Europe. Building up an international Network, concentrating on the basic processes in the climate system, ESPERE should co-operate with scientific and educational institutes world wide.

  10. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  11. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].

    PubMed

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution. PMID:22977954

  12. Environmental contamination by mercury in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Jernelöv, A.

    1976-01-01

    Following the outbreak of organomercury poisoning in Iraq, an investigation was carried out during the spring and summer of 1972 to evaluate environmental contamination by organomercury. Analyses were performed on fish of several species (not typical predators) and on a few specimens of aquatic birds (not fish-eating). Most fish samples contained concentrations in muscle ranging from 0.01 to 0.15 mg/kg. These concentrations are within the range found in tropical rivers. Higher figures, 0.3-0.5 mg/kg, were found downstream from a caustic soda plant south of Baghdad. A few cases of very high mercury concentrations (25-30 mg/kg) were reported from an area where fish kills had occurred. Aquatic birds (ducks and waders) contained low concentrations of mercury (900-2750 ng/g). Tail feathers of seed-eating birds were found to contain 13 500-21 000 ng/g of mercury, which is about 10 times higher than values reported from Ethiopia and within the range found in Sweden and Canada. Insect-eating birds contained 1850-5200 ng/g, which is thought to be slightly elevated. Extremely high concentrations of mercury were found in muscle tissue of dead seed-eating birds (15 000-40 000 ng/g), while feathers contained similar concentrations (9000-52 000 ng/g). These extremely high concentrations were found only in the vicinity of storehouses where treated seed was kept. No birds of prey could be caught and analysed. PMID:1086159

  13. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will

  14. Environmental simulation testing of solar cell contamination by hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Test results for thermal vacuum and radiation environment simulation of hydrazine contamination are discussed. Solar cell performance degradation, measured by short circuit current, is presented in correlation with the variations used in environmental parameters.

  15. High Throughput Screening For Hazard and Risk of Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    High throughput toxicity testing provides detailed mechanistic information on the concentration response of environmental contaminants in numerous potential toxicity pathways. High throughput screening (HTS) has several key advantages: (1) expense orders of magnitude less than an...

  16. Data-Mining and Informatics Approaches for Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    New and emerging environmental contaminants are chemicals that have not been previously detected or that are being detected at levels significantly different from those expected in both biological and ecological arenas (that is, human, wildlife, and environment). Many chemicals c...

  17. Residue reviews: Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Vol. 92

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, F.A.; Gunther, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Volume 92 of this series consists of four chapters reviewing environmental contamination by chemicals. The most timely article summarizes the toxicological effects of the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T which were determined by direct experimentation. The latter is inevitably contaminated with dioxin. Bibliographies with full citations are provided.

  18. Project Overview: PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human health and ecological assessment issues related to environmental contamination by perchlorate are complex and continue to emerge. Perchlorate, ClO4-, is an anion that originates as a contaminant from the solid salts of ammonium, potassium or sodium perchlorate. These ...

  19. UCLA Plans Online Encyclopedia of Egyptology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) has unveiled plans for what appears to be the world's first online, peer-reviewed encyclopedia devoted to ancient Egypt. The "UCLA Encyclopedia of Egypt," which in April won a $325,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, will include material in Arabic as well as English. The…

  20. Multimedia Technology. An Encyclopedia Publisher's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Peter

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the Grolier Publishing Company's development of its encyclopedic text database by editing the machine-readable data files from which the Academic American Encyclopedia was printed, and its longer-term objective of creating a multimedia encyclopedia when the technology for a viable delivery system becomes available. Topics…

  1. Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What’s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  2. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES WITH MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging contaminants that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other agencies are currently concerned...

  3. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  4. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Bunck, C.M.; Stafford, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Bald Eagle eggs (1968-84) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury. DDE declined in WI, ME and the Chesapeake Bay. DDE was most closely related to shell thickness and reproduction at sampled breeding areas. Sixteen ppm DDE (wet weight) was associated with 15% shell thinning. Reproduction was normal when eggs at sampled breeding areas contained <3.6 ppm DDE; success was nearly halved between 3.6 and 6.3 ppm and halved again when concentrations exceeded 6.3 ppm. Other contaminants were associated with poor reproduction and eggshell thinning; however, their impact appeared secondary to that of DDE.

  5. HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R

    2011-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

  6. [Carbon monoxide contamination: an environmental health problem].

    PubMed

    Téllez, Jairo; Rodríguez, Alba; Fajardo, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is considered to be a major factor contaminating earth's atmosphere. The main sources producing this contamination are cars using gasoline or diesel fuel and industrial processes using carbon compounds; these two are responsible for 80% of carbon monoxide being emitted to the atmosphere. This substance has a well-known toxic effect on human beings and its acute poisonous effects (including death) have been widely studied; however, its long-term chronic effects are still not known. During the last few years, experimental research on animals and studies of human epidemiology have established the relationship between chronic exposure to low and middle levels of carbon monoxide in breathable air and adverse effects on human health, especially on organs consuming large amounts of oxygen such as the heart and brain. Harmful cardiovascular and neuropsychological effects have been documented in carbon monoxide concentration in air of less than 25 ppm and in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood of less than 10%. The main cardiac damage described to date has been high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythm and electrocardiograph signs of ischemia. Lack of memory, attention, concentration and Parkinson-type altered movement are the neuropsychological changes most frequently associated with chronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide and carboxyhaemoglobin. PMID:16703967

  7. Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2014-11-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  8. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  9. The toll of toxics: investigating environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, Donald W.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Barclay, John S.

    2010-01-01

    On Earth Day of this year, the British Petroleum-operated Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, 41 miles off the Louisiana coast. The blast killed 11 workers, injured 17, launched a massive oil spill, and triggered an environmental catastrophe—the full impact of which may not be realized for years.

  10. The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)

  11. A Rock Encyclopedia That Includes Rock Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laznicka, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Described is a rock encyclopedia combining rock sample sets and encyclopedic word and picture entries which can be used as a realistic information resource for independent study or as a part of a course. (JT)

  12. The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1994 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Libraries and Microcomputers, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the 1994 edition of "The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia" which is available on CD-ROM. Topics addressed include video files; content; ease of use; system requirements; cost; and print capabilities. (LRW)

  13. Assessment of environmental contaminant-induced lymphocyte dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Silkworth, J B; Loose, L D

    1981-01-01

    Although it has been established that environmental contaminants can alter immune function, the mechanisms of action have yet to be determined. This paper reviews the effects of hydrocarbon environmental contaminants on lymphocyte function and presents an approach which may serve to delineate the mechanisms of action. The approach is based on the use of the developmental phases of an immune response and assays which can be used for their functional assessment. Possible interactions between environmental contaminants and lymphocyte function and factors which must be considered in the evaluation of immune status are discussed. In addition, a study on the influence of the chronic exposure to two polyhalogenated hydrocarbons, PCB and HCB, on several parameters of lymphocyte function in mice is presented. PMID:7016518

  14. Environmental and food contamination with PCB's in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    1975-09-01

    In Japan "yusho", i.e., poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with PCB's, broke out in October 1968, and produced more than 1200 officially certified cases. Nevertheless, it was only regarded as a kind of food poisoning and its connection with environmental and biological contamination was only imperfectly taken into consideration. Finally, in the autumn of 1970, two study groups, from the Ehime University and the Kyoto City Hygienic Institute, reported on the PCB contamination of salt water and fresh water fishes in Japan. Subsequently many reports about PCB's as an environmental contaminant have been published by several study groups throughout Japan, and nowadays the PCB polluted state of Japan has become rather clearly recognized. This report will present information on environmental, food and human contamination with PCB's in Japan especially also in some typically contaminated local areas, in addition to summarizing some overall aspects of the PCB problem in Japan (e.g., the production, shipment and use of PCB's). PMID:808853

  15. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  16. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    These are the first and second volumes under the new Editor of the series that is a continuation of Residue Reviews. The nine reviews in them are as follows: Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils; Maleic hydrazide residues in tobacco and their toxicological implications; Fate and persistence of aquatic herbicides; Organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables; Biological half-lives of chemicals in fishes; Propylene chlorohydrins; toxicology, metabolism and environmental fate; The pyrolysis of cannabinoids; Pesticide fate from vine to wine; Transport and transformation of organic chemicals in the soil-air-water ecosystem.

  17. Birds and environmental contaminants in San Francisco and Chesapeake Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Fleming, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of human activities, including environmental contamination, upon bird populations in San Francisco Bay and Chesapeake Bay are imperfectly understood, and few data are available. that allow a comparison of the contamination levels in birds from these two areas. Certain trace elements and organochlorine compounds have been found at sufficiently high concentrations in bird tissues or their foods to expect adverse effects in these birds, based upon results of field and laboratory studies conducted with other avian species. The decline and recovery of populations of many avian species have been recorded, including some associated with organochlorine contamination. The present paper summarizes available information on the occurrence and potential effects of contaminants upon birds in these two regions.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  19. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  20. Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits. PMID:20587072

  1. Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; O'Neill, Marie S; Meeker, John D

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches, studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to five categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking-water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions were made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

  2. Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

  3. FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT DATA: A FORENSIC TOOL FOR EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have been conducted on behalf of the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify detection monitoring parameters for specific industries.1,2,3,4,5 One outcome of these studies was the evolution of an empirical multi-variant contaminant fingerprinting p...

  4. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  5. A survey of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, Wallingford, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Chorazy, Margaret L; Richardson, Dennis J

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in the United States to quantify the potential risk associated with encountering zoonotic ascarid ova in the environment. In an effort to raise awareness and to better understand the risk of acquiring visceral larva migrans in south central Connecticut, this environmental survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of ascarid ova (Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Baylisascaris columnaris, and Baylisascaris procyonis) in public areas of Wallingford, Connecticut, to compare prevalence levels among these public areas, and to determine what host species are primarily responsible for environmental contamination. A preliminary study was conducted to determine if ascarid ova of different species could be identified by size and appearance utilizing light microscopy alone; results did not support the differentiation of species via these methods. To determine the prevalence of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, samples of approximately 250 g of soil were collected from park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. Ova were detected in 46 (14.4%) of 319 samples collected. Ova were collected from three of the 60 (5.0%) park green area samples, 11 of the 40 (27.5%) playground samples, six of the 98 (6.1%) public housing samples, and 26 of the 96 (27.1%) parkway samples. Public areas of Wallingford, Connecticut are frequently contaminated by potentially infectious ascarid ova. Of particular concern is the high degree of contamination of playgrounds and the potential risk these areas pose to children's health. PMID:15815147

  6. Environmental technology demonstrations involving explosives contamination at the Volunteer Site

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.J.; Broder, M.F.; Jayne, E.A.

    1997-08-01

    Managed by the US Army Environmental Center, the Army`s test site at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant encompasses a 300-acre area formerly used for batch production of TNT. Soil and groundwater contamination in the test area is well characterized. A network of monitoring wells and detailed information regarding the volume, location, and concentration of soil contamination is available to potential demonstrators. On-site field and laboratory support is provided by ICI Americas Incorporated, the facility`s operator. Four demonstrations have been conducted at the test site and several are scheduled for 1997. Preliminary findings from the four demonstrations discussed will be available sometime in 1997.

  7. Contribution to encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Ocłoń, Pawel

    2015-06-01

    This paper lists the contribution in the international interdisciplinary reference - Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses (ETS). The ETS, edited by the world famous expert in field of Thermal Stresses - Professor Richard Hetnarski from Rochester Institute of Technology, was published by Springer in 2014. This unique Encyclopedia, subdivided into 11 volumes is the most extensive and comprehensive work related to the Thermal Stresses topic. The entries were carefully prepared by specialists in the field of thermal stresses, elasticity, heat conduction, optimization among others. The Polish authors' contribution within this work is significant; over 70 entries were prepared by them.

  8. Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, G A; Bain, L J

    1997-01-01

    Due to the use of a limited number of species and subchronic exposures, current ecological hazard assessment processes can underestimate the chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants resulting in adverse responses of sentinel species. Several incidences where sentinel species have responded to the effects of chronic exposure to ambient levels of environmental contaminants are discussed, including the development of neoplasia in fish, immunosuppression in marine mammals, pseudohermaphrodism in invertebrates, teratogenicity in amphibians, and aberrations in the sexual development of fish and reptiles. Biomarkers of chronic toxicity, including DNA mutations, alterations in specific protein and mRNA levels, and perturbations in metabolism, are presented. The incorporation of appropriate surrogate species and biomarkers of chronic toxicity into standard toxicity characterizations is proposed as a means of significantly refining the ecological hazard assessment process. PMID:9114278

  9. TXRF analysis of soils and sediments to assess environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Fabjola; Borgese, Laura; Cazzago, Davide; Zacco, Annalisa; Bontempi, Elza; Guarneri, Rita; Bernardello, Marco; Attuati, Silvia; Lazo, Pranvera; Depero, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) is proposed for the elemental chemical analysis of crustal environmental samples, such as sediments and soils. A comparative study of TXRF with respect to flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was performed. Microwave acid digestion and suspension preparation methods are evaluated. A good agreement was found among the results obtained with different spectroscopic techniques and sample preparation methods for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn. We demonstrated that TXRF is suitable for the assessment of environmental contamination phenomena, even if the errors for Pb, As, V, and Ba are ingent. PMID:24122164

  10. Plant sentinels and molecular probes that monitor environmental munitions contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; DeWitt, J.G.; Hill, K.K.; Kuske, C.R.; Kim, D.Y.

    1994-08-01

    Plants accumulate TNT and similar compounds from soil. Their sessile nature requires that plants adapt to environmental changes by biochemical and molecular means. In principle, it is possible to develop a monitoring capability based on expression of any gene that is activated by specific environmental conditions. The authors have identified plant genes activated upon exposure to TNT. Partial gene sequences allow design of DNA probes that measure TNT-induced gene activity. These will be used to develop sensitive assays that monitor gene expression in plants growing in environments possibly contaminated with explosives.

  11. Microlith Based Sorber for Removal of Environmental Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, S.; Perry, J.

    2004-01-01

    The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); thesemeshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit is eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype sorber device for simultaneous CO2 and trace contarninant removal and its attendant weight and energy savings.

  12. Ruditapes philippinarum and Ruditapes decussatus under Hg environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Velez, Cátia; Galvão, Petrus; Longo, Renan; Malm, Olaf; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    The native species Ruditapes decussatus and the invasive species Ruditapes philippinarum have an important ecological role and socio-economic value, from the Atlantic and Mediterranean to the Indo-Pacific region. In the aquatic environment, they are subjected to the presence of different contaminants, such as mercury (Hg) and its methylated form, methylmercury (MeHg). However, few studies have assessed the impacts of Hg on bivalves under environmental conditions, and little is known on bivalve oxidative stress patterns due to Hg contamination. Therefore, this study aims to assess the Hg contamination in sediments as well as the concentration of Hg and MeHg in R. decussatus and R. philippinarum, and to identify the detoxification strategies of both species living in sympatry, in an aquatic system with historical Hg contamination. The risk to human health due to the consumption of clams was also evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated that total Hg concentration found in sediments from the most contaminated area was higher than the maximum levels established by Sediment Quality Guidelines. This study further revealed that the total Hg and MeHg accumulation in both species was strongly correlated with the total Hg contamination of the sediments. Nonetheless, the THg concentration in both species was lower than maximum permissible limits (MPLs) of THg defined by international organizations. R. decussatus and R. philippinarum showed an increase in lipid peroxidation levels along with the increase of THg accumulation by clams. Nevertheless, for both species, no clear trend was obtained regarding the activity of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and biotransformation (glutathione S-transferase) enzymes and metallothioneins with the increase of THg in clams. Overall, the present work demonstrated that both species can be used as sentinel species of contamination and that the consumption of these clams does not constitute a risk for human health. PMID

  13. Approaches to detecting immunotoxic effects of environmental contaminants in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Tryphonas, H

    2001-01-01

    Experimental animal studies indicate that environmental contaminants can have adverse effects on several organs and tissues of the immune system. Such effects are known to lead to increased host susceptibility to microbial infections and to compromised immunosurveillance mechanisms normally instrumental in the elimination of neoplastic cells and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Evaluation of the potential risk environmental contaminants pose to the human immune system is currently accomplished via extrapolation of experimentally derived animal data to humans. Presently, this process requires that uncertainty factors such as interspecies differences and genetic variability be considered. Naturally, the process of risk assessment would be greatly facilitated if it were based on clinically relevant data derived from studying humans known to be exposed to environmental contaminants. However, the existing human data are scarce and often described as very limited in scope. To generate the much-needed human data we need to identify a set of clinically relevant immunologic end points that, when adequately standardized, can be incorporated easily into the design of prospective epidemiologic studies. PMID:11744506

  14. Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Jones, Sylvia Prys

    This encyclopedia is designed to promote bilingualism in a comprehensive and comprehensive manner and to be academically sound while remaining accessible to as wide an audience as possible. Each topic is presented in a clear, understandable style. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Individual Bilingualism" (e.g., bilingualism and the…

  15. The Treatment of the Occult in General Encyclopedias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnenfeld, Gary F.

    This paper is a content analysis of three general encyclopedias, "Encyclopedia Americana" (EA), "Encyclopaedia Brittanica" (EB), and "World Book Encyclopedia" (WBC), which quantifies the treatment of the occult. Entries are selected from each by starting with the article "Occultism" and tracing all cross-references. Cross-references are likewise…

  16. Reference Tools and Services: General Technical Encyclopedias and Engineering Handbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA. Research and Development Div.

    The reference tools discussed in these two units of the instructional package (other units are: LI004051 and LI004053 through 004055) are: General Technical Encyclopedias and Engineering Handbooks. The unit concerned with encyclopedias summarizes the basic features of a good encyclopedia and gives some general procedures which are helpful in…

  17. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

    2013-11-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. PMID:23917738

  18. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by alkylphenols.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

    2012-11-01

    Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE) are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are used in detergents, paints, herbicides, pesticides, emulsifiers, wetting and dispersing agents, antistatic agents, demulsifiers, and solubilizers. Many studies have reported the occurrence of alkylphenols in different environmental matrices, though none of these studies have yet to establish a comprehensive overview of such compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes APE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from the atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrence of compounds has been assessed for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [WWTP], atmosphere, and the natural environment), data are examined in order to understand the fate of APE in the environment and establish their geographical and historical trends. From this database, it is clear that the environment in Europe is much more contaminated by APE compared to North America and developing countries, although these APE levels have been decreasing in the last decade. APE concentrations in the WWTP effluent of developed countries have decreased by a factor of 100 over the past 30 years. This study is aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes that influence the fate and transport of these contaminants in the environment. In industrial countries, the concentrations observed in waterways now represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution in these countries, whereas sediment analyses conducted in developing countries show an increase in APE content over the last several years. Finally, similar trends have been observed in samples drawn from Europe and North America. PMID:22864754

  19. Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Christopher J; Malik, Rifhat; Cooper, Rose A; Looker, Nick; Michaels, Barry

    2003-04-01

    Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic soil), bacterial, and staphylococcal load on ward handwash station surfaces, which could be touched during handwashing, is reported. Hand contact surfaces tested consisted of approximately 620 each of: faucet handles, soap dispenser activator mechanisms, and folded paper-towel dispenser exits. Failure rates in excess of benchmark clean values were higher with adenosine triphosphate assays than microbial counts. This could indicate the presence of a higher level of general organic debris (eg, skin cells) as opposed to microbial contamination or could reflect greater assay sensitivity. Faucet handles were more likely to be contaminated and be in excess of benchmark values than paper-towel dispenser exits. However, the latter are likely to be the final surface touched during the handwashing process and overall nearly 20% were above microbiologic benchmark values. Many of the organisms isolated were staphylococci and the results are discussed within the context of microbial cross-contamination and potential pathogen spread. PMID:12665742

  20. Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mary E; Rovet, Joanne; Chen, Zupei; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2012-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to neurodevelopment, there is less information regarding the consequences of modest degrees of thyroid. The impact of low level TH disruptions induced by environmental contaminants has not been defined. This paper is a synopsis from four invited speakers who presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association meeting held in Xi'an, China during the summer of 2011. An overview of the role of TH in brain development and a review of human and animal data on the neurological sequelae of disruption of the thyroid axis in the pre- and early post-natal periods were presented by Mary Gilbert and Joanne Rovet. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of TH insufficiency and mental retardation in many countries, including China, was addressed by Zupei Chen. In this presentation the current incidence of iodine deficiency and neurological outcome in China and the efficacy of recently implemented iodinization programs to eliminate this cause of mental retardation were reviewed. Joanne Rovet described the impact of TH disruption during pregnancy and under conditions of congenital hypothyroidism. Children born with normal thyroid function, but who experienced TH insufficiency in the womb, display subtle cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain imaging. Despite early detection and treatment, deficiencies also exist in children born with thyroid disorders. Different patterns of cognitive effects result from prenatal versus postnatal TH insufficiency. Mary Gilbert reported on the effects of environmental contaminants with thyroid disrupting action on brain development in animals. Results of neurophysiological, behavioral, structural and molecular alterations that accompany modest perturbations of

  1. Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

  2. Noble metals: a toxicological appraisal of potential new environmental contaminants.

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, P E; Moran, J P; Bridbord, K; Hueter, F G

    1975-01-01

    The public health benefits expected by reducing known hazardous emissions from mobile sources should not be compromised by increasing levels of other potentially hazardous unregulated emissions. Catalytic converters are going to be used to meet the statutory requirements on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions from light duty motor vehicles. Platinum and palladium metals are the catalytic materials to be used in these emission control devices. Preliminary experimental evidence and analysis of the impact of these control devices on the future use and demand for platinum indicates that this metal may appear at detectable levels in the environment by the end of this decade. At the present time, platinum and palladium are not present in the public environment and represent potentially new environmental contaminants as a consequence of use of this new abatement control technology. There is relatively little information available to adequately assess the potential health hazards that may be associated with exposure to these metals and their compounds. Analysis of the environmental problems and concerns associated with possible new environmental contaminants are discussed. Limited estimates are made on community exposure by use of a meteorological dispersion model. Biodegradation potential and attention is also given to the limited toxicological information available. PMID:50939

  3. On the reversibility of environmental contamination with persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Deuk; Wania, Frank

    2011-10-15

    An understanding of the factors that control the time trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment is required to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reductions and to predict future exposure. Using a regional contaminant fate model, CoZMo-POP 2, and a generic bell-shaped emission profile, we simulated time trends of hypothetical chemicals with a range of POP-like partitioning and degradation properties in different compartments of a generic warm temperate environment, with the objective of identifying the processes that may prevent the reversibility of environmental contamination with POPs after the end of primary emissions. Evaporation from soil and water can prevent complete reversibility of POP contamination of the atmosphere after the end of emissions. However, under the selected conditions, only for organic chemicals within a narrow range of volatility, that is, a logarithm of the octanol air equilibrium partition coefficient between 7 and 8, and with atmospheric degradation half-lives in excess of a few month can evaporation from environmental reservoirs sustain atmospheric levels that are within an order of magnitude of those resulting from primary emissions. HCB and α-HCH fulfill these criteria, which may explain, why their atmospheric concentrations have remained relatively high decades after their main primary emissions have been largely eliminated. Soil-to-water transfer is found responsible for the lack of reversibility of POP contamination of the aqueous environment after the end of emissions, whereas reversal of water-sediment exchange, although possible, is unlikely to contribute significantly. Differences in the reversibility of contamination in air and water suggests the possibility of changes in the relative importance of various exposure pathways after the end of primary emissions, namely an increase in the importance of the aquatic food chain relative to the agricultural one, especially if the former has a benthic

  4. Quantifying sources of environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs.

    PubMed

    Morgan, E R; Azam, D; Pegler, K

    2013-04-15

    A rich body of work has reported levels of infection with Toxocara species in definitive hosts, and the frequency of eggs in the environment, in many different regions and situations. These have greatly increased our understanding of the relationship between egg excretion from companion and wild animals and the risk of human infection by inadvertent ingestion of eggs from soil and other environmental reservoirs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to compare studies directly because of vagaries in sampling and laboratory methods, a preponderance of prevalence rather than abundance data, and a lack of studies that systematically sample different sympatric definitive host populations. Such comparisons could be instructive, for example to determine the relative contributions of different definitive host populations and categories to environmental contamination in specified areas, and hence guide priorities for control. In this article we use estimates of host density and infection levels in the city of Bristol, UK, as a case study to evaluate the relative contribution of sympatric cats, dogs and foxes to overall environmental contamination with eggs. Results suggest that dogs, especially those less than 12 weeks of age, dominate total egg output, but that this is modified by degree of access to public areas and removal of faeces, such that foxes could take over as the primary source of eggs. Results and conclusions are likely to differ among specific locations. The general aim is to show how an improved quantitative framework for epidemiological studies of Toxocara spp. egg contamination can help to advance understanding and the effectiveness of control strategies in future. PMID:23333071

  5. Arsenic and dichlorvos: Possible interaction between two environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Flora, Swaran J S

    2016-05-01

    Metals are ubiquitously present in the environment and pesticides are widely used throughout the world. Environmental and occupational exposure to metal along with pesticide is an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. Our major concern is that combination of these toxicant present in environment may elicit toxicity either due to additive or synergistic interactions or 'joint toxic actions' among these toxicants. It poses a rising threat to human health. Water contamination particularly ground water contamination with arsenic is a serious problem in today's scenario since arsenic is associated with several kinds of health problems, such arsenic associated health anomalies are commonly called as 'Arsenism'. Uncontrolled use and spillage of pesticides into the environment has resulted in alarming situation. Moreover serious concerns are being addressed due to their persistence in the environmental matrices such as air, soil and surface water runoff resulting in continuous exposure of these harmful chemicals to human beings and animals. Bio-availability of these environmental toxicants has been enhanced much due to anthropological activities. Dreadfully very few studies are available on combined exposures to these toxicants on the animal or human system. Studies on the acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and DDVP are well reported and well defined. Arsenic is a common global ground water contaminant while dichlorvos is one of the most commonly and widely employed organophosphate based insecticide used in agriculture, horticulture etc. There is thus a real situation where a human may get exposed to these toxicants while working in a field. This review highlights the individual and combined exposure to arsenic and dichlorvos on health. PMID:27049126

  6. The Encyclopedia of Chemical Electrode Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Antelman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for industrial chemists concerned with chemical potential data in their day-to-day performance of experiments, The Encyclopedia of Chemical Electrode Potentials is the most comprehensive listing of chemical electrode potentials available today, including dat derived from many different reports, articles, and tabulations, and also previously unpublished complex formation EMF data. Thermodynamic calculations based on data reflecting varying conditions have made it possible to integrate results obtained at different pressures and electrolyte concentrations into a useful electromotive series. The electrochemical series which constitutes the core of the Encyclopedia embodies a novel arrangement which differentiates between anions, cations, complexes, and compounds. For the convenience of the practicing chemist, the data are made accessible in a number of different ways: all the information in the electrochemical series is reorganized into a listing of electrode potentials by element.

  7. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, 2 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Mel

    2002-03-01

    Smart materials--materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device--are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. Now, practictioners and researchers have an authoritative source to go to for answers about this emerging new area. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials provides A-to-Z coverage of the entire field of intelligent materials. Discussions of theory, fabrication, processing, applications, and uses of these unique materials are presented here in a collection of concise entries from the world's foremost experts in the field--including scientists, educators and engineers. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions. Illustrated with photographs, tables, line drawings, and equations, Encyclopedia of Smart Materials is the premier reference for material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, consultants, patent attorneys and students in these areas. An essential resource on the shelves of laboratories, government facilities, and academic libraries. Editor-in-Chief, Mel Schwartz has over forty years of experience with metals, ceramics, and composites, with special expertise in brazing. The holder of five patents, he has authored thirteen books and more than one hundred technical papers and articles. Reach the information you need rapidly and easily with the ONLINE edition of the Encyclopedia of Smart Materials. The online edition delivers all

  8. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  9. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  10. Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

    2010-10-01

    Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

  11. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S.; Lilburn, Paul; Shetty, Nandini; Brooks, Tim; Simpson, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Lado, Marta; Kamara, Thaim B.; Walker, Naomi F.; Johnson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs) and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks. PMID:26692018

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE ASSAY FOR VITELLOGENIN TO MONITOR ESTROGEN-LIKE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmental contaminants have the potential to disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife and humans resulting in impairment of reproductive and other systems. A subset of these contaminants may initiate these effects by binding to the estrogen receptor. In oviparous vertebrate...

  13. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health. PMID:26535737

  14. Raptor ecotoxicology in Spain: a review on persistent environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Calvo, José F; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez, José E

    2008-09-01

    Initial studies on the pressure from environmental contaminants on raptor populations in Spain date back to the 1980s, and they have been carried out from a range of viewpoints using a range of sentinel raptor species. However, there is no national monitoring scheme, and therefore the research carried out has been sporadic both spatially and temporally. The exposure to metals has not varied over time, except in the case of lead, whose concentration in eggs and tissues has diminished. In general, the concentrations of metals detected in raptor samples from Spain are generally low and not sufficient to produce toxic effects. Excepting DDT and DDE, most organochlorine-based pesticides in raptors from Spain have diminished over the last 2 decades. The concentrations of DDE found in the eggs of various species could in part explain problems in the reproductive success of raptors in Spain. PMID:18833796

  15. A Model for Measurements of Lognormally Distributed Environmental Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Charles B. Davis, Danny Field, Thomas E. Gran

    2009-05-21

    This paper proposes a more nearly reasonable model for the actual measurement distribution, called here the “Davis Mixed Model” (DMM). The DMM is derived by multiplying the probability density function of unobservable actual concentrations (assumed LN) by the conditional density of measurements given the concentrations (assumed heteroscedastic normal), and then integrating to obtain the marginal distribution of the observable measurements. The DMM is complicated and analytically intractable; its probability density function (PDF) is itself an integral, for example, and closed-form expressions for percentiles, let alone estimators, do not exist. The DMM can be fit to data via Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), however, and a fitted model can be used to generate data for evaluating the actual performance of candidate UTL or other estimation procedures. The Industrial Hygiene application motivating this work involves surface sampling surveys for removable beryllium (Be) contamination, with data from Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analyses. Similar issues will arise quite generally with censored environmental data for other contaminants and analytical methods. The conclusions presented in this paper focus on the regions of the DMM parameter space arising in surveying numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities associated with the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  16. Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils.

    PubMed

    Kanarbik, Liina; Blinova, Irina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Estonia is currently one of the leading producers of shale oils in the world. Increased production, transportation and use of shale oils entail risks of environmental contamination. This paper studies the behaviour of two shale fuel oils (SFOs)--'VKG D' and 'VKG sweet'--in different soil matrices under natural climatic conditions. Dynamics of SFOs' hydrocarbons (C10-C40), 16 PAHs, and a number of soil heterotrophic bacteria in oil-spiked soils was investigated during the long-term (1 year) outdoor experiment. In parallel, toxicity of aqueous leachates of oil-spiked soils to aquatic organisms (crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri) and terrestrial plants (Sinapis alba and Hordeum vulgare) was evaluated. Our data showed that in temperate climate conditions, the degradation of SFOs in the oil-contaminated soils was very slow: after 1 year of treatment, the decrease of total hydrocarbons' content in the soil did not exceed 25 %. In spite of the comparable chemical composition of the two studied SFOs, the VKG sweet posed higher hazard to the environment than the heavier fraction (VKG D) due to its higher mobility in the soil as well as higher toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species. Our study demonstrated that the correlation between chemical parameters (such as total hydrocarbons or total PAHs) widely used for the evaluation of the soil pollution levels and corresponding toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms was weak. PMID:24865504

  17. Establishing the environmental risk of metal contaminated river bank sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sarah; Batty, Lesley; Byrne, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Climate change predictions indicate an increase in the frequency and duration of flood events along with longer dry antecedent conditions, which could alter patterns of trace metal release from contaminated river bank sediments. This study took a laboratory mesocosm approach. Chemical analysis of water and sediment samples allowed the patterns of Pb and Zn release and key mechanisms controlling Pb and Zn mobility to be determined. Trace metal contaminants Pb and Zn were released throughout flooded periods. The highest concentrations of dissolved Pb were observed at the end of the longest flood period and high concentrations of dissolved Zn were released at the start of a flood. These concentrations were found to exceed environmental quality standards. Key mechanisms controlling mobility were (i) evaporation, precipitation and dissolution of Zn sulphate salts, (ii) anglesite solubility control of dissolved Pb, (iii) oxidation of galena and sphalerite, (iv) reductive dissolution of Mn/Fe hydroxides and co-precipitation/adsorption with Zn. In light of climate change predictions these results indicate future scenarios may include larger or more frequent transient 'pulses' of dissolved Pb and Zn released to river systems. These short lived pollution episodes could act as a significant barrier to achieving the EU Water Framework Directive objectives.

  18. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  19. Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    SciTech Connect

    Blow, M. J.; Deutschbauer, A. M.; Hoover, C. A.; Lamson, J.; Lamson, J.; Price, M. N.; Waters, J.; Wetmore, K. M.; Bristow, J.; Arkin, A. P.

    2013-03-20

    Bacteria and Archaea exhibit a huge diversity of metabolic capabilities with fundamental importance in the environment, and potential applications in biotechnology. However, the genetic bases of these capabilities remain unclear due largely to an absence of technologies that link DNA sequence to molecular function. To address this challenge, we are developing a pipeline for high throughput annotation of gene function using mutagenesis, growth assays and DNA sequencing. By applying this pipeline to annotate gene function in 50 diverse microbes we hope to discover thousands of new gene functions and produce a proof of principle `Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea?.

  20. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports. PMID:22002748

  1. Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

  2. Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

    2011-08-30

    Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

  3. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  4. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  5. Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for young coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel). The report provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian subacute dietary toxicity tests and is primarily intended for use in ranking toxicities by a standard method that has a reasonable degree of environmental relevance. Findings are presented in two parts: Part I is a critique of selected drugs that includes discussion of subacute toxicity in relation to chemical class and structure, pesticide formulation, and age of animals; Part II is a summary of toxicologic findings for each test substance and provides a statistically basis for comparing toxicities. Data presented include the median lethal concentration (LC50), slope of the probit regression curve (dose-response curve), response chronology, and food consumption. We observed that: 1) fewer than 15% of the compounds were classed 'very' or 'highly' toxic (i.e, LC50 < 200 ppm) and all of these were either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, or organometallics; 2) subacute toxicity may vary widely among structurally similar chemicals and between different formulations of the same chemical; therefore, conclusions about lethal hazard must be made cautiously until the actual formulation of inset has been tested: 3) inclusion of a general standard in each battery of tests is useful for detection of atypical trials and monitoring population changes but should not be used indiscriminantly for adjusting LC50's for intertest differences unless the chemicals of concern and the standard elicit their toxicities through the same action; 4) although other species have been tested effectively under the subacute protocol, coturnix were ideal for the stated purpose of this research because they are inexpensive, well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and yield good intertest

  6. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    First awareness that direct topical application of xenobiotics to bird eggs could be harmful to avian development dates back to the turn of the century. The most widely documented evidence of embryotoxicity following direct exposure comes from petroleum contaminant studies, conducted with at least 10 different avian species. Many petroleum crude oils, refined oils, and waste oils are embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic to different species; LD50s are often less than 5 iL of oil per egg. Toxicity is generally dependent upon the PAH concentration and composition (presence of higher weight PAHs). Five of seven industrial effluents caused significant reduction of embryonic growth in mallards following brief immersion of the eggs. Of the insecticides, organophosphates have been the most widely studied with respect to potential for direct embryotoxicity and teratogenicity following spraying or immersion of eggs. Phenoxy herbicides including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T have been the most widely studied class of herbicides with respect to potential embryotoxicity of spray application. However, more recent evaluations have indicated that this is not the most toxic class of herbicides. Paraquat was found to be highly toxic in at least three species. Herbicides with LC50s that occurred at ten times the field level of application or less for mallard embryos included bromoxynil with MCPA, methyldiclofop, paraquat, prometon, propanil, and trifluralin. Of different gaseous and particulate air pollutants, ozone and particulates rich in PAH content appeared to be potentially embryotoxic, based on laboratory studies. Environmental contaminants in all classes reviewed have been shown to cause physiological and biochemical disturbances in embryos or hatchlings indicative of contaminant exposure, organ damage, or delayed development. Residue studies have shown the presence of DDT, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, decamethrin, petroleum hydrocarbons, and methylmercury after direct exposure of eggs. Ability of

  7. enviPath – The environmental contaminant biotransformation pathway resource

    PubMed Central

    Wicker, Jörg; Lorsbach, Tim; Gütlein, Martin; Schmid, Emanuel; Latino, Diogo; Kramer, Stefan; Fenner, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database and Pathway Prediction System (UM-BBD/PPS) has been a unique resource covering microbial biotransformation pathways of primarily xenobiotic chemicals for over 15 years. This paper introduces the successor system, enviPath (The Environmental Contaminant Biotransformation Pathway Resource), which is a complete redesign and reimplementation of UM-BBD/PPS. enviPath uses the database from the UM-BBD/PPS as a basis, extends the use of this database, and allows users to include their own data to support multiple use cases. Relative reasoning is supported for the refinement of predictions and to allow its extensions in terms of previously published, but not implemented machine learning models. User access is simplified by providing a REST API that simplifies the inclusion of enviPath into existing workflows. An RDF database is used to enable simple integration with other databases. enviPath is publicly available at https://envipath.org with free and open access to its core data. PMID:26582924

  8. Which coastal and marine environmental contaminants are truly emerging?

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Tang, Chi-Li; Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the past and present impact of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal and marine ecosystems, archived samples were analyzed for a broad suite of analytes, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), flame retardants (including PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and current-use pesticides. Surface sediment, mussels (Mytilus spp.) and sediment core samples collected from the California (USA) coast were obtained from environmental specimen banks. Selected CECs were detected in recent surface sediments, with nonylphenol (4-NP), its mono- and di-ethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO), triclocarban, and pyrethroid insecticides in the greatest abundance. Alkylphenols, triclocarban, and triclosan were present in sediment core segments from the 1970s, as well as in Mytilus tissue collected during the 1990s. Increasing concentrations of some CECs (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) were observed in the surface layers (ca. 2007) of a sediment core, in contrast to peak concentrations of 4-NP and triclocarban corresponding to input during the 1970s, and an apparent peak input for PBDEs during the 1990s. These results suggest that chemicals sometimes referred to as "emerging" (e.g., alkylphenols, triclocarban) have been present in the aquatic environment for several decades and are decreasing in concentration, whereas others (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) are increasing. PMID:24743956

  9. Propolis as an indicator of environmental contamination by metals.

    PubMed

    Finger, Daiane; Filho, Irineo Kelte; Torres, Yohandra Reyes; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

    2014-03-01

    Concentrations of eleven representative metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn) in forty-two propolis samples were measured by electrothermal atomization and flame atomic absorption spectrometry after calcination in a muffle furnace. Samples were collected from different regions from Paraná State - Brazil where apiculture is an important economic activity. Results showed that the average content of Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn in propolis was 0.68, 1.66, 7.59, 1.27, 0.08, 0.58 and 0.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Levels of Al, Ca, and Mg were statistically different in some regions of Paraná and could be used to assign the geographical origin of the propolis. The average concentration of the Cd, Cr, and Pb in raw propolis was 0.13, 5.53 and 9.85 μg g(-1), respectively, and allowed for identification of specific areas with environmental contamination. PMID:24414164

  10. enviPath--The environmental contaminant biotransformation pathway resource.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Jörg; Lorsbach, Tim; Gütlein, Martin; Schmid, Emanuel; Latino, Diogo; Kramer, Stefan; Fenner, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database and Pathway Prediction System (UM-BBD/PPS) has been a unique resource covering microbial biotransformation pathways of primarily xenobiotic chemicals for over 15 years. This paper introduces the successor system, enviPath (The Environmental Contaminant Biotransformation Pathway Resource), which is a complete redesign and reimplementation of UM-BBD/PPS. enviPath uses the database from the UM-BBD/PPS as a basis, extends the use of this database, and allows users to include their own data to support multiple use cases. Relative reasoning is supported for the refinement of predictions and to allow its extensions in terms of previously published, but not implemented machine learning models. User access is simplified by providing a REST API that simplifies the inclusion of enviPath into existing workflows. An RDF database is used to enable simple integration with other databases. enviPath is publicly available at https://envipath.org with free and open access to its core data. PMID:26582924

  11. Encyclopedias of Astronomical Biographies - Status and Prospects --

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    Simple requests for biographies of famous astronomers can easily be satisfied. Short accounts of their lives are to be found in many books and encyclopedias. However, most of these sources are very incomplete, i. e.\\ do not provide information on less famous persons, and are not up to scientific standards. The most comprehensive sources of scientific biographies, Poggendorffs Biographisch-Literarisches Handwoerterbuch and Dictionary of Scientific Biography, are also not complete, partly not up-to-date and for most users not easily accessible. The most recent and most comprehensive dictionary of astronomical biography, containing 500 short entries, was written in Russian. Although a lot of information on biographies is available in publications, these are spread over thousands of volumes. There is no bibliography of these papers and books. During the last three years, short biographies of astronomers were also published in the World Wide Web. Some of these are on a very high scientific level. The author's collection of links to such WWW pages (http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/~pbrosche/hist\\_astr/ ha\\_pers.html}) contains currently several thousand entries for more than 1200 persons related to the history of astronomy. This electronic ``encyclopedia'' in distributed form is now the most comprehensive and concentrated source for astronomical biographies. However, there are several problems arising from the electronic form of publication and from the uncoordinated and not always qualified efforts of the authors. The paper will discuss proposals, plans and first results of filling the gaps and increasing the quality, as well as some principal problems of writing short biographies and making them available to the public.

  12. Environmental mercury contamination in China: sources and impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wong, M H

    2007-01-01

    This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). The first case study indicated that after closure of the acetic acid plant 20 years at Songyuan City (Jilin Province), 16.7% of residents' hair still contained Hg concentration in excess of 1 mg/kg (the reference dosage value, RfD set by USEPA). The second case study indicated that the male residents of Hong Kong who consumed more than four or more meals of fish per week tended to contain higher Hg in their hair, which was linked to their subfertility. There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings. Adverse health effects of residents living in places with a higher background level of

  13. Adverse morphological development in embryonic zebrafish exposed to environmental concentrations of contaminants individually and in mixture.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Cassandra D; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Habibi, Hamid R

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been linked to developmental and reproductive abnormalities leading to infertility, spontaneous abortion, reduced number of offspring, and metabolic disorders. In addition, there is evidence linking environmental contaminants and endocrine disruption to abnormal developmental rate, defects in heart and eye morphology, and alterations in behavior. Notably, these effects could not be explained by interaction with a single hormone receptor. Here, using a whole-organism approach, we investigated morphological changes to developing zebrafish caused by exposure to a number of environmental contaminants, including bisphenol A (BPA), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol, and fucosterol at concentrations measured in a local water body (Oldman River, AB), individually and in mixture. Exposure to nanomolar contaminant concentrations resulted in abnormal morphological development, including changes to body length, pericardia (heart), and the head. We also characterize the spatiotemporal expression profiles of estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone receptors to demonstrate that localization of these receptors might be mediating contaminant effects on development. Finally, we examined the effects of contaminants singly and in mixture. Combined, our results support the hypothesis that adverse effects of contaminants are not mediated by single hormone receptor signaling, and adversity of contaminants in mixture could not be predicted by simple additive effect of contaminants. The findings provide a framework for better understanding of developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants in zebrafish and other vertebrate species. PMID:27107150

  14. Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

    1985-01-01

    Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

  15. Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

  16. Application of solid phase microextraction to the analysis of chlorinated contaminants in environmental matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, G.R.B.; Sarna, L.P.; Anderson, K.L.; Graham, K.N.

    1994-12-31

    Contamination of aquatic and terrestrial systems with organic contaminants is an increasing toxicological problem. In both the monitoring of such contamination and the determination of the success of remediation methods, straightforward and inexpensive analytical methodology increases the ease of environmental assessment and facilitates regulatory enforcement. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) technology is a recently developed solvent less extraction system with the potential for application to the analysis of a wide range of compounds. Application of SPME, in combination with gas chromatography and GC-MS, will be described for the analysis of chlorinated environmental contaminants such as pesticides and selected PCBs, dioxins, and furans in soils, sediments, and water.

  17. Manure-borne estrogens as potential environmental contaminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Travis A; Graetz, Donald A; Wilkie, Ann C

    2003-12-15

    Livestock wastes are potential sources of endocrine disrupting compounds to the environment. Steroidal estrogen hormones such as estradiol, estrone, and estriol are a particular concern because there is evidence that low nanogram per liter concentrations of estrogens in water can adversely affect the reproductive biology of fish and other aquatic vertebrate species. We performed a literature review to assess the current state of science regarding estrogen physicochemical properties, livestock excretion, and the fate of manure-borne estrogens in the environment. Unconjugated steroidal estrogens have low solubility in water (0.8-13.3 mg L(-1)) and are moderately hydrophobic (log Kow 2.6-4.0). Cattle excrete mostly 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts, whereas swine and poultry excrete mostly 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts. The environmental fate of estrogens is not clearly known. Laboratory-based studies have found that the biological activity of these compounds is greatly reduced or eliminated within several hours to days due to degradation and sorption. On the other hand, field studies have demonstrated that estrogens are sufficiently mobile and persistent to impact surface and groundwater quality. Future research should use standardized methods for the analysis of manure, soil, and water. More information is needed about the types and amounts of estrogens that exist in livestock wastes and the fate of manure-borne estrogens applied to agricultural lands. Field and laboratory studies should work toward revealing the mechanisms of estrogen degradation, sorption, and transport so that the risk of estrogen contamination of waterways can be minimized. PMID:14717153

  18. Uppsala Consensus Statement on Environmental Contaminants and the Global Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Lars; Lind, P. Monica; Lejonklou, Margareta H.; Dunder, Linda; Bergman, Åke; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Lampa, Erik; Lee, Hong Kyu; Legler, Juliette; Nadal, Angel; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Phipps, Richard P.; Vandenberg, Laura N.; Zalko, Daniel; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Öberg, Mattias; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: From the lectures presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Obesity and Environmental Contaminants, which was held in Uppsala, Sweden, on 8–9 October 2015, it became evident that the findings from numerous animal and epidemiological studies are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental contaminants could contribute to the global obesity epidemic. To increase awareness of this important issue among scientists, regulatory agencies, politicians, chemical industry management, and the general public, the authors summarize compelling scientific evidence that supports the hypothesis and discuss actions that could restrict the possible harmful effects of environmental contaminants on obesity. PMID:27135406

  19. Association between Indoor Environmental Contamination by Salmonella enterica and Contamination of Eggs on Layer Farms

    PubMed Central

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Torok, Valeria; Sexton, Margaret; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2014-01-01

    This study involves longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella carriage and environmental contamination on two commercial cage layer farms positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (flock A age, 32 weeks; flock B age, 34 weeks). Salmonella-positive fecal, egg belt, and dust samples were all unconditionally associated with eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. The odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella were 91.8, 61.5, and 18.2 times higher when fecal, egg belt, and dust samples, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella. The agreement between the culture-based methods and real-time PCR on preenriched broths for detecting Salmonella was almost perfect for eggshell (observed agreement, 99.19%; kappa coefficient, 0.94) and egg belt samples (observed agreement, 95%; kappa coefficient, 0.88), and it was substantial for fecal (observed agreement, 87.14%; kappa coefficient, 0.47) and floor dust samples (observed agreement, 80.61%; kappa coefficient, 0.58). A 1-log increase in the load of Salmonella detected in the fecal, egg belt, and floor dust samples resulted in 35%, 43%, and 45% increases, respectively (P < 0.001), in the odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella. The multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) patterns of the S. Typhimurium strains isolated from flock A were distinct from those of flock B. S. Typhimurium strains detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited an MLVA pattern similar to those of the strains isolated from flocks A and B. PMID:24966362

  20. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill.

  1. Modeling environmental loading rates of municipal wastewater contaminants: steroidal estrogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estrogenic compounds in municipal wastewater are of substantial interest because of suspicion that they may cause reproductive disruption in aquatic invertebrates, and because of their potential to contaminate human drinking water sources. Previous work suggests the primary contr...

  2. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-Ya; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Da-Zhou; Li, Yu

    2013-10-15

    A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including "residential land" and "industrial land" environmental guidelines under "strict" and "loose" strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management. PMID:23995555

  3. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FINELY DIVIDED PARTICULATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS FOR BIOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to provide a centralized source for the preparation and characterization of selected particulate materials for biological experiments. The particulate materials of interest were a range of environmental contaminants known or suspected to detrimenta...

  4. Emerging Disinfection By-Products and Other Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What’s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover new research and concerns regarding drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and other emerging environmental contaminants, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), pharmaceuticals, perchlorate, benzotriazoles, fuel additives (e.g., ethylene dibro...

  5. SUITABILITY OF CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS) FOR INVESTIGATING REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) are being studied at our laboratory as a model species to determine the effects of environmental contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), on estuarine fish populations. Cunner are easily obtainable and are amenable to laborator...

  6. MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  7. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  8. MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  9. MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

  10. UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

  11. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. ); Schuler, C.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Bees, honey and pollen as sentinels for lead environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Olivier; Piroux, Mélanie; Puyo, Sophie; Thorin, Chantal; Larhantec, Michaëlle; Delbac, Frédéric; Pouliquen, Hervé

    2012-11-01

    Three beehive matrices, sampled in eighteen apiaries from West France, were analysed for the presence of lead (Pb). Samples were collected during four different periods in both 2008 and 2009. Honey was the matrix the least contaminated by Pb (min = 0.004 μg g(-1); max = 0.378 μg g(-1); mean = 0.047 μg g(-1); sd = 0.057). The contamination of bees (min = 0.001 μg g(-1); max = 1.869 μg g(-1); mean = 0.223 μg g(-1); sd = 0.217) and pollen (min = 0.004 μg g(-1); max = 0.798 μg g(-1); mean = 0.240 μg g(-1); sd = 0.200) showed similar levels and temporal variations but bees seemed to be more sensitive bringing out the peaks of Pb contamination. Apiaries in urban and hedgerow landscapes appeared more contaminated than apiaries in cultivated and island landscapes. Sampling period had a significant effect on Pb contamination with higher Pb concentrations determined in dry seasons. PMID:22842054

  13. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

    2007-09-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

  14. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  15. A framework for net environmental benefit analysis for remediation or restoration of contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Efroymson, Rebecca A; Nicolette, Joseph P; Suter, Glenn W

    2004-09-01

    Net environmental benefits are gains in value of environmental services or other ecological properties attained by remediation or ecological restoration minus the value of adverse environmental effects caused by those actions. Net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) is a methodology for comparing and ranking net environmental benefits associated with multiple management alternatives. A NEBA for chemically contaminated sites typically involves comparison of several management alternatives: (1) leaving contamination in place; (2) physically, chemically, or biologically remediating the site through traditional means; (3) improving ecological value through onsite and offsite restoration alternatives that do not directly focus on removal of chemical contamination; or (4) a combination of those alternatives. NEBA involves activities that are common to remedial alternatives analysis for state regulations and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, post-closure and corrective action permits under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, evaluation of generic types of response actions pertinent to the Oil Pollution Act, and land management actions that are negotiated with regulatory agencies in flexible regulatory environments (i.e., valuing environmental services or other ecological properties, assessing adverse impacts, and evaluating remediation or restoration options). This article presents a high-level framework for NEBA at contaminated sites with subframeworks for natural attenuation (the contaminated reference state), remediation, and ecological restoration alternatives. Primary information gaps related to NEBA include nonmonetary valuation methods, exposure-response models for all stressors, the temporal dynamics of ecological recovery, and optimal strategies for ecological restoration. PMID:15520889

  16. PPCPS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large, diverse array of contaminants that

    can enter the environment from the combined activities, actions, and behaviors of multitudes of individuals

    as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http:...

  17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Emerging Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  18. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. PMID:26123540

  19. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

  20. The lead content of plants and animals as indicators of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Adaudi, A.O.; Gbodi, T.A.; Aliu, Y.O. )

    1990-10-01

    Lead content of tissues from some edible plants, pigeons and a vulture, and from human and cattle blood were determined to gain insight into the extent of environmental lead contamination in Zaria and Kaduna environs of Kaduna state of Nigeria. The results suggest that environmental lead contamination in these areas was insignificant when compared to values from developed countries like US. However, there is need for more work of this nature on a regional basis to ascertain the true picture of total environmental lead pollution in Nigeria.

  1. Importance of stationarity for geostatistical assessment of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dagdelen, K.; Turner, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a geostatistical case study to assess TCE contamination from multiple point sources that is migrating through the geologically complex conditions with several aquifers. The paper highlights the importance of the stationarity assumption by demonstrating how biased assessments of TCE contamination result when ordinary kriging of the data that violates stationarity assumptions. Division of the data set into more homogeneous geologic and hydrologic zones improved the accuracy of the estimates. Indicator kriging offers an alternate method for providing a stochastic model that is more appropriate for the data. Further improvement in the estimates results when indicator kriging is applied to individual subregional data sets that are based on geological considerations. This further enhances the data homogeneity and makes use of stationary model more appropriate. By combining geological and geostatistical evaluations, more realistic maps may be produced that reflect the hydrogeological environment and provide a sound basis for future investigations and remediation.

  2. Active capping technology: a new environmental remediation of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Zhu, Meng-Ying; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhu; Shen, Liu-Qing

    2016-03-01

    The management and treatment of contaminated sediment is a worldwide problem and poses major technical and economic challenges. Nowadays, various attempts have been committed to investigating a cost-effective way in contaminated sediment restoration. Among the remediation options, in situ capping turns out to be a less expensive, less disruptive, and more durable approach. However, by using the low adsorption capacity materials, traditional caps do not always fulfill the reduction of risks that can be destructive for human health, ecosystem, and even natural resources. Active caps, therefore, are designed to employ active materials (activated carbon, apatite, zeolite, organoclay, etc.) to strengthen their adsorption and degradation capacity. The active capping technology promises to be a permanent and cost-efficient solution to contaminated sediments. This paper provides a review on the types of active materials and the ways of these active materials employed in recent active capping studies. Cap design considerations including site-specific conditions, diffusion/advection, erosive forces, and active material selection that should be noticed in an eligible remediation project are also presented. PMID:26762937

  3. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (ΣPCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 μg kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks. PMID:22934994

  4. A longitudinal study of environmental Salmonella contamination in caged and free-range layer flocks.

    PubMed

    Wales, Andrew; Breslin, Mark; Carter, Ben; Sayers, Robin; Davies, Robert

    2007-06-01

    The environmental contamination by salmonella was examined over a 12-month period in 74 commercial layer flocks from eight farms in the UK, which previously had been identified as being contaminated with salmonella. Samples of faeces, dust, litter, egg belt spillage and wildlife vectors were taken, plus swabs of cages, feeders, drinkers, floors, egg belts and boots. Some sampling was performed in each month of the year. Numerous serovars were detected but Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was the only persistent serotype found among single-age flocks. There was a significant correlation between qualitative environmental samples and semi-quantitative faeces samples. The level of environmental contamination increased significantly over time. There were significant temperature and seasonal effects upon contamination. Wildlife vectors proved to be sensitive samples for the detection of salmonella. The efficacy of cleaning and disinfection upon residual salmonella contamination, and upon subsequent flock contamination, was highly variable between and within premises. The variability between detected prevalences over time and between flocks indicates a need for regular, sensitive monitoring of flocks for salmonella to permit targeting of control measures aimed at eliminating contamination of the layer environment by salmonella. There is substantial scope for improvement of cleaning and disinfection procedures. PMID:17497330

  5. Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will...

  6. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  7. Potential of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for remediation of environmental organic contaminants in water: a review.

    PubMed

    Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Scheytt, Traugott

    2013-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has the potential to degrade different organic contaminants. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) can reduce the contaminants even more rapidly due to its small size and large specific surface area (SSA), compared to granular ZVI. The main objective of this paper is to assess and compare the potential of NZVI for degradation of different contaminants in water under specific environmental conditions. As a first step, the potential reactive functional groups/bonds associated with different contaminants are identified and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. Thereafter, the reaction efficiencies of different organic contaminants with NZVI are compared. Mass of ZVI and reaction time required to transform a certain amount of contaminated water are calculated based on literature data. Sources of contaminants in the environment and their environmental occurrences are discussed to understand the potential locations where NZVI could be applied for removal of different contaminants. Overall it is observed that azo-compounds are readily transformed in the presence of NZVI particles. Reaction efficiencies of ZVI for reduction of nitro-organic compounds are also reasonably high. However, halogenated compounds with high molecular weights or complex structures (i.e., iodinated contrast media, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) show lower reaction rates with NZVI compared to the widely studied chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e., trichloroethylene). PMID:24135090

  8. CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

  9. Metal resistant plants and phytoremediation of environmental contamination

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om P.

    2010-04-20

    The present disclosure provides a method of producing transgenic plants which are resistant to at least one metal ion by transforming the plant with a recombinant DNA comprising a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenic reductase under the control of a plant expressible promoter, and a nucleic acid encoding a nucleotide sequence encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme under the control of a plant expressible promoter. The invention also relates a method of phytoremediation of a contaminated site by growing in the site a transgenic plant expressing a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenate reductase and a nucleic acid encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme.

  10. Environmental contamination by multidrug-resistant microorganisms after daily cleaning.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà, Laura; Pequeño, Sandra; Soriano, Ana; Dominguez, M Angeles

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed 91 samples of high-touch surfaces obtained within the first hour after daily cleaning in intensive care unit rooms occupied with patients with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We determined that 22% of high-touch surfaces in rooms with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus patients and 5% of high-touch surfaces in rooms with multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa patients were colonized with the same strain as the patient. We postulated that textile cleaning wipes could be contaminated with MDROs and may contribute to its spreading within the room. PMID:25907783

  11. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  12. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  13. The stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, as a potential indicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rosa, Annelise; I'Anson Price, Robbie; Ferreira Caliman, Maria Juliana; Pereira Queiroz, Elisa; Blochtein, Betina; Sílvia Soares Pires, Carmen; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-08-01

    Neonicotinoids have the potential to enter the diet of pollinators that collect resources from contaminated plants. The species Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure, 1942) can be a useful indicator of the prevalence of these chemicals in the environment. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the authors devised a protocol for neonicotinoid residue extraction and detected the presence of neonicotinoids in the bee bodies. Thus, the authors consider this species to be a potential indicator of environmental contamination. PMID:26190578

  14. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement

  15. Delineation of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils and Sediments With Environmental Magnetic Methods: Laboratory and Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Kappler, A.; Blaha, U.; Petrovsky, E.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of soils and sediments is a worldwide environmental problem. The present research focuses on the study of magnetic properties of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments using environmental magnetic methods both on field sites as well as in laboratory batch experiments. The main objectives of this research are i) to determine a possible application of magnetic proxies for the delineation of organic contamination in soils and sediments and ii) to examine the role of bacteria in changing soil magnetic properties after hydrocarbon contamination. A former oil field and a former military site which are heavily contaminated with hydrocarbons were studied. Additionally, three different types of natural clean soils were investigated in laboratory experiments by simulating hydrocarbon contamination in sterile and microbial active setups. Magnetic properties, soil properties, iron bioavailability, iron redox state and hydrocarbon content of samples were measured. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility (MS) was monitored weekly in laboratory batch set-ups during several months. Results from the field sites showed that there is an increase of MS and a good correlation between MS and hydrocarbon content. A weekly monitored MS result from the laboratory study clearly indicated~~10% change (increase as well as decrease) of initial MS of respective soils only in microbial active set-ups with saturation after a few weeks of experimental period. This depicts that there is a change of MS caused by microbial iron mineral transformation in presence of hydrocarbon contamination in soils. The results from the field study demonstrate that magnetic proxies can be used to localize hydrocarbon contamination. However, more field sites with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments need to be investigated by using environmental magnetic methods for better understanding the factors driving such changes in magnetic properties.

  16. Carbon nanomaterials in clean and contaminated soils: environmental implications and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riding, M. J.; Martin, F. L.; Jones, K. C.; Semple, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The exceptional sorptive ability of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) is driven by their characteristically large reactive surface areas and highly hydrophobic nature. Given these properties, it is possible for CNMs to impact on the persistence, mobility and bioavailability of contaminants within soils, either favourably through sorption and sequestration, hence reducing their bioavailability, or unfavourably through increasing contaminant dispersal. This review considers the complex and dynamic nature of both soil and CNM physicochemical properties to determine their fate and behaviour, together with their interaction with contaminants and the soil microflora. It is argued that assessment of CNMs within soil should be conducted on a case-by-case basis and further work to assess the long-term stability and toxicity of sorbed contaminants, as well as the toxicity of CNMs themselves, is required before their sorptive abilities can be applied to remedy environmental issues.

  17. Potential effects of environmental chemical contamination in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Francesca; Chiappa, Enrico; Gargani, Luna; Picano, Eugenio

    2014-04-01

    There is compelling evidence that prenatal exposures to environmental xenobiotics adversely affect human development and childhood. Among all birth defects, congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent of all congenital malformations and remains the leading cause of death. It has been estimated that in most cases the causes of heart defects remain unknown, while a growing number of studies have indicated the potential role of environmental agents as risk factors in CHD occurrence. In particular, maternal exposure to chemicals during the first trimester of pregnancy represents the most critical window of exposure for CHD. Specific classes of xenobiotics (e.g. organochlorine pesticides, organic solvents, air pollutants) have been identified as potential risk factors for CHD. Nonetheless, the knowledge gained is currently still incomplete as a consequence of the frequent heterogeneity of the methods applied and the difficulty in estimating the net effect of environmental pollution on the pregnant mother. The presence of multiple sources of pollution, both indoor and outdoor, together with individual lifestyle factors, may represent a further confounding element for association with the disease. A future new approach for research should probably focus on individual measurements of professional, domestic, and urban exposure to physical and chemical pollutants in order to accurately retrace the environmental exposure of parents of affected offspring during the pre-conceptional and pregnancy periods. PMID:24452958

  18. Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous type...

  19. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

    1994-01-01

    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  20. Environmental contaminants in canvasbacks wintering on San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of 11 trace elements, 21 organochlorines, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 13 aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined in canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering on San Francisco Bay, California during 1988. With the exception of Se, concentrations of potentially toxic elements were low. Similarly, concentrations of most organic compounds were near or below detection limits. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and DDE were common, but at levels lower than those known to be harmful to waterfowl. Innocuous trace elements (Cu, Fe, and Zn), which are often associated with anthropogenic contamination, occurred at high levels. Concentrations of toxic elements were several times lower and those of benign elements were similar or greater than concentrations reported for surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) or greater scaup (Aythya marila) from San Francisco Bay.

  1. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, L.B.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. An alternative screening technology, Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD), could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real time measurements provided by an EMWD system enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies. The system also enhances worker safety and provides the added flexibility of being able to steer a drill bit in or out of hazardous zones.

  2. Use of life cycle assessments to evaluate the environmental footprint of contaminated sediment remediation.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Saloranta, Tuomo; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Breedveld, Gijs D; Linkov, Igor

    2011-05-15

    Ecological and human risks often drive the selection of remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments. Traditional human and ecological risk assessment (HERA) includes assessing risk for benthic organisms and aquatic fauna associated with exposure to contaminated sediments before and after remediation as well as risk for human exposure but does not consider the environmental footprint associated with implementing remedial alternatives. Assessment of environmental effects over the whole life cycle (i.e., Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) could complement HERA and help in selecting the most appropriate sediment management alternative. Even though LCA has been developed and applied in multiple environmental management cases, applications to contaminated sediments and marine ecosystems are in general less frequent. This paper implements LCA methodology for the case of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F)-contaminated Grenland fjord in Norway. LCA was applied to investigate the environmental footprint of different active and passive thin-layer capping alternatives as compared to natural recovery. The results showed that capping was preferable to natural recovery when analysis is limited to effects related to the site contamination. Incorporation of impacts related to the use of resources and energy during the implementation of a thin layer cap increase the environmental footprint by over 1 order of magnitude, making capping inferior to the natural recovery alternative. Use of biomass-derived activated carbon, where carbon dioxide is sequestered during the production process, reduces the overall environmental impact to that of natural recovery. The results from this study show that LCA may be a valuable tool for assessing the environmental footprint of sediment remediation projects and for sustainable sediment management. PMID:21520943

  3. Environmental contaminants in tissues, foods, and feces of California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Wilbur, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Two wild California Condors contained moderate to high levels of DDE in their tissues. The levels found could be high enough to cause reproductive problems in adult condors, if the assumption is made that condors are as susceptible to DDE as many other species of birds of prey. Other organochlorines occurred at low levels and probably were not high enough to cause deleterious effects. Metal residues in tissues of one bird were generally low except for copper in liver and lead in bone. Normal background levels of these metals in cathartids are unknown, making interpretation of the results difficult. Organochlorine residues in biopsy samples from a captive condor were low and probably would not have an adverse effect on reproduction if the bird were used for captive breeding. Organochlorines were not detected in food items used in the supplemental feeding program, and mercury and lead residues in these items were generally low. Information is needed on current contaminant levels in natural condor prey throughout the condor range.

  4. Vitellogenin as a potential biomarker for environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Denslow, N.D.; Folmar, L.C.; Sullivan, C.V.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have recently obtained N-terminal amino acid sequences for the egg protein vitellogenin (Vtg) from phylogenetically diverse teleost fish ranging from rainbow trout to the striped bass. Using the striped bass sequence as a template, the other teleost fish showed at least an 87% identity through the region of amino acids 7--20. The amino acid sequence was not as well conserved for other fishes; white sturgeon (60%) and brook lamprey (47%), the clawed frog Xenopus (47--60%) or the domestic chicken (40%). The authors synthesized a consensus peptide to this highly conserved region and have raised a polygonal antibody from rabbit. This antibody shows wide cross-reactivity to Vtg from many species of teleost fish. The authors have found that serum Vtg levels are elevated in both male and female brown bullheads with liver tumors from an area contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Serum levels of Vtg were also elevated in rainbow trout with liver tumors induced with aflatoxin B-1. The authors also describe an in-vitro system of plated hepatocytes to screen for estrogenic and antiestrogenic xenobiotic chemicals in the environment and using Vtg as a screening tool to establish structure-activity relationships for reproductive failure in female fish.

  5. Environmental contaminants as risk factors for developing diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the incidence of diabetes has received little attention until recently. A number of reports have emerged, however, concerning elevated diabetes in persons occupationally exposed to dioxin. United States (US) Air Force personnel in Vietnam who sprayed Agent Orange containing dioxin as a contaminant had elevated rates of diabetes, leading to US government compensation for diabetes in these veterans. Recent studies in populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides found a dose-dependent elevated risk of diabetes. An elevation in risk of diabetes in relation to levels of several POPs has been demonstrated by two different groups using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a random sampling of US citizens. The strong associations seen in quite different studies suggest the possibility that exposure to POPs could cause diabetes. One striking observation is that obese persons that do not have elevated POPs are not at elevated risk of diabetes, suggesting that the POPs rather than the obesity per se is responsible for the association. Although a specific mechanism is not known, most POPs induce a great number and variety of genes, including several that alter insulin action. Because diabetes is a dangerous disease that is increasing in frequency throughout the world, further study of the possibility that exposure to POPs contributes to the etiology of diabetes is critical. PMID:18557598

  6. Health risk implications from simultaneous exposure to multiple environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Genthe, B; Le Roux, W J; Schachtschneider, K; Oberholster, P J; Aneck-Hahn, N H; Chamier, J

    2013-07-01

    Water quality has deteriorated in the upper Olifants River system, South Africa, as a result of land use activities which include mining, agriculture and industries. A health risk assessment was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in the catchment to determine the possible risks local communities face from various pollutants such as microbials, heavy metals and oestrogen in the river water and vegetation. Aluminium and manganese accumulated in plants and vanadium and aluminium concentrations found in selective water samples posed significant health risks when consumed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment revealed that the combined risk of infection ranged from 1 to 26 percent with the Norovirus posing the overall greatest health risk. The anticipated disability adjusted life years resulting from drinking untreated water from these sites are in the order of 10,000 times greater than what is considered acceptable. The oestradiol activity, caused by endocrine disrupting compounds in the water, measured above the trigger value of 0.7ngL(-1). Impoverished communities in the area, who partially depend on river water for potable and domestic use, are exposed to immune-compromising metals that increase their probability of infection from waterborne diseases caused by the excess microbial pathogens in the contaminated surface water. PMID:23669339

  7. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    PubMed

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries. PMID:19117208

  8. E-SMART system for in-situ detection of environmental contaminants. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting neTwork (E-SMART) is a comprehensive, fully-integrated approach to in-situ, real-time detection and monitoring of environmental contaminants. E-SMART will provide new class of smart, highly sensitive, chemically-specific, in-situ, multichannel microsensors utilizing integrated optical interferometry technology, large, commercially viable set of E-SMART-compatible sensors, samplers, and network management components, and user-friendly graphical user interface for data evaluation and visualization.

  9. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Concomitant Contamination of Air and Environmental Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shimose, Luis A; Masuda, Eriko; Sfeir, Maroun; Berbel Caban, Ana; Bueno, Maria X; dePascale, Dennise; Spychala, Caressa N; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Doi, Yohei; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout). DESIGN Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms. SETTING A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida. PATIENTS Consecutive A. baumannii-colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014. METHODS Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii-colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates. RESULTS A total of 25 A. baumannii-colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09). CONCLUSIONS Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:777-781. PMID:27045768

  10. Catchment-scale environmental controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Globally river sediment associated contaminants, most notably heavy metals, radionuclides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and phosphorous, constitute one the most significant long-term risks to ecosystems and human health. These can impact both urban and rural areas and, because of their prolonged environmental residence times, are major sources of secondary pollution if contaminated soil and sediment are disturbed by human activity or by natural processes such as water or wind erosion. River catchments are also the primary source of sediment-associated contaminants to the coastal zone, and to the ocean, and an understanding of the factors that control contaminated sediment fluxes and delivery in river systems is essential for effective environmental management and protection. In this paper the catchment-scale controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal are reviewed, including climate-related variations in flooding regime, land-use change, channel engineering, restoration and flood defence. Drawing on case studies from metal mining impacted catchments in Bolivia (Río Pilcomayo), Spain (Río Guadiamar), Romania (River Tisa) and the UK (River Swale) some improved methodologies for identifying, tracing, modelling and managing contaminated river sediments are proposed that could have more general application in similarly affected river systems worldwide.

  11. Model of multiple exposure to contaminants in monitoring the environmental impact on population health.

    PubMed

    Kliment, V

    1996-12-01

    The model study is focused on possibilities of comprehensive evaluation of the multiple exposure of humans to selected inorganic contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, zinc) monitored within the subsystems of the monitoring the environmental impact on population health (inhalation and ingestion exposure from air, drinking water and foodstuffs and biological monitoring). The mean daily intake of contaminants of average adults is assessed using the monitoring and literature data. The exposure balance showed that the total intake of individual contaminants studied did not exceed the limit values given by the exposure standards (acceptable daily intake). The highest value of exposure reaching 28% of the limit was reported for cadmium. The prevailing pathway of exposure is ingestion of foodstuffs: more than 95% in all contaminants under study. Information on the intake of contaminants is used as input in a linear multicompartmental model describing their kinetics and retention in the human organism. The results of the model computation are compared with the laboratory data obtained in the biological monitoring of adult urine. The model and monitoring sets of results were found to conform well for cadmium and zinc. For arsenic and lead the model values are roughly one order of magnitude lower than the monitored ones which should be considered as acceptable for the model studies of this type. The model study of contaminant monitoring data processing and evaluation suggests further applications of health risk assessment representing one of the basic outputs of monitoring the environmental impact on population health. PMID:8997533

  12. Environmental politics and science: the case of PBB contamination in Michigan.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, M R

    1983-01-01

    This article examines how politics and science interacted against a background of uncertainty to shape policy in the case of environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in Michigan. In 1973, between 500 and 1,000 pounds of the flame retardant PBB were accidentally shipped and used instead of the dairy feed additive magnesium oxide, resulting in the widespread contamination of animal feeds, animals, and human food products. The contamination was initially perceived as the private trouble of a single farmer. The problem next became a public issue as public and private institutions grappled with questions of illness, safety, and disposal. To gain influence over those institutions, dissatisfied individuals and groups then turned the PBB contamination into a political controversy. The final section of the present article analyzes how science and politics interacted in: the ways bureaucratic organizations defined the three problems of contamination; the role political controversy played in redefining problems and influencing policy; and the political roles of scientists in controversies over environmental contamination. PMID:6297323

  13. Planning dredging services in contaminated sediments for balanced environmental and investment costs.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Barros, Sérgio Ricardo; Lima, Gilson Brito Alves

    2013-05-30

    Dredging of contaminated sediments has shown to be a harmful activity for the environment, because a number of contaminants can be resuspended and become available to the organisms. Furthermore, dredged contaminated sediments may cause significant damages in the dumping site. In order to avoid the drawbacks of this activity, better techniques have to be developed and the present article presents a new procedure for the planning of dredging that reduces the environmental impacts by reducing the amount of dredged sediments and, at the same time, reduces costs. The new technique uses screening of contaminant concentrations in the sediments that are normally part of the environmental impact assessment for dredging activity. A detailed mapping of the contamination, layer by layer is carried out and the areas where the action levels are reached are outlined with polygons, establishing limits within which sediments have to be dredged with safe procedures. In the case presented, construction of a harbor in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the safe procedure is cutter/suction dredging and pumping into a sub-aquatic confined disposal facility (CDF). A detailed evaluation of costs showed that if the whole layers of sediment were to be dumped into the CDF, the cost of the activity would be at least 63.82% more expensive than the proposed procedure, constituting an attractive advantage. Furthermore, as the size of the CDF is significantly smaller, less dredging is necessary, causing smaller environmental impact. PMID:23524396

  14. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    PubMed Central

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive. Methods: Environmental and mathematical methods were used to identify the population potentially exposed to a point source of airborne pollution emanating from a waste incinerator. Soil sampling was undertaken at 83 sites throughout the city and environs. The concentrations of arsenic and copper were measured at each site. Computer software produced smoothed contour plots of the distribution of arsenic and copper in the soil based on the information derived from the sampling sites. The population at risk was also identified using concentric rings of varying radii, with the source of pollution at the centre. Lastly, we used the sites that had previously been selected and measured the frequency of wind direction, speed and distance from the source of pollution at each site. Theoretical contour plots were constructed using the distance from the source of pollution at each site, with and without incorporating wind frequency as a function of direction. Results: Each method identified different populations at risk from airborne pollution. The use of circles was a very imprecise way of identifying exposed populations. Mathematical modelling that incorporated wind direction was better. Soil sampling at many sites was accurate, as the method is direct; but it is very costly and the close proximity of high and low concentrations hindered interpretation. The smoothed contour plots derived from the soil sampling sites identified an exposed population that was similar to that derived from the spot sampling. Conclusions: Using circles as the only means of identifying the exposed population leads to dilution of the potential

  15. Towards a History of the Encyclopedia from Jerome to Isidor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, S.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the evolution of the idea of an encyclopedia from Jerome, who worked mainly in Caesarea in Palestine towards the end of the Roman Empire, through the work of Augustine, Martianus Capella, Boethius, and Cassiodorus Senator, to Isidor, who worked in Seville on the eve of the Carolingian Renaissance. (LLS)

  16. Self-Supervised Chinese Ontology Learning from Online Encyclopedias

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhiqing; Ruan, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Constructing ontology manually is a time-consuming, error-prone, and tedious task. We present SSCO, a self-supervised learning based chinese ontology, which contains about 255 thousand concepts, 5 million entities, and 40 million facts. We explore the three largest online Chinese encyclopedias for ontology learning and describe how to transfer the structured knowledge in encyclopedias, including article titles, category labels, redirection pages, taxonomy systems, and InfoBox modules, into ontological form. In order to avoid the errors in encyclopedias and enrich the learnt ontology, we also apply some machine learning based methods. First, we proof that the self-supervised machine learning method is practicable in Chinese relation extraction (at least for synonymy and hyponymy) statistically and experimentally and train some self-supervised models (SVMs and CRFs) for synonymy extraction, concept-subconcept relation extraction, and concept-instance relation extraction; the advantages of our methods are that all training examples are automatically generated from the structural information of encyclopedias and a few general heuristic rules. Finally, we evaluate SSCO in two aspects, scale and precision; manual evaluation results show that the ontology has excellent precision, and high coverage is concluded by comparing SSCO with other famous ontologies and knowledge bases; the experiment results also indicate that the self-supervised models obviously enrich SSCO. PMID:24715819

  17. The Good, the Bad and the Dead! Using Encyclopedias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Annette

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan in which students use an encyclopedia to research a famous person. Identifies library media skills objectives, curriculum (subject area objectives), grade levels (4 and 5), resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, evaluation guidelines, and follow-up activities. Includes a sample worksheet.…

  18. Self-supervised Chinese ontology learning from online encyclopedias.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fanghuai; Shao, Zhiqing; Ruan, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Constructing ontology manually is a time-consuming, error-prone, and tedious task. We present SSCO, a self-supervised learning based chinese ontology, which contains about 255 thousand concepts, 5 million entities, and 40 million facts. We explore the three largest online Chinese encyclopedias for ontology learning and describe how to transfer the structured knowledge in encyclopedias, including article titles, category labels, redirection pages, taxonomy systems, and InfoBox modules, into ontological form. In order to avoid the errors in encyclopedias and enrich the learnt ontology, we also apply some machine learning based methods. First, we proof that the self-supervised machine learning method is practicable in Chinese relation extraction (at least for synonymy and hyponymy) statistically and experimentally and train some self-supervised models (SVMs and CRFs) for synonymy extraction, concept-subconcept relation extraction, and concept-instance relation extraction; the advantages of our methods are that all training examples are automatically generated from the structural information of encyclopedias and a few general heuristic rules. Finally, we evaluate SSCO in two aspects, scale and precision; manual evaluation results show that the ontology has excellent precision, and high coverage is concluded by comparing SSCO with other famous ontologies and knowledge bases; the experiment results also indicate that the self-supervised models obviously enrich SSCO. PMID:24715819

  19. Encyclopedia of Research on Distance Education in South Dakota. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael, Comp.; Crawford, Margaret, Comp.

    The action research reports compiled in this revised Encyclopedia focus on distance education in South Dakota. Contents include: "Designing Instruction for Distance Education: Guide to Best Practice" (Michael Simonson); "Effectiveness of Strategies Used by South Dakota Distance Education Teachers" (Jan Brockel); "Consortium: Key To Successful…

  20. Role of Environmental Contaminants in the Etiology of Alzheimer's Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Yegambaram; Manivannan, Bhagyashree; Beach, Thomas G.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's dis ease (AD) is a leading cause of mortality in the developed world with 70% risk attributable to genetics. The remaining 30% of AD risk is hypothesized to include environmental factors and human lifestyle patterns. Environmental factors possibly include inorganic and organic hazards, exposure to toxic metals (aluminium, copper), pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides), industrial chemicals (flame retardants) and air pollutants (particulate matter). Long term exposures to these environmental contaminants together with bioaccumulation over an individual's life-time are speculated to induce neuroinflammation and neuropathology paving the way for developing AD. Epidemiologic associations between environmental contaminant exposures and AD are still limited. However, many in vitro and animal studies have identified toxic effects of environmental contaminants at the cellular level, revealing alterations of pathways and metabolisms associated with AD that warrant further investigations. This review provides an overview of in vitro, animal and epidemiological studies on the etiology of AD, highlighting available data supportive of the long hypothesized link between toxic environmental exposures and development of AD pathology. PMID:25654508

  1. Encyclopedia of Youth and War: Young People as Participants and Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrow, Victoria

    This encyclopedia provides comprehensive information on youth and war. Beginning with the 30 Years' War in the 17th century and ending with the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo, the encyclopedia covers children and youth from birth to age 18, with additional materials on young adults from 18 to 24 years of age. The encyclopedia includes over 300…

  2. Boyhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Priscilla Ferguson, Ed.; Reinier, Jacqueline S., Ed.

    This encyclopedia is the first reference work to focus on the life and history of U.S. boyhood through the centuries. Coverage in the encyclopedia spans education, ethnicity, sports, work, religion, and health issues. The encyclopedia's expert contributors approach topics from many disciplines, including history, cultural studies, media studies,…

  3. Environmental contamination and airborne microbial counts: a role for hydroxyl radical disinfection units?

    PubMed

    Wong, V; Staniforth, K; Boswell, T C

    2011-07-01

    Environmental contamination is thought to play a role in the spread of infection in hospitals and there has been increased interest in novel air disinfection systems in preventing infection. In this study the efficacy of a hydroxyl radical air disinfection system (Inov8 unit) in reducing the number of airborne bacteria was assessed in a clinical setting. Environmental contamination was assessed using settle plates and air samples in three settings: (1) non-clinical room; (2) non-clinical room with defined activity; and (3) single intensive care unit cubicle. A comparison of air counts and environmental contamination rates was made with the Inov8 units on and off. The Inov8 unit produced an overall reduction in both air sample and settle plate counts in each setting (P<0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). There was a mean reduction in air sample counts of 26%, 39% and 55% for settings 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The corresponding reductions in settle plate counts were 35%, 62% and 54%. These results suggest that this type of novel air disinfection may have a role in improving air quality and reducing environmental contamination within clinical isolation rooms. Further work is required to assess the effect on specific pathogens, and to establish whether this will reduce the risks of patients and/or healthcare workers acquiring such pathogens from the environment. PMID:21497944

  4. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  5. IN VITRO METABOLISM AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION FROM THE MUTAGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT 2-NITROFLURORANTHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metabolism and DNA adduct formation by the mutagenic environmental contaminant 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFA) was studied. ncubation under aerobic conditions with liver microsomes of rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene yielded 2-NFA tran-7.8-dihydrodiol, 2-NFA tran-9,10-di...

  6. A systems biology approach to understanding impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our research team at the US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division has employed systems biology approaches to examine and understand impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction. Our systems biology approach is one in which iterations of model cons...

  7. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF VULNERABILITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The susceptibility of the developing nervous system to damage following exposure to environmental contaminants is believed to be based upon the critical nature of the organizational events that occur in both a regionally- and temporally-dependent manner. The age-related susceptib...

  9. Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2001-01-01

    Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

  10. USING GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS TO DIAGNOSE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in molecular biology allow the use of cutting-edge genomic and proteomic tools to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic organisms. Techniques are available to measure changes in expression of single genes (quantitative real-time PCR) or to measure g...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  12. HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR SELECTION OF WATERBORNE ORGANISMS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENY'S CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the revisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to identify contaminants which may have an adverse health effects for inclusion on a Contaminant Candidate List. Contaminants from this list are further reviewed to de...

  14. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. The most threatened sites include Jefferson National Forest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

  15. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

    2008-07-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities. PMID:18393576

  16. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Carvalho, M. L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M. A.; Cunha, A. S.; Chevallier, P.

    1999-10-01

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Électromagnétique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 μm and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity.

  17. Environmental contamination by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Vancomycin resistant enterococci are a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and their presence among farm animals is unwanted. Using media supplemented with vancomycin an increase in the proportion of samples from Swedish broilers positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci has been detected. The situation at farm level is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline knowledge about environmental contamination with vancomycin resistant enterococci in Swedish broiler production and the association between environmental contamination and colonisation of birds. Methods Environmental samples were taken before, during and after a batch of broilers at three farms. Samples were cultured both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. In addition, caecal content from birds in the batch following at each farm was cultured qualitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. Results The number of samples positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Also the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the positive samples and the proportion of caecal samples containing vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Still, the temporal changes in environmental contamination followed a similar pattern in all farms. Conclusion Vancomycin resistant enterococci persist in the compartments even after cleaning and the temporal changes in environmental contamination were similar among farms. There were however differences among farms regarding both degree of contamination and proportion of birds colonized with vancomycin resistant enterococci. The proportion of colonized birds and the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the compartments seems to be associated. If the factor(s) causing the differences among farms could be identified, it might be possible to reduce both the risk for colonisation by vancomycin resistant enterococci of the subsequent flock and the risk for

  18. Detection of Contaminants of High Environmental Impact by Means of Fluorogenic Probes.

    PubMed

    García-Calvo, José; Calvo-Gredilla, Patricia; Ibáñez-Llorente, Marcos; Rodríguez, Teresa; Torroba, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    This personal account describes our contribution to the design of selective fluorogenic probes for contaminants of high environmental impact. For this purpose, we have developed a new family of highly versatile fluorogenic reagents that were able to show large differences in their fluorescence in the presence of selected analytes. They were used in the preparation of fluorogenic probes for the detection of contaminants of high environmental impact which currently have no good solutions: phosphorylating agents, such as chemical weapons; methyl mercury(II); the cyanide anion; amino-acid metabolites, such as doping substances; and biogenic amine mimics, such as drugs of abuse and recreational drugs. The development of new materials for specific sensing was achieved by anchoring selected probes to silica nanomaterials, suitable for the selective detection of organic analytes in water for immediate application to toxicological or environmental purposes. PMID:26924257

  19. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    PubMed Central

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  20. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants.

    PubMed

    D'Ulivo, Lucia; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene) to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES). The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05-0.69% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants. PMID:27055261

  1. Listeriosis outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, caused by soft ripened cheese contaminated from environmental sources.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  2. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    D’Ulivo, Lucia; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene) to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES). The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05–0.69% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants. PMID:27055261

  3. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. PMID:26323787

  4. Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.

    PubMed

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

  5. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. Methods We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. Discussion In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. Conclusions We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs. Citation Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Lin CH, McElroy JA, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures. Environ Health Perspect 124:256–264; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409535 PMID:26311476

  6. Fiber contamination of vermiculites: a potential occupational and environmental health hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Moatamed, F.; Lockey, J.E.; Parry, W.T.

    1986-10-01

    Vermiculite ores from Montana, Virginia, and South Africa have been analyzed for the presence of amphibole contamination. Fibrous actinolite was found in unexpanded Montana vermiculite ore at a maximum concentration of 0.2%. The fibers persisted in the expanded ore at a maximum concentration of 0.6%. Actinolite was also found in the Virginia vermiculite ore but at a lower concentration and mostly as cleavage fragments with low length-to-width ratios. South African ore contained rare anthophyllite fibers also with low length-to-width ratios. Vermiculite ores have the potential for amphibole contamination and can represent potential health hazards without proper occupational and environmental control measures.

  7. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

  8. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

  9. Widespread Environmental Contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revealed by a Molecular Detection Protocol.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno; Santos, Catarina; Valente, Teresa; Gortázar, Christian; Almeida, Virgílio; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) has been considered crucial for bovine tuberculosis persistence in multi-host-pathogen systems. However, MTC contamination has been difficult to detect due to methodological issues. In an attempt to overcome this limitation we developed an improved protocol for the detection of MTC DNA. MTC DNA concentration was estimated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Making use of this protocol we showed that MTC contamination is widespread in different types of environmental samples from the Iberian Peninsula, which supports indirect transmission as a contributing mechanism for the maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in this multi-host-pathogen system. The proportion of MTC DNA positive samples was higher in the bovine tuberculosis-infected than in presumed negative area (0.32 and 0.18, respectively). Detection varied with the type of environmental sample and was more frequent in sediment from dams and less frequent in water also from dams (0.22 and 0.05, respectively). The proportion of MTC-positive samples was significantly higher in spring (p<0.001), but MTC DNA concentration per sample was higher in autumn and lower in summer. The average MTC DNA concentration in positive samples was 0.82 MPN/g (CI95 0.70-0.98 MPN/g). We were further able to amplify a DNA sequence specific of Mycobacterium bovis/caprae in 4 environmental samples from the bTB-infected area. PMID:26561038

  10. Widespread Environmental Contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revealed by a Molecular Detection Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Nuno; Santos, Catarina; Valente, Teresa; Gortázar, Christian; Almeida, Virgílio; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) has been considered crucial for bovine tuberculosis persistence in multi-host-pathogen systems. However, MTC contamination has been difficult to detect due to methodological issues. In an attempt to overcome this limitation we developed an improved protocol for the detection of MTC DNA. MTC DNA concentration was estimated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Making use of this protocol we showed that MTC contamination is widespread in different types of environmental samples from the Iberian Peninsula, which supports indirect transmission as a contributing mechanism for the maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in this multi-host-pathogen system. The proportion of MTC DNA positive samples was higher in the bovine tuberculosis-infected than in presumed negative area (0.32 and 0.18, respectively). Detection varied with the type of environmental sample and was more frequent in sediment from dams and less frequent in water also from dams (0.22 and 0.05, respectively). The proportion of MTC-positive samples was significantly higher in spring (p<0.001), but MTC DNA concentration per sample was higher in autumn and lower in summer. The average MTC DNA concentration in positive samples was 0.82 MPN/g (CI95 0.70–0.98 MPN/g). We were further able to amplify a DNA sequence specific of Mycobacterium bovis/caprae in 4 environmental samples from the bTB-infected area. PMID:26561038

  11. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

  12. Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  13. Specifications for Version 1. 0 of the Army Data Encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Gey, F.; Holmes, H.

    1988-09-30

    This document provides a more detailed description of the Army Data Encyclopedia (ADE) Version 1.0, in accordance with the Data Encyclopedia Architecture for Army Information Management. The software and contents of the ADE are key mechanisms that are necessary to achieve interoperability, integration and synchronization of Army information systems. The ADE architecture is intended to provide a global view, long-term direction, and the conceptual foundation for further development. In accord with the architecture, the ADE will develop through a sequence of increasingly powerful versions, supporting a series of Army-wide Information Mission Area (IMA) efforts, such as data element standardization. The major components of the ADE Version 1.0 are an ANSI-FIPS Standard Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS) framework, which is implemented using a relational DBMS, a user interface for schema and data maintenance, a user interface for the Data Element search/retrieval/approval process, and the loading of the actual data of the ADE. This paper assumes the reader is familiar with the Data Encyclopedia Architecture document. It provides background for ADE Version 1.0 and a brief status report of ADE related activities in progress. It outlines a software structure for the ADE, functionality to be implemented within the ADE 1.0, structure of the data element approval process and user interface, initial data content of the ADE, documentation needs of the ADE, and remote user access strategies for the ADE. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Three-dimensional data interpolation for environmental purpose: lead in contaminated soils in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piedade, Tales Campos; Melo, Vander Freitas; Souza, Luiz Cláudio Paula; Dieckow, Jeferson

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring of heavy metal contamination plume in soils can be helpful in establishing strategies to minimize its hazardous impacts to the environment. The objective of this study was to apply a new approach of visualization, based on tridimensional (3D) images, of pseudo-total (extracted with concentrated acids) and exchangeable (extracted with 0.5 mol L(-1) Ca(NO3)2) lead (Pb) concentrations in soils of a mining and metallurgy area to determine the spatial distribution of this pollutant and to estimate the most contaminated soil volumes. Tridimensional images were obtained after interpolation of Pb concentrations of 171 soil samples (57 points × 3 depths) with regularized spline with tension in a 3D function version. The tridimensional visualization showed great potential of use in environmental studies and allowed to determine the spatial 3D distribution of Pb contamination plume in the area and to establish relationships with soil characteristics, landscape, and pollution sources. The most contaminated soil volumes (10,001 to 52,000 mg Pb kg(-1)) occurred near the metallurgy factory. The main contamination sources were attributed to atmospheric emissions of particulate Pb through chimneys. The large soil volume estimated to be removed to industrial landfills or co-processing evidenced the difficulties related to this practice as a remediation strategy. PMID:24865382

  15. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Sileo, L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants.

  16. Quantification of the effects of spatially varying environmental contaminants into a cost model for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Broos, M.J.; Stein, A.; Aarts, L.; Tooren, C.F. tan

    1999-06-01

    In this study the authors investigated the effects of spatial variability of soil contaminants on cost calculations for soil remediation. Most cost models only provide a single figure, whereas spatial variability is one of the sources to contribute to the uncertainty. A cost model is applied to a study site of 19 ha containing a former gasworks in the Rotterdam harbor. The site was contaminated by heavy metals, PAH and mineral oil. Two sets of environmental thresholds were applied, one for identifying the severeness of contamination and one to decide upon the future use of excavated soil. Three remediation scenarios were compared. Geostatistical simulations were applied, both on individual contaminants and on indicator variables derived from these. As it turns out, spatial uncertainty causes 2--5% uncertainty in the final cost estimates. Another source of uncertainty is the direction of application of the cost model: a least-case approach starts with the lowest threshold value, followed by increasingly higher values, whereas a worst-case approach starts with the highest threshold value followed by decreasing values. Using a worst-case approach yielded cost estimates that were 6--8% higher than cost estimates by a least-case approach. The authors concluded that 8--13% of the uncertainty in cost estimates could be explained by spatial variation of soil contaminants and lithology.

  17. Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Schultz, D.P.; Johnson, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the lower Savannah River and on the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, and analyzed them for concentrations of organochlorine chemicals, aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and 13 elemental contaminants: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Residues of DDT (mainly as DDE),trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, Aroclor? 1260, mirex, and petroleum hydrocarbons were common in fish from the lower Savannah River, but concentrations were below those warranting environmental concern. In general, the concentrations of elemental contaminants also were low; however, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium concentrations were elevated in fish from river stations near the city of Savannah, and lead was elevated in samples from the National Wildlife Refuge. Contamination of the lower Savannah River by organic and elemental contaminants, as indicated by concentrations in fishes and fiddler crabs, did not appear to pose a hazard.

  18. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  19. Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Soled Phase Microextraction: Janusz Pawliszyn's Legacy in the Environmental Arena

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has revolutionized the way samples are extracted, enabling rapid, automated, and solventless extraction of many different sample types, including air, water, soil, and biological samples. As such, SPME is widely used for environmental, food, fo...

  20. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  1. Isotope Biomonitoring in Riverine Ecosystems: Tools for Understanding Linkages Between Environmental Contaminants and Basin Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Wankel, S. D.; Cabana, G.; Schmitt, C.

    2002-05-01

    Concentrations of accumulative environmental contaminants (e.g., metals and organocholoro-pesticides) often exhibit wide temporal variations in riverine systems. Aquatic fauna, however, concentrate these contaminants into their biomass, providing a relatively long-term integrated record of water quality. In order to accurately determine how these contaminants are bioaccumulated within local food webs, it is essential to understand the relative trophic positions of the organisms assayed. Several studies have demonstrated that the influence of food-chain length on bioaccumulation of such contaminants can be estimated by using d15N. Comparison of d15N with concentration of these environmental toxins can be used to calculate biomagnification factors, which are useful in understanding toxin exposure pathways. While clear relations between isotopes and contaminants have been made in pelagic food webs, there is almost nothing known about these connections in riverine systems, which are almost certainly more complex. Biota in shallow rivers are significantly affected by active biogeochemical reactions taking place in the hyporheic and riparian zones, which affect the isotopic compositions of in situ productivity. Watershed characteristics, such as drainage basin size, regional climate and land use patterns will also contribute to the isotopic signals seen in these rivers. Additionally, anthropogenic inputs such as sewage effluent and agricultural runoff contribute to the complex nature of the biogeochemistry of these systems. We have piggybacked on several monitoring programs that collected and analyzed fish for metal and organocholoro-pesticide concentrations, and have analyzed archived fish samples for stable isotopic compositions. Our database is comprised of fish samples from 3 separate national-scale studies conducted within the last 15 years, including the BEST (Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends), the NCBP (National Contaminant Bioaccumulation Program

  2. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Robert Boehlecke

    2011-03-03

    The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

  3. Reduction in MRSA environmental contamination with a portable HEPA-filtration unit.

    PubMed

    Boswell, T C; Fox, P C

    2006-05-01

    There is renewed interest in the hospital environment as a potentially important factor for cross-infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtration unit (IQAir Cleanroom H13, Incen AG, Goldach, Switzerland) at reducing MRSA environmental surface contamination within a clinical setting. The MRSA contamination rate on horizontal surfaces was assessed with agar settle plates in ward side-rooms of three patients who were heavy MRSA dispersers. Contamination rates were measured at different air filtration rates (60-235 m(3)/h) and compared with no air filtration using Poisson regression. Without air filtration, between 80% and 100% of settle plates were positive for MRSA, with the mean number of MRSA colony-forming units (cfu)/10-h exposure/plate ranging from 4.1 to 27.7. Air filtration at a rate of 140 m(3)/h (one patient) and 235 m(3)/h (two patients), resulted in a highly significant decrease in contamination rates compared with no air filtration (adjusted rate ratios 0.037, 0.099 and 0.248, respectively; P < 0.001 for each). A strong association was demonstrated between the rate of air filtration and the mean number of MRSA cfu/10-h exposure/plate (P for trend < 0.001). In conclusion, this portable HEPA-filtration unit can significantly reduce MRSA environmental contamination within patient isolation rooms, and this may prove to be a useful addition to existing MRSA infection control measures. PMID:16517004

  4. Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, I.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

  5. Treatability studies for uranium and plutonium contaminated soils using physical separation methods. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1992-07-01

    The Nevada Field Office of the Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has stated in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) Site Specific Plan for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that DOE/NV is committed to achieving compliance with all applicable environmental laws, regulations, guidelines, and agreements covering operations at the NTS. The primary DOE/NV objective identified by the Site-Specific Plan is to comply with all laws and regulations aimed at protecting human health and the environment. These include Nevada statutes and regulations which may be applicable, including federally delegated authorities. This environmental assessment discusses limited bench-scale soil treatability testing of physical processes for decontamination of plutonium- and uranium-contaminated soil. The proposed location of these studies would be the Treatability Testing Facility (TTF), Building 3124 at Test Cell ``All in Area 25 of the NTS.

  6. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-01-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  7. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  8. Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

  9. EFFECTS OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS ON MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY TROPHIC STRUCTURE IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic communities from estuaries throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico were studied to assess the influence of sediment contaminants and natural environmental factors on macrobenthic community trophic structure. Community trophic data were also used to evaluate whether re...

  10. Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the United States: Importance of species traits and environmental factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg concentrations. Concentrations were generally lower than th...

  11. REVIEW IV: SCIENCE LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURES WITH FERTILITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IMPACTS IN THE ADULT FEMALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design: Reviewed articles indexed in PubMed from 1999-2007 addressing environment and puberty, menstrual and ovarian function, fertility, and menopause. Results: The strongest evidence of environmental contaminant exposures interfering with healthy reproductive function in adu...

  12. CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A DOSIMETRY-BASED CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR MIXTURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report, Considerations for Developing a Dosimetry-Based Cumulative Risk Assessment Approach for Mixtures of Environmental Contaminants, addresses the justification for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for cumulative risk assessment....

  13. Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

  14. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat: What about environmental contaminants?

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2016-02-01

    In October 26, 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) issued a press release informing of the recent evaluation of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat consumption. The consumption of red meat and processed meat was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans", and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. The substances responsible of this potential carcinogenicity would be generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures (N-nitroso-compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines). However, in its assessments, the IARC did not make any reference to the role that may pose some carcinogenic environmental pollutants, which are already present in raw or unprocessed meat. The potential role of a number of environmental chemical contaminants (toxic trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated naphthalenes and perfluoroalkyl substances) on the carcinogenicity of consumption of meat and meat products is discussed in this paper. A case-study, Catalonia (Spain), is specifically assessed, while the influence of cooking on the concentrations of environmental pollutants is also reviewed. It is concluded that although certain cooking processes could modify the levels of chemical contaminants in food, the influence of cooking on the pollutant concentrations depends not only on the particular cooking process, but even more on their original contents in each specific food item. As most of these environmental pollutants are organic, cooking procedures that release or remove fat from the meat should tend to reduce the total concentrations of these contaminants in the cooked meat. PMID:26656511

  15. Characterization of complex mineral assemblages: Implications for contaminant transport and environmental remediation

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Paul M.; Seaman, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Surface reactive phases of soils and aquifers, comprised of phyllosilicate and metal oxohydroxide minerals along with humic substances, play a critical role in the regulation of contaminant fate and transport. Much of our knowledge concerning contaminant-mineral interactions at the molecular level, however, is derived from extensive experimentation on model mineral systems. Although these investigations have provided a foundation for understanding reactive surface functional groups on individual mineral phases, the information cannot be readily extrapolated to complex mineral assemblages in natural systems. Recent studies have elucidated the role of less abundant mineral and organic substrates as important surface chemical modifiers and have demonstrated complex coupling of reactivity between permanent-charge phyllosilicates and variable-charge Fe-oxohydroxide phases. Surface chemical modifiers were observed to control colloid generation and transport processes in surface and subsurface environments as well as the transport of solutes and ionic tracers. The surface charging mechanisms operative in the complex mineral assemblages cannot be predicted based on bulk mineralogy or by considering surface reactivity of less abundant mineral phases based on results from model systems. The fragile nature of mineral assemblages isolated from natural systems requires novel techniques and experimental approaches for investigating their surface chemistry and reactivity free of artifacts. A complete understanding of the surface chemistry of complex mineral assemblages is prerequisite to accurately assessing environmental and human health risks of contaminants or in designing environmentally sound, cost-effective chemical and biological remediation strategies. PMID:10097043

  16. Subclinical health effects of environmental pesticide contamination in a developing country: cholinesterase depression in children.

    PubMed

    McConnell, R; Pacheco, F; Wahlberg, K; Klein, W; Malespin, O; Magnotti, R; Akerblom, M; Murray, D

    1999-08-01

    The effect of exposure to pesticides among children in a Nicaraguan community in the path of rain water runoff from a large crop-dusting airport was evaluated by measuring plasma cholinesterase. Mean cholinesterase activity in 17 children in the path of runoff was 2.4 international units/ml blood/min, lower than the 2.9 IU/ml/min measured in a group of 43 children from an unexposed community (difference=0.49 IU/ml/min; 95% C.I. 0.24, 0.76). Six (35%) of the 17 exposed children had abnormally low cholinesterase levels. A possible explanation for this physiological effect of exposure to pesticides is the dermal absorption which may have occurred among children playing barefoot in puddles grossly contaminated by runoff from the airport. Drinking water from a well in the exposed community demonstrated low level residues of cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, although contamination with toxaphene (not a cholinesterase inhibitor) exceeded by over 8-fold the United States Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible concentration in drinking water. The difficulty in measuring health effects resulting from environmental pesticide contamination, and in controlling exposure resulting from the rapidly increasing use of pesticides, is a growing problem for developing countries like Nicaragua. PMID:10433839

  17. Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Gale, R.W.; Lebo, J.A.; Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Cranor, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

  18. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Venables, B.J.; Callahan, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

  19. Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

  20. Possible environmental contaminant effects in neotropical migrants nesting at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Arenal, C.; Halbrook, R.

    1995-12-31

    Forest fragmentation, insularization, and tropical deforestation have been named as significant factors in the decline of many neotropical migrant bird species, however, contamination of breeding grounds also may be of concern. Additionally, neotropical migrants may serve as a route of transport of contaminants from breeding grounds in North America to wintering grounds in the tropics. Accumulation and effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and heavy metal concentrations in avian species were evaluated at a Superfund site (Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois) using the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) as a model. Starlings were monitored at 12 nest boxes constructed at each of 3 study and 2 reference sites. Behavior of adult starlings was observed in the field to assess possible contaminant effects on nest attentiveness and reproductive success was recorded as the number of chicks surviving to 15 days post-hatch. Effects included a significant reduction in nest attentiveness behavior and increased chick mortality between PCB and reference sites. There were no significant differences among study and reference sites in number of eggs laid and percent of eggs hatched. Because Crab Orchard NWR serves as breeding ground for approximately 80 neotropical migrant species, the results suggest that species with feeding habits similar to starlings also may have greater body burdens of metals and PCBs and may suffer similar reductions in nesting success. The potential exists for transport and incorporation of environmental contaminants into the food chain at sites along the migration route.

  1. Environmental Contaminants and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Effects on Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2000-01-01

    The desire of resource managers, risk assessors, and the general public to better understand the consequences of environmental contamination has produced a strong and growing need for information on the effects of contaminants on populations and groups of species, and over moderate to large areas of land or water. However, the problems associated with research involving populations and groups of species or large and complex geographic areas, especially in terrestrial environments, are well known within the scientific community. With the previous thoughts in mind, an interactive symposium was held at the University of Maryland in October 1998. The purpose of the symposium was to review and critically evaluate our understanding of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at levels of organization above that of the individual. Invited background and technical presentations provided a common baseline of information for symposium participants. Discussion groups were then asked to critically evaluate the topics of two technical sessions. Several presentations of recent or ongoing research provided participants with examples of current approaches to assessments of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at the population or higher level of organization. The book consists of 10 chapters written by presenters at the symposium and three chapters conveying the reports of discussion group.

  2. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  3. Environmental contaminant concentrations in Canada goose (Branta canadensis) muscle: probabilistic risk assessment for human consumers.

    PubMed

    Horak, Katherine; Chipman, Richard; Murphy, Lisa; Johnston, John

    2014-09-01

    The issue of food insecurity affects millions of people in the United States every year. Often these people rely on soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters for proper meals, and these organizations often depend on donations to meet needs. One of the most limited food resources is meat. To help alleviate this problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services donates more than 60 tons of wild game (deer, moose, feral hogs, goats, geese, and ducks) to a variety of charitable organizations each year. Although commercially produced meat routinely undergoes screening for contaminants, potential exposure to environmental contaminants from eating wild game is not well characterized. In this study, the concentration of 17 contaminants of concern in the breast meat of wild geese was examined. These concentrations were then used in a probabilistic model to estimate potential risk associated with consumption of this meat. Based on model predictions, more than 99 % of all adults were below exposure limits for all of the compounds tested. For all consumer age classes modeled, consumption of wild goose meat may expose a small fraction of these populations to levels of lead higher than the recommended exposure limits. Similarly, mercury exposure was predicted to be higher than the recommended limits when the meat was served as steaks. This information about concentrations of contaminants of concern in goose meat and potential exposures associated with meat consumption based on probabilistic models will enable others to make informed decisions about the risks associated with the consumption of wild meat. PMID:25198860

  4. Relationships of environmental contaminants to reproductive success in red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) from Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Reichel, W.L.; Hensler, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    In 1977 and 1978, we studied red-breasted mergansers Mergus serrator nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan to determine whether environmental contaminants were having effects on reproduction. Seventeen contaminants were measured in randomly chosen eggs from 206 nests under study. Using a variety of statistical approaches, we looked for effects of individual contaminants and combinations of contaminants on reproductive measurements such as nest desertion, failure of eggs to hatch, death of newly hatched ducklings, percentage hatching success, number of ducklings leaving the nest and eggshell thickness. We also looked for relationships between the levels of some contaminants in blood samples of 39 incubating females and reproductive success. A small degree of eggshell thinning was attributed to DDE and a few other statistical tests were significant, but no contaminant or combination of contaminants we measured seemed to have a pronounced effect on the aspects of reproduction we followed.

  5. Risk ranking priority of carcinogenic and/or genotoxic environmental contaminants in food in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vromman, V; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Vleminckx, C; Saegerman, C; Pussemier, L; Huyghebaert, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the risks of environmental carcinogenic and/or genotoxic contaminants in food. It describes, for each contaminant studied, the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, the toxicological reference values, the exposure and the risk characterisation. The compounds studied were classified into 3 categories based on a risk assessment. Effects others than carcinogenicity and/or genotoxicity (e.g. endocrine disruption activity) were also taken into account for the classification. Given the low margin of exposure values for arsenic and lead, these two compounds are classified as priority 1 (high concern) for food safety and as a first priority to take actions to reduce exposure. Cadmium, methylmercury, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), non-dioxin-like PCB and toxaphene are classified as priority 2 (medium concern). Polybrominated biphenyls, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane included), polychlorophenols and their salts are classified as priority 3 (low concern). PMID:24471940

  6. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

  7. Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

  8. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city. PMID:26919836

  9. Public health response to 2,3,7,8-TCDD environmental contamination in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr, P.A.; Forney, D.; Stein, G.; Donnell, H.D.; Falk, H.; Hotchkiss, R.; Spratlin, W.A.; Sampson, E.; Smith, S.J.

    1985-05-01

    In 1971, waste oil containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was sprayed for dust control on a number of residential, recreational, and work areas in Missouri. In several of them, the level and extent of environmental contamination were not known until late 1982 or 1983. Extrapolation from existing toxicological data indicated the potential for substantial adverse health effects in highly exposed populations. As a result, the Missouri Division of Health and the Centers for Disease Control initiated close collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on review and evaluation of environmental data, the development of health advisories to EPA on the need for remedial or preventive actions at specific contaminated sites, a health education effort for the medical community and general public, establishment of a dermatological screening clinic, establishment of a central listing of potentially exposed persons through administration of a health effects survey questionnaire, and a pilot medical study of a ''highest risk'' cohort. Strategies for additional interventions will continue to be based on findings derived from this first phase of the investigation.

  10. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment. PMID:27012843

  11. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:26356096

  12. PCBs as environmental estrogens: Turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, J.M.; Crews, D. ); McLachlan, J.A. )

    1994-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, low-level environmental pollutants associated with adverse health effects such as immune suppression and teratogenicity. There is increasing evidence that some PCB compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans, particularly during development. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds act to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, whereby the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. Here we demonstrate the estrogenic effect of some PCBs by reversing gonadal sex in a reptile species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Possible mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants on St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    De Guise, S; Martineau, D; Béland, P; Fournier, M

    1995-05-01

    A small isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that are highly contaminated by pollutants, mostly of industrial origin, resides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada. Overhunting in the first half of the century was the probable cause for this population to dwindle from several thousand animals to the current estimate of 500. The failure of the population to recover might be due to contamination by organochlorine compounds, which are known to lead to reproductive failure and immunosuppression in domestic and laboratory animals and seals. Functional and morphological changes have been demonstrated in thyroid gland and adrenal cortex in many species exposed to organochlorinated compounds, including seals. Morphological lesions, although different, were also found in belugas. Functional evaluation of thyroid and adrenal glands of contaminated (St. Lawrence) versus much less contaminated (Arctic) belugas is currently under way. Necropsy of St. Lawrence belugas showed numerous severe and disseminated infections with rather mildly pathogenic bacteria, which suggests immunosuppression. Organochlorine compounds and other contaminants found in beluga whales cause immunosuppression in a variety of animal species including seals. Thirty-seven percent of all the tumors reported in cetaceans were observed in St. Lawrence beluga whales. This could be explained by two different mechanisms: high exposure to environmental carcinogens and suppression of immunosurveillance against tumors. Overall, St. Lawrence belugas might well represent the risk associated with long-term exposure to pollutants present in their environment and might be a good model to predict health problems that could emerge in highly exposed human populations over time. PMID:7556028

  14. Possible mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants on St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed Central

    De Guise, S; Martineau, D; Béland, P; Fournier, M

    1995-01-01

    A small isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that are highly contaminated by pollutants, mostly of industrial origin, resides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada. Overhunting in the first half of the century was the probable cause for this population to dwindle from several thousand animals to the current estimate of 500. The failure of the population to recover might be due to contamination by organochlorine compounds, which are known to lead to reproductive failure and immunosuppression in domestic and laboratory animals and seals. Functional and morphological changes have been demonstrated in thyroid gland and adrenal cortex in many species exposed to organochlorinated compounds, including seals. Morphological lesions, although different, were also found in belugas. Functional evaluation of thyroid and adrenal glands of contaminated (St. Lawrence) versus much less contaminated (Arctic) belugas is currently under way. Necropsy of St. Lawrence belugas showed numerous severe and disseminated infections with rather mildly pathogenic bacteria, which suggests immunosuppression. Organochlorine compounds and other contaminants found in beluga whales cause immunosuppression in a variety of animal species including seals. Thirty-seven percent of all the tumors reported in cetaceans were observed in St. Lawrence beluga whales. This could be explained by two different mechanisms: high exposure to environmental carcinogens and suppression of immunosurveillance against tumors. Overall, St. Lawrence belugas might well represent the risk associated with long-term exposure to pollutants present in their environment and might be a good model to predict health problems that could emerge in highly exposed human populations over time. PMID:7556028

  15. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs and seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children of northeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kroten, Anna; Toczylowski, Kacper; Kiziewicz, Bozena; Oldak, Elzbieta; Sulik, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease. Soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs appears to be the main source of infection for humans. The aim of our study was to estimate the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs in public areas in northeastern Poland followed by the assessment of seroprevalence of toxocariasis in the children's population inhabiting the areas. A total of 168 soil samples were collected in June and September from public areas, and 28 from patients' residences. They were all examined for Toxocara eggs using the centrifugal flotation technique. Two-step serological tests comprising enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) were performed in 190 children aged 2-17 without any symptoms of toxocariasis. The positive samples accounted for 36 and 32 % in the urban area, 39 and 18 % in the suburbs, and 39 and 46 % in parks, for June and September, respectively. All the sites located near the patients' residences with confirmed persistent toxocariasis were found contaminated with Toxocara eggs. A significant drop in the mean number of eggs was noted in the suburbs after summer (0.64 vs 0.18, p < 0.05). High and constant contamination was documented in soil from urban sandboxes and parks. The overall seroprevalence in children tested for toxocariasis was 4.2 % as determined by ELISA and WB (3.0 % in preschool children and 7.7 % in school children). The current study revealed high contamination of public areas in northeastern Poland with Toxocara eggs as well as marked seroprevalence in asymptomatic children. There is an urgent need to introduce and promote preventive health measures to limit spread of toxocariasis. PMID:26385468

  16. Fukushima Daiichi reactor source term attribution using cesium isotope ratios from contaminated environmental samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Delmore, James E.

    2016-01-18

    Source term attribution of environmental contamination following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster is complicated by a large number of possible similar emission source terms (e.g. FDNPP reactor cores 1–3 and spent fuel ponds 1–4). Cesium isotopic analyses can be utilized to discriminate between environmental contamination from different FDNPP source terms and, if samples are sufficiently temporally resolved, potentially provide insights into the extent of reactor core damage at a given time. Rice, soil, mushroom, and soybean samples taken 100–250 km from the FDNPP site were dissolved using microwave digestion. Radiocesium was extracted and purified using two sequentialmore » ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile columns, following which 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios were measured using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Results were compared with data reported previously from locations to the northwest of FDNPP and 30 km to the south of FDNPP. 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios from samples 100–250 km to the southwest of the FDNPP site show a consistent value of 0.376 ± 0.008. 135Cs/137Cs versus 134Cs/137Cs correlation plots suggest that radiocesium to the southwest is derived from a mixture of FDNPP reactor cores 1, 2, and 3. Conclusions from the cesium isotopic data are in agreement with those derived independently based upon the event chronology combined with meteorological conditions at the time of the disaster. In conclusion, cesium isotopic analyses provide a powerful tool for source term discrimination of environmental radiocesium contamination at the FDNPP site. For higher precision source term attribution and forensic determination of the FDNPP core conditions based upon cesium, analyses of a larger number of samples from locations to the north and south of the FDNPP site (particularly time-resolved air filter samples) are needed. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain

  17. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  19. Environmental contamination and detection of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in laying flocks.

    PubMed

    Davies, R; Breslin, M

    2001-12-01

    Faecal, dust and other environmental samples were collected from the floors, droppings belts, egg-collection systems and other areas of 14 cage-layer flocks, 10 barn egg production flocks and seven free-range flocks, and cultured for Salmonella species. The distribution of the organism varied with its prevalence and with the vaccination status of the birds. No one sample type was found to be suitable for identifying all contaminated houses. Salmonella was also frequently found on egg-packing equipment and in samples from rodents and wild birds. PMID:11787781

  20. Characterization of organic contaminants in environmental samples associated with mount St. Helens 1980 volcanic eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    Volcanic ash, surface-water, and bottom-material samples obtained in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens after the May 18, 1980, eruption were analyzed for organic contaminants by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer techniques. Classes of compounds identified include n-alkanes, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, aromatic acids and aldehydes, phenols, resin acids, terpenes, and insect juvenile hormones. The most probable source of these compounds is from pyrolysis of plant and soil organic matter during and after the eruption. The toxicity of selected compounds and their environmental significance are discussed.

  1. Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair.

    PubMed

    Tsanaclis, Lolita; Wicks, John F C

    2008-03-21

    The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the hair before analysis, the second is the detection of the relevant metabolites in the hair samples and the third is the use of cut-off levels. Difficulty in the interpretation arises when metabolites are not detected either due to external contamination of the hair or low doses of the drugs used. A wash protocol needs to be practical and ideally remove any drug deposited on the external portion of the hair. We propose an additional step that helps considerably in the interpretation of the results with the aim to establish a consensus: the analysis of the wash residue (W) and its comparison with the levels detected in hair (H). The wash residue is the remainder of a quick wash with methanol which is dried and reconstituted in buffer before analysis. The detection of small quantities of analytes that are not susceptible to external contamination in the wash residue, such as metabolites or drugs such as dihydrocodeine, indicates that the washing procedure is in fact able to remove drugs from the hair shaft. Where the W/H ratio is less then 0.1 or null, it would tend to indicate drug use as opposed to environmental contamination. Where the W/H ratio is above 0.1 but less than 0.5, it is likely to indicate possible use possibly combined with a level of external contamination. A W/H ratio greater than 0.5 is likely to indicate that the source of most of the drug in the wash residue is from external contamination. In this last case, the source of levels detected in the hair is questionable, as it is not possible to be absolutely sure that all external contamination was removed

  2. Expansion of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    SciTech Connect

    Rinke, Christian; Sczyrba, Alex; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lee, Janye; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hallam, Steven; Inskeep, William P.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tsiamis, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-03-20

    To date the vast majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes sequenced are of rather limited phylogenetic diversity as they were chosen based on their physiology and/ or medical importance. The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project (Wu et al. 2009) is aimed to systematically filling the gaps of the tree of life with phylogenetically diverse reference genomes. However more than 99percent of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes of these largely mysterious species. These limitations gave rise to the GEBA uncultured project. Here we propose to use single cell genomics to massively expand the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea by targeting 80 single cell representatives of uncultured candidate phyla which have no or very few cultured representatives. Generating these reference genomes of uncultured microbes will dramatically increase the discovery rate of novel protein families and biological functions, shed light on the numerous underrepresented phyla that likely play important roles in the environment, and will assist in improving the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea. Moreover, these data will improve our ability to interpret metagenomics sequence data from diverse environments, which will be of tremendous value for microbial ecology and evolutionary studies to come.

  3. Expansion of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    SciTech Connect

    Rinke, Christian; Sczyrba, Alex; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lee, Janey; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hallam, Steven; Inskeep, William P.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tsiamis, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-06-02

    To date the vast majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes sequenced are of rather limited phylogenetic diversity as they were chosen based on their physiology and/ or medical importance. The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project (Wu et al. 2009) is aimed at systematically filling the gaps of the tree of life with phylogenetically diverse reference genomes. However more than 99 percent of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes of these largely mysterious species. These limitations gave rise to the GEBA uncultured project. Here we propose to use single cell genomics to massively expand the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea by targeting 80 single cell representatives of uncultured candidate phyla which have no or very few cultured representatives. Generating these reference genomes of uncultured microbes will dramatically increase the discovery rate of novel protein families and biological functions, shed light on the numerous underrepresented phyla that likely play important roles in the environment, and will assist in improving the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea. Moreover, these data will improve our ability to interpret metagenomics sequence data from diverse environments, which will be of tremendous value for microbial ecology and evolutionary studies to come.

  4. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PHOSPHATE-BASED REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGY IN METAL CONTAMINATED URBAN AND MINING AREAS IN A SELECTED MISSOURI SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project provided important data on fundamental processes responsible for health and environmental risk reductions and environmental safety of the phosphate-based treatments in metal, specifically Pb, contaminated soils. By an integrated approach of environmental risk asse...

  7. Environmental measurement while drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide-thallium activated crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The output of the PMT goes to a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The MCA data is transmitted to the surface via a signal conditioning and transmitter board similar to that used with the GMT. The EMWD system is described and the results of the GRS field tests and field demonstration are presented.

  8. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs): A review on environmental contamination in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gang; Bu, Qingwei; Cao, Zhiguo; Du, Xinming; Xia, Jing; Wu, Min; Huang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which were detected extensively in environmental and biota samples worldwide, have raised significant concerns during past decades for their persistence, bioaccumulation and potential toxicity to ecological environment and human health. In this paper, we have compiled and reviewed existing literature on the contamination status of BFRs in abiotic and biotic environments in China, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane, tetrabromobisphenol A and new BFRs. Temporal trends were also summarized and evaluated. Based on this review, it has been concluded that (1) high concentrations of PBDEs were generally related to the e-waste disposal processing, while the spatial distribution pattern of other BFRs was not necessarily in accordance with this; (2) extremely high concentrations of BFRs in indoor dust emphasized the importance of indoor contamination to human body burdens, while more work need to be done to confirm its contribution; (3) PBDEs in electronics dismantling workers were higher compared to the general population, indicating the occupational exposure should be of particular concern; (4) more data are now becoming available for BFRs in aquatic and terrestrial organisms not previously studied, while studies that consider the occurrence of BFRs in organisms of different trophic levels are still of urgent need for evaluating the fate of BFRs in the food web; and (5) limited data showed a decreasing trend for PBDEs, while more data on time trends of BFR contamination in various matrices and locations are still needed before the impact of regulation of BFRs can be assessed. PMID:26725304

  9. Demilitarization of conventional ordnance: Priorities for data-base assessments of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; McKone, T.E.; Hall, C.H.; Nelson, M.A.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1986-02-01

    The primary goal of this study has been to identify a set of environmental by-products from the demilitarization of conventional ordnance that should be the subject of more detailed data-base assessments. In order to rank the by-products according to their potential health risks, estimates were made of the contaminant releases associated with destructive techniques (e.g., open burning, open detonation, and incineration) and nondestructive techniques (e.g., filler recovery and reuse). Estimates of the types and quantities of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics in the demilitarization inventories of various installations in the US were made. To calculate hypothetical doses to man from contaminant releases, a multimedia compartmental model was used to calculate the concentrations of contaminants in water, soils, air, and biota. Based on an analysis of the doses and toxicity data for the compounds, several substances were recommended for further analysis, including DNT, TNT, and RDX and their degradation products in the environment. Other compounds are dibutyl phthalate, diphenylamine, HMX, and tetryl.

  10. Biological and chemical tests of contaminated soils to determine bioavailability and environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE)

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, C.R.; Menzie, C.A.; Pauwells, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The understanding of the concept of bioavailability of soil contaminants to receptors and its use in supporting the development of EAE is growing but still incomplete. Nonetheless, there is increased awareness of the importance of such data to determine acceptable cleanup levels and achieve timely site closures. This presentation discusses a framework for biological and chemical testing of contaminated soils developed as part of a Gas Research Institute (GRI) project entitled ``Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints in Soil Using a Risk Based Approach to Contaminated Site Management Based on Bioavailability of Chemicals in Soil.`` The presentation reviews the GRI program, and summarizes the findings of the biological and chemical testing section published in the GRI report. The three primary components of the presentation are: (1) defining the concept of bioavailability within the existing risk assessment paradigm, (2) assessing the usefulness of the existing tests to measure bioavailability and test frameworks used to interpret these measurements, and (3) suggesting how a small selection of relevant tests could be incorporated into a flexible testing scheme for soils to address this issue.

  11. A perspective on the potential risks of emerging contaminants to human and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Franco Bernardes, Mariana Furio; Pazin, Murilo; Tasso, Maria Júlia; Pereira, Paulo Henrique; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2015-09-01

    Technological, agricultural, and medical advances have improved the lifestyle of humankind. However, these advances have caused new problems that affect the environment and future generations. Emerging contaminants display properties such as low degradation potential and environmental persistence. In addition, most contaminants are lipophilic, which culminates in high bioaccumulation. The disposal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the environment underlies microbial and bacterial resistance. Plasticizers change several characteristics of industrialized materials, such as flexibility, but they are potentially carcinogenic and disrupt the endocrine system. Pesticides prevent the propagation of numerous kinds of pests; nevertheless, they exert neurotoxic and mutagenic effects, and they impact the environment negatively. Addition of flame retardants to a number of materials prevents flame propagation; however, after their release into the environment, these chemicals may bioaccumulate in organisms and disrupt the endocrine system, too. Surfactants can change the surface and interfacial properties of liquids, but their presence in the environment can interfere with countless enzymes and can even impair the endocrine system of various organisms and induce the feminization of species. Hence, gaining knowledge about emerging contaminants is increasingly important to minimize future damage and enable proper monitoring of each class of compounds in the environment which will help to improve legislation on this matter. PMID:26201652

  12. Evaluating Determinants of Environmental Risk Perception for Risk Management in Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Janmaimool, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the differences in the risk judgments of residents of industrial communities potentially provides insights into how to develop appropriate risk communication strategies. This study aimed to explore citizens’ fundamental understanding of risk-related judgments and to identify the factors contributing to perceived risks. An exploratory model was created to investigate the public’s risk judgments. In this model, the relationship between laypeople’s perceived risks and the factors related to the physical nature of risks (such as perceived probability of environmental contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences) were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological factors, such as the ability to control the risks, concerns, experiences, and perceived benefits of industrial development were also included in the analysis. The Maptaphut industrial area in Rayong Province, Thailand was selected as a case study. A survey of 181 residents of communities experiencing different levels of hazardous gas contamination revealed rational risk judgments by inhabitants of high-risk and moderate-risk communities, based on their perceived probability of contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and perceived catastrophic consequences. However, risks assessed by people in low-risk communities could not be rationally explained and were influenced by their collective experiences. PMID:24937530

  13. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site. PMID:21053954

  14. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  15. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.

    PubMed

    Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska. PMID:25376148

  16. Environmental contamination and hospital-acquired infection: factors that are easily overlooked.

    PubMed

    Beggs, C; Knibbs, L D; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2015-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons for and factors contributing to healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Different solutions have been proposed over time to control the spread of HAI, with more focus on hand hygiene than on other aspects such as preventing the aerial dissemination of bacteria. Yet, it emerges that there is a need for a more pluralistic approach to infection control; one that reflects the complexity of the systems associated with HAI and involves multidisciplinary teams including hospital doctors, infection control nurses, microbiologists, architects, and engineers with expertise in building design and facilities management. This study reviews the knowledge base on the role that environmental contamination plays in the transmission of HAI, with the aim of raising awareness regarding infection control issues that are frequently overlooked. From the discussion presented in the study, it is clear that many unknowns persist regarding aerial dissemination of bacteria, and its control via cleaning and disinfection of the clinical environment. There is a paucity of good-quality epidemiological data, making it difficult for healthcare authorities to develop evidence-based policies. Consequently, there is a strong need for carefully designed studies to determine the impact of environmental contamination on the spread of HAI. PMID:25346039

  17. The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility as a barrier to environmental contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

  18. The rodent research animal holding facility as a barrier to environmental contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

  19. Sublethal health effects in laboratory rodents from environmentally relevant exposures to oil sands contaminants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; North, Michelle A; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-12-01

    Increasing activity of oil sands extraction and processing in northern Alberta is marked by ongoing controversy about the nature and extent of associated environmental impacts. Bitumen contains a mixture of toxic chemicals, including metals and residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whose release into the environment poses a distinct risk to the surrounding environment, plus wildlife and human health. In the present study, the authors evaluated several subclinical biomarkers of exposure and effect to mixtures of metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg) and/or PAHs (3 alkylated forms) at environmentally relevant concentrations (100-fold and 10-fold higher than the maximum dissolved concentrations found in snow, to simulate a worst-case scenario), using laboratory mice as a model for future studies of small mammals in the wild. Both metals and alkyl-PAHs exposure were associated with 1) increased relative liver, kidney, and spleen size; 2) alterations in the homeostasis of the antioxidant vitamins A and E in liver; and 3) compromised glutathione redox status in testes, with results also indicating synergistic interactions from co-exposure. The combination of morphometric and oxidative stress biomarkers provide reliable and sensitive measures of the response to contaminant exposure in a mammalian model, suggesting associated physiological costs. Based on the present experimental study, the authors propose that wild small mammals will prove to be valuable sentinel species reflecting sublethal health effects from oil sands-related contaminants. The present study's results also present a basis for the interpretation of future field data. PMID:26139097

  20. POPTOX: Population-level responses of an amphipod to contaminated marine sediments and other environmental stresses

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.

    1994-12-31

    Experimental measurements of population-level responses are useful to environmental management in two ways: (1) to estimate the fitness of populations in an ecological-risk study, and (2) to evaluate the ecological relevance of shorter-term acute and chronic toxicity tests that use the same test species. An experimental system was developed for modeling the population-level responses of the burrowing, estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, to environmental stresses, including chemical contamination. Replicate cohorts of newborn amphipods were exposed to natural and anthropogenic (PAH-contaminated sediment) stresses under static-renewal conditions over periods varying up to their full life-span. The amphipods were periodically removed from the sediment, censused, measured, and returned alive to the exposure chamber; the resulting life-history data were used to develop age-based, matrix-algebraic, population-projection models. Preliminary experiments revealed that an exposure period of 12 weeks with a sampling frequency of 2 weeks was sufficient to model the population dynamics of this amphipod. This experimental system may also be,used to study the interaction between anthropogenic stresses and ecological stresses under controlled and long-term exposures.

  1. Microbially driven Fenton reaction for degradation of the widespread environmental contaminant 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Ramanan; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    The carcinogenic cyclic ether compound 1,4-dioxane is employed as a stabilizer of chlorinated industrial solvents and is a widespread environmental contaminant in surface water and groundwater. In the present study, a microbially driven Fenton reaction was designed to autocatalytically generate hydroxyl (HO•) radicals that degrade 1,4-dioxane. In comparison to conventional (purely abiotic) Fenton reactions, the microbially driven Fenton reaction operated at circumneutral pH and did not the require addition of exogenous H2O2 or UV irradiation to regenerate Fe(II) as Fenton reagents. The 1,4-dioxane degradation process was driven by pure cultures of the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis manipulated under controlled laboratory conditions. S. oneidensis batch cultures were provided with lactate, Fe(III), and 1,4-dioxane and were exposed to alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The microbially driven Fenton reaction completely degraded 1,4-dioxane (10 mM initial concentration) in 53 h with an optimal aerobic-anaerobic cycling period of 3 h. Acetate and oxalate were detected as transient intermediates during the microbially driven Fenton degradation of 1,4-dioxane, an indication that conventional and microbially driven Fenton degradation processes follow similar reaction pathways. The microbially driven Fenton reaction provides the foundation for development of alternative in situ remediation technologies to degrade environmental contaminants susceptible to attack by HO• radicals generated by the Fenton reaction. PMID:25313646

  2. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.

    2015-01-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska.

  3. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. PMID:24875868

  4. Insights into a 20-ha multi-contaminated brownfield megasite: An environmental forensics approach.

    PubMed

    Gallego, J R; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Esquinas, N; Fernández-Braña, A; Afif, E

    2016-09-01

    Here we addressed the contamination of soils in an abandoned brownfield located in an industrial area. Detailed soil and waste characterisation guided by historical information about the site revealed pyrite ashes (a residue derived from the roasting of pyrite ores) as the main environmental risk. In fact, the disposal of pyrite ashes and the mixing of these ashes with soils have affected a large area of the site, thereby causing heavy metal(loid) pollution (As and Pb levels reaching several thousands of ppm). A full characterisation of the pyrite ashes was thus performed. In this regard, we determined the bioavailable metal species present and their implications, grain-size distribution, mineralogy, and Pb isotopic signature in order to obtain an accurate conceptual model of the site. We also detected significant concentrations of pyrogenic benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs, and studied the relation of these compounds with the pyrite ashes. In addition, we examined other waste and spills of minor importance within the study site. The information gathered offered an insight into pollution sources, unravelled evidence from the industrial processes that took place decades ago, and identified the co-occurrence of contaminants by means of multivariate statistics. The environmental forensics study carried out provided greater information than conventional analyses for risk assessment purposes and for the selection of clean-up strategies adapted to future land use. PMID:26475240

  5. Characterization of cholinesterase from guppy (Poecilia reticulata) muscle and its in vitro inhibition by environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L M; Castro, B; Ribeiro, R; Guilhermino, L

    2000-01-01

    With a view to using the cholinesterase (ChE) activity from guppy (Poecilia reticulata) muscle as a biomarker, the objectives of this work were: (i) to characterize the soluble cholinesterases present in muscle homogenate using different substrates and specific inhibitors, (ii) to determine the normal range of activity in non-exposed individuals and (iii) to investigate the in vitro effects of two common environmental contaminants, copper sulphate and dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid sodium salt (DBS) on ChE activity. The rate of substrate hydrolysis of P. reticulata ChE decreased in the order acetylthiocholine, propionylthiocholine and butyrylthiocholine. Inhibition by excess of substrate was observed at concentrations higher than 1.28 mM. Furthermore, eserine sulphate and 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)-pentan-3-one (BW284C51) significantly inhibited the enzyme activity at low concentrations (mM range) and N,N'-diisopropylphosphorodiamic acid (iso-OMPA) had no significant effect up to 8 mM. These findings suggest that the enzyme measured in this study is acetylcholinesterase. The activity determined in non-exposed fish was 145.1 ± 44.7 SD U mg(-1) protein. The common environmental contaminants copper and DBS significantly inhibited P. reticulata ChE at concentrations that can be ecologically relevant. PMID:23885980

  6. Environmental contaminants perturb fragile protein assemblies and inhibit normal protein function

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah H.; Selwood, Trevor; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms whereby small molecules that contaminate our environment cause physiological effects are largely unknown, in terms of both targets and mechanisms. The essential human enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (HsPBGS, a.k.a. 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase, ALAD) functions in heme biosynthesis. HsPBGS catalytic activity is regulated allosterically via an equilibrium of inactive hexamers and active octamers, and we have shown that certain drugs and drug-like small molecules can inhibit HsPBGS in vitro by stabilizing the hexamer. Here we address whether components of the National Toxicology Program library of environmental contaminants can stabilize the HsPBGS hexamer and inhibit activity in vitro. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to screen the library (1,408 compounds) for components that alter the oligomeric distribution of HsPBGS. Freshly purchased samples of 37 preliminary hits were used to confirm the electrophoretic results and to determine the dose-dependence of the perturbation of oligomeric distribution. Seventeen compounds were identified which alter the oligomeric distribution toward the hexamer and also inhibit HsPBGS catalytic activity, including the most potent HsPBGS inhibitor yet characterized (Mutagen X, IC50 = 1.4 μM). PBGS dysfunction is associated with the inborn error of metabolism know as ALAD porphyria and with lead poisoning. The identified hexamer-stabilizing inhibitors could potentiate these diseases. Allosteric regulation of activity via an equilibrium of alternate oligomers has been proposed for many proteins. Based on the precedent set herein, perturbation of these oligomeric equilibria by small molecules (such as environmental contaminants) can be considered as a mechanism of toxicity. PMID:25045409

  7. Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

    2006-12-01

    Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as

  8. Environmental whole-genome amplification to access microbial populations in contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, Carl B; Wyborski, Denise L.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Podar, Mircea; Chen, Wenqiong; Chang, Sherman H.; Chang, Hwai W.; Watson, David B; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry; Keller, Martin

    2006-05-01

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using {phi}29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2% genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small-subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9% of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and 'clusters of orthologous groups' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  9. Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

    2005-12-10

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  10. Contaminant exposures in various environmental media: How can toxicity comparisons be made?

    SciTech Connect

    Lanno, R.P.; McCarty, L.S.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental protection is usually based upon guidelines or standards expressed as chemical values in environmental media such as air, sediment, soil, and water. The basis for such guidelines is laboratory toxicity test data, often time-dependent LC50 values (e.g., 96-h LC50s), where toxicity is expressed in terms of the concentration of chemical contaminant in the exposure medium. This preoccupation with exposure-based estimates of toxic dose has led to many difficulties when attempting to compare the relative toxicity of compounds between species and under various modifying conditions in the same medium. Furthermore, viable comparisons of toxic potencies between organisms inhabiting different environmental media has been all but impossible. This paper exploits the relationship between body residues and adverse biological effects to compare the effects of certain modifying factors (e.g., temperature) on expressed toxicity and toxic potency both within and between different species in one medium. As well, this approach is used to make comparisons of toxic potency between different species in different environmental media. Such comparisons are made by standardizing toxic responses to time-independent toxicity thresholds and using the critical body residue at the chosen biological response endpoint as the dose surrogate rather than the concentration of chemical in the exposure medium. Comparisons of exposure-based and organism residue-based toxicity between fish, and invertebrates in soil (earthworms) and sediment (amphipods) are presented. Recommendations to facilitate such comparisons are reviewed.

  11. Subject Encyclopedias: User Guide, Review Citations, and Keyword Index. Part I and Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirwis, Allan N.

    This two-volume guide is designed to make subject encyclopedias more accessible. To qualify for inclusion, an encyclopedia must meet the following criteria: new or revised edition published since 1990; coverage by subject (not primarily biographical or geographical); intended audience of high school students, college students, and adults;…

  12. Out for a Spin: A School Librarian Test Drives 14 CD-ROM Encyclopedias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Vecchio, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    A school librarian reviews CD-ROM encyclopedias, determining their suitability for school and public library use with children and young adults, and favoring content and accessibility over special features and multimedia enhancements. Outlines essential considerations when choosing encyclopedias (price, network and print versions, and online…

  13. Widespread environmental contamination with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) detected in a prolonged hotel outbreak of gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Cheesbrough, J. S.; Green, J.; Gallimore, C. I.; Wright, P. A.; Brown, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    A protracted outbreak of Norwalk-like virus (NLV)-associated gastroenteritis occurred in a large hotel in North-West England between January and May 1996. We investigated the pattern of environmental contamination with NLV in the hotel during and after the outbreak. In the ninth week, 144 environmental swabs taken from around the hotel were tested for NLV by nested RT-PCR. The sites were categorized according to the likelihood of direct contamination with vomit/faeces. The highest proportion of positive samples were detected in directly contaminated carpets, but amplicons were detected in sites above 1.5 m which are unlikely to have been contaminated directly. The trend in positivity of different sites paralleled the diminishing likelihood of direct contamination. A second environmental investigation of the same sites 5 months after the outbreak had finished were all negative by RT-PCR. This study demonstrates for the first time the extent of environmental contamination that may occur during a large NLV outbreak. PMID:11057964

  14. Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

    1995-07-01

    This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

  15. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  16. Differential exposure, duration, and sensitivity of unionoidean bivalve life stages to environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bringolf, R.B.; Buchwalter, D.B.; Newton, T.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Dwyer, F.J.; Barnhart, M.C.; Neves, R.J.; Hammer, E.

    2008-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea) are in serious global decline and in urgent need of protection and conservation. The declines have been attributed to a wide array of human activities resulting in pollution and water-quality degradation, and habitat destruction and alteration. Linkages among poor water quality, pollutant sources, and mussel decline in rivers and streams have been associated with results of laboratory-based tests of specific pollutants. However, uncertainties remain about the relationship of laboratory data to actual contaminant exposure routes for various mussel species, life stages, and in the habitats occupied during these exposures. We evaluated the pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants for all 4 life stages (free glochidia, encysted glochidia, juveniles, adults) of unionoidean mussels and found that each life stage has both common and unique characteristics that contribute to observed differences in exposure and sensitivity. Free glochidia typically are exposed only briefly (e.g., seconds to days) through surface water, whereas adults sustain exposure over years to decades through surface water, pore water, sediment, and diet. Juveniles live largely burrowed in the sediment for the first 0 to 4 y of life. Thus, sediment, pore water, and diet are the predominant exposure routes for this life stage, but surface water also might contribute to exposure during certain periods and environmental conditions. The obligate parasitic stage (encysted glochidia stage) on a host fish might be exposed from surface water while partially encysted or from toxicants in host-fish tissue while fully encysted. Laboratory methods for testing for acute and chronic exposures in water have advanced, and toxicant-specific information has increased in recent years. However, additional research is needed to understand interactions of life history, habitat, and long-term exposure to contaminants through water, pore water, sediment, and diet so that the

  17. Partitioning of trace elements in contaminated estuarine sediments: the role of environmental settings.

    PubMed

    Shaike, Mohmmad M; Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin F

    2014-12-01

    Estuarine sedimentary environments safeguard aquatic ecosystem health by attenuating and transforming catchment-derived contaminants. Currently these environments are under severe stress from trace element contamination due to urbanization. Sediments of Sydney estuary (Australia) are highly elevated in a range of metals due to a long period of intense urbanization and industrialization, which has had a considerable influence on coastal ecosystem health and functioning. A three-stage sequential procedure following Bureau Communautaire de Référence (Community Bureau of Reference-BCR) technique was applied to sediments collected from Sydney estuary to determine their quality, elemental partitioning and ecosystem risk in three human-impacted environmental settings (i.e., mangrove-dominated, stormwater-dominated and industrial-dominated sites) and a control site in this coastal ecosystem. In all three environmental settings, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines-High (ISQG-High) values and were mostly associated with the reducible and acid soluble fractions, respectively. Copper and Cr also exceeded ISQG-High values (especially in the industrial-dominated site), however the majority of these metals were associated with the oxidizable fraction. Arsenic and Ni concentrations were mostly below ISQG-High values (except one of the stormwater-dominated sites) and were associated with the residual fraction. These results suggest that the most easily mobilized metal was Zn followed by Pb and these metals together presented a risk to estuarine ecosystems in the three selected environmental settings. However, these metals are not always the most abundant in tissue of mangroves, oysters or prawns suggesting other mechanisms are important in a complex uptake process. PMID:25265026

  18. Environmental assessment on electrokinetic remediation of multimetal-contaminated site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2014-05-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on an electrokinetic (EK) system for the remediation of a multimetal-contaminated real site was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool. The entire EK process was classified into major four phases consisting of remedial investigations (RIs), remedial action construction (RAC), remedial action operation (RAO), and long-term monitoring (LTM) for environmental assessment. The environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, total energy used, air emissions of criteria pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, and PM10, and water consumption, were calculated, and the relative contribution in each phase was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In the RAC phase, the relative contribution of the GHG emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases because the material consumption and equipment used for system construction were high. In the RAO phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases, because the water and electricity consumption required for system operation was high. In the RIs and LTM phases, the environmental footprints were negligible because the material and energy consumption was less. In conclusion, the consumable materials and electrical energy consumption might be very important for GSR in the EK remediation process, because the production of consumable materials and electrical energy consumption highly affects the GHG emissions, total energy used, and air emissions such as NOx and SOx. PMID:24515871

  19. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

  20. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen

  1. A User's Guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome. PMID:21526222

  2. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research. PMID:22955616

  3. A user's guide to the encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE).

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome. PMID:21526222

  4. Encyclopedia of the Elements: Technical Data - History - Processing - Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enghag, Per

    2004-09-01

    Famous for its history of numerous element discoverers, Sweden is the origin of this comprehensive encyclopedia of the elements. It provides both an important database for professionals as well as detailed reading ranging from historical facts, discoverers' portraits, color plates of mineral types, natural occurrences, and industrial figures right up to winning and refining processes, biological roles and applications in modern chemistry, engineering and industry. Elemental data is presented in fact tables that include numerous physical and thermodynamic properties, isotope lists, radiation absorption characteristics, NMR parameters, and others. Further pertinent data is supplied in additional tables throughout the text. Originally published in Swedish in three volumes from 1998 to 2000, the contents have been revised and expanded by the author for this English edition.

  5. An Integrated Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure, and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research. PMID:22955616

  6. Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

  7. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carbohydrates are a primary source of carbon and energy for many bacteria. Accurate projection of known carbohydrate catabolic pathways across diverse bacteria with complete genomes constitutes a substantial challenge due to frequent variations in components of these pathways. To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we combined a subsystems-based comparative genomic approach with experimental validation of selected bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. Results We applied this integrated approach to systematically map carbohydrate utilization pathways in 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators) spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars. Comparison of the reconstructed catabolic pathways with E. coli identified multiple differences that are manifested at various levels, from the presence or absence of certain sugar catabolic pathways, nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes to a different organization of transcription regulatory networks. Conclusions The reconstructed sugar catabolome in Shewanella spp includes 62 novel isofunctional families of enzymes, transporters, and regulators. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics and functional organization of carbohydrate utilization in Shewanella, this study led to a substantial expansion of our

  8. The Penobscot River and environmental contaminants: Assessment of tribal exposure through sustenance lifeways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Valerie; Kusnierz, Daniel; Hillger, Robert; Ferrario, Joseph; Hughes, Thomas; Diliberto, Janet; Orazio, Carl E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Byrne, Christian; Sugatt, Richard; Warren, Sarah; DeMarini, David; Elskus, Adria; Stodola, Steve; Mierzykowski, Steve; Pugh, Katie; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    EPA in collaboration with the Penobscot Indian Nation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USF&WS) collectively embarked on a four year research study to evaluate the environmental health of the riverine system by targeting specific cultural practices and using traditional science to conduct a preliminary contaminant screening of the flora and fauna of the Penobscot River ecosystem. This study was designed as a preliminary screening to determine if contaminant concentrations in fish, eel, snapping turtle, wood ducks, and plants in Regions of the Penobscot River relevant to where PIN tribal members hunt, fish and gather plants were high enough to be a health concern. This study was not designed to be a statistically validated assessment of contaminant differences among study sites or among species. The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life

  9. Thermal removal of pyrene contamination from soil: basic studies and environmental health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H H; Bucalá, V; Howard, J B; Peters, W A

    1998-01-01

    Effects of temperature (400-1000 degrees C) and rate of heating to 550 degrees C (100, 1000, 5000 degrees C/sec) on reduction of pyrene contamination in a Superfund-related soil and on yields of volatile products (tars, CO, CO2, methane, acetylene, ethylene) have been measured. Fifty (+/- 3)-milligram thin layers (less than or equal to 150 micron) of 63- to 125-micron soil particles, neat (i.e., without exogenous chemicals), or pretreated with 4.75 wt% of pyrene, were heated for about 1 to 6 sec, under 3 psig (pounds per in.(2) gauge) of helium in a 12-liter sealed chamber. Pyrene removal, defined as the difference in weight loss of neat versus contaminated soil, was virtually immune to heating rate but increased strongly with increasing temperature, approaching 100% at about 530 degrees C. However, for pyrenepolluted soil, excess soil weight loss and modified CO yields were observed above about 500 degrees C for a 1000 degrees C/sec heating rate. These observations suggest that soil chemical reactions with pyrene or pyrene decomposition products augment soil volatilization. Consequently at elevated temperatures, the difference in weight loss protocol may overestimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal from soil. Increasing heating rate caused yields of CO, CO(2), and acetylene from pyrene-polluted soil to pass through maxima. Heating neat or contaminated soil resulted in at least two gaseous products of particular environmental interest:acetylene, a precursor to PAH in thermal synthesis, and CO, a toxin to human hemoglobin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9703498

  10. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils: The environmental restoration of a former railyard

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.S.; Scovazzo, P. )

    1993-08-01

    Petroleum contamination is a pervasive environmental problem. The common remedial solution has been to excavate and landfill the contaminated soils, which is hampered by high costs and space limitations at traditional disposal facilities. Bioremediation is a more attractive soil remediation alternative. This method is winning favor primarily because the soil can be treated on site, and the bioremediation systems can function without interfering with existing facilities. Although the concept of bioremediation has existed for many years, its acceptance as a cost-effective approach to remediation is only now being realized. Several problems must be addressed when considered bioremediation, including variables such as porosity and permeability of soil, indigenous or off-the-shelf microbes, availability of water, and how to best distribute nutrients to the microbes. This paper will answer how some of these questions were addressed at one site near Baltimore, Maryland. The site was part of a former diesel locomotive refueling station at a retired railyard. The levels of contamination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) ranged from less than 100 parts per million (ppm) to greater than 14,000 ppm. The total volume of soil estimated to require treatment was 70,000 yd[sub 3]. At the Baltimore site the authors used indigenous bacteria. Groundwater was extracted, augmented, with nutrients and oxygen through mobile treatment trailers, and returned to the soil for infiltration. This method creates an environment where the bacteria can naturally degrade the petroleum hydrocarbons to acceptable levels. Once these levels are achieved, the redevelopment of prime real estate can begin.

  11. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  12. The Epigenetic Consequences of Paternal Exposure to Environmental Contaminants and Reproductive Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Estill, Molly S; Krawetz, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    Human populations are exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental contaminants, some of which are considered reproductive toxins. The influence of such toxins on the male reproductive system has been investigated extensively in animal models, while epidemiological studies seek to understand the effect of human exposures. The basic tenant of epidemiological studies in male human reproduction is to infer how one or more substances alter the hormonal profile, seminal characteristics, or both. Determining if a substance alters semen quality may not always provide the underlying mechanism. The mechanisms by which toxins may alter human sperm and semen quality are typically examined as a function of hormonal changes and cellular damage. The possibility that more subtle epigenetic alterations underlie some of the reproductive changes has, until recently, received little attention. In this review, we discuss the roles of epigenetics in human spermatogenesis, while considering the impact of reproductive toxicants on the epigenome. PMID:27357567

  13. Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter.

    PubMed

    Levine, R J; Moore, R M; McLaren, G D; Barthel, W F; Landrigan, P J

    1976-06-01

    Occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. Thirty of 37 employees (81 per cent) has blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 mug/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels greater than 60mug/100ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells; eight current and previous employees had been hospitalized with lead colic, and another with encephalopathy. Levels of lead in surface soil (1,800 ppm) and vegetation (20,000 ppm) at the smelter were high and decreased with distance. Animals on nearby pasture had died, and lead levels in the blood, milk, and hair of large and small animals were elevated. Adults living within 100 meters of the smelter had higher blood and hair lead levels than controls, who lived at greater distances, but there was no evidence in them of lead toxicity. PMID:937600

  14. Detection of airborne severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and environmental contamination in SARS outbreak units.

    PubMed

    Booth, Timothy F; Kournikakis, Bill; Bastien, Nathalie; Ho, Jim; Kobasa, Darwyn; Stadnyk, Laurie; Li, Yan; Spence, Mel; Paton, Shirley; Henry, Bonnie; Mederski, Barbara; White, Diane; Low, Donald E; McGeer, Allison; Simor, Andrew; Vearncombe, Mary; Downey, James; Jamieson, Frances B; Tang, Patrick; Plummer, Frank

    2005-05-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is characterized by a risk of nosocomial transmission; however, the risk of airborne transmission of SARS is unknown. During the Toronto outbreaks of SARS, we investigated environmental contamination in SARS units, by employing novel air sampling and conventional surface swabbing. Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive air samples were obtained from a room occupied by a patient with SARS, indicating the presence of the virus in the air of the room. In addition, several PCR-positive swab samples were recovered from frequently touched surfaces in rooms occupied by patients with SARS (a bed table and a television remote control) and in a nurses' station used by staff (a medication refrigerator door). These data provide the first experimental confirmation of viral aerosol generation by a patient with SARS, indicating the possibility of airborne droplet transmission, which emphasizes the need for adequate respiratory protection, as well as for strict surface hygiene practices. PMID:15809906

  15. The occurrence of organic contaminants in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Poland: an environmental quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Ruczynska, Wiesława; Nermer, Tomasz; Usydus, Zygmunt; Robak, Stanisław

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide information on the levels of pollutants in the tissues of eels caught in Polish waters. The contaminants included in the study are those which have not yet been widely studied in eel stocks, but which arouse concern in relation to the environment. An overview of the pollutant levels in eels caught in other European waters was also conducted. The results are evaluated in terms of environmental quality and consumer health. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs and ΣHBCDs in muscles of eels sampled in Polish waters were between 1 and 2 ng g(-1) ww. The mean TBT concentrations were between 2 and 4 ng g(-1)ww with the exception of samples from the Szczecin Lagoon, in which the mean TBT concentration was about tenfold higher. PMID:25113214

  16. Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

  17. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed {sup 137}Cs concentrations [> 10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (> 10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h{sup 1} 1 m above the soil surface.

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  19. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  20. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-07

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  1. An Environmental Health Assessment: Fecal Coliform Contamination in San Francisco Waterbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillier, K. N.; Devine, M.; Negrete, R.; Rawley, A. L.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria that exists in the digestive system and excrement of warm-blooded animals. It enters aquatic environments through fecal contamination of water. In the urban environment, contamination can occur not only by direct input from warm-blooded animals but also from storm water run-off and municipal sewer overflow. Fecal coliform itself does not cause disease but it is an indicator of the presence of pathogens that exist in the wastes of humans and animals that are a hazard to human health. We examined 12 locations in San Francisco for fecal coliform and recorded the types of human contact with water at each location. We found low levels of coliform in areas open to the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean and high levels of coliform in inland lakes and ponds. Using Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for fecal coliform concentrations, we found all sites at acceptable levels for the recreational and human activities we observed.

  2. Evaluation of different parameters in the extraction of incurred pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Sample processing is often ignored during analytical method development and validation, but accurate results for real samples depend on all aspects of the analytical process. Also, validation is often conducted using only spiked samples, but extraction yields may be lower in incurred samples. In this study, different variables in extraction for incurred pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish were investigated. Among 207 analytes screened using low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, consisting of 150 pesticides, 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 22 other flame retardants (FRs), 35 (16 pesticides, 9 PCBs, 5 PBDEs, and 5 PAHs) were identified for quantification in samples of salmon, croaker, and NIST Standard Reference Material 1947 (Lake Michigan Fish Tissue). Extraction efficiencies using different extraction devices (blending, vortexing, and vibrating) versus time, sample size, and sample/solvent ratio were determined. In comparison to blending results, use of a pulsed-vortexer for 1 min with 1/1 (g/mL) sample/acetonitrile ratio was generally sufficient to extract the incurred contaminants in the homogenized fish tissues. Conversely, extraction with a prototype vibration shaker often took 60 min to achieve 100% extraction efficiency. A main conclusion from this study is that accurate results for real samples can be obtained using batch extraction with a pulsed-vortexer in a simple and efficient method that achieves high sample throughput. PMID:25686151

  3. Environmental contaminants in eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni)

    SciTech Connect

    Hothem, R.L.; Zador, S.G.

    1995-11-01

    A severe decline in the coastal breeding population of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) in California and Baja California prompted both State and Federal governments to designate it an endangered species in 1970. Significant losses of nesting and feeding habitat have contributed greatly to the decline of this subspecies. However, environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine compounds and metals, may also have contributed to the decline. California least terns are primarily piscivorous during the nesting period, feeding predominantly on jack-smelt, topsmelt, and northern anchovy. Topsmelt had the highest levels of DDE (p,p`-DDE) (up to 3 {mu}g/g wet wt) of fish collected from San Diego Bay. Eggs of Caspian terns (S.caspia) from that study contained up to 56 {mu}g/g DDE, and DDE was associated with a reduction in eggshell thickness as determined by the thickness index. In addition to shell deficiencies, organochlorines can also cause reduced egg production, aberrant incubation behavior, delayed ovulation, embryotoxicosis, and mortality of chicks and adults. Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) have caused decreased hatchability, altered nesting behavior, and embryotoxicosis in birds in field and laboratory studies. Our objective was to evaluate the role of contaminants in the decline of California least terns. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology. PMID:26133768

  5. TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM- AND URANIUM-CONTAMINATED OIL FROM ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-05

    A removal method for plutonium and uranium has been tested at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This alternative treatment technology is applicable to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with actinides. In our studies, greater than 70% removal of the actinides was achieved. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder consisting of a surface modified mesoporous material. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and actinides in water and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1, 2]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide support provides a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. The testing described in this report was conducted on a small scale but larger-scale testing of the technology has been performed on mercury-contaminated oil without difficulty [3].

  6. Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P.; Hartley, W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

  7. Contamination of environmental surfaces by Staphylococcus aureus in a dermatological ward and its preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shigeharu; Yanagi, Chikashige; Matsui, Hiroto; Nishida, Tomoko; Tomita, Masaaki; Kamiya, Akira

    2005-01-01

    We investigated contamination of environmental surfaces by Staphylococcus aureus from April 1 to the end of June in 2002 in the dermatological ward (37 beds) of a university hospital. For surfaces contaminated by high levels of S. aureus, disinfection methods were evaluated. 100-10(5) colony forming units (cfu) of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) were detected on items such as an immersion bathtub (examined area, about 900 cm2), foot washbowl, stretcher for an immersion bath, and chair for the shower. After disinfection, no S. aureus was detected on smooth surfaces such as the immersion bathtub and foot washbowl; however, S. aureus was detected even after disinfection on porous surfaces made of sponge-like materials (polyethylene foam) such as the stretcher for the immersion bath and the shower chair. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous surfaces showed formation of a large amount of coccus and bacillus biofilms on the walls of pores in the multi-pore structure. Material that is porous should not be used in patient care settings because it is not possible to disinfect it properly. PMID:15635175

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopes of ground water in Jeju volcanic island, Korea: implications for nitrate contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Dong-Chan; Chang, Ho-Wan; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Yongje; Park, Won-Bae

    2005-07-01

    Ground water from springs and public supply wells was investigated for hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes of 3H, 18O and D in Jeju volcanic island, Korea. The wells are completed in a basaltic aquifer and the upper part of hydrovolcanic sedimentary formation. Nitrate contamination is conspicuous in the coastal area where most of the samples have nitrate concentrations well above 1 mg NO3N/l. Agricultural land use seems to have a strong influence on the distribution of nitrate in ground water. Comparison of stable isotopic compositions of precipitation and ground water show that ground water mostly originates from rainy season precipitation without significant secondary modification and that local recharge is dominant. 3H concentration of ground water ranged from nearly zero to 5 TU and is poorly correlated with vertical location of well screens. The occurrence of the 3H-free, old ground water is due to the presence of low permeability layers near the boundary of the basaltic aquifer and the hydrovolcanic sedimentary formation, which significantly limits ground water flow from the upper basaltic aquifer. The old ground water exhibited background-level nitrate concentrations despite high nitrate loadings, whereas young ground water had considerably higher nitrate concentrations. This correlation of 3H and nitrate concentration may be ascribed to the history of fertilizer use that has increased dramatically since the early 1960s in the island. This suggests that 3H can be used as a qualitative indicator for aquifer vulnerability to nitrate contamination.

  9. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology. PMID:26133768

  10. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  11. Disruption of androgen regulation in the prostate by the environmental contaminant hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Jody L; Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Nelson, Colleen C

    2003-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has the potential to interfere with steroid hormone regulation. The prostate requires precise control by androgens to regulate its growth and function. To determine if HCB impacts androgen action in the prostate, we used a number of methods. Our in vitro cell-culture-based assay used a firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by an androgen-responsive promoter. In the presence of dihydrotestosterone, low concentrations (0.5-5 nM) of HCB increased the androgen-responsive production of firefly luciferase and high concentrations of HCB (> 10 microM) suppressed this transcriptional activity. Results from a binding assay showed no evidence of affinity between HCB and the androgen receptor. We also tested HCB for in vivo effects using transgenic mice in which the transgene was a prostate-specific, androgen-responsive promoter upstream of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene. In 4-week-old mice, the proportion of dilated prostate acini, a marker of sexual maturity, increased in the low HCB dose group and decreased in the high HCB dose mice. In the 8-week-old mice, there was a significant decrease in both CAT activity and prostate weight upon exposure to 20 mg/kg/day HCB. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo data suggest that HCB weakly agonizes androgen action, and consequently, low levels of HCB enhanced androgen action but high levels of HCB interfered. Environmental contaminants have been implicated in the rising incidence of prostate cancer, and insight into the mechanisms of endocrine disruption will help to clarify their role. PMID:12676599

  12. Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

    2014-03-01

    A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (√10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., <≈ 3 months) and when the parent compound is the toxic moiety. Overall, from a public health perspective, the current state of knowledge generally suggest that the default uncertainty factor is sufficient to account for human variability in non-cancer risk assessments of environmental contaminants. PMID:24038072

  13. Environmental Measurement While Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. Sandia-developed Windows{trademark}-based software is used for data display and storage. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The design includes data assurance techniques to increase safety by reducing the probability of giving a safe indication when an unsafe condition exists. The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide

  14. Environmental Contamination in Households of Patients with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Megan K; Bobr, Aleh; Kuskowski, Michael A; Johnston, Brian D; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander; Johnson, James R

    2016-05-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) is common and difficult to treat, potentially necessitating fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Although C. difficilespores persist in the hospital environment and cause infection, little is known about their potential presence or importance in the household environment. Households of R-CDI subjects in the peri-FMT period and of geographically matched and age-matched controls were analyzed for the presence ofC. difficile Household environmental surfaces and fecal samples from humans and pets in the household were examined. Households of post-FMT subjects were also examined (environmental surfaces only). Participants were surveyed regarding their personal history and household cleaning habits. Species identity and molecular characteristics of presumptive C. difficile isolates from environmental and fecal samples were determined by using the Pro kit (Remel, USA), Gram staining, PCR, toxinotyping, tcdC gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Environmental cultures detected C. difficile on ≥1 surface in 8/8 (100%) peri-FMT households, versus 3/8 (38%) post-FMT households and 3/8 (38%) control households (P= 0.025). The most common C. difficile-positive sites were the vacuum (11/27; 41%), toilet (8/30; 27%), and bathroom sink (5/29; 17%).C. difficile was detected in 3/36 (8%) fecal samples (two R-CDI subjects and one household member). Nine (90%) of 10 households with multiple C. difficile-positive samples had a single genotype present each. In conclusion,C. difficile was found in the household environment of R-CDI patients, but whether it was found as a cause or consequence of R-CDI is unknown. If household contamination leads to R-CDI, effective decontamination may be protective. PMID:26921425

  15. Environmental contaminant exposure data and monitoring priorities for wild terrestrial vertebrates at national parks in coastal and estuarine habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.; Eisenreich, K.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on select species and habitats in the United States. One of the many BEST Project activities entails the development of decision-support tools to assist in the identification of chemical threats to species and lands under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior. Although there are many ecotoxicological monitoring programs that focus on aquatic species and habitats, there are currently no large-scale efforts that are focused on terrestrial vertebrates in the United States. Nonetheless, organochlorine contaminants, metals, and new pollutants continue to pose hazards to terrestrial vertebrates at many spatial scales (ranging from small hazardous-waste-site point sources to entire watersheds). To evaluate and prioritize pollutant hazards for terrestrial vertebrates, a ?Contaminant Exposure and EffectsTerrestrial Vertebrates? (CEE-TV) database (www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online) was developed. The CEE-TV database has been used to conduct simple searches for exposure and biological effects information for a given species or location, identification of temporal contaminant exposure trends, information gap analyses for national wildlife refuge and national park units, and ranking of terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological information needs based on data density and water quality problems. Despite widespread concerns about environmental contamination, during the past decade only about one-half of the coastal National Park units appear to have terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data. Based upon known environmental contaminant hazards, it is recommended that regionalized monitoring programs or efforts focused on lands managed by the Department of the Interior should be undertaken to prevent serious natural resource problems.

  16. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Field Procedures for Assessing the Exposure of Fish to Environmental Contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Blazer, Vicki; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gross, Timothy S.; Bryant, Wade L.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Smith, Stephen B.; Goede, Ronald W.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Kubiak, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes procedures used to collect information, tissues, and fluids for documenting the exposure of fish to environmental contaminants. For the procedures described here, fish are captured (preferably by electrofishing) and held alive until processing (generally <1 h). Fish are weighed, measured, and examined for grossly visible external lesions and pathologies. A blood sample is collected by caudal veinipuncture using a needle and syringe. The fish is subdued and it's abdominal cavity opened. The internal organs are dissected from the fish for examination. The sex of the fish is determined by direct observation of its gonads. The liver is weighed (most species) and cut into small cubes and flash-frozen in cryogenic vials, which are stored and shipped in dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Additional liver cubes plus all grossly visible anomalies are preserved for histopathology. The gonads and spleen are weighed, and samples are preserved for histopathology. The kidneys are examined, and histopathology samples collected. A gill sample is also collected and preserved. All remaining tissues are returned to the carcass, which is wrapped in foil, labeled for chemical analysis, and chilled. Individual fish carcasses are composited by station, species, and gender; frozen; and shipped to the analytical laboratory. Procedures are also described for record keeping; processing blood to obtain serum and plasma; flash-freezing samples; cleaning equipment; and preventing the transport of living organisms among waterways. A list of necessary equipment and supplies is also provided.

  17. A method for rapid, non-targeted screening for environmental contaminants in household dust.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Donald C; Jones, Richard S; Sjödin, Andreas

    2010-10-29

    Household dust can be a major source of human exposure to environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pesticides, and other compounds. This work shows a screening technique that may be used to identify components in an environmental sample as xenobiotics based on mass spectral characteristics of classes of compounds that may be expected to be present in the environment. Household dust (SRM-2585) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was extracted with hexane using accelerated solvent extraction. Large molecules, such as triglycerides and fatty acids were removed with gel permeation chromatography. The extract was then concentrated and analyzed by comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time of flight mass spectrometer. The resulting peak table was automatically filtered to identify compound classes such as phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their heterocyclic analogs, chlorinated compounds, brominated compounds, and nitro compounds. While phthalates can be identified by abundances at specific masses, the identification of the remaining classes is based on the identification of the molecular ion and identification of isotope clusters or other spectral characteristics. The technique detected compounds identified and quantified by NIST as well as compounds not identified by NIST in the sample. By comparison with concentrations determined by NIST for the analytes found, the technique is able to identify analytes in these compound classes at concentrations as low as 10-20 ng/g dust. PMID:20864112

  18. Forms and prevalence of intersexuality and effects of environmental contaminants on sexuality in cricket frogs (Acris crepitans).

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, A L; Foley, G L; Nichols, D K; Hansen, L G; Wikoff, B; Faeh, S; Eisold, J; Wheeler, M B; Warner, R; Murphy, J E; Beasley, V R

    1998-01-01

    Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) from several different sites in Illinois were collected to assess the effects of environmental contamination on the prevalence of intersex gonads. Of 341 frogs collected in 1993, 1994, and 1995, 2.7% were intersex individuals. There was no statistically significant relationship between the chemical compounds detected and cricket frog intersexuality. However, there was an association approaching significance (p = 0.07) between the detection of atrazine and intersex individuals. A comparison of reference sites with sites that had point polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) contamination revealed a significant relationship between sex-ratio reversal and contamination with PCBs and PCDFs. The sex ratio of juvenile frogs studied from three sites with PCB and PCDF point contamination favored males over females, which was the opposite of the sex ratio in control ponds (p = 0.0007). The statistically significant correlation between organochlorine contamination and sex-ratio reversal suggests PCBs and PCDFs can influence cricket frog sexual differentiation. The current study suggests that in cricket frogs, sex ratios and the prevalence of intersex gonads are altered by environmental contamination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9647894

  19. Check on level of environmental contamination by mercury and cleanup of Abetina Mining area (Grosseto-Italia)

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G.; Marabini, A.M.; Passariello, B.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the study was to check on the level of environmental contamination and to design a project for cleaning up the Abetina Mine area at Piancastagnaio (Grosseto, Italy). Contamination of this area had occurred during the mining and treatment of cinnabar (HgS) over a prolonged period. The aim of the project is to remove the sources of contamination or render them harmless. Mining of the Piancastagnaio deposit started in 1840, mercury metal being extracted from the ore by thermal treatment. Together with Spain, Italy was the first country to produce this metal and was the world leader in this field between 1936 and 1943. Though mercury production in the Monte Amiata region of Tuscany ceased in 1974 the ensuing environmental impact is very evident, taking the form of rusty old mining and processing works, plus waste tips which still contain considerable amount of mercury even after the ore had been subject to thermal extraction treatment. The research which has been conducted included mapping the area to identify the main sources of mercury and arsenic pollution, as well as the level of environmental contamination. Mercury and arsenic values in excess of 16,000 and 150 ppm respectively are encountered in the most highly-contaminated places. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Disposal of historically contaminated soil in the cement industry and the evaluation of environmental performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Jiang; Miao, Wenjuan; Wang, Huanzhong; Wei, Mao

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 400000t of DDTs/HCHs-contaminated soil (CS) needed to be co-processed in a cement kiln with a time limitation of 2y. A new pre-processing facility with a "drying, grinding and DDTs/HCHs vaporizing" ability was equipped to meet the technical requirements for processing cement raw meal and the environmental standards for stack emissions. And the bottom of the precalciner with high temperatures >1000°C was chosen as the CS feeding point for co-processing, which has rarely been reported. To assess the environmental performance of CS pre- and co-processing technologies, according to the local regulation, a test burn was performed by independent and accredited institutes systematically for determination of the clinker quality, kiln stack gas emissions and destruction efficiency of the pollutant. The results demonstrated that the clinker was of high quality and not adversely affected by CS co-processing. Stack emissions were all below the limits set by Chinese standards. Particularly, PCDD/PCDF emissions ranged from 0.0023 to 0.0085ngI-TEQNm(-3). The less toxic OCDD was the peak congener for CS co-processing procedure, while the most toxic congeners (i.e. 2,3,7,8-TeCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDD) remained in a minor proportion. Destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and destruction efficiency (DE) of the kiln system were better than 99.9999% and 99.99%, respectively, at the highest CS feeding rate during normal production. To guarantee the environmental performance of the system the quarterly stack gas emission was also monitored during the whole period. And all of the results can meet the national standards requirements. PMID:25966458

  1. Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

  2. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  3. Wild rats as monitors of environmental lead contamination in the urban area of Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ceruti, Roberta; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Ferretti, Enrica; Cammarata, Serafina; Sonzogni, Oreste; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-one wild brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) were collected from four areas of Milan (Italy). Main organs were harvested from each rat, fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, and embedded in paraffin. Organ sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, kidney sections were also stained with the Ziehl-Neelsen method. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry was performed on all kidney samples. The presence of inclusion bodies and karyocytomegaly was scored. Six adult rats out of 21 (28.6%) showed kariocytomegaly and intranuclear inclusion bodies of the renal proximal tubules, characteristic of lead toxicity. The nuclear inclusion bodies were always Ziehl-Neelsen positive. The six rats which showed the characteristic histological alterations ascribed to lead, had lead concentrations statistically higher than the three control rats (4 microg/g wet wt. versus 0.09 microg/g wet wt., P<0.001) and than the captured wild rats. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in rats with kidney lead concentrations greater than 0.6 microg/g wet weight. There were significant differences between the four areas of capture. The incidence of intranuclear inclusion bodies and karyocytomegaly in proximal tubular cells was higher in rats with high lead levels detected by spectrophotometry. The present results indicate a renal lead concentration of 0.6 microg/g wet weight as a threshold to detect histologic kidney changes due to lead absorption. Results demonstrate that the examination of adult free-living rats may be considered an appropriate method to obtain a rapid, sensitive, easy, cost effective estimate of lead contamination in urban areas. Animal models allow us to evaluate potential human health risk associated with environmental contamination. PMID:11916039

  4. Environmental considerations for the disposal of PBB-contaminated animals and wastes.

    PubMed

    Shah, B P

    1978-04-01

    Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal of contaminated carcasses and to prevent any migration of PBBs into ground and surface waters of the area. Materials underneath the site are predominantly sand with layers of silts and clays of glacial origin. The vertical isolation from the surface to the water table is over 90 ft, and the horizontal isolation to the privately owned properties and surface water bodies is well over 1.5 mile in all directions. The site design provides necessary safeguards for minimizing surface water infiltration into disposal trenches and maximizing the protection to the environment. A series of water wells in the direction of flow are established for monitoring groundwater quality for years to come. A 40-acre Gratiot County landfill located near St. Louis, Michigan, has received 269,000 lb of wastes containing 60 to 70% PBBs between 1971 and 1973. PBB wastes are intermixed with general refuse at various depths predominantly in the eastern half of the landfill. Phase I of the hydrogeological investigation shows that the landfill is situated immediately above the groundwater aquifer and a divide. Recently drilled test wells show traces of PBBs in the aquifer in all directions. Additional studies are planned in the near future for corrective measures and monitoring. PMID:209986

  5. Effect of Low Temperature Thermal Treatment on Soils Contaminated with Pentachlorophenol and Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Cook, Robert L.; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Dellinger, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs’ and the PCP molecules’ chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 300 °C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2–12 × 1018 spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and linewidth (ΔHp-p) of 2.00311 – 2.00323 and 4.190 – 5.472 Gauss, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1–10 × 1018 spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327 – 2.00341, and ΔHp-p of 5.209 – 6.721 Gauss. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 × 1018 spins/g of soil at 100 °C for open heating and 12 × 1018 spins/g at 75 °C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2 – 24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure. PMID:22548284

  6. [Immobilization remediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil: remediation potential and soil environmental quality].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-Bing; Wang, Peng-Chao; Xu, Ying-Ming; Sun, Yang; Qin, Xu; Zhao, Li-Jie; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xue-Feng

    2014-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the immobilization remediation effects of sepiolite on soils artificially combined contamination by Cd and Pb using a set of various pH and speciation of Cd and Pb in soil, heavy metal concentration in Oryza sativa L., and soil enzyme activity and microbial quantity. Results showed that the addition of sepiolite increased the soil pH, and the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals was converted into Fe-Mn oxide, organic and residual forms, the concentration of exchangeable form of Cd and Pb reduced by 1.4% - 72.9% and 11.8% - 51.4%, respectively, when compared with the control. The contents of heavy metals decreased with increasing sepiolite, with the maximal Cd reduction of 39.8%, 36.4%, 55.2% and 32.4%, respectively, and 22.1%, 54.6%, 43.5% and 17.8% for Pb, respectively, in the stems, leaves, brown rice and husk in contrast to CK. The addition of sepiolite could improve the soil environmental quality, the catalase and urease activities and the amount of bacteria and actinomycete were increased to some extents. Although the fungi number and invertase activity were inhibited compared with the control group, it was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The significant correlation between pH, available heavy metal content, urease and invertase activities and heavy metal concentration in the plants indicated that these parameters could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of stabilization remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. PMID:25826946

  7. Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to

  8. THE THREE INTERACTING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS, FOOD CONTAMINATION, AND CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dietary contribution to an aggregate exposure assessment is potentially an important pathway of exposure especially for young children. Enviornmental contamination appearing in the child's diet can result from contamination in the food as purchased or due to preparing, servin...

  9. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Chemistry (edited by Joseph J. Lagowski)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, George B.

    1998-11-01

    Macmillan: New York, 1997. Four volumes. Figs., tables. lxxi + 1696 pp. 22.0 x 28.5 cm. $400. ISBN 0-02-897225-2. This latest addition to Macmillan's series of comprehensive core science encyclopedias (previous sets dealt with physics and earth sciences) will be of particular interest to readers of this Journal, for it is edited by longtime Journal of Chemical Education editor Joe Lagowski, assisted by a board of five distinguished associate editors. The attractively priced set offers clear explanations of the phenomena and concepts of chemistry and its materials, whether found in industry, the laboratory, or the natural world. It is intended for a broad spectrum of readers-professionals whose work draws on chemical concepts and knowledge (e.g., material scientists, engineers, health workers, biotechnologists, mathematicians, and computer programmers), science teachers at all levels from kindergarten to high school, high school and college students interested in medicine or the sciences, college and university professors, and laypersons desiring information on practical aspects of chemistry (e.g., household cleaning products, food and food additives, manufactured materials, herbicides, the human body, sweeteners, and animal communication).

  10. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus

    SciTech Connect

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Rodionova, Irina A.; Wang, Yanbing; Obraztsova, Anna; Zagnitko, Olga P.; Overbeek, Ross; Romine, Margaret F.; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Osterman, Andrei L.

    2010-09-13

    To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we have established a subsystems-based comparative approach and applied it to 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The key stages of our approach include: (i) a homology-based identification of gene candidates using a genomic compilation of ~500 known components of sugar catabolic pathways; (ii) functional assignment of orthologs and prediction of alternative genes and pathway variants based on genomic (operons, regulons) and functional (subsystems, pathways) context analysis; (iii) validation of bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators) spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. The reconstructed catabolic pathways are significantly enriched by nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics, functional organization and evolution of the sugar catabolome, this study confirmed the efficiency of the established approach, which is scalable and applicable to other groups of microorganisms.

  11. Reol: R interface to the Encyclopedia of Life

    PubMed Central

    Banbury, Barbara L; O'Meara, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life is a website that hosts information about life on Earth. Its mission is to increase awareness and understanding of living nature through a freely accessible digital source. Information is publicly available through graphical webpages (browser interface) or through an application programming interface (API). We developed Reol, an open-source package for the R environment, which downloads data from the EOL API, searches for and extracts specific information, and builds tables with quantitative data and/or hierarchical classifications. We provide a detailed description how Reol can be used as a bridge between the R environment and the EOL API to extract quantitative or hierarchical content. It will be particularly useful for researchers who want information about taxonomic groups of interest (for example: how much information is known about flatworm species? What are the taxonomic synonyms for bird species?) or construct a taxonomic tree. Reol is a tool for researchers who wish to download and gather data from EOL or its provider pages. We provide numerous functions within R for downloading, gathering data in different forms, creating taxonomic trees, and plotting data, which work with functions already available through various packages. It joins a growing body of R packages that interact with web-based APIs to streamline data acquisition, thereby easing the analysis of large publicly available datasets. PMID:25360287

  12. Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  13. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  14. Direct contact and environmental contaminations are responsible for HEV transmission in pigs.

    PubMed

    Andraud, Mathieu; Dumarest, Marine; Cariolet, Roland; Aylaj, Bouchra; Barnaud, Elodie; Eono, Florent; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause enterically-transmitted hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic nature of Hepatitis E infections has been established in industrialized areas and domestic pigs are considered as the main reservoir. The dynamics of transmission in pig herds therefore needs to be understood to reduce the prevalence of viremic pigs at slaughter and prevent contaminated pig products from entering the food chain. An experimental trial was carried out to study the main characteristics of HEV transmission between orally inoculated pigs and naïve animals. A mathematical model was used to investigate three transmission routes, namely direct contact between pigs and two environmental components to represent within-and between-group oro-fecal transmission. A large inter-individual variability was observed in response to infection with an average latent period lasting 6.9 days (5.8; 7.9) in inoculated animals and an average infectious period of 9.7 days (8.2; 11.2). Our results show that direct transmission alone, with a partial reproduction number of 1.41 (0.21; 3.02), can be considered as a factor of persistence of infection within a population. However, the quantity of virus present in the environment was found to play an essential role in the transmission process strongly influencing the probability of infection with a within pen transmission rate estimated to 2 · 10(-6)g ge(-1)d(-1)(1 · 10(-7); 7 · 10(-6)). Between-pen environmental transmission occurred to a lesser extent (transmission rate: 7 · 10(-8)g ge(-1) d(-1)(5 · 10(-9); 3 · 10(-7)) but could further generate a within-group process. The combination of these transmission routes could explain the persistence and high prevalence of HEV in pig populations. PMID:24165278

  15. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.

    PubMed

    Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

    2013-09-01

    Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. PMID:23845936

  16. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  17. Contaminant monitoring studies using marine mammals and the need for establishment of an International Environmental Specimen Bank.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, N

    1994-09-16

    Many hazardous chemicals have polluted the environment of the earth. Among them, organochlorine compounds and heavy metals have dispersed worldwide. I reviewed the results of cooperative research based on specimens shared with colleagues at Ehime University, Japan: (1) bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds (DDT, PCB, HHC, etc.) and heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) from sea water to marine mammals through the food chain, (2) placental transfer of contaminants, (3) transfer of contaminants through lactation, (4) biological impacts of contaminants to marine mammals, and (5) the global movement of contaminants. This work was based on about 1200 specimens of marine mammals obtained from scientific research over 17 years during 1976-1992. Soft tissues were banked at -20 degrees C at Ehime University while related materials and information were deposited in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. These and other materials should be preserved in good condition in an international specimen bank for future global environmental monitoring studies, the examination of hazardous chemicals which are currently unknown, the reexamination of the same samples in future using more advanced equipment by different scientists, and the reaction to unknown environmental questions, etc. The need for the establishment of an International Environmental Specimen Bank for marine mammals and other marine organisms are recommended. PMID:7973611

  18. Monitoring environmental Aspergillus spp. contamination and meteorological factors in a haematological unit.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L

    2013-12-01

    The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward. PMID:24158616

  19. Remedial policies in radiologically-contaminated forests: environmental consequences and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Linkov, I; Morel, B; Schell, W R

    1997-02-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, large forested areas in Europe were contaminated by radionuclides. Extensive societal pressure has been exerted to decrease the radiation dose to the population and to the environment. Thus, in making abatement and remediation policy decisions not only economic costs, but also human and environmental risk assessment are desired. Forest remediation by organic layer removal, one of the most promising cleanup policies, is considered in this paper. Ecological risk assessment requires evaluation of the radionuclide distribution in forests. The FORESTPATH model is used for predicting the radionuclide fate in forest compartments after deposition as well as for evaluating the application of the remedial policy. Time of intervention and radionuclide deposition profile was predicted as being crucial for the remediation efficiency. Risk assessment conducted for a critical group of forest users in Belarus shows that consumption of forest products (berries and mushrooms) leads to about 0.004% risk of a fatal cancer. Cost-benefit analysis for forest cleanup suggests that complete removal of organic layer is too expensive for application in Belarus. PMID:9131826

  20. Environmental contamination of chrysotile asbestos and its toxic effects on antioxidative system of Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, A K; Ahmad, I; Musthapa, M S; Ansari, F A

    2007-04-01

    Asbestos was monitored in various plant samples around an asbestos cement factory. Asbestos residue was found on the surface of all plant samples monitored. Based on asbestos concentration found in different plant samples during monitoring and on the property of asbestos to cause reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress in animal models, laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the toxicity of chrysotile asbestos on an aquatic macrophyte, duckweed (Lemna gibba.). L. gibba plants were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 microg/mL) of chrysotile asbestos under laboratory conditions, and alterations in the glutathione and ascorbate antioxidative system were estimated at postexposure days 7, 14, 21, and 28 in order to assess changes in their level as suitable biomarkers of chrysotile contamination. Chrysotile exposure caused a decrease in total and reduced glutathione and an enhancement in the oxidized glutathione as well as the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. An increase in ascorbate pool size, and reduced as well as oxidized ascorbate was found to be accompanied by a decrease in the ratio of reduced/oxidized ascorbate. Alteration in the glutathione and ascorbate level might be considered as a biomarker of exposure to an unsafe environment because these are essential compounds of the general antioxidative strategy to overcome oxidative stress due to environmental constraints. Because an increase in the oxidation rate of antioxidants weakens cellular defenses and indicates a precarious state, they could constitute indicators of toxicity. PMID:17354032

  1. Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Jurek, R.M.; Moore, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture carcasses and nearly all raven carcasses at generally moderate concentrations. Other organochlorines occurred infrequently in carcasses and generally at low concentrations. Turkey vulture eggshells were 16% thinner than the pre-DDT mean; there was no change in shell thickness of raven eggs. Vulture eggs contained an average of 6.9 ppm DDE and two contained excessive concentrations of endrin. DDE concentrations were low in raven eggs. Residues of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Se, Tl, and Zn in tissues of vultures and ravens appeared normal when compared with reference values for other species. Lead concentrations in bone of turkey vultures and feathers of condors appeared to be elevated above normal background concentrations in some cases. Current exposure of condors to organochlorines appears low; however, we are concerned about the excessive exposure of turkey vultures to organochlorines, possibly in Central America. Lead exposure to vultures and condors has occurred, but its significance to their populations is unknown.

  2. Pulmonary toxicity and environmental contamination: radicals, electron transfer, and protection by antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2009-01-01

    The atmosphere is replete with a mixture of toxic substances, both natural and man-made. Inhalation of toxic substances produces a variety of insults to the pulmonary system. Lung poisons include industrial materials, particulates from mining and combustion, agricultural chemicals, cigarette smoke, ozone, and nitrogen oxides, among a large number of other chemicals and environmental contaminants. Many proposals have been advanced to explain the mode of action of pulmonary toxicants. In this review we focus on mechanisms of pulmonary toxicity that involve ET, ROS, and OS. The vast majority of toxicants or their metabolites possess chemical ET functionalities that can undergo redox cycling. Such recycling may generate ROS that can injure various cellular constituents in the lung and in other tissues. ET agents include quinones, metal complexes, aromatic nitro compounds, and conjugated iminium ions. Often, these agents are formed metabolically from parent toxicants. Such metabolic reactions are often catalytic and require only small amounts of the offending material. Oxidative attack is commonly associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidation of DNA, and it may result in strand cleavage and 8-OH-DG production. Toxicity is often accompanied by depletion of natural AOs, which further exacerbates the toxic effect. It is not surprising that the use of AOs, both natural in fruits and vegetables, as well as synthetic, may provide protection from the adverse effects of toxicant exposure. The mechanistic framework described earlier is also applicable to some of the more prominent pulmonary illnesses, such as asthma, COPD, and cancer. PMID:19484588

  3. Remote sensing for the geobotanical and biogeochemical assessment of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, J.; Chesley, M.; Lancaster, J.; Mouat, D.

    1993-01-01

    Under Contract Number DE-AC08-90NV10845, the DOE has funded the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to examine several aspects of remote sensing, specifically with respect to how its use might help support Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) activities at DOE sites located throughout the country. This report represents partial fulfillment of DRI`s obligations under that contract and includes a review of relevant literature associated with remote sensing studies and our evaluation and recommendation as to the applicability of various remote sensing techniques for DOE needs. With respect to DOE ERWM activities, remote sensing may be broadly defined as collecting information about a target without actually being in physical contact with the object. As the common platforms for remote sensing observations are aircraft and satellites, there exists the possibility to rapidly and efficiently collect information over DOE sites that would allow for the identification and monitoring of contamination related to present and past activities. As DOE sites cover areas ranging from tens to hundreds of square miles, remote sensing may provide an effective, efficient, and economical method in support of ERWM activities. For this review, remote sensing has been limited to methods that employ electromagnetic (EM) energy as the means of detecting and measuring target characteristics.

  4. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  5. Epidemiologic evidence of relationships between reproductive and child health outcomes and environmental chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Donald T; Arbuckle, Tye E; Turner, Michelle C; Bérubé, Annie; Yang, Qiuying; Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures. Environmental exposures considered here include chemical toxicants in air, water, soil/house dust and foods (including human breast milk), and consumer products. Reports reviewed here included original epidemiologic studies (with at least basic descriptions of methods and results), literature reviews, expert group reports, meta-analyses, and pooled analyses. Levels of evidence for causal relationships were categorized as sufficient, limited, or inadequate according to predefined criteria. There was sufficient epidemiological evidence for causal relationships between several adverse pregnancy or child health outcomes and prenatal or childhood exposure to environmental chemical contaminants. These included prenatal high-level methylmercury (CH(3)Hg) exposure (delayed developmental milestones and cognitive, motor, auditory, and visual deficits), high-level prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related toxicants (neonatal tooth abnormalities, cognitive and motor deficits), maternal active smoking (delayed conception, preterm birth, fetal growth deficit [FGD] and sudden infant death syndrome [SIDS]) and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (preterm birth), low-level childhood lead exposure (cognitive deficits and renal tubular damage), high-level childhood CH(3)Hg exposure (visual deficits), high-level childhood exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (chloracne), childhood ETS exposure (SIDS, new-onset asthma, increased

  6. Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1991-11-01

    Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

  7. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd. PMID:26604199

  8. Long-term environmental and health implications of morphological change and sediment transport with respect to contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneddon, Christopher; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Hunter, Peter; Smith, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The EPSRC-funded Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply (ARCoES) project encompasses four research strands, involving 14 institutions and six PhD studentships. ARCoES aims to determine the threats posed to future energy generation and the distribution network by flooding and erosion, changing patterns of coastal sedimentation, water temperature and the distribution of plants and animals in the coastal zone. Whilst this research has direct benefits for the operation of coastal power stations, ARCoES aims to have a wider stakeholder engagement through assessing how the resilience of coastal communities may be altered by five hundred years of coastal evolution. Coastal evolution will have substantial implications for the energy sector of the North West of England as former waste storage sites are eroded and remobilised within the intertidal environment. The current intertidal environmental stores of radioactivity will also experience reworking as ocean chemistry changes and saltmarsh chronologies are reworked in response to rising sea levels. There is a duel requirement to understand mass sediment movement along the North West coast of England as understanding the sediment transport dynamics is key to modelling long term coastal change and understanding how the environmental store of radioactivity will be reworked. The University of Stirling is researching the long-term environmental and health implications of remobilisation and transport of contaminated sediments around the UK coastline. Using a synergy of hyperspectral and topographic information the mobilisation of sediment bound contaminants within the coastal environment will be investigated. Potential hazards posed by contaminants are determined by a set of environmental impact test criteria which evaluate the bio-accessibility and ionising dose of contaminants. These test criteria will be used to comment on the likely environmental impact of modelled sediment transport and anticipated changes in

  9. Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Melinda Christine Wiles

    2004-08-15

    Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

  10. Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

  11. Effects of varying environmental parameters on trace contaminant concentrations in the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Dana A.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration trace contaminant production and depletion level effects of CO2, O2, humidity, temperature, and pressure variations, on the basis of a computer model of the Reference Configuration's chemical reactions and physical processes as functions of time. The effects of changes in the initial concentrations of such contaminants as nonmethane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are also examined, and these are found to result in more significant changes in the concentration levels of trace contaminants than pressure and humidity variations. O2 and CO2 changes are found to have negligible effects on trace contaminant concentrations.

  12. Generic Escherichia coli Contamination of Spinach at the Preharvest Stage: Effects of Farm Management and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

  13. Associations Between Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Externalized Behaviors at School Age Among Inuit Children Exposed to Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet, prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Methods Participants were 271 children (mean age = 11.3 years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. Results After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. Interpretation This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. PMID:23916943

  14. Assessing noxious effects of dietary exposure to methylmercury, PCBs and Se coexisting in environmentally contaminated rice in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Yang, Yichen; Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenhua; Liu, Xiaojie; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Qu, Yiya; Shi, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury are two of the most ubiquitous environmental contaminants in Guizhou province. Rice is eaten with almost every meal and provides more calories than any single food in Guizhou province. The estimated tolerable daily intake of total mercury, MeHg, Se and PCBs from Guizhou contaminated rice by Chinese people showed that MeHg and/or PCBs exceeded the corresponding limits. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of exposure to environmental contaminated rice on neurobehavioral development and neurobiological disruptions in mice. Animals were treated from postnatal day (PND) 22 to 91. At PND 26-91 days of age, mice were tested for neurobehavioural development and neurochemical level changes. We showed that dietary exposure to environmentally contaminated rice gave rise to different changes in antioxidants. Reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and excess increased nitric oxide (NO) indicated aggravation of oxidative status after long-term dietary intake of Hg and PCBs. Neurobehavioral derangement in the central nervous system and significant delay in the Morris water maze test response on PND 91 are correlated with the increased of c-fos/c-jun expression levels in the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that MeHg neurotoxicity might be a greater hazard than that associated with PCB, but PCB may augment the neurobehavioral deficits caused by increased levels of mercury exposure. The simultaneous intake of selenium might have a protective effect on Hg accumulation in the body, and vitamin C might protect mice against the toxic effects of PCBs. However, the protective role of Se and vitamin C is very limited for multiple-agent pollution. Immediately early genes in the brain response to contaminated rice might be dependent on interaction among NO, NO synthase (NOS), SOD and reduced glutathione (GSH). We should be alert to mental health problems in human beings when any kind of Hg- and PCB-polluted food is

  15. Comparative parallel assessment of a transfer device in reducing 5-fluorouracil environmental contamination inside positive air pressure isolators.

    PubMed

    Forges, Fabien; Simoens, Xavier; Chauvin, Franck

    2011-03-01

    The environmental contamination of the antineoplastic drugs circuit, due to the centralization of preparation and the increased number of the patients treated, brought about a new occupational hazard: the chronic exposure to low doses of antineoplastic drugs. The rationalization of the hospital budgets imposes a meticulous assessment of the devices available for the preparation, in order to justify their interest, even their cost. A prospective comparative study with parallel arms was led inside the Pharmacy of the Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire in order to evaluate the Spike Swan®, a transfer device. The aim was to assess the Spike Swan® effectiveness. The antineoplastic drugs environmental contamination within the isolators is considered as a potential starting point for a larger dissemination of cytotoxic products. Therefore, the primary endpoint was the surface contamination level with 5-fluorouracil and the comparator was the standard preparation technique using needles and aeration needles. This study did not show significant effectiveness for the Spike Swan® in reducing surface contamination. Nevertheless, this device could be used to prepare large volumes and to secure occasional handlers, because it is easy to handle. PMID:20699332

  16. Effects of environmental contaminant exposure on visual brain development: a prospective electrophysiological study in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Audrey-Anne; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Arfken, Cynthia; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2012-10-01

    The Inuit from Nunavik (Northern Québec) are one of the most highly exposed populations to environmental contaminants in North America mainly due to the bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and marine mammals that constitute an important part of their diet. This follow-up study aimed to assess the impact of exposure to contaminants on visual brain development in school-age Inuit children (mean age=10.9 years). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in umbilical cord blood and again in blood samples at the time of testing, reflecting pre- and current exposure, respectively. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were scalp-recorded at the occipital cortex. Visual stimulation consisted of achromatic gratings presented at four visual contrast levels: 95%, 30%, 12% and 4%. The relation between environmental contaminant body burdens and VEPs was examined by regression analysis controlling for confounding variables, including fish nutrients and other toxicants. No significant association was found for PCB exposure after statistical adjustments. Cord blood mercury level was associated with a reduction of the N75 amplitude at the highest contrast level and with a delay of the N75 latency at the 12% contrast level. Prenatal exposure to lead was associated with a delay of the N150 latency at most contrast levels. This study suggests that heavy metal exposure, in particular during the gestational period, can impair the development of visual processing. PMID:22683800

  17. DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil†

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as Δ(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

  18. Environmental contamination in an Australian mining community and potential influences on early childhood health and behavioural outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Zahran, Sammy

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead in aerosols, dusts and surface soils from Australia's oldest continuous lead mining town of Broken Hill were compared to standardised national childhood developmental (year 1) and education performance measures (years 3,5,7,9). Contaminants close to mining operations were elevated with maximum lead levels in soil: 8900 mg/kg; dust wipe: 86,061 μg/m(2); dust deposition: 2950 μg/m(2)/day; aerosols: 0.707 μg/m(3). The proportion of children from Broken Hill central, the area with the highest environmental contamination, presented with vulnerabilities in two or more developmental areas at 2.6 times the national average. Compared with other school catchments of Broken Hill, children in years 3 and 5 from the most contaminated school catchment returned consistently the lowest educational scores. By contrast, children living and attending schools associated with lower environmental contamination levels recorded higher school scores and lower developmental vulnerabilities. Similar results were identified in Australia's two other major lead mining and smelting cities of Port Pirie and Mount Isa. PMID:26448503

  19. Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.M.; Karasov, W.H.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Jones, P.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Hanbidge, B.A.

    1996-04-01

    To test an association between environmental contaminants and the prevalence of congenital anomalies in colonial waterbirds, the authors collected representative eggs for chemical analysis from double-crested cormorant nests at colonies in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada, and periodically revisited the nests to determine the hatching success, survivorship of hatchlings, and number of deformed hatchlings in the remainder of each clutch. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The combined activity of planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) in the eggs was measured in an in vitro bioassay based on the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rat hepatoma cells. The combined EROD induction activity was expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Total concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were seven to eight times greater in eggs from Lake Michigan (7.8 {micro}g/g and 138 pg/g, respectively) than in those from Lake Winnipegosis (1.0 {micro}g/g and 19 pg/g, respectively). The proportion of eggs hatching at the Lake Michigan colony (59%) was less (p < 0.05) than at Lake Winnipegosis (70%), and the prevalence of hatchlings with deformed bills was greater (p < 0.001) at Lake Michigan (0.79 vs. 0.06%). However, within the Lake Michigan colony, concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ were not correlated with either hatching success or the occurrence of deformities in nestlings.

  20. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24652574

  1. Effect of petroleum oil, pesticides, PCBs and other environmental contaminants on the hatchability of Artemia salina dry eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, A.; Kashimoto, T.

    1980-07-01

    Artemia salina Leach is well-known as the brine shrimp used as tropical fish food and its dry eggs are easily obtained at a pet-shop at any season. One or two days after placing the dry eggs into salt water, the nauplius larvae of Artemia begins to hatch. In this paper, the methodlogy on a hatchability test for environmental contaminants and their effects on the dry egg hatchabilities are presented.

  2. Acclimation of life-history traits to experimental changes in environmental contaminant concentrations in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus).

    PubMed

    Farwell, Michelle; Drouillard, Ken G; Heath, Daniel D; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2012-04-01

    One adaptive mechanism aquatic populations use to facilitate tolerance to environmental contaminants is acclimation. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a globally ubiquitous class of persistent organic contaminants that have been linked to reproductive impairments in fish. The authors used female brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) to test whether acclimation of reproductive life-history traits occurs in response to changes in sum PCB exposure. They compared egg diameter, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and fecundity of fish directly caught from wild populations exposed to a range of contaminant concentrations (acute), to those collected from the same populations a year before, which were placed in a clean environment to clear their contaminants throughout that year (cleared). Sum PCB concentrations were also determined for each individual. Brown bullhead from acute treatments had significantly greater sum PCB concentrations compared with cleared treatments. Egg diameter and GSI metrics were greater in cleared treatments compared with acute treatments (by 6 and 14%, respectively). Treatment effect (i.e., acute or cleared), as opposed to where the fish were collected from, accounts for 72 to 89% of the variation in the reproductive life-history trait variables. No difference in fecundity was found between acute and cleared treatments. The authors found support that acclimation of reproductive life-history traits occurs to changes in sum PCB concentration. To their knowledge, the present study is the first experimental test of acclimation responses of female life-history traits to contaminants in wild populations. PMID:22278858

  3. Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Ramos, Antonio J; Souto, Xosé C; Aguín, Olga; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2014-05-01

    In northwestern Spain, where weather is rainy and mild throughout the year, Fusarium verticillioides is the most prevalent fungus in kernels and a significant risk of fumonisin contamination has been exposed. In this study, detailed information about environmental and maize genotypic factors affecting F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content in maize kernels was obtained in order to establish control points to reduce fumonisin contamination. Evaluations were conducted in a total of 36 environments and factorial regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of each factor to variability among environments, genotypes, and genotype × environment interactions for F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content. Flowering and kernel drying were the most critical periods throughout the growing season for F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Around flowering, wetter and cooler conditions limited F. verticillioides infection and growth, and high temperatures increased fumonisin contents. During kernel drying, increased damaged kernels favored fungal growth, and higher ear damage by corn borers and hard rainfall favored fumonisin accumulation. Later planting dates and especially earlier harvest dates reduced the risk of fumonisin contamination, possibly due to reduced incidence of insects and accumulation of rainfall during the kernel drying period. The use of maize varieties resistant to Sitotroga cerealella, with good husk coverage and non-excessive pericarp thickness could also be useful to reduce fumonisin contamination of maize kernels. PMID:24607861

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disrupters. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals an...

  5. FASTER SCIENCE FOR BETTER DECISIONS: CHARACTERIZING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT RISK FROM HIGH THROUGHPUT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tens of thousands of chemicals and other man-made contaminants exist in our environment, but only a fraction of these have been characterized for their potential risk to humans and there is widespread interest in closing this data gap in order to better manage contaminant risk. C...

  6. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Trace Contaminant Control Through FY 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Pruitt, M. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Monje, O.

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminant control has been a concern of spacecraft designers and operators from early in the progression of manned spaceflight. Significant technological advancement has occurred since the first designs were implemented in the 1960s, culminating in the trace contaminant control system currently in use aboard the International Space Station as part of the atmosphere revitalization system.

  7. PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is an anion that originates as a contaminant in ground water and surface waters when the salts of ammonium, potassium, magnesium, or sodium dissolve in water. One major source of contamination is the manufacture or improper disposal of ammonium perchlorate th...

  8. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki; Coyle, James J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites in the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998. Four sites were National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. The other six were USGS-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations where water quality is monitored. The objectives were to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative organic and inorganic contaminants in RGB fish and the effects of contaminants on the fish; to continue testing the feasibility of incorporating biomarkers (that is, biochemical, histopathological, and other biological indicators of contaminant exposure or effects) into a monitoring program for large U.S. rivers; and to evaluate the compatibility of monitoring methods based on the analysis of fish with those used to monitor water by NASQAN. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus sp.; bass) were the targeted species; together, they represented 77% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed by instrumental methods for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from stations in the lower RGB contained greater concentrations of some contaminants and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by general gradient of pesticide concentrations and biomarker responses from upstream to downstream. In the

  9. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity

  10. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

  11. Environmental effects of dredging: Trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M.; Suedel, B.C.; Peddicord, R.K.; Clifford, P.A.; Boraczek, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The terms bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, trophic transfer, and trophic transfer coefficient are defined to avoid confusion, as they have been used inconsistently throughout the literature (Dallinger and others 1987). Bioconcentration is the uptake of a contaminant by aquatic organisms where water is the sole containment source. Bioaccumulation is the uptake of a contaminent from both water and dietary sources. Biomagnification refers to the processes of both bioconcentration and bioaccumulation that result in increased tissue concentrations of a contaminant as it passes through two or more trophic levels (Macek, Petrocelli, and Sleight 1979). Trophic transfer is defined as the transport of contaminants between two trophic levels (that is, prey to predator) (Swartz and Lee 1980). Trophic transfer coefficient (FTC) is the concentration of contaminant in consumer tissue divided by the concentration of contaminant in food sources (that is, preceding trophic level). A TTC is an approximate measure of the potential for a contaminant to biomagnify. Biomagnification occurs when concentrations of a material increase between two or more trophic levels (that is, TTC>1) and is a sub- set of trophic transfer, which refers to any movement of a material between trophic levels (that is, TTC can be greater than or less than 1). If trophic transfer is determined to be substantially >1, biomagnification is said to occur. If a TTC value is <1%, biomagnification is judged not to take place.

  12. Environmental sanitation, food and water contamination and diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, F. J.; Huttly, S. R.; Patwary, Y.; Aziz, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the role of food and water contamination in a health impact evaluation of a water and sanitation intervention project. Although lower diarrhoea rates were found in the improved area no consistent difference in food and water contamination was observed between areas. Furthermore, no relationship was found between contamination and diarrhoea in either area, even after controlling for the nutritional status of children. These results imply that other vehicles of transmission might be more important than food and water in diarrhoeal transmission. The focus of interventions should therefore be on changing behaviours to improve overall hygiene. PMID:2323358

  13. Environmental sanitation, food and water contamination and diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Henry, F J; Huttly, S R; Patwary, Y; Aziz, K M

    1990-04-01

    This study examined the role of food and water contamination in a health impact evaluation of a water and sanitation intervention project. Although lower diarrhoea rates were found in the improved area no consistent difference in food and water contamination was observed between areas. Furthermore, no relationship was found between contamination and diarrhoea in either area, even after controlling for the nutritional status of children. These results imply that other vehicles of transmission might be more important than food and water in diarrhoeal transmission. The focus of interventions should therefore be on changing behaviours to improve overall hygiene. PMID:2323358

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  15. FINAL REPORT. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to determine howenvironmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, act as hormones or anti- hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major components of the research included:1)a biotechnology based screening system ...

  16. SLIDE PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    While pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous trace contaminants in the environment, thetypes, concentrations, and relative abundances of individual residues will vary depending on thegeographic locale and time of year, primarily a reflection of differing and varying prescribing andconsum...

  17. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schoene, L. ); Walton, B.T. )

    1990-04-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Environmental health: an analysis of available and proposed remedies for victims of toxic waste contamination.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, W J

    1981-01-01

    Past and present residents of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, New York, fear that they and their homes have been contaminated by toxic wastes seeping out from nearby chemical disposal sites. Hundreds of landfills nationwide are as potentially dangerous as Love Canal. In the absence of a statutory remedy, victims of contamination must rely upon common law theories of lability in order to recover damages for injuries suffered as a result of toxic waste contamination. This Note examines the merits and deficiencies of four common law theories: negligence, strict liability, nuisance and trespass. The Note concludes that none of these remedies is adequate to assure recovery to a person injured by toxic waste disposal, and recommends that legislation be adopted to ensure that victims of toxic waste contamination can be compensated for their injuries. PMID:7258193

  19. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  20. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  1. Estimation of sport fish harvest for risk and hazard assessment of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Strenge, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated fish flesh can be a significant route of human exposure to hazardous chemicals. Estimation of exposure resulting from the consumption of fish requires knowledge of fish consumption and contaminant levels in the edible portion of fish. Realistic figures of sport fish harvest are needed to estimate consumption. Estimates of freshwater sport fish harvest were developed from a review of 72 articles and reports. Descriptive statistics based on fishing pressure were derived from harvest data for four distinct groups of freshwater sport fish in three water types: streams, lakes, and reservoirs. Regression equations were developed to relate harvest to surface area fished where data bases were sufficiently large. Other aspects of estimating human exposure to contaminants in fish flesh that are discussed include use of bioaccumulation factors for trace metals and organic compounds. Using the bioaccumulation factor and the concentration of contaminants in water as variables in the exposure equation may also lead to less precise estimates of tissue concentration. For instance, muscle levels of contaminants may not increase proportionately with increases in water concentrations, leading to overestimation of risk. In addition, estimates of water concentration may be variable or expressed in a manner that does not truly represent biological availability of the contaminant. These factors are discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. Utilizing high-throughput bioassays associated with US EPA ToxCast Program to assess biological activity of environmental contaminants: A case study of chemical mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring and surveillance is increasingly being utilized in conjunction with chemical monitoring to determine potential biological activity associated with environmental contaminants. Supervised approaches targeting specific chemical activity or molecular pathways...

  3. REPORT ON THE PEER REVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA'S "Perchlorate ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION (External Review Draft)" 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the comments made at a two-day independent scientific peer review meeting on the Agency's draft assessment of health and ecotoxicological effects of perchlorate, entitled Perchlorate Environmental Contamination: Toxicological Review and Risk Characteriza...

  4. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  5. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    SciTech Connect

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V.; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R.; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J.; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears.

  6. Environmental effects of dredging. Factors influencing bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants by aquatic organisms. Glossary and bibliography. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, V.A.; Lutz, C.H.; Reilly, F.J.

    1989-08-01

    This is the fourth technical note in a series of four which outlines and describes the principal factors that determine uptake and retention of chemicals by aquatic organisms. The first three notes in the series describe factors relating to contaminants, sediment and water, and biota. This note contains a glossary of terms and a bibliography of key and recent publications in the scientific literature containing supporting data and discussion on each topic. The information contained herein is intended to assist Corps of Engineers environmental personnel in activities requiring a working knowledge of concepts and terminology in the subject of chemical uptake, retention, and elimination by aquatic organisms exposed to contaminated sediments. Bioaccumulation is the general term used to refer to the uptake and storage of chemicals by organisms from their environment through all routes of entry. Bioaccumulation includes bioconcentration, which is the direct uptake of chemicals from water alone, and is distinguished from biomagnification, which is the increase in chemical residues taken up through two or more levels of a food chain. Assessments of the potential for bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredged sediments are often required in evaluations of permit requests. Thus, familiarity with the fundamental physical, biological, and chemical factors affecting bioaccumulation is necessary for performing evaluations of the ecological impacts of dredging operations. Additionally, a basic understanding of the concepts and terminology of bioaccumulation is increasingly required of environmental personnel who are involved in dredging and disposal operations which may involve contaminated sediments and legal personnel involved with regulation and litigation.

  7. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  8. Development of an in situ mammalian biomonitor to assess the effect of environmental contaminants on population and community health

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of environmental contaminants (e.g., lead, benzene, organic hydrocarbons) on immune function of laboratory and field cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and population and community dynamics of small mammals residing on an oil refinery were studied. Cellular immune function in benzene and lead exposed cotton rats were assessed to determine the sensitivity of immune function as a potential biomarker of toxicant exposure. Additionally, cellular immune function, population density, reproduction, recruitment, and survival were assessed for wild cotton rats collected from an abandoned oil refinery to field test the utility of cotton rats as an in situ bioindicator. Cellular immune function in juvenile and adult cotton rats was sensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of lead and benzene. However, benzene-induced immunosuppression was marginal presumably due to the ability of cotton rats to quickly metabolize the compound and recover from the toxic effects. Wild cotton rats collected on the refinery also demonstrated sensitivity in immune function to the complex mixtures of contaminants found on site. Lymphoproliferative responses of splenocytes was the most consistent indicator toxicant exposure. Population parameters of cotton rats indicated marked depression in density, recruitment, and survival. Results also indicated a shift in community structure due to large numbers of house mice (Mus musculus) on toxic sites. Immune function and population parameters appear to be good prospects in situ bioindicators of environmental contamination.

  9. In situ depth profiling of 137Cs contamination in soils at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Christopher P; Giles, John R; Thompson, Kenneth C; Wells, Richard P

    2004-12-01

    Preremediation characterization of Cs contamination in soils was conducted at the Auxiliary Reactor Area (ARA)-23 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act site, located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Characterization activities included verification of the lateral extent of the contaminated area using the INEEL vehicle-mounted Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner. The vertical extent of the contamination in select areas of the site was evaluated with an in situ gamma-ray spectrometer, and depth discrete samples were collected at 5-cm depth intervals down to a depth of 20.3 cm. A comparison was made between the depth distribution data from the in situ spectrometric measurements and the physical, depth discrete samples. The results of the study and of the aforementioned comparison indicate that use of in situ high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors during the remediation of the ARA-23 site will aid in directing the depth of excavation, thereby helping to (a) minimize the amount of soils excavated and removed for disposal, and (b) reduce overall project costs. PMID:15545774

  10. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  11. Drinking water from dug wells in rural ghana--salmonella contamination, environmental factors, and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Frickmann, Hagen; Boahen, Kennedy Gyau; Frimpong, Michael; Asare, Renate; Larbi, Richard; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Marks, Florian; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Salmonellosis is an important but neglected disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Food or fecal-oral associated transmissions are the primary cause of infections, while the role of waterborne transmission is unclear. Samples were collected from different dug wells in a rural area of Ghana and analyzed for contamination with bacteria, and with Salmonella in particular. In addition, temporal dynamics and riks factors for contamination were investigated in 16 wells. For all Salmonella isolates antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed, serovars were determined and strains from the same well with the same serovar were genotyped. The frequency of well water contamination with Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was 99.2% (n = 395). Out of 398 samples, 26 (6.5%) tested positive for Salmonella spp. The serovar distribution was diverse including strains not commonly isolated from clinical samples. Resistance to locally applied antibiotics or resistance to fluoroquinolones was not seen in the Salmonella isolates. The risk of Salmonella contamination was lower in wells surrounded by a frame and higher during the rainy season. The study confirms the overall poor microbiological quality of well water in a resource-poor area of Ghana. Well contamination with Salmonella poses a potential threat of infection, thus highlighting the important role of drinking water safety in infectious disease control. PMID:25826395

  12. Drinking Water from Dug Wells in Rural Ghana — Salmonella Contamination, Environmental Factors, and Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Frickmann, Hagen; Boahen, Kennedy Gyau; Frimpong, Michael; Asare, Renate; Larbi, Richard; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Marks, Florian; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important but neglected disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Food or fecal-oral associated transmissions are the primary cause of infections, while the role of waterborne transmission is unclear. Samples were collected from different dug wells in a rural area of Ghana and analyzed for contamination with bacteria, and with Salmonella in particular. In addition, temporal dynamics and riks factors for contamination were investigated in 16 wells. For all Salmonella isolates antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed, serovars were determined and strains from the same well with the same serovar were genotyped. The frequency of well water contamination with Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was 99.2% (n = 395). Out of 398 samples, 26 (6.5%) tested positive for Salmonella spp. The serovar distribution was diverse including strains not commonly isolated from clinical samples. Resistance to locally applied antibiotics or resistance to fluoroquinolones was not seen in the Salmonella isolates. The risk of Salmonella contamination was lower in wells surrounded by a frame and higher during the rainy season. The study confirms the overall poor microbiological quality of well water in a resource-poor area of Ghana. Well contamination with Salmonella poses a potential threat of infection, thus highlighting the important role of drinking water safety in infectious disease control. PMID:25826395

  13. Uptake of environmental contaminants by small mammals in pickleweed habitats at San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Foerster, K.S.; Marn, C.M.; Hothem, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Small mammals were livetrapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were analyzed for chemical contaminants including mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of contaminants differed significantly among sites and species. Mean concentrations at sites where uptake was greatest were less than maximum means for the same or similar species recorded elsewhere. Harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp.) were captured only at sites where concentrations of mercury or PCBs were below specific levels in house mice. Additional studies aimed at the protection of the salt marsh harvest mouse are suggested. These include contaminant feeding studies in the laboratory as well as field monitoring of surrogate species and community structure in salt marsh harvest mouse habitats.

  14. Uptake of environmental contaminants by small mammals in pickleweed habitats at San Francisco Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R; Foerster, K S; Marn, C M; Hothem, R L

    1992-05-01

    Small mammals were live-trapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were analyzed for chemical contaminants including mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of contaminants differed significantly among sites and species. Mean concentrations at sites where uptake was greatest were less than maximum means for the same or similar species recorded elsewhere. Harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp.) were captured only at sites where concentrations of mercury or PCBs were below specific levels in house mice. Additional studies aimed at the protection of the salt marsh harvest mouse are suggested. These include contaminant feeding studies in the laboratory as well as field monitoring of surrogate species and community structure in salt marsh harvest mouse habitats. PMID:1586203

  15. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Lille-Langøy; V, Goldstone Jared; Marte, Rusten; R, Milnes Matthew; Rune, Male; J, Stegeman John; Bruce, Blumberg; Anders, Goksøyr

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. OBJECTIVES In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. RESULTS We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. CONCLUSIONS Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modelling studies suggests that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. PMID:25680588

  16. Environmental monitoring in soil contamination and remediation programs: how practitioners are using the Internet to share knowledge.

    PubMed

    Guerin, T F

    2001-06-01

    Internet listservers provide a means for professionals from all sectors of the industry and profession, to communicate and collaborate with each other, as well as other stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, academics, the general public and community members) in real time. This article highlights key Internet listservers in the field of environmental monitoring in soil contamination and remediation and how to subscribe to them. The most active and relevant listservers for environmental scientists, technologists and professionals in the soil contamination and remediation profession are the Bioremediation Discussion Group (BioGroup), Phytonet, Phytoremediation listserver, Groundwater listserver and Environmental Forensics listserver. Other observations and lessons so far from the use of Internet listservers are: (i) that moderators provide an important role in maintaining the level of quality and participation, (ii) do not underestimate the knowledge base held within these, and (iii) if not selected and managed properly, e-mail from listservers can generate an excess of e-mail and waste time. PMID:11432262

  17. Environmental contamination of chromium in agricultural and animal products near a chromate industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khasim, D.I. ); Kumar, N.V.N.; Hussain, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    India is one of the largest leather exporting countries. Accordingly the important raw material required for leather tanning, namely sodium dichromate production, has also been boosted in some states of India. Investigations on irrigation reservoirs, irrigation wells and soil revealed high level contamination of chromium. There was no effluent treatment plant installed and effluents stored in earthen lagoons without cement lining caused contamination of underground aquafers. There is little information on the biomagnification and movement of toxic chromate compounds from the contaminated soil and water resources into the components of the foodchain which might ultimately reach humans. Hence an analysis of chromium was carried out in some commercial plants cultivated in these areas and also in some animal products and foods like milk and fishes.

  18. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  19. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants and their effects on fish in the Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Blazer, Vicki; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black basses (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) together accounted for 80% of the fish sampled during the study. Fish were weighed and measured then field-examined for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  20. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Toxic contaminants in the Gulf of Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Gottholm, B.W.; Turgeon, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The report summaries results of the National Status and Trends (NS T) Program from the Gulf of Maine Region. It characterizes the system, its drainage basin, and inputs that influence the concentrations of contaminants and biological responses to those substances. These results are shown in relation to those obtained at all other NS T sites around the United States. The summary is intended to provide information to assist local and state resource managers in evaluating toxic contaminant conditions in their areas and placing those conditions in perspective to those throughout the Gulf and across the nation.

  1. International Mussel Watch: A global assessment of environmental levels of chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the International Mussel Watch is to ascertain and assess the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (CHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bivalves collected from coastal marine waters throughout the world. Increased use of these persistent toxic biocides may result in contamination of living coastal resources from whole ecosystems to specific food resources with consequent implication for human health and the integrity of marine communities. Another goal for the International Mussel Watch Project will be to help develop a sustainable activity for observation and monitoring chemical contamination in especially susceptible regions of the world's oceans.

  2. Using radon as environmental tracer for the assessment of subsurface Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) contamination - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.

    2015-05-01

    The radioactive noble gas radon has an ambivalent nature: on the one hand is it of main concern with regard to radiation protection, on the other hand can it be applied as powerful tracer tool in various fields of applied geosciences. Due to its omnipresence in nature, its chemical and physical properties, and its uncomplicated detectability radon fulfils all requirements for being used as environmental tracer. This application is discussed in the paper with focus on the use of radon as tracer for subsurface contamination with Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPL). After a short introduction in the ambivalence and ubiquitous presence of radon in nature, the theoretical background of its suitability as NAPL tracer is summarized. Finally three potential applications are discussed. Background information and practical examples are given for (i) the investigation of residual NAPL contamination in soils, (ii) the investigation of residual NAPL contamination in aquifers and (iii) the monitoring of the remediation of dissolved NAPL contamination in groundwater. The presented information reveals that radon is an ideal tracer for the assessment of a wide range of subsurface NAPL contamination. Still, its application is not without restrictions. Problems may occur due to mineralogical heterogeneity of the soil or aquifer matrix. Furthermore, local changes in the permeability of the subsurface may be associated with preferential groundwater or soil gas flow paths bypassing isolated sub-domains of an investigated NAPL source zone. Moreover, NAPL aging may result in alterations in the composition of a complex NAPL mixture thus giving rise to significant changes of the radon partition coefficient between NAPL and water or soil gas. However, since radon shows a strong affinity to NAPLs in general, semi-quantitative results will always be possible.

  3. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in selected tissues of red swamp crayfish: An easy tool for monitoring environmental contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Goretti, E; Pallottini, M; Ricciarini, M I; Selvaggi, R; Cappelletti, D

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we explored the heavy metal bioaccumulation (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in Procambarus clarkii, a crayfish recently suggested as a potential bioindicator for metals pollution in freshwater systems. The present study is focused on crayfishes populations caught in a heavily polluted industrial and in a reference sites (Central Italy), though the results are generalized with a thorough analysis of literature metadata. In agreement with the literature, the hepatopancreas (Hep, detoxification tissues) of the red swamp crayfish showed a higher concentration of heavy metals in comparison to the abdominal muscle (AbM, not detoxification tissues) in the sites under scrutiny. Hep/AbM concentration ratio was dependent on the specific metal investigated and on its sediment contamination level. Specifically we found that Hep/AbM ratio decreases as follows: Cd (11.7)>Cu (5.5)>Pb (3.6)>Zn (1.0) and Pb (4.34)>Cd (3.66)>Zn (1.69)>Cu (0.87) for the industrial and reference sites, respectively. The analysis of our bioaccumulation data as well as of literature metadata allowed to elaborate a specific contamination index (Toxic Contamination Index, TCI), dependent only on the bioaccumulation data of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. In the industrial site, TCI expressed values much higher than the unit for Cd and Cu, confirming that these metals were the main contaminants; in contrast for lower levels of heavy metals, as those observed in the reference site for Cu, Zn and Pb, the index provided values below unit. TCI is proposed as a useful and easy tool to assess the toxicity level of contaminated sites by heavy metals in the environmental management. PMID:27085675

  4. Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) phase 3 simplified integrated test trace contaminant control subsystem performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system testing has been conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center since 1986. The phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted from July 30, 1989, through August 11, 1989, tested an integrated air revitalization system. During this test, the trace contaminant control subsystem (TCCS) was directly integrated with the bleed stream from the carbon dioxide reduction subsystem. The TCCS performed as expected with minor anomalies. The test set the basis for further characterizing the TCCS performance as part of advance air revitalization system configurations.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT/COMMUNICATION TOOLS FOR REVITALIZATION OF POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED SITES CD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Revitalization of potentially contaminated sites is often at a disadvantage compared to greenfield development. Apart from the lower cost of land in rural areas, redevelopment is very often still seen as a rather complex time- and cost-consuming process. Additionally, the potenti...

  6. Airborne Transmission of Melioidosis to Humans from Environmental Aerosols Contaminated with B. pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Liu, Pei-Ju; Ni, Wei-Fan; Hsueh, Pei-Tan; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chialin; Chen, Ya-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis results from an infection with the soil-borne pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, and cases of melioidosis usually cluster after rains or a typhoon. In an endemic area of Taiwan, B. pseudomallei is primarily geographically distributed in cropped fields in the northwest of this area, whereas melioidosis cases are distributed in a densely populated district in the southeast. We hypothesized that contaminated cropped fields generated aerosols contaminated with B. pseudomallei, which were carried by a northwesterly wind to the densely populated southeastern district. We collected soil and aerosol samples from a 72 km2 area of land, including the melioidosis-clustered area and its surroundings. Aerosols that contained B. pseudomallei-specific TTSS (type III secretion system) ORF2 DNA were well distributed in the endemic area but were rare in the surrounding areas during the rainy season. The concentration of this specific DNA in aerosols was positively correlated with the incidence of melioidosis and the appearance of a northwesterly wind. Moreover, the isolation rate in the superficial layers of the contaminated cropped field in the northwest was correlated with PCR positivity for aerosols collected from the southeast over a 2-year period. According to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analyses, PFGE Type Ia (ST58) was the predominant pattern linking the molecular association among soil, aerosol and human isolates. Thus, the airborne transmission of melioidosis moves from the contaminated soil to aerosols and/or to humans in this endemic area. PMID:26061639

  7. Aflatoxin contamination of corn under different agro-environmental conditions and biocontrol applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of the fungus Aspergillus flavus has been shown to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study compared field application of a bioplastic-based formulation for delivering atoxigenic A. flavus isolates in Northern Italy and the Mississippi Delta. RESULTS:...

  8. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  9. PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION: TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND RISK CHARACTERIZATION BASED ON EMERGING INFORMATION (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is an anion that originates as a contaminant in ground water and surface waters from the dissolution of ammonium, potassium, magnesium, or sodium salts. Because perchlorate is nonlabile kinetically (i.e., the reduction of the central chlorine atom occurs extre...

  10. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  11. Airborne Transmission of Melioidosis to Humans from Environmental Aerosols Contaminated with B. pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Shih; Chen, Yao-Shen; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Liu, Pei-Ju; Ni, Wei-Fan; Hsueh, Pei-Tan; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chialin; Chen, Ya-Lei

    2015-06-01

    Melioidosis results from an infection with the soil-borne pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, and cases of melioidosis usually cluster after rains or a typhoon. In an endemic area of Taiwan, B. pseudomallei is primarily geographically distributed in cropped fields in the northwest of this area, whereas melioidosis cases are distributed in a densely populated district in the southeast. We hypothesized that contaminated cropped fields generated aerosols contaminated with B. pseudomallei, which were carried by a northwesterly wind to the densely populated southeastern district. We collected soil and aerosol samples from a 72 km2 area of land, including the melioidosis-clustered area and its surroundings. Aerosols that contained B. pseudomallei-specific TTSS (type III secretion system) ORF2 DNA were well distributed in the endemic area but were rare in the surrounding areas during the rainy season. The concentration of this specific DNA in aerosols was positively correlated with the incidence of melioidosis and the appearance of a northwesterly wind. Moreover, the isolation rate in the superficial layers of the contaminated cropped field in the northwest was correlated with PCR positivity for aerosols collected from the southeast over a 2-year period. According to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analyses, PFGE Type Ia (ST58) was the predominant pattern linking the molecular association among soil, aerosol and human isolates. Thus, the airborne transmission of melioidosis moves from the contaminated soil to aerosols and/or to humans in this endemic area. PMID:26061639

  12. Conazole Fungicides as Chiral Environmental Contaminants: Enantiomer Analysis and Enantioselectivity in Soil Slurries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are triazole compounds, many of which are in wide use as agricultural and medicinal fungicides. Opportunities exist for them to contaminate the environment and, since they are all chiral molecules, they are apt to be degraded enantioselectively by indigenous microbes. T...

  13. Environmental Sampling Procedures and Methods to Respond to Biological Contamination (White Powder)

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2008-11-01

    This is a contribution to the annual report for the DHS Standards Office. It summarizes statistics-focused work associated with developing validated sampling procedures and methods. The main focus is on the experimental and sampling design constructed for contamination and decontamination field tests conducted during September 2007 in a remote, unused office building on the Idaho National Laboratory site.

  14. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments.

    PubMed

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H; Milliken, Charles E; Redder, Todd M; Wolfe, John R; Seaman, John

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p<0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. PMID:27135572

  15. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-04-29

    One challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixedmore » amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 hour experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Moreover, Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p<0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. Finally, these findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination.« less

  16. Detection and differentiation of contamination through a comparison of observed levels in historical environmental sampling data

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D.H.; Price, K.R.

    1992-05-01

    In summarizing more than a decade of environmental monitoring data from the Hanford Site, we noted that grouping data by analysis, rather than by medium, enhanced visual as well as statistical interpretations. By plotting running-averages of individual radionuclides on the same graph, for different media, we evaluated environmental trends to determine whether or not a local impact had been observed. This approach may enhance ones ability to interpret environmental monitoring data collected following an unplanned release of radionuclides. This technique provides a more holistic approach to the evaluation of environmental monitoring data than has traditionally been practiced.

  17. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  18. Comparison of Two Freshwater Turtle Species as Monitors of Environmental Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schone, L.

    1990-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemvs scrinta (Agassiz) (yellow-bellied slider) and Chelvdra sernentina (Linnaeus) (common snapping turtle) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-go, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. Significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and mercury were detected in turtles from White Oak Lake than in turtles from the reference site. In addition, turtles from White Oak Lake contained a significantly greater amount of DNA damage than those from the reference site. Although this suggests greater exposure of White Oak Lake turtles to genotoxic agents, further studies are needed to establish the cause of the enhanced amount of single-stranded breaks. Interspecific comparisons of the turtles from White Oak Lake indicated that diet may play a significant role in the exposure of turtles to certain contaminants. No difference was detected between the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co between the two species.

  19. Potential hazards of environmental contaminants to avifauna residing in the Chesapeake Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    A search of the Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database revealed that 70% of the 839 Chesapeake Bay records deal with avian species. Studies conducted on waterbirds in the past 15 years indicate that organochlorine contaminants have declined in eggs and tissues, although p,p'-DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and coplanar PCB congeners may still exert sublethal and reproductive effects in some locations. There have been numerous reports of avian die-off events related to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. More contemporary contaminants (e.g., alkylphenols, ethoxylates, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are detectable in bird eggs in the most industrialized portions of the Bay, but interpretation of these data is difficult because adverse effect levels are incompletely known for birds. Two moderaterized oil spills resulted in the death of several hundred birds, and about 500 smaller spill events occur annually in the watershed. With the exception of lead, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in eggs and tissues appear to be below toxic thresholds for waterbirds. Fishing tackle and discarded plastics, that can entangle and kill young and adults, are prevalent in nests in some Bay tributaries. It is apparent that exposure and potential effects of several classes of contaminants (e.g., dioxins, dibenzofurans, rodenticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, lead shot, and some metals) have not been systematically examined in the past 15 years, highlighting the need for toxicological evaluation of birds found dead, and perhaps an avian ecotoxicological monitoring program. Although oil spills, spent lead shot, some pesticides, and industrial pollutants occasionally harm Chesapeake avifauna, contaminants no longer evoke the population level effects that were observed in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) through the 1970s.

  20. Potential hazards of environmental contaminants to avifauna residing in the Chesapeake Bay Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    A search of the Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database revealed that 70% of the 839 Chesapeake Bay records deal with avian species. Studies conducted on waterbirds in the past 15 years indicate that organochlorine contaminants have declined in eggs and tissues, although p,p?DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and coplanar PCB congeners may still exert sublethal and reproductive effects in some locations. There have been numerous reports of avian die-off events related to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. More contemporary contaminants (e.g., alkylphenols, ethoxylates, pertluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are detectable in bird eggs in the most industrialized portions of the Bay, but interpretation of these data is difficult because adverse effect levels are incompletely known for birds. Two moderate-sized oil spills resulted in the death of several hundred birds, and about 500 smaller spill events occur annually in the watershed. With the exception of lead, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in eggs and tissues appear to be below toxic thresholds for waterbirds. Fishing tackle and discarded plastics, that can entangle and kill young and adults, are prevalent in nests in some Bay tributaries. It is apparent that exposure and potential effects of several classes of contaminants (e.g., dioxins, dibenzofurans, rodenticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, lead shot, and some metals) have not been systematically examined in the past 15 years, highlighting the need for toxicological evaluation of birds found dead, and perhaps an avian ecotoxicological monitoring program. Although oil spills, spent lead shot, some pesticides, and industrial pollutants occasionally harm Chesapeake avifauna, contaminants no longer evoke the population level effects that were observed in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) through the 1970s.

  1. Effective Educational Programs: Meta-Findings from the Best Evidence Encyclopedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    One of the major series of reviews in elementary and secondary education is the Best Evidence Encyclopedia, or the BEE. Up to now, findings for systematic reviews have largely been restricted to the reviews themselves, with few cases in which lessons learned across many reviews using similar methods can be synthesized. The completion of the Best…

  2. The Family in America: An Encyclopedia. The American Family. Volumes One and Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Joseph M., Ed.

    As the United States changes as a nation, so too, does the family. This two-volume encyclopedia takes an incisive, multidisciplinary look at the American family over the past 200 years, examining public policies, organizations and programs, health and social issues, the family constellation, researchers and theorists, and family customs and…

  3. Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman-Brunell, Miriam, Ed.

    Girls, who used to be second-class citizens, are now coming into their own. Still, girls' lives, their experiences, and their roles in the social, cultural, economic, and political history of the United States have been widely overlooked. This reference encyclopedia presents more than 100 signed articles by 98 high-profile interdisciplinary…

  4. "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

  5. The library without walls: images, medical dictionaries, atlases, medical encyclopedias free on web.

    PubMed

    Giglia, E

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this article was to present the ''reference room'' of the Internet, a real library without walls. The reader will find medical encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, e-books, images, and will also learn something useful about the use and reuse of images in a text and in a web site, according to the copyright law. PMID:18762749

  6. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Volume 1, 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Barry T., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the fourth edition of the encyclopedia contains directory and descriptive listings of organizations in the United States and Canada, resource materials concerning North American Indians, and a bibliography of in-print books about the American Indian. The first section of the volume contains source listings of government agencies,…

  7. Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balter, Lawrence, Ed.

    Based on the view that insights from psychology, sociology, and medicine can enhance our understanding of the history of the family, this two-volume encyclopedia focuses on psychological aspects of the parent-child relationship, parenthood, and child development. Cultural, social, and historical matters and biological concepts are discussed when…

  8. Interactive Encyclopedia of North American Weeds, DVD v.4.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An interactive DVD-ROM encyclopedia of North American weeds was developed that includes home pages for 685 weed species descriptions, over 3700 color photos, illustrated collar regions for grasses, distribution maps, habitat information, crops affected, ecological information, and hot-linked illustr...

  9. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and their Effects on Fish in the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 1378 fish of 22 species from 47 sites in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) during 1995 and from a reference site in 1996. The sampling sites in the MRB represented National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations situated at key points on major rivers and National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations located on lower-order rivers and streams in the Eastern Iowa Basins (EIB) and Mississippi Embayment (MSE) Study Units. The reference site was the water supply system of the USGS-Leetown Science Center in rural Jefferson County, WV. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus spp.; bass), the targeted species, together represented 82% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organo-somatic indices, and selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of biomarkers. Fish health indicators included splenic macrophage aggregates, lysozyme activity, and hispathological analysis of liver, kidney, and other tissues. Reproductive biomarkers included analysis of plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (vtg) and the sex steroid hormones 17-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11- kt); and the histological determination of percent oocyte atresia (in female fish) and gonadal stage. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also measured. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organochlorine and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Organochlorine and inorganic contaminant concentrations in fish were generally low relative to historical levels at most sites, but remained present at concentrations representing threats to piscivorous wildlife in some locations. Toxaphene and DDT (mostly as p

  10. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  11. Dispersal and dilution of wastewater from an ocean outfall at Davis Station, Antarctica, and resulting environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jonathan S; Bridgen, Phil; Dunshea, Glenn; Galton-Fenzi, Ben; Hunter, John; Johnstone, Glenn; King, Catherine; Leeming, Rhys; Palmer, Anne; Smith, James; Snape, Ian; Stark, Scott; Riddle, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The Antarctic Treaty permits the discharge of wastewater into Antarctic marine waters providing that conditions exist for initial dilution and rapid dispersal. We investigated the dilution and dispersal of macerated wastewater around Australia's Davis Station in East Antarctica and examined sediments for evidence of contaminants. Methods used to examine hydrodynamic conditions included current meters, dye release experiments and measurement of sewage-associated microbial markers and surfactants in the water column. We measured marine sediments for metals, nutrients, PBDEs, hydrocarbons and faecal sterols. We propose that if there is adequate dilution and dispersal there would be no significant difference in contaminant concentrations in sediments around the outfall compared to distant control sites. Currents were strongly correlated with prevailing wind conditions. Modelling indicated that diffusivity of wastewater had the greatest effect on dilution factors and that neither discharge rates nor local currents had as much effect. During summer conditions of open water, wastewater is likely to be constrained in a narrow plume close to the coast. Concentrations of sewage bacteria were high around the outfall and detected up to 1.5 km away, along with dye. There were significant differences in sediment concentrations of metals, PBDEs, hydrocarbons, nutrients and faecal sterols between sites within 2 km of the outfall and control sites. We conclude that dilution and dispersal conditions at the Davis outfall are insufficient to prevent the accumulation of contaminants in local sediments and that microbial hazards posed by wastewater are an environmental risk to local wildlife. PMID:26966813

  12. Modern, PC based, high resolution portable EDXRF analyzer offers laboratory performance for field, in-situ analysis of environmental contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorek, Stanislaw

    1994-12-01

    The introduction of a new, high resolution, portable probe that has improved the sensitivity of the conventional field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) by up to an order of magnitude had been reported earlier [S. Piorek and J.R. Pasmore, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals, Las Vegas, 1991, p. 737]. A high resolution Si(Li) detector probe operates connected to a multichannel X-ray analyzer (2048 channels) which is housed in a portable, battery powered industrial computer. An improved energy resolution of the detector allows the implementation of more sophisticated data treatment methods to convert the measured intensities into mass concentrations of the analytes. A backscatter with a fundamental parameters approach (BFP) is one of the best methods, specifically for metallic contaminants in soil. A program has been written based on the BFP method for use with the new probe. The new software/probe combination enables one to quickly assess levels of contaminants on the site without the need of analyzed samples for instrument calibration. The performance of the EDXRF system in application to analysis of metals in contaminated soil is discussed in this paper. Also discussed is the extension of this method in the analysis of other types of environmental samples such as air particulates collected on filter paper.

  13. Further assessment of environmental contaminants in avian prey of the peregrine falcon in big bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.A.; Skiles, R.S.; Paredes, M.

    2007-01-01

    A small resident population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum) in the Big Bend region of Texas has suffered reproductive failures since 1990. To continue our assessment of the effects of environmental contaminants on the peregrine falcon, we collected representative avian prey species during 2001 at Mariscal Canyon, Big Bend National Park. The avian carcasses were analyzed for inorganic and organochlorine contaminants. Concentrations of Se and Hg were present at high levels (up to 11 and 2.2 ??g/g dry weight, respectively) in some avian prey and could be implicated in reproductive failures of the peregrine falcon in Big Bend National Park. All other inorganic elements were below concentrations known to affect reproduction or to be associated with other deleterious effects in birds. Of all the organochlorines analyzed, only DDE and total PCBs were present above detection limits in all species, although at low concentrations. Our study provides further support to the hypothesis that contaminants in potential avian prey of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend region are implicated in the productivity failures observed in this species since 1990.

  14. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way. PMID:16458952

  15. Environmental contaminants and children’s health: Cause for concern, time for action

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Graham W

    2001-01-01

    The present paper provides an outline of the developmental and behavioural characteristics that make children, especially the fetus and young child, more vulnerable to contaminants than adults. The major categories of contaminants are briefly described. The evidence for their possible effects on neurobehavioural development; immune, endocrine and respiratory systems; childhood cancer based on research studies with animals; children exposed to catastrophic ‘accidents’ involving overdose exposures; and pregnant women and children from communities with high ‘background’ levels of contamination who participated in studies is reviewed. While the data are worrisome, especially for children living in northern and certain urban communities, much remains to be learned about possible subtle effects and the potential for long term effects of the current background contamination experienced by the majority of Canadian children before its significance to their health can be fully evaluated. The present regulatory processes, which are based on risk assessment, are so cumbersome and costly that the great majority of chemicals in use have not been fully evaluated, and the ingenuity of new chemical production continually exceeds the capacity to test the new chemicals. Moreover, despite past insistence on scientific proof of adverse effects and safety, unanticipated effects have occurred that will threaten the sustainability of human life unless more effective control measures are taken to limit the release of toxic substances and persistent chemicals into the environment. Therefore, the shortcomings of risk assessment are discussed, and the precautionary principle, which is used in some countries and is proposed for use internationally as an alternative measure that may offer improved control for the future, is outlined. Finally, opportunities for physician action are suggested. PMID:20084149

  16. A relevant exposure to a food matrix contaminated environmentally by polychlorinated biphenyls induces liver and brain disruption in rats.

    PubMed

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Privé, Florence; Lamarche, Fréderic; Salen, Patricia; Favier-Hininger, Isabelle; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Venisseau, Anais; Batandier, Cécile; Fontaine, Eric; de Lorgeril, Michel; Demeilliers, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in dietary fats. Most studies evaluating PCB effects have been conducted with a single compound or a mixture of PCBs given as a single acute dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo PCB toxicity in a realistic model of exposure: a low daily dose of PCBs (twice the tolerable daily intake (TDI)), chronically administered (8 weeks) to rats in contaminated goat milk. Liver and brain PCB toxicities were investigated by evaluating oxidative stress status and mitochondrial function. PCB toxicity in the liver was also estimated by transaminase enzymatic activity. This study shows that even at low doses, chronic PCB exposure resulted in a statistically significant reduction of mitochondrial function in liver and brain. In the liver, oxygen consumption in the condition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production (state 3) decreased by 22-29% (p < 0.01), according to the respiratory substrates. In the brain, respiratory chain complexes II and III were reduced by 24% and 39%, respectively (p < 0.005). The exposed rats presented higher lipid peroxidation status (+20%, p < 0.05) and transaminase activity (+30%, p < 0.05) in the blood. Thus, our study showed that exposure of rats to a daily realistic dose of PCBs (twice the TDI in a food complex mixture of environmental origin) resulted in multiple disruptions in the liver and brain. PMID:27421104

  17. Efficient Analysis of Non-Polar Environmental Contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS with Graphene as Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Dong, Xiaoli; Cheng, Jinsheng; Li, Jinghong; Wang, Yinsheng

    2011-07-01

    In this Application Note, we describe, for the first time, the rapid analysis of hydrophobic compounds present in environmental contaminants, which includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estrogen, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with the use of graphene as matrix. MALDI-TOF MS with conventional matrix has limitations in analyzing low-polarity compounds owing to their difficulty in ionization. We demonstrate that compared with conventional matrix, graphene displays higher desorption/ionization efficiencies for PAHs, and no fragment ions are observed. The method also holds potential in quantitative analysis. In addition, the ionization signal increases with the increasing number of benzene rings in the PAHs, suggesting that graphene binds to PAHs via π-π stacking interactions. Furthermore, graphene as adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of coronene from river water sample displays good performance with a detection limit of 10-7 M. This work provides a novel and convenient method for analyzing low-polarity environmental contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS.

  18. Environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Carducci, A; Verani, M; Lombardi, R; Casini, B; Privitera, G

    2011-03-01

    The presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. Direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. The aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis C virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with measurements of total bacterial count and haemoglobin presence. In total, 114 surface and 62 air samples were collected. Bacterial contamination was very low (<1 cfu/cm(2)) on surfaces, whereas the 'medium' detected value in air was 282 cfu/m(3). Overall, 19 (16.7%) surface samples tested positive for viral nucleic acids: one for norovirus, one for human adenovirus and 17 (14.9%) for torque teno virus (TTV). Only this latter virus was directly detected in 10 air samples (16.1%). Haemoglobin was found on two surfaces. No relationship was found between viral, biochemical or bacterial indicators. The data obtained confirm the difficulty of assessing viral contamination using bacterial indicators. The frequent detection of TTV suggests its possible use as an indicator for general viral contamination of the environment. PMID:21277649

  19. A simple microbiological tool to evaluate the effect of environmental health interventions on hand contamination.

    PubMed

    Devamani, Carol; Norman, Guy; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2014-11-01

    The effects of interventions such as sanitation or hand hygiene on hand contamination are difficult to evaluate. We explored the ability of a simple microbiological test to: (1) detect recontamination after handwashing; (2) reflect risk factors for microbial contamination and (3) be applicable to large populations. The study was done in rural Andhra Pradesh, India, and Maputo, Mozambique. Participants placed all 10 fingertips on a chromogenic agar that stains Enterococcus spp. and E. coli spp. Outcomes were the number of colonies and the number of fingertips with colonies. In the recontamination study, participants were randomised to handwashing with soap and no handwashing, and tested at 30 min intervals afterwards. In two cross sectional studies, risk factors for hand contamination were explored. Recontamination of hands after washing with soap was fast, with baseline levels reached after 1 h. Child care was associated with higher Enterococcus spp. counts, whereas agricultural activities increased E. coli spp. counts. Food preparation was associated with higher counts for both organisms. In Maputo, counts were not strongly associated with water access, latrine type, education or diarrhoea. The method seems unsuitable for the evaluation of handwashing promotion. It may reflect immediately preceding risk practices but not household-level risk factors. PMID:25407420

  20. Productivity, diet, and environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting near the Wisconsin shoreline of Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Kozie, K D; Anderson, R K

    1991-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting in the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and along the Wisconsin shoreline of Lake Superior produced an average of 0.8 young/occupied nest and had an average nest success of 57% during 1983-1988, compared to 1.3 young/occupied nest and 77% nest success in inland Wisconsin. Contaminant levels in nestling bald eagle carcasses collected from nests near Lake Superior were higher than those collected inland, suggesting local contamination. Prey remains collected at nests consisted of fish (50%); birds, primarily herring gulls (Larus argentatus) (48.4%); and mammals (1.2%). Organochlorine and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues were present at low levels (DDE: means = 0.07 micrograms/g wet wt, PCP: means = 0.21 micrograms/g wet wt) in fish. Herring gulls contained higher concentrations (DDE: means = 5.5 micrograms/g wet wt, PCB: means = 16.95 micrograms/g wet wt) and appear to be the major source of elevated contaminant levels in bald eagles nesting near Lake Superior. PMID:1996910

  1. Sorption ability of the soil and its impact on environmental contamination

    PubMed Central

    Gargošová, Helena Zlámalová; Vávrová, Milada

    2014-01-01

    From the physical point of view, soil is a heterogenic polydisperse system. It often becomes a place of a secondary contamination during extinguishing uncontrolled areal fires in nature. Foam extinguishing agents (FEAs), used at these events, basically contain surface active substances and perfluorinated compounds. These tend to be captured in the soil matrix due to their specific properties. Contaminants could be partly flushed out with rainwater, which causes several times dilution of contamination and lower ecotoxic activity. However in the dry season, foam solution infiltrates into the bed soil without any dilution. This study deals with the direct influence of soil the sorption complex on ecotoxicity of five selected FEAs, i.e. Expyrol F 15, Finiflam F 15, Moussol APS F 15, Pyrocool B and Sthamex F 15. The substances tested were prepared in concentration of work solution and then applied on standard soil matrix LUFA 2.3. For experimental purposes, a column infiltration apparatus was designed and compiled. Filtrates were collected and then tested using the plant organisms Sinapis alba and Allium cepa L. The study compared ecotoxicologic effects of filtrates with an original work solution. Moussol APS F 15 seems to be the least ecotoxic of the FEAs tested. A direct influence of soil sorption complex onto ecotoxicity reduction was also established. This finding demonstrates the sorption ability of soil particles and ion exchange activity of the soil matrix. It is a positive finding for biota of aquatic environment, yet at the expense of those in soil. PMID:26109897

  2. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as universal environmental monitors for trace contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Prest, H.F.; Hodgins, M.M.; Jacobson, L.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Brown, J.; Wilson, M.

    1995-12-31

    The vast majority of data complied on trace contaminants in water has been acquired through biomonitoring; using organisms as bioconcentrators of trace substances. A particularly successful and widely applied approach utilizes bivalves in local, national, and international mussel watch programs. Attractive features of this approach are the widespread occurrence of bivalves, their high tolerance and viability, ease of analysis, and high bioconcentration factors for a wide range of compounds. However, uncertainties about uptake, deputation and biotransformation of contaminants convolute the data and make quantitative statements about water concentrations difficult. Recent developments demonstrate semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a promising new tool for biomonitoring. SPMDs are inexpensive, tolerant of extreme conditions, and concentrations of analytes sequestered by SPMDs can be used to infer bioconcentration potential and average ambient concentrations. The authors present data from freshwater systems such as the San Juan River comparing spatial trends in PAH metabolites in fish bile and PAHs sequestered by SPMDs, and marine environments such as PAHs in SPMDs deployed in Cook Inlet, Alaska. These data support the case for SPMDs as universal monitoring devices or pseudo-organisms that will provide a standardized approach to measuring and monitoring trace contaminants on both local and global scales.

  3. A Simple Microbiological Tool to Evaluate the Effect of Environmental Health Interventions on Hand Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Devamani, Carol; Norman, Guy; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The effects of interventions such as sanitation or hand hygiene on hand contamination are difficult to evaluate. We explored the ability of a simple microbiological test to: (1) detect recontamination after handwashing; (2) reflect risk factors for microbial contamination and (3) be applicable to large populations. The study was done in rural Andhra Pradesh, India, and Maputo, Mozambique. Participants placed all 10 fingertips on a chromogenic agar that stains Enterococcus spp. and E. coli spp. Outcomes were the number of colonies and the number of fingertips with colonies. In the recontamination study, participants were randomised to handwashing with soap and no handwashing, and tested at 30 min intervals afterwards. In two cross sectional studies, risk factors for hand contamination were explored. Recontamination of hands after washing with soap was fast, with baseline levels reached after 1 h. Child care was associated with higher Enterococcus spp. counts, whereas agricultural activities increased E. coli spp. counts. Food preparation was associated with higher counts for both organisms. In Maputo, counts were not strongly associated with water access, latrine type, education or diarrhoea. The method seems unsuitable for the evaluation of handwashing promotion. It may reflect immediately preceding risk practices but not household-level risk factors. PMID:25407420

  4. Hospital-acquired Legionella infections: an update on the procedures for controlling environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Marchegiano, P; Vecchi, E; Marchesi, I

    2016-01-01

    The waterborne healthcare-associated infections are mainly sustained by Legionella and Pseudomonas spp. Various water factors and plumbing characteristics, and the interaction with other water microorganisms are considered to be predictive of Legionella contamination. It is therefore mandatory to organize plans of surveillance, prevention and control in order to avoid disease appearance in immunosuppressed patients, with higher risk of death. Guidelines for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease have been published, benefiting those who face this problem, but definitive standardized solutions do not exist yet. Here we describe fifteen years of activity, during which our study group gathered interesting data on the control of Legionella contamination. Water disinfection is not generally sufficient to control the risk of infection, but a complex water safety plan should be developed, including system maintenance, training of staff and implementation of a clinical surveillance system aimed at early detection of cases. Concerning the control measures, we evaluated the effectiveness of different treatments suggested to reduce Legionella spp contamination, comparing our results with the current literature data. The performance ranking was highest for the filter, followed by boilers at high temperature, monochloramine and, at a lower level, chlorine dioxide; the effectiveness of hyperchlorination was limited, and thermal shock was even more ineffective. PMID:27071320

  5. Occurrence of Sudan I in paprika fruits caused by agricultural environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yunhe; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Naiying; Lu, Qingguo; Han, Wenjie; Tie, Xiaowei

    2014-05-01

    Current research has demonstrated the presence of sub parts per billion levels of Sudan dye in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, which is difficult to understand on the basis of the conventional concept of cross-contamination or malicious addition. Detailed surveys on Sudan dyes I-IV in paprika fruits, soils, and agronomic materials used from seven fields of Xinjiang (China) were conducted to investigate the natural contamination. Results revealed that Sudan dyes II-IV were never detected and that Sudan I existed in almost all samples except for the mulching film and irrigation water. The higher total amount of Sudan I in soils, pesticides, and fertilizers compared to coated seeds indicated the combination of Sudan I-contaminated soils and application of Sudan I-containing agronomic materials constitutes a major source of 0.18-2.52 μg/kg levels of Sudan I in fruits during the growth period. The study offers a more reasonable explanation for the previously observed Sudan I in paprika fruits. PMID:24766082

  6. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 2: Environmental and physiological factors governing mercury flux to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of physiological and environmental factors in governing the flux of elemental mercury from plants to the atmosphere. Five species (Lepidium latifolium, Artemisia douglasiana, Caulanthus sp., Fragaria vesca, and Eucalyptus globulus) with different ecological and physiological attributes and growing in soils with high levels of mercury contamination were examined. Studies were conducted in a whole-plant, gas-exchange chamber providing precise control of environmental conditions, and mercury flux was estimated using the mass balance approach. Mercury flux increased linearly as a function of temperature within the range of 20 to 40 C, and the mean temperature coefficient (Q{sub 10}) was 2.04. The temperature dependence of mercury flux was attributed to changes in the contaminant`s vapor pressure in the leaf interior. Mercury flux from foliage increased linearly as a function of irradiance within the range of 500 to 1,500 {micro}mol m/s, and the light enhancement of mercury flux was within a factor of 2.0 to 2.5 for all species. Even though the leaf-to-atmosphere diffusive path for mercury vapor from foliage is similar to that of water vapor, stomatal conductance played a secondary role in governing mercury flux. In a quantitative comparison with other studies in both laboratory and field settings, a strong linear relationship is evident between mercury vapor flux and the natural logarithm of soil mercury concentration, and this relationship may have predictive value in developing regional- and continental-scale mercury budgets. The most critical factors governing mercury flux from plants are mercury concentration in the soil, leaf area index, temperature, and irradiance.

  7. Biomarkers of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on swallows nesting along the Rio Grande, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.A.; Musquiz, D.; Bickham, J.W.; MacKenzie, D.S.; Hooper, M.J.; Szabo, J.K.; Matson, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    We collected adult cave swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (P. pyrrhonota) during the breeding seasons in 1999 and 2000 from eight locations along the Rio Grande from Brownsville to El Paso (unless otherwise specified, all locations are Texas, USA) and an out-of-basin reference location. Body mass, spleen mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), thyroxine (T4) in plasma, DNA damage measured as the half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA content (HPCV) in blood cells, as well as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in brain were compared with concentrations of organochlorines, metals, and metalloids in carcasses to determine potential effects of contaminants on swallows during the breeding season. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p???-DDE) were significantly greater in swallows from El Paso than in those from most locations, except for Pharr and Llano Grande. All swallows from these three locations had p,p???-DDE concentrations of 3 ??g/g wet weight or greater. Swallows from El Paso either had or shared the highest concentrations of p,p???-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 13 inorganic elements. Swallows from El Paso exhibited greater spleen mass and HPCV values as well as lower T4 values compared with those from other locations. Thyroxine was a potential biomarker of contaminant exposure in swallows of the Rio Grande, because it was negatively correlated with p,p???-DDE and Se. Spleen mass was positively correlated with selenium and HSI and negatively correlated with body mass, GSI, Mn, and Ni. Overall, the present study suggests that insectivorous birds living in areas of high agricultural and industrial activity along the Rio Grande bioaccumulate environmental contaminants. These contaminants, particularly p,p???-DDE, may be among multiple factors that impact endocrine and hematopoietic function in Rio Grande swallows. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  8. Environmental contaminant hazards to wildlife at National Capital region and Mid-Atlantic National Park Service units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    Pollutant data for air, water, soil and biota were compiled from databases and internet sources and by staff interviews at 23 National Park Service (NPS) units in 2005. A metric was derived describing the quality and quantity of data for each park, and in combination with known contaminant threats, the need for ecotoxicological study was identified and ranked. Over half of NP units were near Toxic Release Inventory sites discharging persistent pollutants, and fish consumption advisories were in effect at or near 22 of the units. Pesticide and herbicide use was found to be minimal, with the exception of those units with agricultural leases. Only 70 reports were found that describe terrestrial vertebrate environmental contaminant data at or near the units. Of the >75,000 compounds in commerce, empirical exposure data were limited to merely 58 halogenated compounds, insecticides, rodenticides, metals, and some contemporary compounds. Further ecotoxicological monitoring and research is warranted at several units including Shenandoah National Park, Richmond National Battlefield Park, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Valley Forge National Historical Park, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Monocacy National Battlefield, and Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. The types of investigations vary according to the wildlife species present and potential contaminant threats, but should focus on contemporary use pesticides and herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, lead, and perhaps antibiotics, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and surfactants. Other management recommendations include inclusion of screening level contaminant risk assessments into the NPS Vital Signs Program, development of protocols for toxicological analysis of seemingly affected wildlife, alternative methods and compounds for pest management, and use of non-toxic fishing tackle by visitors.

  9. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.N. |; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning.

  10. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates To Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby, R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Zhou, Yue; Tokarskaya, Zoya, B.; Zhuntova, Galina, V.; Osovets, Sergey, V.; Syrchikov, Victor, A.; Pesternikova, Valentina, S.; Belyaeva, Zinaida, D.; Khokhryakov, Valentin, F; Vasilenko, Evgeny, K.; Okladnikova, Nadezhda D.

    2004-12-10

    This report is comprised of a main section and two appendices (A, B) that contain two submitted papers developed with either partial or full support from this Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) project. The project has focused on applying basic and applied scientific methods to improve both the characterization of plutonium (Pu) aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract and the understanding of the associated health risks. Our modeling research has ranged from stochastic effects in cells (mutations, neoplastic transformation, apoptosis) to cancer induction in humans. Special attention has been given to cancer risk for low-dose exposure to alpha radiation from inhaled Pu-239. We have also conducted modeling research related to high-dose exposure to alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes and the associated risks for deterministic effects. This research is especially timely given new concerns related to possible nuclear terrorist incidents in the United States and elsewhere. The methodology presented in one of our submitted papers (Appendix A) for characterizing the risk of radiation deterministic effects associated with exposure to large internal (alpha, beta, and gamma) and external (gamma) doses is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to develop guidance for managing radiological incidents (e.g., dirty bomb incidents) and by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the health consequences of the use of dirty bombs by terrorists. Our dosimetry modeling research has focused largely on weapons-grade Pu (WG Pu), which is comprised of several different isotopes that are primarily alpha emitters. We have mainly focused on the insoluble dioxide form. Our mechanistic modeling research has lead to a revised model for low-dose, radiation induced, neoplastic transformation (an early step in cancer induction). The revised model is called NEOTRANS3, and has facilitated evaluating the expected shape of the dose-response relationship

  11. APPLICATION OF GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC INDICATORS TO CHARACTERIZE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in molecular biological methods are continually being brought to bear on human health research, from a basic understanding of systems biology to identification of toxicity pathways for environmental stressors and to correlations of molecular indicators with physiological...

  12. IMPROVED RADIATION DOSIMETRY/RISK ESTIMATES TO FACILITATE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Environmental Management is the custodian of large quantities of toxic radioactive materials from manufacturing and processing facilities after the United States halted nuclear weapons production. Because these materials include high-specific activity (HSA) and low-...

  13. Contamination of environmental surfaces by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rooms of inpatients with MRSA-positive body sites.

    PubMed

    Kurashige, E Jessica Ohashi; Oie, Shigeharu; Furukawa, H

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can contaminate environmental surfaces that are frequently touched by the hands of patients with MRSA colonization/infection. There have been many studies in which the presence or absence of MRSA contamination was determined but no studies in which MRSA contamination levels were also evaluated in detail. We evaluated MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces (overbed tables, bed side rails, and curtains) in the rooms of inpatients from whom MRSA was isolated via clinical specimens. We examined the curtains within 7-14 days after they had been newly hung. The environmental surfaces were wiped using gauze (molded gauze for wiping of surface bacteria; 100% cotton, 4cm×8cm) moistened with sterile physiological saline. The MRSA contamination rate and mean counts (range) were 25.0% (6/24 samples) and 30.6 (0-255)colony-forming units (cfu)/100cm(2), respectively, for the overbed tables and 31.6% (6/19 samples) and 159.5 (0-1620)cfu/100cm(2), respectively, for the bed side rails. No MRSA was detected in 24 curtain samples. The rate of MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces was high for the overbed tables and bed side rails but low for the curtains. Therefore, at least until the 14th day of use, frequent disinfection of curtains may be not necessary. PMID:27289247

  14. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  15. Remediation of a large contaminated reactor cooling reservoir: Resolving and environmental/regulatory paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.: Gladden, J.B.; Hickey, H.M.; Jones, M.P.; Mackey, H.E.; Mayer, J.J.; Doswell, A.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a case study of a former reactor cooling water reservoir, PAR Pond, located Savannah River Site. PAR Pond, a 2640 acre, man-made reservoir was built in 1958 and until 1988, received cooling water from two DOE nuclear production reactors, P and R. The lake sediments were contaminated with low levels of radiocesium (CS-137) and transuranics in the late 1950s and early 1960s because of leaking fuel elements. Elevated levels of mercury accumulated in the sediments from pumping water from the Savannah River to maintain a full pool. PAR Ponds` stability, size, and nutrient content made a significant, unique, and highly studied ecological resource for fish and wildlife populations until it was partially drained in 1991 due to a depression in the downslope of the earthen dam. The drawdown, created 1340 acres of exposed, radioactively contaminated sediments along 33 miles of shoreline. This led US EPA to declare PAR Pond as a CERCLA operable unit subject to remediation. The drawdown also raised concerns for the populations of aquatic plants, fish, alligators, and endangered species and increased the potential for off-site migration of contaminated wildlife from contact with the exposed sediments. Applicable regulations, such as NEPA and CERCLA, require wetland loss evaluations, human health and ecological risk assessments, and remediation feasibility studies. DOE is committed to spending several million dollars to repair the dam for safety reasons, even though the lake will probably not be used for cooling purposes. At the same time, DOE must make decisions whether to refill and expend additional public funds to maintain a full pool to reduce the risks defined under CERCLA or spend hundreds of millions in remediation costs to reduce the risks of the exposed sediments.

  16. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-04-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  17. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-01-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  18. Amendments for the in situ remediation of contaminated sediments: evaluation of potential environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Paller, Michael H; Knox, Anna S

    2010-09-15

    Active sediment caps represent a comparatively new technology for remediating contaminated sediments. They are made by applying chemically active amendments that reduce contaminant mobility and bioavailability to the sediment surface. The objective of this study was to determine if active cap amendments including organoclay, apatite, and biopolymers have the potential to harm benthic organisms. Methods included laboratory bioassays of amendment toxicity and field evaluations of amendment impacts on organisms held in cages placed within pilot-scale active caps located in Steel Creek, a South Carolina (USA) stream. Test organisms included Hyalella azteca, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Corbicula fluminea to represent a range of feeding modes, burrowing behaviors, and both fresh and saltwater organisms. In addition to the laboratory and field assays, chemical extractions were performed to determine if the amendments contained harmful impurities that could leach into the ambient environment. Laboratory bioassays indicated that 100% apatite had minimal effects on Hyalella in freshwater and up to 25% organoclay was nontoxic to Leptocheirus in brackish water. Field evaluations indicated that pilot-scale caps composed of up to 50% apatite and 25% organoclay did not harm Hyalella, Lumbriculus, or Corbicula. In contrast, organisms in caps containing biopolymers died because of physical entrapment and/or suffocation by the viscous biopolymers. The extractions showed that the amendments did not release harmful concentrations of metals. These studies indicated that apatite and organoclay are nontoxic at concentrations (up to 50% and 25% by weight, respectively) needed for the construction of active caps that are useful for the remediation of metals and organic contaminants in sediments. PMID:20655093

  19. Environmental Contamination with Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, and Methotrexate: A Study of 51 Canadian Centres

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Alexia; Tanguay, Cynthia; Caron, Nicolas J; Bussières, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs may lead to adverse reproductive effects. There is no safe exposure limit for health care professionals. Objectives: To monitor levels of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate contamination in oncology pharmacy and patient care areas in Canadian health care institutions. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014. Hospitals with at least 50 acute care beds were invited to participate. At each participating centre, 12 standardized sites (6 in pharmacy areas and 6 in patient care areas) were sampled. The samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technology. The limits of detection were 0.36 pg/cm2 for cyclophosphamide, 0.95 pg/cm2 for ifosfamide, and 0.97 pg/cm2 for methotrexate. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to determine the median, 75th percentile, and maximum levels. Results: Fifty-one hospitals participated in this descriptive study, and a total of 584 samples were quantified. Overall, 294 (50%) of the samples were positive for cyclophosphamide, 125 (21%) for ifosfamide, and 54 (9%) for methotrexate. The most frequently contaminated sampling sites in pharmacy areas were the front grille inside the hood and the floor in front of the hood and, in patient care areas, the armrest and outpatient clinic counter. The 75th percentiles for surface concentration were 10.8 pg/cm2 for cyclophosphamide, 1.59 pg/cm2 for ifosfamide, and below the limit of detection for methotrexate. Conclusions: Relative to 3 other multicentre studies conducted in Quebec over the past few years, the proportion of positive samples remained constant. Nonetheless, the 75th percentile surface concentration of antineoplastic drugs has been decreasing and seems to have reached a plateau. Local (country-specific or region-specific) and attainable goals for surface contamination with hazardous drugs should be set

  20. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Dong Soo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Seung

    2009-01-01

    Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon. PMID:22303141