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Sample records for environmental exposures nitric

  1. EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The planned interagency National Children's Study (NCS) will be studying a number of exposure issues in the context of health and well-being of infants and young children from pre-conception to age 21. Some of the important environmental exposure questions for NCS, include: how c...

  2. Environmental Exposures and Development

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose of Review Summarize recent studies exploring the relationship between paternal and maternal environmental exposures to chemicals before, at the time of and after conception to adverse developmental outcomes including; preterm birth, death, structural and functional abnormalities and growth restriction. Recent Findings Recent studies have demonstrated that human pregnancy and development is vulnerable to environmental exposures of the father and mother to chemical, biological and physical agents. Exposures associated with adverse developmental outcomes include; air and water pollution, chemicals in foods, occupational exposures, agricultural chemicals, metals, persistent and volatile organics. Developmental endpoints which are linked with these exposures include; growth restriction, functional abnormalities, structural abnormalities, preterm delivery and death. Despite this general understanding we still have incomplete knowledge concerning most exposures and the biological interactions responsible for impaired development and preterm delivery. Summary While single genes and individual chemical exposures are responsible for some instances of adverse pregnancy outcome or developmental disease, gene-environment interactions are responsible for the majority. These gene-environment interactions may occur in the father, mother, placenta or fetus suggesting that critical attention be given to maternal and paternal exposures and gene expression as they relate to the mode of action of the putative developmental toxicant both prior to and during pregnancy. PMID:20216314

  3. Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Tschiedel, Eva; Groch, Manuela; Klepper, Jörg; Ratjen, Felix

    2007-08-01

    Chronic exposure to chlorine gas has been shown to cause occupational asthma. Acute inhalation of chlorine is known to cause airway inflammation and induce airway nitric oxide formation. Exhaled nitric oxide may therefore be a marker of airway damage after chlorine gas exposure. After accidental chlorine gas exposure in a swimming pool, exhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary function were repeatedly measured in 18 children over a 1-mo period. Symptomatic children with impaired pulmonary function had higher nitric oxide levels on the day after the exposure compared to day 8 and day 28. Differences in exhaled nitric oxide were more pronounced at a higher exhalation flow compared to lower flow, suggesting peripheral rather than central airway damage. This was in accordance with the observed changes in pulmonary function. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were seen in asymptomatic children. These data suggest that acute chlorine gas exposure results in a mild increase of exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children. PMID:17687720

  4. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  5. Environmental exposures and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Jeffrey K; Loeb, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Many malignancies have been linked to specific environmental exposures. Several environmental and occupational factors have been studied for an association to prostate cancer (CaP) risk. These include Agent Orange exposure, farming and pesticides, sunlight/ultraviolet radiation, as well as trace minerals used in tire and battery manufacturing. This manuscript reviews the literature on these environmental exposures and CaP. PMID:22385992

  6. Intracellular Conversion of Environmental Nitrate and Nitrite to Nitric Oxide with Resulting Developmental Toxicity to the Crustacean Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Das, Parikshit C.; Li, Hong; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Nitrate and nitrite (jointly referred to herein as NOx) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which aquatic organisms are at particularly high risk of exposure. We tested the hypothesis that NOx undergo intracellular conversion to the potent signaling molecule nitric oxide resulting in the disruption of endocrine-regulated processes. Methodology/Principal Findings These experiments were performed with insect cells (Drosophila S2) and whole organisms Daphnia magna. We first evaluated the ability of cells to convert nitrate (NO3−) and nitrite (NO2−) to nitric oxide using amperometric real-time nitric oxide detection. Both NO3− and NO2− were converted to nitric oxide in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. Further, nitric oxide trapping and fluorescent visualization studies revealed that perinatal daphnids readily convert NO2− to nitric oxide. Next, daphnids were continuously exposed to concentrations of the nitric oxide-donor sodium nitroprusside (positive control) and to concentrations of NO3− and NO2−. All three compounds interfered with normal embryo development and reduced daphnid fecundity. Developmental abnormalities were characteristic of those elicited by compounds that interfere with ecdysteroid signaling. However, no compelling evidence was generated to indicate that nitric oxide reduced ecdysteroid titers. Conclusions/Significance Results demonstrate that nitrite elicits developmental and reproductive toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations due likely to its intracellular conversion to nitric oxide. PMID:20805993

  7. Association of expired nitric oxide with occupational particulate exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Young; Wand, Matthew P; Hauser, Russ; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

    2003-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with adverse respiratory health effects. This study assessed the utility of expired nitric oxide to detect acute airway responses to metal-containing fine particulates. Using a repeated-measures study design, we investigated the association between the fractional concentration of expired nitric oxide (F(E)NO) and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) in boilermakers exposed to residual oil fly ash and metal fumes. Subjects were monitored for 5 days during boiler repair overhauls in 1999 (n = 20) or 2000 (n = 14). The Wilcoxon median baseline F(E)NO was 10.6 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1, 12.7] in 1999 and 7.4 ppb (95% CI: 6.7, 8.0) in 2000. The Wilcoxon median PM(2.5) 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.56 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.37, 0.93) in 1999 and 0.86 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.65, 1.07) in 2000. F(E)NO levels during the work week were significantly lower than baseline F(E)NO in 1999 (p < 0.001). A significant inverse exposure-response relationship between log-transformed F(E)NO and the previous workday's PM(2.5) concentration was found in 1999, after adjusting for smoking status, age, and sampling year. With each 1 mg/m(3) incremental increase in PM(2.5) exposure, log F(E)NO decreased by 0.24 (95% CI: -0.38, -0.10) in 1999. The lack of an exposure-response relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and F(E)NO in 2000 could be attributable to exposure misclassification resulting from the use of respirators. In conclusion, occupational exposure to metal-containing fine particulates was associated with significant decreases in F(E)NO in a survey of workers with limited respirator usage. PMID:12727593

  8. Interactions of Gaseous Nitric Acid with Surfaces of Environmental Interest

    SciTech Connect

    Dubowski, Y; Sumner, Ann Louise; Menke, E J.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Newberg, J T.; Hoffman, Rachel C.; Penner, R M.; Hemminger, J C.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2004-07-21

    Gaseous nitric acid removal by surfaces in experimental systems and in the atmospheric boundary layer is rapid. However, neither the form of HNO? on surfaces nor its impact on the properties of the thin surface film are known. We report here studies of surfaces that have been exposed at room temperature (295 ? 2 K) to gaseous mixtures of water vapor with HNO? at concentrations from 46 ppb to 4 x 10? ppm. The surfaces were probed using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Exposure of borosilicate glass, quartz, and thin Teflon films to mixtures of gaseous HNO? and water vapor leads to the subsequent uptake of much larger amounts of water than occurs on the corresponding unexposed surfaces. Infrared spectra show evidence for the formation of nitric acid?water complexes on the surface that leads to this enhanced water uptake. On borosilicate glass, exposure to the nitric acid?water vapor mixture results in surface segregation of the trace metal oxides and their nitrates formed from reaction with HNO?. The majority of these oxides can be removed by rinsing with water; however, smaller, segregated regions of ZnO remain on the surface. The implications for heterogeneous reactions in thin films on surfaces in laboratory systems and in the atmosphere are discussed.

  9. Environmental epigenetics in metal exposure

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Zamudio, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to arsenite, nickel, chromium and cadmium increases cancer incidence in individuals, the molecular mechanisms underlying their ability to transform cells remain largely unknown. Carcinogenic metals are typically weak mutagens, suggesting that genetic-based mechanisms may not be primarily responsible for metal-induced carcinogenesis. Growing evidence shows that environmental metal exposure involves changes in epigenetic marks, which may lead to a possible link between heritable changes in gene expression and disease susceptibility and development. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of metal exposure affecting epigenetic marks and discuss establishment of heritable gene expression in metal-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:21610324

  10. Mitochondrial Epigenetics and Environmental Exposure.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Luca; Byun, Hyang-Min

    2016-09-01

    The rising toll of chronic and debilitating diseases brought about by the exposure to an ever expanding number of environmental pollutants and socio-economic factors is calling for action. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the effects of environmental exposures can lead to the development of biomarkers that can support the public health fields of both early diagnosis and intervention to limit the burden of environmental diseases. The study of mitochondrial epigenetics carries high hopes to provide important biomarkers of exposure and disease. Mitochondria are in fact on the frontline of the cellular response to the environment. Modifications of the epigenetic factors regulating the mitochondrial activity are emerging as informative tools that can effectively report on the effects of the environment on the phenotype. Here, we will discuss the emerging field of mitochondrial epigenetics. This review describes the main epigenetic phenomena that modify the activity of the mitochondrial DNA including DNA methylation, long and short non-coding RNAs. We will discuss the unique pattern of mitochondrial DNA methylation, describe the challenges of correctly measuring it, and report on the existing studies that have analysed the correlation between environmental exposures and mitochondrial DNA methylation. Finally, we provide a brief account of the therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondria currently under consideration. PMID:27344144

  11. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental Exposures
    Sherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington,
    DC)

    The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  14. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  15. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  16. Workshop report: environmental exposures and cancer prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiger, Nancy; Ashbury, Fredrick D; Purdue, Mark P; Marrett, Loraine D

    2003-01-01

    The Workshop on Environmental Exposures and Cancer was held by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) 25-26 April 2001. An expert panel convened to achieve consensus on a list of important environmental exposures, priority environmental exposures in Ontario, and recommendations for CCO in the areas of surveillance, research, and prevention activities to address these environmental exposures. Panel members developed a working definition of environmental exposure and criteria to prioritize the identified exposures. The process followed in the workshop provided CCO with important direction for its surveillance, research, and prevention activities to address environmental exposures and cancer. It is hoped that the environmental exposures and the opportunities identified through this workshop process will guide policy makers, program personnel, and researchers interested in and struggling with the challenges associated with surveillance, research, and prevention of environmental exposures. PMID:12515687

  17. Monitoring Nanoaerosols and Environmental Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandin, Corinne; Le Bihan, Olivier; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    Environmental exposure refers to exposure of the population outside the occupational context (see Chap. 6.4) and excluding also medical exposure. The kind of exposure discussed in this chapter is due to the presence of nanoparticles in the various environmental compartments, such as the air (indoors or outdoors), water (water for drinking, bathing, etc.), soils, foodstuffs, and so on. These nanoparticles may come from the nanomaterials that contain them and upon which they bestow specific novel properties, or they may be formed unintentionally by human activities such as industry, traffic, domestic fuel combustion, etc., or natural phenomena such as forest fires, for example, or again by physicochemical reactions, e.g., the reaction between gases and particles in the air, spray formation, vapour condensation, and so on. This book is concerned with the former, namely manufactured nanoparticles, but the related questions and acquired knowledge must often be viewed from the perspective of what is already known about the latter, commonly referred to as ultrafine particles.

  18. Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nandipati, Sirisha; Litvan, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects millions around the world. The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system. The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD. Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures. We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industrial compounds, and metals and their association with PD in PubMed and Google Scholar until April 2016. Most studies show that rotenone and paraquat are linked to increased PD risk and PD-like neuropathology. Organochlorines have also been linked to PD in human and laboratory studies. Organophosphates and pyrethroids have limited but suggestive human and animal data linked to PD. Iron has been found to be elevated in PD brain tissue but the pathophysiological link is unclear. PD due to manganese has not been demonstrated, though a parkinsonian syndrome associated with manganese is well-documented. Overall, the evidence linking paraquat, rotenone, and organochlorines with PD appears strong; however, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and polychlorinated biphenyls require further study. The studies related to metals do not support an association with PD. PMID:27598189

  19. Environmental exposures and respiratory outcomes in children.

    PubMed

    Turner, Steve

    2012-12-01

    Asthma is a complex condition where genetic and environmental interactions occur at critical periods in development. The focus of this review was the role of environmental exposures on asthma causation. Selected studies published in 2010 and 2011 were reviewed to illustrate the challenge in relating environmental exposure(s) on asthma causation and also to focus on some exposures currently thought to be important to asthma pathogenesis. Challenges in understanding how environmental exposures may translate into asthma causation are summarised. Inhaled and ingested exposures are described, including microbial products, swimming pools, diet and antenatal tobacco exposure. A final synthesis summarises what is currently understood about childhood asthma causation and what advice might be given to parents and governments interested in reducing asthma risk. PMID:23069125

  20. Myelodysplasia, chemical exposure, and other environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, A.; Jacobs, A.; West, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a case-control study of the occupational and environmental exposures of patients with myelodysplasia. The methodology, first described in Canada for solid tumors, estimates lifetime exposures to a number of potential toxic hazards or carcinogens. This pilot study confirms that the methodology, with the use of questionnaires and interviews, can estimate exposures to specific chemicals and shows some significant associations with myelodysplasia, including exposure to petrol or diesel compounds.

  1. No effect of exposure to static and sinusoidal magnetic fields on nitric oxide production by macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Mnaimneh, S.; Bizri, M.; Veyret, B.

    1996-12-31

    The effects of exposure to static (1--100 mT) or sinusoidal (1 Hz, 1.6 mT) magnetic fields on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by murine BCG-activated macrophages were investigated. In these cells, the inducible isoform of NO synthase is present. No significant differences were observed in nitrite levels among exposed, sham-exposed, or control macrophages after exposure for 14 h to static fields of 1, 10, 50, and 100 mT and to sinusoidal 1.6 mT, 1 Hz magnetic fields.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although people of color and low-income groups bear a disproportionate share of the health risks from exposure to pesticides, research attention has been meager, and data on acute and chronic health effects related to their toxic exposures are generally lacking. ncreased resource...

  3. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  4. Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 μg/g (median = 0.073 μg/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 μg/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (P<0.001). These data show that exogenous metal contamination on hair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

  5. Effect of Nanoparticles Exposure on Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) in Workers Exposed to Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh; Li, Wan-Fen; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Ho, Jiune-Jye; Wu, Trong-Neng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement is a useful diagnostic test of airway inflammation. However, there have been few studies of FENO in workers exposed to nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nanoparticle (NP) exposure on FENO and to assess whether the FENO is increased in workers exposed to nanomaterials (NM). In this study, both exposed workers and non-exposed controls were recruited from NM handling plants in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects (exposed group = 241, non-exposed group = 196) completed the FENO and spirometric measurements from 2009–2011. The authors used a control-banding (CB) matrix to categorize the risk level of each participant. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, this study found a significant association between risk level 2 of NP exposure and FENO. Furthermore, asthma, allergic rhinitis, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and NF-κB were also significantly associated with FENO. When the multivariate logistic regression model was adjusted for confounders, nano-TiO2 in all of the NM exposed categories had a significantly increased risk in FENO > 35 ppb. This study found associations between the risk level of NP exposure and FENO (particularly noteworthy for Nano-TiO2). Monitoring FENO in the lung could open up a window into the role nitric oxide (NO) may play in pathogenesis. PMID:24413755

  6. Environmental exposures, socioeconomics, disparities, and the kidneys.

    PubMed

    Said, Sarmad; Hernandez, German T

    2015-01-01

    Kidney disease disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minority populations, the poor, and the socially disadvantaged. The excess risk of kidney disease among minority and disadvantaged populations can only be partially explained by an excess of diabetes, hypertension, and poor access to preventive care. Disparities in the environmental exposure to nephrotoxicants have been documented in minority and disadvantaged populations and may explain some of the excess risk of kidney disease. High-level environmental and occupational exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury are known to cause specific nephropathies. However, there is growing evidence that low-level exposures to heavy metals may contribute to the development of CKD and its progression. In this article, we summarize the excess risk of environmental exposures among minority and disadvantaged populations. We also review the epidemiologic and clinical data linking low-level environmental exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury to CKD and its progression. Finally, we briefly describe Mesoamerican nephropathy, an epidemic of CKD affecting young men in Central America, which may have occupational and environmental exposures contributing to its development. PMID:25573511

  7. Exposure Concepts for Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern life depends upon the use of many chemicals, products, and practices to promote well being and economic growth. However, when these chemicals, products and practices present the potential for harm to humans and ecosystems, they are termed environmental stressors and, as s...

  8. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, K D

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested. PMID:465378

  9. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel E; Beall, Cynthia M; Strohl, Kingman P; Mills, Phoebe S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator that plays a role in blood flow and oxygen delivery. Acute hypoxia down regulates NO synthesis, a response that may exacerbate hypoxic stress by decreasing blood flow. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that pulmonary NO decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia and that relatively low levels of NO at altitude are associated with greater stress as reflected in more symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). A sample of 47 healthy, adult, nonsmoking, sea-level residents provided measurements at sea level, at 2,800 m, and at 0-, 2-, and 3-h exposure times at 4,200 m altitude on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements were made of exhaled NO, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, heart rate, and reported symptoms of AMS. The partial pressure of NO concentration in exhaled breath decreased significantly from a sea level mean of 4.2 nmHg to 3.8 nmHg at 2,800 m and 3.4 nmHg at 4,200 m. NO concentration in exhaled breath did not change significantly over a 3-h exposure at 4,200 m and recovered to pre-exposure baseline upon return to sea level. There was no significant association between the level of NO exhaled and the number of self-reported symptoms of AMS during this brief exposure. PMID:16493632

  11. Thrombocytopenia associated with environmental exposure to polyurethane

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, A.D. )

    1991-10-01

    Few chemicals in the environment have been implicated as causes of isolated thrombocytopenia, and the evidence is usually less than convincing because the patients were not rechallenged with the chemical in vivo. In the present paper, a child is reported with the onset of thrombocytopenia in temporal association with environmental exposure to polyurethane. Five years after the initial thrombocytopenia had resolved, an inadvertent in vivo rechallenge with environmental polyurethane resulted in recurrence of the thrombocytopenia. This recurrence, together with the fact that only 1-4% of cases of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children recur, provided strong evidence for a causal role for the polyurethane exposure in this patient's thrombocytopenia. In summary, environmental exposure to polyurethane should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acquired thrombocytopenia in childhood.

  12. Environmental Perchlorate Exposure: Potential Adverse Thyroid Effects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Recent findings Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant IQ in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recent proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. Summary The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants. PMID:25106002

  13. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  14. USEPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the vulnerability of children to effects from environmental exposures, understanding links between children's health and environmental exposures is critical. In recent years, significant research has been initiated at USEPA to characterize children's exposures.

  15. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Ashley P.; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46–70 years) were taken on a 1.5hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics. PMID:26656561

  16. Effects of the exposure to indoor cooking-generated particles on nitric oxide exhaled by women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, L.; Fuoco, F. C.; Marini, S.; Buonanno, G.

    2015-02-01

    In this study short-term respiratory effects due to the exposure to cooking-generated aerosols were assessed through a marker of airway inflammation (exhaled Nitric Oxide, eNO). The exposure of 43 non-atopic, non-smoking women in terms of particle number and surface area concentration was monitored during their normal cooking activities through hand-held aerosol monitors. Women using gas (n = 23) and electric (n = 20) stoves were considered in the survey. Surface area particle doses deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs (mm2) received by each woman were measured as well as their levels of eNO concentration. Associations between woman exposure to cooking-generated aerosol and short-term changes of eNO were found. In particular, women using electric stoves reported a statistically significant eNO reduction during the cooking sessions, whereas an increase in eNO was measured in women using gas stoves. The results support the potential link between short-term exposures to cooking-generated particles and women's respiratory inflammation responses.

  17. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:26324808

  18. Environmental exposure to benzene: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L

    1996-01-01

    During the 1990s, several large-scale studies of benzene concentrations in air, food, and blood have added to our knowledge of its environmental occurrence. In general, the new studies have confirmed the earlier findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies and other large-scale studies in Germany and the Netherlands concerning the levels of exposure and major sources. For example, the new studies found that personal exposures exceeded indoor concentrations of benzene, which in turn exceeded outdoor concentrations. The new studies of food concentrations have confirmed earlier indications that food is not an important pathway for benzene exposure. The results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on blood levels in a nationwide sample of 883 persons are in good agreement with the concentrations in exhaled breath measured in about 800 persons a decade earlier in the TEAM studies. Major sources of exposure continue to be active and passive smoking, auto exhaust, and driving or riding in automobiles. New methods in breath and blood sampling and analysis offer opportunities to investigate short-term peak exposures and resulting body burden under almost any conceivable field conditions. PMID:9118882

  19. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the well-established vulnerability of children to the effects of environmental exposures and the array of environmental exposures that have not been studied, understanding the relationship between children's health outcomes and environmental exposures is critical for our ...

  20. Approaches to environmental exposure assessment in children.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Buckley, T J; Groopman, J D

    1998-01-01

    An improved understanding of the contribution made by environmental exposures to disease burden in children is essential, given current increasing rates of childhood illnesses such asthma and cancer. Children must be routinely included in environmental research. Exposure assessment, both external (e.g., air, water) and internal dose (e.g., biomarkers), is an integral component of such research. Biomarker measurement has some advantages that are unique in children. These include assessment of potentially increased absorption because of behaviors that differ from adults (i.e., hand-to-mouth activity); metabolite measurement, which can help identify age-related susceptibility differences; and improved assessment of dermal exposure, an important exposure route in children. Environmental exposure assessment in children will require adaption of techniques that are currently applied in adult studies as well as development of tools and validation of strategies that are unique for children. Designs that focus on parent-child study units provide adult comparison data and allow the parent to assist with more complex study designs. Use of equipment that is sized appropriately for children, such as small air pumps and badge monitors, is also important. When biomarkers are used, biologic specimens that can be obtained noninvasively are preferable. Although the current need is primarily for small focused studies to address specific questions and optimize research tools, the future will require establishment of large prospective cohorts. Urban children are an important study cohort because of relatively high morbidity observed in the urban environment. Finally, examples of completed or possible future studies utilizing these techniques are discussed for specific exposures such as benzene, environmental tobacco smoke, aflatoxin, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:9646045

  1. Enhancement of nitric oxide production by pulmonary cells following silica exposure.

    PubMed

    Castranova, V; Huffman, L J; Judy, D J; Bylander, J E; Lapp, L N; Weber, S L; Blackford, J A; Dey, R D

    1998-10-01

    In vivo exposure of rat lungs to crystalline silica either by intratracheal instillation or by inhalation results in an increase in mRNA levels for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALC), elevated nitric oxide (.NO) production by BALC, and an increase in .NO-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) from alveolar macrophages (AM). Induction of iNOS message occurs in both AM and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) harvested from silica-exposed lungs but is not significantly elevated in lavaged lung tissue. In vitro exposure of AM to silica does not stimulate .NO production or enhance iNOS message. However, treatment of naive AM with conditioned media from BALC harvested from silica-exposed rats does increase iNOS message and .NO production by these AM. The potency of this conditioned medium is dependent on interaction between AM and PMN. In the rat model, a relationship exists between the ability of various dusts to cause PMN recruitment or protein leakage into the alveolar space and the induction of iNOS message in BALC, i.e., silica > coal mine dust > carbonyl iron > titanium dioxide. Similarly, a comparison of BALC from a healthy volunteer, a silica-exposed coal miner with a normal chest radiograph, and a silica-exposed coal miner with an abnormal chest radiograph shows a correlation between pathology and both the level of iNOS message in BALC and the magnitude of .NO-dependent CL from AM. These data suggest that .NO may play a role in silicosis and that human pulmonary phagocytes exhibit enhanced .NO production in response to an inflammatory insult. PMID:9788892

  2. The association of expired nitric oxide with occupational particulate metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Young; Hauser, Russ; Wand, Matthew P; Herrick, Robert F; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Christiani, David C

    2003-10-01

    Toxicologic studies have shown that soluble transition metals in residual oil fly ash (ROFA) can induce pulmonary injury. In this study, we investigated the association between the fractional concentration of expired nitric oxide (FENO) and exposure to metal constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter < or =2.5 microm (PM2.5) in boilermakers exposed to ROFA and metal fume. Metals investigated included vanadium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, and lead. Subjects were monitored for 5 consecutive days during boiler repair overhauls in 1999 (n=20) and 2000 (n=14). In 1999, we found a significant inverse association between log-transformed FENO and PM2.5 metal concentrations. LogFENO changed by -0.03 (95% CI: -0.04, -0.01), -0.56 (95% CI: -0.88, -0.24), -0.09 (95% CI: -0.16, -0.02), and -0.04 (95% CI: -0.07, -0.02) per microg/m3 of PM2.5 vanadium, chromium, manganese, and nickel, respectively. In 2000, no significant associations were observed, most likely due to exposure misclassification resulting from the use of respirators. The inverse association between PM2.5 metal exposure and FENO in subjects with limited respirator usage suggests that soluble transition metals might be partially responsible for the adverse pulmonary responses seen in workers exposed to ROFA. PMID:12963400

  3. Arsenic alters monocyte superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in environmentally exposed children

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Ana L.; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Conde, Patricia; Vera, Eunice; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Bastida, Mariana; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S.

    2010-06-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with alterations in the immune system, studies in experimental models and adults have shown that these effects involve macrophage function; however, limited information is available on what type of effects could be induced in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of As exposure, through the association of inorganic As (iAs) and its metabolites [monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] with basal levels of nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}-}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes, and NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} produced by activated monocytes. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 87 children (6-10 years old) who had been environmentally exposed to As through drinking water. Levels of urinary As species (iAs, MMA and DMA) were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, total As (tAs) represents the sum of iAs and its species; tAs urine levels ranged from 12.3 to 1411 {mu}g/g creatinine. Using multiple linear regression models, iAs presented a positive and statistical association with basal NO{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC ({beta} = 0.0048, p = 0.049) and monocytes ({beta} = 0.0044, p = 0.044), while basal O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} had a significant positive association with DMA ({beta} = 0.0025, p = 0.046). In activated monocytes, O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} showed a statistical and positive association with iAs ({beta} = 0.0108, p = 0.023), MMA ({beta} = 0.0066, p = 0.022), DMA ({beta} = 0.0018, p = 0.015), and tAs ({beta} = 0.0013, p = 0.015). We conclude that As exposure in the studied children was positively associated with basal levels of NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC and monocytes, suggesting that As induces oxidative stress in circulating blood cells. Additionally, this study showed a positive association of O{sub 2}{sup

  4. Environmental Exposures and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures, ranging from perchlorate in rocket fuel to polychlorinated biphenols, have been shown to influence thyroid function. Although most of these agents are associated with reduced thyroid hormone levels or impaired thyroid hormone action, a number of environmental exposures confer an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. Summary Factors that increase autoimmune thyroid disease risk include radiation exposure, both from nuclear fallout and medical radiation, increased iodine intake, as well as several contaminants in the environment that influence the thyroid. Although ∼70% of the risk for developing autoimmune thyroid disease is attributable to genetic background, environmental triggers are thought to play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease in susceptible individuals. Conclusions Understanding the association of environmental agents with thyroid dysfunction can be utilized to reduce the risk to populations. Knowledge of the specific factors that trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and their mode of action, however, may also inform risk reduction in the individual patient. These factors are especially relevant for those at increased risk of autoimmune thyroid disease based on family history. PMID:20578899

  5. The effect of nitric acid exposure on Galileo spacecraft titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V propellant tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Cheng; O'Donnell, Tim; Yavrouian, Andre

    1990-01-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V-constructed retropropulsion-module tanks of the Galileo spacecraft were purged with nitrogen tetroxide in order to wait out a major launch rescheduling; nitric acid is among the residual products of such an operation. A test program was conducted on representative samples to ascertain the fracture toughness and stress corrosion threshold of the tanks' material, in view of Space Shuttle safety and mission-reliability requirements. It was found that the tanks' structural integrity was not degraded by nitric acid exposure.

  6. Preconception Brief: Occupational/Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Gehle, Kim

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 18–44 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a woman’s health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients’ potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician. PMID:16897370

  7. Preconception brief: occupational/environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gehle, Kim

    2006-09-01

    In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 18-44 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a woman's health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients' potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician. PMID:16897370

  8. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Moore, Chip; Norwood, Joseph K.; Henrie, Ben; DeGroh, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the 18-month environmental exposure for Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE-7B) ram and wake sides. This includes atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, meteoroid/space debris impacts, and observed contamination. Atomic oxygen fluence was determined by measured mass and thickness loss of polymers of known reactivity. Diodes sensitive to ultraviolet light actively measured solar radiation incident on the experiment. Comparisons to earlier MISSE flights are discussed.

  9. Environmental monitoring of secondhand smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Gundel, Lara; Hammond, S Katharine; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hyland, Andrew; Klepeis, Neil E; Madsen, Camille C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Repace, James; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. The measurement of nicotine in the air has the advantage of reflecting the presence of tobacco smoke. While PM measurements are not as specific, they can be taken continuously, allowing for assessment of exposure and its variation over time. In general, when nicotine and PM are measured in the same setting using a common sampling period, an increase in nicotine concentration of 1 μg/m3 corresponds to an average increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM. This topic assessment presents a comprehensive summary of SHSe monitoring approaches using environmental markers and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and approaches. PMID:22949497

  10. Environmental exposure to N-aryl compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    N-aryl compounds are well-known occupational exposure hazards but are relatively unstudied as an environmental exposure problem. Coal-derived liquid fuels and environmental tobacco smoke are examples of materials potentially leading to significant environmental exposures to aryl amines. Integrated chemical class separation and bacterial mutagenicity testing identified primary aromatic amines as the major contributors to the mutagenicities of crude coal liquids. Studies of sidestream cigarette smoke chemistry show that alkaline constituents of cigarette smoke are preferentially released into the environment as compared to that drawn into the mouth by the smoker. Two to ten times the quantity of aromatic amines are released in the sidestream smoke on a per cigarette basis. Quantities of the more mutagenic and carcinogenic multi-ring aryl amines in both coal liquids and in cigarette smoke are very small and they are accompanied by a wide variety of related compounds. Chemical ionization mass spectrometric methods have been developed to distinguish between closely related amines to facilitate their identification and quantitation at trace levels.

  11. Occupational and environmental exposures reported to Poison enters

    SciTech Connect

    Litovitz, T.; Oderda, G.; White, J.D.; Sheridan, M.J. )

    1993-05-01

    This analysis of 25,368 occupational and 7,565 environmental exposure cases characterizes the occupational and environmental exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Compared with other poisonings, occupational and environmental exposures were predominantly inhalation exposures rather than ingestions, were more often subacute or chronic, and demonstrated greater morbidity, mortality, and increased use of health care resources. As regional poison centers evolve to fill a critical information void in the management and assessment of environmental and occupational exposures, the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System provides an important, untapped passive surveillance mechanism.

  12. Public health implications of environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H R; Williams, M; Ademoyero, A A; Chou, C H; Jones, D E

    1998-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a public health agency with responsibility for assessing the public health implications associated with uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The biological effects of low-level exposures are a primary concern in these assessments. One of the tools used by the agency for this purpose is the risk assessment paradigm originally outlined and described by the National Academy of Science in 1983. Because of its design and inherent concepts, risk assessment has been variously employed by a number of environmental and public health agencies and programs as a means to organize information, as a decision support tool, and as a working hypothesis for biologically based inference and extrapolation. Risk assessment has also been the subject of significant critical review. The ATSDR recognizes the utility of both the qualitative and quantitative conclusions provided by traditional risk assessment, but the agency uses such estimates only in the broader context of professional judgment, internal and external peer review, and extensive public review and comment. This multifaceted approach is consistent with the Council on Environmental Quality's description and use of risk analysis as an organizing construct based on sound biomedical and other scientific judgment in concert with risk assessment to define plausible exposure ranges of concern rather than a single numerical estimate that may convey an artificial sense of precision. In this approach biomedical opinion, host factors, mechanistic interpretation, molecular epidemiology, and actual exposure conditions are all critically important in evaluating the significance of environmental exposure to hazardous substances. As such, the ATSDR risk analysis approach is a multidimensional endeavor encompassing not only the components of risk assessment but also the principles of biomedical judgment, risk management, and risk communication

  13. Role of Polymorphisms of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Gugliandolo, Agnese; Calabrò, Carlo; Currò, Monica; Ientile, Riccardo; Raskovic, Desanka; Korkina, Ludmila; Caccamo, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pathogenetic role in idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), namely, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), fibromyalgia (FM), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Given the reported association of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene polymorphisms with inflammatory disorders, we aimed to investigate the distribution of NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTT)n as well as Ser608Leu and NOS3 −786T>C variants and their correlation with nitrite/nitrate levels, in a study cohort including 170 MCS, 108 suspected MCS (SMCS), 89 FM/CFS, and 196 healthy subjects. Patients and controls had similar distributions of NOS2A Ser608Leu and NOS3 −786T>C polymorphisms. Interestingly, the NOS3 −786TT genotype was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate levels only in IEI patients. We also found that the NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTT)11 allele represents a genetic determinant for FM/CFS, and the (CCTTT)16 allele discriminates MCS from SMCS patients. Instead, the (CCTTT)8 allele reduces by three-, six-, and tenfold, respectively, the risk for MCS, SMCS, and FM/CFS. Moreover, a short number of (CCTTT) repeats is associated with higher concentrations of nitrites/nitrates. Here, we first demonstrate that NOS3 −786T>C variant affects nitrite/nitrate levels in IEI patients and that screening for NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTT)n polymorphism may be useful for differential diagnosis of various IEI. PMID:25878398

  14. Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, M S; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-10-01

    We present a theoretical framework for assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and review current methods in order to provide guidelines for different types of studies. Exposure assessment should include both a quantitative dimension and consideration of time-specificity of exposure. The ultimate aim is to measure the concentrations of ETS encountered by an individual for different time periods in various microenvironments. The first step is to identify an indicator of ETS. Personal monitoring of air nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSPs) are the most direct assessment methods. Indirect assessment methods include stationary measurements of tobacco smoke constituents in different microenvironments and/or questionnaire-derived information, modelled with time-activity information. Biomarkers, such as nicotine and/or cotinine in body fluids or hair, can be used as surrogate measures of dose, although they are usually affected by individual processes in the body after exposure. The best approach to assess ETS exposure will depend on the aim of the study, the health outcome, and the resources. Personal monitoring of nicotine or RSPs is the best method in studies of short-term health effects with small study samples. Stationary measurements of indoor air nicotine or RSPs are suitable for overall monitoring of ETS in different microenvironments over time. Questionnaires and interviews are suitable when studying health outcomes with a long latency period and rare diseases requiring large study populations. Cotinine in body fluids and nicotine concentration in hair can be used to assess cumulative exposure over days or months, respectively. A combination of different methods is often the best approach. PMID:9387970

  15. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  16. Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  17. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franzblau, A.; Lilis, R. )

    1989-11-01

    Reports of acute arsenic poisoning arising from environmental exposure are rare. Two cases of acute arsenic intoxication resulting from ingestion of contaminated well water are described. These patients experienced a variety of problems: acute gastrointestinal symptoms, central and peripheral neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, and mild mucous membrane and cutaneous changes. Although located adjacent to an abandoned mine, the well water had been tested for microorganisms only and was found to be safe. Regulations for testing of water from private wells for fitness to drink are frequently nonexistent, or only mandate biologic tests for microorganisms. Well water, particularly in areas near mining activity, should be tested for metals.

  18. Glycoconjugates as Mediators of Nitric Oxide Production upon Exposure to Bacterial Spores by Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiani, Mohamed; Soderberg, Lee; Tarasenko, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Phagocytes generate nitric oxide (NO) in large quantities to combat bacteria. The spore-producing Gram-positive organisms of Bacillus cereus family are causative agents from mild to a life threatening infection in humans and domestic animals. Our group have shown that glycoconjugates (GCs) activate macrophages and enhance killing of Bacillus spores. In this investigation, we will explore the effect of different GCs structures on NO production. The objective of this study is to study effects of GCs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 on NO release upon exposure to B. cereus and Bacillus anthracis spores by macrophages. Our results demonstrated that GCs activated macrophages and increased NO production using studied GCs ligands compared to macrophage only (p<0.001). GC2 and GC8 were able to further increase NO production in macrophages compared to the B. anthracis spores treated macrophages (p<0.001). Our finding suggests that GCs could be used as potential mediators of NO production in macrophages to fight B. anthracis and other pathogens.

  19. Environmental phthalate exposure and preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality with a variety of contributing causes and risk factors. Environmental exposures represent a group of understudied but potentially important factors. Phthalate diesters are used extensively in a variety of consumer products worldwide. Consequently, exposure in pregnant women is highly prevalent OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between phthalate exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth. DESIGN Nested case-control study. SETTING Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. PARTICIPANTS Women were recruited for a prospective observational cohort study from 2006–2008. Each provided demographic data, biological samples, and information about birth outcomes. Within this group we selected 130 cases of preterm birth and 352 randomly assigned controls, and analyzed urine samples from up to three time points during pregnancy for levels of phthalate metabolites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We examined associations between average levels of phthalate exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, defined as <37 weeks completed gestation, as well as spontaneous preterm birth, defined as preterm preceded by spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes (N=57). RESULTS Geometric means of the di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. In adjusted models, MEHP, MECPP, and ∑DEHP metabolites were associated with significantly increased odds of preterm birth. When spontaneous preterm births were examined alone, MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), MECPP, ∑DEHP, MBP, and mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) metabolite levels were all associated with significantly elevated odds of prematurity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have significantly

  20. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  1. Environmental fate and exposure; neonicotinoids and fipronil.

    PubMed

    Bonmatin, J-M; Giorio, C; Girolami, V; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; Long, E; Marzaro, M; Mitchell, E A D; Noome, D A; Simon-Delso, N; Tapparo, A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic insecticides are applied to plants using a wide variety of methods, ranging from foliar sprays to seed treatments and soil drenches. Neonicotinoids and fipronil are among the most widely used pesticides in the world. Their popularity is largely due to their high toxicity to invertebrates, the ease and flexibility with which they can be applied, their long persistence, and their systemic nature, which ensures that they spread to all parts of the target crop. However, these properties also increase the probability of environmental contamination and exposure of nontarget organisms. Environmental contamination occurs via a number of routes including dust generated during drilling of dressed seeds, contamination and accumulation in arable soils and soil water, runoff into waterways, and uptake of pesticides by nontarget plants via their roots or dust deposition on leaves. Persistence in soils, waterways, and nontarget plants is variable but can be prolonged; for example, the half-lives of neonicotinoids in soils can exceed 1,000 days, so they can accumulate when used repeatedly. Similarly, they can persist in woody plants for periods exceeding 1 year. Breakdown results in toxic metabolites, though concentrations of these in the environment are rarely measured. Overall, there is strong evidence that soils, waterways, and plants in agricultural environments and neighboring areas are contaminated with variable levels of neonicotinoids or fipronil mixtures and their metabolites (soil, parts per billion (ppb)-parts per million (ppm) range; water, parts per trillion (ppt)-ppb range; and plants, ppb-ppm range). This provides multiple routes for chronic (and acute in some cases) exposure of nontarget animals. For example, pollinators are exposed through direct contact with dust during drilling; consumption of pollen, nectar, or guttation drops from seed-treated crops, water, and consumption of contaminated pollen and nectar from wild flowers and trees growing near

  2. Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth: clues from environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H.; Collins, James W.; Wright, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite advances in medical care, preterm birth and its associated racial/ethnic disparities remain major public health issues. Environmental exposures may contribute to racial disparities in preterm birth. Recent findings Recent work in Iran demonstrated lead levels <10 μg/dl to be associated with preterm birth and premature rupture of membranes. Data on air pollution are mixed. A study in California found exposure to nitric oxide species to be associated with preterm birth. However, results from large birth cohorts in the Netherlands found no association. Interestingly, a study in South Korea recently demonstrated that socioeconomic status modifies the association between air pollution and preterm birth. A recent promising study randomized minority pregnant women in Washington DC to cognitive behavioral therapy vs. usual care to decrease exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The investigators reported reductions in ETS exposure and the risk of very preterm birth. Summary Clues about potential mechanisms underlying disparities in preterm birth can be gained from exploring differences in environmental exposures. Investigators should include environmental variables when studying birth outcomes. Such efforts should result in targeted interventions to decrease the incidence of preterm birth and its disparities. PMID:21301340

  3. NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is a new publication that will provide an ongoing assessment of the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. For this Report, an environmental chemical means a chemical compound or ...

  4. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Central University (NCCU) recently began an innovative human exposure research program in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC. In this project, researchers will examine ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL SOFTWARE AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S CENTER FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) was established to meet the scientific and technical exposure assessment needs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Progrsm and Regional Offices and the various state environmental agencies. o support envi...

  6. Nitric Oxide PLIF Measurements in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    A nonintrusive laser-based measurement system has been applied for the first time in the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Planar laser-induced fluorescence of naturally occurring nitric oxide (NO) has been used to obtain instantaneous flow visualization images, and to make both radial and axial velocity measurements. Results are presented at selected facility run conditions, including some in simulated Earth atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and others in simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon), for bulk enthalpies ranging from 6.5 MJ/kg to 18.4 MJ/kg. Flow visualization images reveal the presence of large scale unsteady flow structures, and indicate nitric oxide fluorescence signal over more than 70% of the core flow for bulk enthalpies below about 11 MJ/kg, but over less than 10% of the core flow for bulk enthalpies above about 16 MJ/kg. Axial velocimetry was performed using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). Axial velocities of about 3 km/s were measured along the centerline. Radial velocimetry was performed by scanning the wavelength of the narrowband laser and analyzing the resulting Doppler shift. Radial velocities of 0.5km/s were measured.

  7. Nitric Oxide PLIF Measurements in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.; McRae, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of naturally occurring nitric oxide (NO) has been used to obtain instantaneous flow visualization images, and to make both radial and axial velocity measurements in the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represents the first application of NO PLIF flow visualization in HYMETS. Results are presented at selected facility run conditions, including some in a simulated Earth atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and others in a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon), for specific bulk enthalpies ranging from 6.5 MJ/kg to 18.4 MJ/kg. Flow visualization images reveal the presence of large scale unsteady flow structures, and indicate nitric oxide fluorescence signal over more than 70% of the core flow for specific bulk enthalpies below about 11 MJ/kg, but over less than 10% of the core flow for specific bulk enthalpies above about 16 MJ/kg. Axial velocimetry was performed using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). Axial velocities of about 3 km/s were measured along the centerline. Radial velocimetry was performed by scanning the wavelength of the narrowband laser and analyzing the resulting Doppler shift. Radial velocities of +/- 0.5 km/s were measured.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of immunochemical technologies including, but not limited to, immunoassays is expanding to include various aspects of environmental analysis. Ultimately, the basis for environmental investigations is concern about human and ecological exposure to potentially toxic compoun...

  9. Exposure to Environmental Ozone Alters Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Rebecca Z.; Kraft, Peter; Fowler, Ian M.; Mamet, Rizvan; Kim, Elizabeth; Berhane, Kiros T.

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic male infertility may be due to exposure to environmental toxicants that alter spermatogenesis or sperm function. We studied the relationship between air pollutant levels and semen quality over a 2-year period in Los Angeles, California, by analyzing repeated semen samples collected by sperm donors. Semen analysis data derived from 5,134 semen samples from a sperm donor bank were correlated with air pollutant levels (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter < 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) measured 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before semen collection dates in Los Angeles between January 1996 and December 1998. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model average sperm concentration and total motile sperm count for the donation from each subject. Changes were analyzed in relationship to biologically relevant time points during spermatogenesis, 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before the day of semen collection. We estimated temperature and seasonality effects after adjusting for a base model, which included donor’s date of birth and age at donation. Forty-eight donors from Los Angeles were included as subjects. Donors were included if they collected repeated semen samples over a 12-month period between January 1996 and December 1998. There was a significant negative correlation between ozone levels at 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before donation and average sperm concentration, which was maintained after correction for donor’s birth date, age at donation, temperature, and seasonality (p < 0.01). No other pollutant measures were significantly associated with sperm quality outcomes. Exposure to ambient ozone levels adversely affects semen quality. PMID:16507458

  10. Osmium: an appraisal of environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, I C; Carson, B L; Ferguson, T L

    1974-08-01

    In the U.S., the chief source of new osmium is copper refining, where this metal is produced as a byproduct. Probably less than 10% of the osmium in the original copper ore is recovered, and 1000-3000 oz troy of osmium is lost each year to the environment as the toxic, volatile tetroxide from copper smelters. In 1971, about 2000 oz troy of osmium was domestically refined, most of which was from secondary sources. An additional 4169 oz troy of osmium was toll-refined. Major uses for osmium tetroxide identified are for catalysis, especially in steroid synthesis, and for tissue staining. Minor uses of osmium metal are for electrical contacts and for imparting hardness to alloys for mechanical pivots, etc. Unreclaimed osmium tetroxide that reaches wastewater streams is probably rapidly reduced by organic matter to nontoxic osmium dioxide or osmium metal, which would settle out in the sediment of the water course. Waste osmium metal, itself innocuous and chemically resistant, would be oxidized to the toxic tetroxide if incinerated. Because of the small amounts used and their wide dispersal, the amounts of osmium tetroxide in wastewater and air should pose no hazard to man or the environment. The chief acute toxic effects of osmium tetroxide are well known and include eye and respiratory-tract damage. Few data are available that provide information on possible effects of nonacute exposure resulting from environmental contamination by osmium. However, workers continually exposed to osmium tetroxide vapors (refiners and histologists) and rheumatoid arthritis patients who have received intra-articular injections of osmic acid solutions have shown no apparent damage from exposure to low levels of osmium. PMID:4470919

  11. Osmium: An Appraisal of Environmental Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ivan C.; Carson, Bonnie L.; Ferguson, Thomas L.

    1974-01-01

    In the U.S., the chief source of new osmium is copper refining, where this metal is produced as a byproduct. Probably less than 10% of the osmium in the original copper ore is recovered, and 1000–3000 oz troy of osmium is lost each year to the environment as the toxic, volatile tetroxide from copper smelters. In 1971, about 2000 oz troy of osmium was domestically refined, most of which was from secondary sources. An additional 4169 oz troy of osmium was toll-refined. Major uses for osmium tetroxide identified are for catalysis, especially in steroid synthesis, and for tissue staining. Minor uses of osmium metal are for electrical contacts and for imparting hardness to alloys for mechanical pivots, etc. Unreclaimed osmium tetroxide that reaches wastewater streams is probably rapidly reduced by organic matter to nontoxic osmium dioxide or osmium metal, which would settle out in the sediment of the water course. Waste osmium metal, itself innocuous and chemically resistant, would be oxidized to the toxic tetroxide if incinerated. Because of the small amounts used and their wide dispersal, the amounts of osmium tetroxide in wastewater and air should pose no hazard to man or the environment. The chief acute toxic effects of osmium tetroxide are well known and include eye and respiratory-tract damage. Few data are available that provide information on possible effects of nonacute exposure resulting from environmental contamination by osmium. However, workers continually exposed to osmium tetroxide vapors (refiners and histologists) and rheumatoid arthritis patients who have received intra-articular injections of osmic acid solutions have shown no apparent damage from exposure to low levels of osmium. PMID:4470919

  12. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  13. SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first Report on 27 chemicals was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 20...

  14. Cadmium: Simulation of environmental control strategies to reduce exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, K. J.; Miles, L. J.; Greenkorn, R. A.

    1981-07-01

    The effects of selected environmental control strategies on human dietary and respiratory exposure to environmental cadmium (Cd) have been simulated. For each control strategy, mean Cd dietary and respiratory exposures are presented for a twenty-year simulation period. Human exposures related to cadmium are associated with both process waste disposal and product disposal. Dietary exposure is by far the dominant mechanism for Cd intake. Dietary exposure related to aqueous discharges is primarily a result of municipal sludge landspreading, whereas that associated with emissions to the atmosphere derives mainly from the deposition on cropland of airborne particulates from product incineration. Only relatively small dietary exposure reductions are possible through restrictions on any single Cd use. Combinations of waste management and environmental control measures promise greater reductions in dietary and respiratory exposure than those achievable through use restrictions.

  15. Personalized Exposure Assessment: Promising Approaches for Human Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Brenda K.; Balshaw, David; Barr, John R.; Brown, David; Ellisman, Mark; Lioy, Paul; Omenn, Gilbert; Potter, John D.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sohn, Lydia; Suk, William A.; Sumner, Susan; Swenberg, James; Walt, David R.; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Claudia; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    New technologies and methods for assessing human exposure to chemicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, infectious agents, and other stressors provide an opportunity to extend the range of human health investigations and advance our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease. An ad hoc Committee on Environmental Exposure Technology Development was convened to identify new technologies and methods for deriving personalized exposure measurements for application to environmental health studies. The committee identified a “toolbox” of methods for measuring external (environmental) and internal (biologic) exposure and assessing human behaviors that influence the likelihood of exposure to environmental agents. The methods use environmental sensors, geographic information systems, biologic sensors, toxicogenomics, and body burden (biologic) measurements. We discuss each of the methods in relation to current use in human health research; specific gaps in the development, validation, and application of the methods are highlighted. We also present a conceptual framework for moving these technologies into use and acceptance by the scientific community. The framework focuses on understanding complex human diseases using an integrated approach to exposure assessment to define particular exposure–disease relationships and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in disease occurrence. Improved methods for exposure assessment will result in better means of monitoring and targeting intervention and prevention programs. PMID:16002370

  16. Association of recent exposure to ambient metals on fractional exhaled nitric oxide in 9-11 year old inner-city children.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria José; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Divjan, Adnan; Chillrud, Steven N; Hoepner, Lori; Zhang, Hanjie; Ridder, Robert; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L

    2014-08-31

    Exposure to ambient metals in urban environments has been associated with wheeze, and emergency room visits and hospitalizations due to respiratory illness. However, the effect of ambient metals exposure on airway inflammation, and how these associations may be modified by seroatopy, has not been determined. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a reliable proxy marker of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that recent ambient concentrations of Ni, V, Zn and Fe would be associated differentially with proximal and distal fractions of exhaled NO, and that these associations would be modified by seroatopy. As part of the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study, 9-11 year old children (n=192) were evaluated. Ambient measures of Ni, V, Zn and Fe were obtained from a local central monitoring site and averaged over 9 days based on three 24h measures every third day. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) samples were obtained at constant flows of 50 (FENO50), 83 and 100mL/s, and used to determine surrogate measures for proximal (JNO) and alveolar (Calv) inflammation. Seroatopy was determined by specific IgE at age 7. Data were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Ambient V and Fe concentrations were associated positively with FENO50 (p=0.018, p=0.027). Ambient Fe was associated positively with JNO (p=0.017). Ambient Ni and V concentrations were associated positively with Calv (p=0.004, p=0.018, respectively). A stronger association of Ni concentrations with Calv was observed among the children with seroatopy. These results suggest that ambient metals are associated differentially with different fractions of FENO production, and this relationship may be modified by seroatopy. PMID:24878380

  17. ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. Therefore, the US EPA set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 ?g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 mg/kg/day (10 mg...

  18. The effects of nitric acid and silane surface treatments on carbon fibers and carbon/vinyl ester composites before and after seawater exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, Tye A.

    This research focuses on carbon fiber treatment by nitric acid and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate silane, and how this affects carbon/vinyl ester composites. These composites offer great benefits, but it is difficult to bond the fiber and matrix together, and without a strong interfacial bond, composites fall short of their potential. Silanes work well with glass fiber, but do not bond directly to carbon fiber because its surface is not reactive to liquid silanes. Oxidizing surface treatments are often prescribed for improved wetting and bonding to carbon, but good results are not always achieved. Furthermore, there is the unanswered question of environmental durability. This research aimed to form a better understanding of oxidizing carbon fiber treatments, determine if silanes can be bonded to oxidized surfaces, and how these treatments affect composite strength and durability before and after seawater exposure. Nitric acid treatments on carbon fibers were found to improve their tensile strength to a constant level by smoothing surface defects and chemically modifying their surfaces by increasing carbonyl and carboxylic acid concentrations. Increasing these surface group concentrations raises fiber polar energy and causes them to cohere. This impedes wetting, resulting in poor quality, high void content composites, even though there appeared to be improved adhesion between the fibers and matrix. Silane was found to bond to the oxidized carbon fiber surfaces, as evidenced by changes in both fiber and composite properties. The fibers exhibited low polarity and cohesion, while the composites displayed excellent resin wetting, low void content, and low seawater weight gain and swelling. On the contrary, the oxidized fibers that were not treated with silane exhibited high polarity and fiber cohesion. Their composites displayed poor wetting, high void content, high seawater weight gain, and low swelling. Both fiber treatment types resulted in great improvements

  19. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and Metabolic Changes in Children.

    PubMed

    Russ, Karin; Howard, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other forms of metabolic disease have been rising over the past several decades. Although diet and physical activity play important roles in these trends, other environmental factors also may contribute to this significant public health issue. In this article, we discuss the possibility that widespread exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases in children. We summarize the epidemiological evidence on exposure to environmental chemicals during early development and metabolic outcomes in infants and children. Prenatal exposure to EDCs, particularly the persistent organic pollutant DDT and its metabolite DDE, may influence growth patterns during infancy and childhood. The altered growth patterns associated with EDCs vary according to exposure level, sex, exposure timing, pubertal status, and age at which growth is measured. Early exposure to air pollutants also is linked to impaired metabolism in infants and children. As a result of these and other studies, professional health provider societies have called for a reduction in environmental chemical exposures. We summarize the resources available to health care providers to counsel patients on how to reduce chemical exposures. We conclude with a discussion of environmental policies that address chemical exposures and ultimately aim to improve public health. PMID:27401018

  20. A Preliminary Assessment of the Role of Ambient Nitric Oxide Exposure in Hospitalization with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Nuredin I.; Everard, Mark L.; Ayres, Jon G.; Barker, Nicola J.; Litchfield, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Some in vitro studies have indicated a possible link between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and exposure to Nitric Oxide (NO). However, these studies used much higher NO concentrations than normally found in the ambient environment. This preliminary study explored whether an association was present with short-term exposure to NO in the environment. RSV-related admission data between November 2011 and February 2012 were obtained from Sheffield Children’s Hospital. The dates of admission were linked to contemporaneous ambient NO derived from sentinel air monitors. The case-crossover design was used to study the relationship between daily RSV admissions and NO, controlling for temperature and relative humidity. We found little evidence of association between daily RSV admission rates and exposure to ambient NO at different lags or average exposure across several lags. The findings should, however, be viewed with caution due to the low number of events observed during the time frame. It is possible that the apparent lack of association may be accounted for by the timing of the seasonal RSV epidemic in relation to peaks in NO concentrations. A larger study incorporating a wider range of RSV and NO peaks would determine whether said peaks enhanced the number of RSV hospitalizations in children. PMID:27294948

  1. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24297857

  2. Environmental Exposures and Children's Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the sharp increase in a number of childhood disorders--including asthma, certain cancers, and learning/behavioral disabilities--and the role environmental toxins may play in this increase. He describes the need to train many more health professionals in prenatal and children's environmental health and the national network of…

  3. Developing and Evaluating New Methods for Assessing Concurrent Environmental Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of purpose and scope (no longer than 200 words): One limitation to current environmental health research is the focus on single contaminant exposures. Each exposure estimated in epidemiologic models accounts for a relatively small proportion of observed variance in health...

  4. Environmental Exposure Effects on Composite Materials for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The test program concentrates on three major areas: flight exposure; ground based exposure; and accelerated environmental effects and data correlation. Among the parameters investigated were: geographic location, flight profiles, solar heating effects, ultraviolet degradation, retrieval times, and test temperatures. Data from the tests can be used to effectively plan the cost of production and viable alternatives in materials selection.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Hormonally active environmental agents recently have been associated with the development of endometriosis. METHODS: We undertook a study to assess the relation between endometriosis, an estrogen dependent gynecologic disease, and 62 individual polychlorinated biphe...

  6. Environmental exposure to preformed nitroso compounds.

    PubMed

    Tricker, A R; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1989-01-01

    In the human environment, nitrosatable amine precursors to N-nitroso compounds and nitrosating species such as nitrite and oxides of nitrogen are abundant. As a result, the formation of N-nitroso compounds and human exposure to these compounds show a rather complex pattern. The largest known human exposures to exogenous N-nitrosamines occur in the work place. This is particularly evident in the rubber and tyre manufacturing industry and in metal cutting and grinding shops. Nearly all industries which are concerned with the production and/or use of amines have a related nitrosamine problem. Outside the industrial environment, commodities such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber and household products, which are either prepared from amines or contain high concentrations of amino compounds, may be subject to contamination by low concentrations of N-nitroso compounds. This contamination may result from the use of contaminated starting materials, in particular amines, or from the formation of N-nitroso compounds during manufacturing processes. A similar problem exists with agricultural chemicals. As our knowledge of the occurrence and formation of N-nitroso compounds in the environment increases, preventive measures can be introduced, particularly in manufacturing industries, to reduce the levels of human exposure to nitrosamines in the work place and to protect the consumer from nitrosamine exposure from household commodities. PMID:2696580

  7. ELEMENTAL SPECIATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic and tin are two trace metals where exposure assessments have moved towards a speciation based approach because the toxicity is very chemical form dependent. This toxicity difference can be one of many factors which influence the formulation of certain regulations. For a...

  8. Endogenous nitric oxide in Pseudomonas fluorescens ZY2 as mediator against the combined exposure to zinc and cefradine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Bin; Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Jing-Jing; Xu, Shi-Hui; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Shao-Song; Zheng, Li; Yuan, Bao-Hong; Wen, Li-Hua

    2015-05-01

    A better understanding on the mechanism involved in bacterial resistance to combined exposure to antibiotics and heavy metals is helpful in implementing practices to mitigate their ecological risk and spread of resistance genes in microbial population. Pseudomonas fluorescens ZY2, a strain isolated from swine wastewater, was chosen to study its growth (bacterial density OD600), the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthases (NOS) under Zn, cefradine or Zn + cefradine treatments. Using Zn and cefradine as representative heavy metal and antibiotic in this investigation, respectively, the resistance of P. fluorescens ZY2 to toxic chemical exposure was investigated. Bacterial densities of treatment groups significantly increased over the time of incubation, but less than the control. ROS, NO and NOS initially increased, but then decreased after the initial 8 h of culturing, and were positively related to Zn concentrations. Moreover, the formation of ROS, NOS, and NO was activated by cefradine at Zn of up to 160 mg/L, but inhibited at Zn of 200 mg/L whether cefradine was added or not. Zn concentration affected ROS and NO concentrations between treatments and also was closely related to the variation of the relative bacterial density. For P. fluorescens ZY2, the mediation of endogenous NO to overcome ROS in response to the combined exposure of Zn and cefradine was suggested as a co-resistance mechanism, which would be beneficial to evaluate the ecological risk of heavy metals and antibiotics. PMID:25678231

  9. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  10. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial exposures, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school age. Methods Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and β(1,3)-D-glucan were measured in living room dust collected at 2–3 months of age in homes of participants of three prospective European birth cohorts (LISA, n = 182; PIAMA, n = 244; and INMA, n = 355). Home dampness and pet ownership were periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. FeNO was measured at age 8 for PIAMA and at age 10/11 for LISA and INMA. Cohort-specific associations between the indoor microbial exposures and FeNO were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses. Estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results FeNO at school age was lower in children exposed to endotoxin at age 2–3 months (β -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10;-0.01) and in children with reported dog ownership during the first two years of life (GM ratio 0.82, CI 0.70-0.96). FeNO was not significantly associated with early life exposure to EPS, β(1,3)-D-glucan, indoor dampness and cat ownership. Conclusion Early life exposure to bacterial endotoxin and early life dog ownership are associated with lower FeNO at school age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to unravel the underlying mechanisms and possible clinical relevance of this finding. PMID:24295277

  11. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  12. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  13. Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; O'Neill, Marie S; Meeker, John D

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches, studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to five categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking-water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions were made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

  14. Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

  15. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Changing Global Patterns of Exposure and Disease.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Sly, J Leith; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Silva, Emerson R; Huo, Xia; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Zar, Heather J; King, Malcolm; Ha, Eun-Hee; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Ahanchian, Hamid; Sly, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a major cause of disease and death. Exposures in early life are especially dangerous. Patterns of exposure vary greatly across countries. In low-income and lower middle income countries (LMICs), infectious, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases are still major contributors to disease burden. By contrast, in upper middle income and high-income countries noncommunicable diseases predominate. To examine patterns of environmental exposure and disease and to relate these patterns to levels of income and development, we obtained publically available data in 12 countries at different levels of development through a global network of World Health Organization Collaborating Centres in Children's Environmental Health. Pollution exposures in early life contribute to both patterns. Chemical and pesticide pollution are increasing, especially in LMICs. Hazardous wastes, including electronic waste, are accumulating. Pollution-related chronic diseases are becoming epidemic. Future Global Burden of Disease estimates must pay increased attention to the short- and long-term consequences of environmental pollution. PMID:27325064

  16. Environmental exposure to hexachlorobenzene in the USA.

    PubMed

    Carey, A E; Dixon, T E; Yang, H S

    1986-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon chemical which has various industrial and agricultural uses in the USA. The agricultural use of HCB as a fungicide is relatively minor and is being phased out, but HCB is still used directly in a few industrial processes and is a waste product or impurity associated with the manufacture of various chlorinated solvents and other registered pesticides. A review of available HCB data from ambient environmental monitoring networks (agricultural and urban soils, ambient air, fresh-water fish, starlings, ducks and ready-to-eat foods) of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program resulted in the following general conclusions: Actual mean residue levels of HCB were erratic or steady during the 1970s and showed no major upward or downward trends; The percentages of detectable HCB did show a trend in most of the environmental monitoring networks. The percentage of HCB in the environmental components examined generally increased from the early 1970s to the late 1970s, when it peaked, and then declined into the early 1980s, the most recently available data sets. The reason for the increase of HCB in several environmental components is not clear. PMID:3596696

  17. CHILDREN'S VULNERABILITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOTOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total cohort was comprised of 656 Faroese children (109 of which were funded by The Arctic Environment Program and the Danish Environmental Protection Agency). The present part of the cohort had a Neurological Optimality Scale (NOS) examination at 2 weeks of age and also h...

  18. Retrospective dosimetry related to chronic environmental exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Neta, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment occurred in the early fifties as a result of the releases from the Mayak plutonium production complex (Southern Urals, Russia). The releases of liquid wastes into the Techa river resulted in chronic exposure of 30,000 residents of the riverside communities. Since 1951 90Sr body burdens have been measured for over half of this cohort. This paper presents the analysis of data on 90Sr in humans and describes the reconstruction of internal doses for these people.

  19. Alterations in nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the forebrain regions of rats after developmental exposure to organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Naseh, Maryam; Vatanparast, Jafar; Baniasadi, Mansoureh; Hamidi, Gholam Ali

    2013-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been addressed as contributors to the long lasting behavioral deficits after developmental exposure to organophosphate (OP) compounds. Here, the effects of developmental exposure to two common OP insecticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN), on nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-expressing neurons in the rat forebrain are reported. A daily dose of 1mg/kg of either CPF or DZN was administered to rats during gestational days 15-18 or postnatal days (PND) 1-4. We then assessed NADPH-diaphorase and neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunohistochemistry in forebrain sections on different postnatal days. Prenatal exposure to CPF and DZN induced a transient reduction of NADPH-d(+)/nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in most cortical regions on PND 4 but exceptionally increased them in the entorhinal/piriform cortex. On PND 15, NADPH-d(+)/nNOS-IR neurons showed morphological abnormalities within entorhinal/piriform cortex of the rats that gestationally exposed to CPF. Postnatal exposure to CPF and DZN did not induce widespread effects on the number of NADPH-d(+)/nNOS-IR neurons on PNDs 7 and 15 but significantly reduced them in most cortical regions and hippocampal subfields on PND 60. The OPs affected NADPH-d(+)/nNOS-IR neurons in a sex independent manner and apparently spared them in the striatum. While the NADPH-d reactivity of microvessels was normally diminished by age, OP treated rats evidently preserved the NADPH-d reactivity of microvessels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The effects of OPs on NADPH-d(+)/nNOS-IR neurons may contribute to the long-lasting behavioral outcomes and expand the neurotransmitter system that need to be considered in OP neurotoxicity evaluations. PMID:23416429

  20. Mitochondrial Redox Dysfunction and Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Samuel W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are structurally and biochemically diverse, even within a single type of cell. Protein complexes localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane synthesize ATP by coupling electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. The organelles produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondrial oxygen and ROS can, in turn, alter the function and expression of proteins used for aerobic respiration by post-translational and transcriptional regulation. Recent Advances: New interest is emerging not only into the roles of mitochondria in disease development and progression but also as a target for environmental toxicants. Critical Issues: Dysregulation of respiration has been linked to cell death and is a major contributor to acute neuronal trauma, peripheral diseases, as well as chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Future Directions: Here, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the sensitivity of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes to redox modulation, as well as examine the effects of environmental contaminants that have well-characterized mitochondrial toxicity. The contaminants discussed in this review are some of the most prevalent and potent environmental contaminants that have been linked to neurological dysfunction, altered cellular respiration, and oxidation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 578–595. PMID:25826672

  1. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  2. Ovarian toxicity: from environmental exposure to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Roberto; Castellucci, Annalisa; Ventriglia, Giovanni; Teoli, Flavia; Cellini, Valerio; Macchiarelli, Guido; Cecconi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Unlike men, who have continuous spermatogenesis throughout most of their lifetime, women are born with a fixed supply of follicles, and this number progressively declines with age until the menopause. Beside age, the speed of follicle depletion can be regulated by genetic, hormonal and environmental influences. In the course of their lives, women are exposed to multiple chemicals and radiation sources that can increase the chance of developing permanent infertility and premature ovarian failure (POF). A wealth of experimental data indicate that iatrogenic (chemotherapy, radiotherapy) and xenobiotic agents (e.g., chemicals, pharmaceuticals) are potent ovotoxicants capable of accelerating ovarian reserve depletion. In the present review we reported the negative effects exerted on mammalian ovary by some widely diffused environmental chemicals, as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dithiocarbamate mancozeb, and by 1-3 butadiene and 4-vinylcycloexene, two occupational chemicals known to be capable of inducing ovarian cancer and infertility. Furthermore, attention has been devoted to the consequences of chemo- and radiotherapy on the ovary, both known to affect reproductive lifespan. Our increasing understanding of metabolic alterations induced by these agents is fundamental to individuate new therapeutic strategies aimed to prevent ovarian dysfunction in fertile women. PMID:24502597

  3. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbins, M. N.; Hoffman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of environmental exposure on composite materials are studied. The environments considered are representative of those experienced by commercial jet aircraft. Initial results have been compiled for the following material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209 and T300/934. Specimens were exposed on the exterior and interior of Boeing 737 airplanes of three airlines, and to continuous ground level exposure at four locations. In addition specimens were exposed in the laboratory to conditions such as: simulated ground-air-ground, weatherometer, and moisture. Residual strength results are presented for specimens exposed for up to two years at three ground level exposure locations and on airplanes from two airlines. Test results are also given for specimens exposed to the laboratory simulated environments. Test results indicate that short beam shear strength is sensitive to environmental exposure and dependent on the level of absorbed moisture.

  4. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  5. Optimal Exposure Biomarkers for Nonpersistent Chemicals in Environmental Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Koch, Holger M.; Swan, Shanna H.; Hauser, Russ; Goldman, Lynn R.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We discuss considerations that are essential when evaluating exposure to nonpersistent, semivolatile environmental chemicals such as phthalates and phenols (e.g., bisphenol A). A biomarker should be chosen to best represent usual personal exposures and not recent, adventitious, or extraneous exposures. Biomarkers should be selected to minimize contamination arising from collection, sampling, or analysis procedures. Pharmacokinetics should be considered; for example, nonpersistent, semivolatile chemicals are metabolized quickly, and urine is the compartment with the highest concentrations of metabolites. Because these chemicals are nonpersistent, knowledge of intraindividual reliability over the biologic window of interest is also required. In recent years researchers have increasingly used blood as a matrix for characterizing exposure to nonpersistent chemicals. However, the biologic and technical factors noted above strongly support urine as the optimal matrix for measuring nonpersistent, semivolatile, hydrophilic environmental agents. PMID:26132373

  6. Optimal Exposure Biomarkers for Nonpersistent Chemicals in Environmental Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Longnecker, Matthew P; Koch, Holger M; Swan, Shanna H; Hauser, Russ; Goldman, Lynn R; Lanphear, Bruce P; Rudel, Ruthann A; Engel, Stephanie M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Whyatt, Robin M; Wolff, Mary S

    2015-07-01

    We discuss considerations that are essential when evaluating exposure to nonpersistent, semivolatile environmental chemicals such as phthalates and phenols (e.g., bisphenol A). A biomarker should be chosen to best represent usual personal exposures and not recent, adventitious, or extraneous exposures. Biomarkers should be selected to minimize contamination arising from collection, sampling, or analysis procedures. Pharmacokinetics should be considered; for example, nonpersistent, semivolatile chemicals are metabolized quickly, and urine is the compartment with the highest concentrations of metabolites. Because these chemicals are nonpersistent, knowledge of intraindividual reliability over the biologic window of interest is also required. In recent years researchers have increasingly used blood as a matrix for characterizing exposure to nonpersistent chemicals. However, the biologic and technical factors noted above strongly support urine as the optimal matrix for measuring nonpersistent, semivolatile, hydrophilic environmental agents. PMID:26132373

  7. Environmental cadmium exposure impacts physiological responses in Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Jian; Xu, Xian; Wang, Hua; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-06-01

    The physiological responses of marine bivalves to chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure at sub-lethal concentrations have been well documented. As of now, few studies have examined the effect of Cd exposure and subsequent recovery period at environmentally realistic concentrations. In this study, environmentally, Cd exposures were performed to assess the physiological responses of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The clams were exposed to waterborne Cd at two environmentally realistic concentrations (4 and 40 μg L(-1)) for 35 days and then allowed to recover for another 35 days. The accumulation and elimination of Cd in R. philippinarum were tissue-specific and dose- and time-dependent. Cd accumulation increased sharply in the digestive gland, and Cd elimination was rapid in the gill. Major physiological responses, including clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, oxygen to nitrogen ratio, and scope for growth, were significantly affected by Cd exposure. Yet, the clams exposed to 4-μg L(-1) Cd were able to quickly recover their normal physiological processes and clearly exhibited catch-up growth once they were transferred to clean seawater. Hence, R. philippinarum can exhibit good physiological plasticity when confronted with moderately environmental Cd exposure. All physiological responses measured exhibited a highly significant and generally predictable correlation with tissue Cd concentration, which in turn, reflected environmentally realistic exposure conditions. Our results further confirm that the measurement of physiological responses is a sensitive method for assessing stress at environmentally realistic metal concentrations. PMID:24771311

  8. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Knap, Anthony H; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by "natural disasters" is a subject of much interest, however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns. PMID:26982607

  9. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony H.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by “natural disasters” is a subject of much interest; however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns. PMID:26982607

  10. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  11. Epigenetics: linking social and environmental exposures to preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research, marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth persist. In the Unites States, more than 16% of African-American infants are born before 37 wk of gestation compared with less than 11% of white infants. While income and education differences predict a portion of these racial disparities, income and education are proxies of the underlying causes rather than the true cause. How these differences lead to the pathophysiology remains unknown. Beyond tobacco smoke exposure, most preterm birth investigators overlook environment exposures that often correlate with poverty. Environmental exposures to industrial contaminants track along both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines due to cultural variation in personal product use, diet, and residential geographical separation. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental exposure to metals and plasticizers contribute to preterm birth and epigenetic modifications. The extent to which disparities in preterm birth result from interactions between the social and physical environments that produce epigenetic modifications remains unclear. In this review, we highlight studies that report associations between environmental exposures and preterm birth as well as perinatal epigenetic sensitivity to environmental contaminants and socioeconomic stressors. PMID:26460521

  12. Epigenetics, linking social and environmental exposures to preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research, marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth persist. In the US, more than 16% of African American infants are born before 37 weeks of gestation compared to less than 11% of white infants. While income and education differences predict a portion of these racial disparities, income and education are proxies of the underlying causes rather than the true cause. How these differences lead to the pathophysiology remains unknown. Beyond tobacco smoke exposure, most preterm birth investigators overlook environment exposures that often correlate with poverty. Environmental exposures to industrial contaminants track along both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines due to cultural variation in personal product use, diet and residential geographical separation. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental exposure to metals and plasticizers contribute to preterm birth and epigenetic modifications. The extent to which disparities in preterm birth result from interactions between the social and physical environments that produce epigenetic modifications remains unclear. In this review, we highlight studies that report associations between environmental exposures and preterm birth as well as perinatal epigenetic sensitivity to environmental contaminants and socioeconomic stressors. PMID:26460521

  13. Radio-Adaptive Response to Environmental Exposures at Chernobyl

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Brenda E.; Holmes, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    The genetic consequences resulting from environmental exposure to ionizing radiation have a significant impact on both radiation regulatory policies and the comprehension of the human health risks associated with radiation exposure. The primary objectives of the study were to assess 1) genotoxicity of exposure to radiation as a function of absorbed dose and dose rate, and 2) induction of a radio-adaptive response following a priming dose at varying dose rates. Results demonstrated that sub-acute environmental exposures of 10cGy gamma radiation resulted in indistinguishable levels of chromosomal damage as compared to controls. A radio-adaptive response was observed in all experimental groups, exposed to a subsequent acute challenge dose of 1.5 Gy, demonstrating that low dose rates of low energy transfer (LET) radiation are effective in reducing genetic damage from a subsequent acute low-LET radiation exposure. Furthermore, the data presented herein demonstrate a potential beneficial effect of sub-chronic exposure to low levels of low-LET radiation in an environmental setting and do not support the Linear No Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. PMID:18648577

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and asthma in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S T; Utell, M J; Samet, J M

    1999-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contaminates indoor air in homes and workplaces. Although the adverse effects of active cigarette smoking on the respiratory tract have been extensively characterized, the effects of ETS exposure on adult asthma have not yet been investigated extensively and the available data are limited. This article examines the evidence for ETS exposure as a cause of asthma and asthma exacerbation in adults, and for ETS exposure in the workplace specifically as contributing to these health effects. It addresses methodological barriers that limit the available data and evaluates the adequacy of the data for risk assessment. PMID:10592149

  15. Assessing personal exposures to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in the capability of body-worn instruments for measuring the strengths of environmental radiofrequency signals have opened up a range of exciting new research possibilities. The readings from these instruments can be used in health related studies, but they have to be considered carefully when developing exposure metrics, as does the physical dosimetry concerning interactions between radio waves and the body. Several studies have distributed the instruments to large groups of people and analysed the gathered data in relation to possible determinants of exposure. This article reviews the state of the art in personal exposure measurements at radiofrequencies.

  16. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-3 and MISSE-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Pippin, Gary; Kinard, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Describes the estimated environmental exposure for MISSE-2 and MISSE-4. These test beds, attached to the outside of the International Space Station, were planned for 3 years of exposure. This was changed to 1 year after MISSE-1 and -2 were in space for 4 years. MISSE-3 and -4 operate in a low Earth orbit space environment, which exposes them to a variety of assaults including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, and meteoroid/space debris impact, as well as contamination associated with proximity to an active space station. Measurements and determinations of atomic oxygen fluences, solar UV exposure levels, molecular contamination levels, and particulate radiation are included.

  17. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)−1). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.32, −0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  18. Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis, can limit the comparability of results from farm-worker studies. This mini-monograph discusses the strategies used to assess pesticide exposures, presents limitations in the available data for farmworkers, and suggests research needs for future studies of pesticide exposure among farmworker families. PMID:16759997

  19. Environmental variables controlling nitric oxide :emissions from agricultural soils in the southeast united states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Lee J.; Moore, Thomas C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Robarge, Wayne P.; Pierce, Thomas E.; Geron, Chris; Gay, Bruce

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the summer of 1994 (12 July to 11 August) in the Upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina in a continuing effort to characterize NO emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils in the southeastern United States. Previous work during a similar time of year on the same soil type was characterized by severe moisture stress conditions. The summer of 1994 provided a more diverse weather pattern and as a result represented a set of measurements more typical of soil temperature and soil moisture relationships for the southeastern United States. In order to ascertain NO flux response to fertilization and crop type, measurements were made on fields with three distinct fertilizer practices and crop types, namely corn, cotton, and soybean. Average NO fluxes were 21.9 ± 18.6, 4.3 ± 3.7, and 2.1 ± 0.9 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively, for corn, cotton, and soybean. NO flux increased exponentially with soil temperature when soil water content was not limiting [> 30% Water Filled Pore Space (%WFPS)]. During conditions when soil water content was limiting, NO flux was inhibited and had no relationship with soil temperature. Above a value of 30% WFPS, increasing soil water content had no effect on NO emissions (the upper limit of %WFPS could not be estimated due to a lack of data in this regime). Below 30% WFPS, increasing soil moisture increased NO production and lower soil moistures led to decreased NO flux. Increased nitrogen fertilization rates led to higher NO fluxes. However, differences in physiological growth stages between crops confound extractable nitrogen values as decomposing root biomass in the mature corn crop added an undetermined amount of available nitrogen to the soil. Interactions between soil water content, fertilizer application, and soil temperature make it very difficult to predict day-to-day variations of NO flux from our data. There appears to be no simple relation between NO flux and the environmental

  20. Measurement of offline exhaled nitric oxide in a study of community exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, J Q; Jansen, K; Mar, T F; Lumley, T; Kaufman, J; Trenga, C A; Sullivan, J; Liu, L-J S; Shapiro, G G; Larson, T V

    2003-01-01

    As part of a large panel study in Seattle, Washington, we measured levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in children's homes and fixed-site particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 micro m or less (PM(2.5)) outside and inside the homes as well as personal PM(2.5) during winter and spring sessions of 2000-2001. Nineteen subjects 6-13 years of age participated; 9 of the 19 were on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy. Exhaled breath measurements were collected offline into a Mylar balloon for up to 10 consecutive days. Mean eNO values were 19.1 (SD +/- 11.4) ppb in winter sessions and 12.5 +/- 6.6 ppb in spring sessions. Fixed-site PM(2.5) mean concentrations were 10.1 +/- 5.7 microg/m(3) outside homes and 13.3 +/- 1.4 inside homes; the personal PM(2.5) mean was 13.4 +/- 3.2 microg/m(3). We used a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept and an interaction term for medications to test for within-subject-within-session associations between eNO and various PM(2.5) values. We found a 10 microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) from the outdoor, indoor, personal, and central-site measurements that was associated with increases in eNO in all subjects at lag day zero. The effect was 4.3 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-7.29] with the outdoor monitor, 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.02-7.4) for the indoor monitor, 4.5 ppb (95% CI, 1.02-7.9) with the personal monitor, and 3.8 ppb (95% CI, 1.2-6.4) for the central monitors. The interaction term for medication category (ICS users vs. nonusers) was significant in all analyses. These findings suggest that eNO can be used as an assessment tool in epidemiologic studies of health effects of air pollution. PMID:14527842

  1. Regression calibration for classical exposure measurement error in environmental epidemiology studies using multiple local surrogate exposures.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Thomas F; Wright, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    Environmental epidemiologic studies are often hierarchical in nature if they estimate individuals' personal exposures using ambient metrics. Local samples are indirect surrogate measures of true local pollutant concentrations which estimate true personal exposures. These ambient metrics include classical-type nondifferential measurement error. The authors simulated subjects' true exposures and their corresponding surrogate exposures as the mean of local samples and assessed the amount of bias attributable to classical and Berkson measurement error on odds ratios, assuming that the logit of risk depends on true individual-level exposure. The authors calibrated surrogate exposures using scalar transformation functions based on observed within- and between-locality variances and compared regression-calibrated results with naive results using surrogate exposures. The authors further assessed the performance of regression calibration in the presence of Berkson-type error. Following calibration, bias due to classical-type measurement error, resulting in as much as 50% attenuation in naive regression estimates, was eliminated. Berkson-type error appeared to attenuate logistic regression results less than 1%. This regression calibration method reduces effects of classical measurement error that are typical of epidemiologic studies using multiple local surrogate exposures as indirect surrogate exposures for unobserved individual exposures. Berkson-type error did not alter the performance of regression calibration. This regression calibration method does not require a supplemental validation study to compute an attenuation factor. PMID:20573838

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES CONTROLLING NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the summer of 1994 (12 July to 11 August) in the Upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina in a continuing effort to characterize NO emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils in the southeastern United States. Previous work...

  3. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Causal Thinking in Global Environmental Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sly, Peter D; Carpenter, David O; Van den Berg, Martin; Stein, Renato T; Landrigan, Philip J; Brune-Drisse, Marie-Noel; Suk, William

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates indicate a trend toward increasing years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factors examined included smoking, diet, alcohol, drug abuse, and physical inactivity. By contrast, little consideration was given to accumulating evidence that exposures to environmental chemicals, psychosocial stress, and malnutrition during fetal development and across the life span also increase risk of NCDs. To address this gap, we undertook a narrative review of early-life environmental contributions to disease. We documented numerous etiologic associations. We propose that future GBD estimates use an expanded approach for assessing etiologic contributions of environmental exposures to recognized disease risk factors. We argue that broadening the definition of environmental disease, together with improved methods of assessing early life exposures and their health outcomes across the life span, will allow better understanding of causal associations and provide the incentives required to support strategies to control avoidable exposures and reduce disease risk. PMID:27325063

  4. Response of Purkinje neurons to hypobaric hypoxic exposure as shown by alteration in expression of glutamate receptors, nitric oxide synthases and calcium binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Singh, G; Singh, J; Ling, E A

    2005-01-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia is known to impair muscular coordination. It is not known whether hypobaric hypoxia causes any damage to the Purkinje neurons which may be responsible for impairment of muscular coordination. Expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid GluR2/3, calcium binding proteins and nitric oxide synthases in the Purkinje neurons was examined in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. The mRNA expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, GluR2, GluR3 and nitric oxide synthases [neuronal, endothelial and inducible] was upregulated at 3 h peaking at 24 h after the exposure. This was sustained up to 3 days; thereafter, it was comparable to the controls. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed a marked expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 and GluR2/3 at the above time intervals. Immunoexpression of calbindin-D28k (calbindin) and parvalbumin was intense in the soma of Purkinje neurons in the control rats. It was, however, drastically downregulated up to 3 days after exposure. At 3 days the neuronal dendrites showed intense expression of calbindin which returned to control levels at 7 days. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase was markedly upregulated from 3 h to 3 days whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, localized in the blood vessels and Purkinje neurons, remained elevated up to 24 h after the exposure. A progressive darkening of the Purkinje neuron cell bodies was observed at ultrastructural level up to 3 days but degenerating cells were not observed. A salient alteration was the dilation and stacking of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the dendrites up to 14 days after the exposure. The present results suggest that hypobaric hypoxia leads to overexpression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 and GluR2/3 in Purkinje neurons that may be responsive to altered calcium levels as

  5. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Drug and Environmental Effects at 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Lynn T.; Nelson, Suchitra; Short, Elizabeth; Min, Meeyoung O.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Lewis, Barbara; Russ, Sandra; Minnes, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess school age cognitive and achievement outcomes after prenatal cocaine exposure, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. Study design At 9 years, 371 children (192 cocaine exposure, CE; 179 non-exposure, NCE) were assessed for IQ and school achievement in a longitudinal, prospective study from birth. An extensive number of confounding variables were controlled, including quality of caregiving environment, polydrug exposure, lead, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and foster/adoptive care. Results CE predicted poorer Perceptual Reasoning IQ with a linear relationship of the concentration of the cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine, to degree of impairment. Effects were mediated through birth head circumference, indicating a relationship with fetal brain growth. Negative effects of alcohol, lead, and marijuana exposure and positive effects of home environment were additive. Children with CE in foster/adoptive care had better home environments and lower lead levels. School achievement was not affected. Conclusions There were persistent teratologic effects of CE on specific cognitive functions and additive effects of alcohol, lead, marijuana, IDA, and home environment. Documenting environmental factors in behavioral teratology studies is important because in this sample, CE was associated with better home environments and lower environmental risk for a substantial number of children. PMID:18571546

  6. Changes in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure: The Beaver Dam Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Margarete A; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nondahl, David M; Chappell, Richard; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Fischer, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Our goal was to determine if ETS exposure changed between 1998–2000 and 2003–2005 among participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. Methods ETS exposure was ascertained using a cotinine-validated questionnaire at the 5-year (1998–2000) and 10-year follow-up examinations (2003–2005). Non-smoking participants with data from both visits were included (n=1898; ages 53–96 years at 5-yr follow-up). McNemar’s test was used to test differences in ETS exposure overall and in three settings: home, work, and social settings. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used for multivariate logistic regression models of exposure. Results The proportion of nonsmokers with no or little ETS exposure increased from 80% to 88% (p<0.0001). The percent living in a home with no indoor smokers increased from 94% to 97% (p<0.0001). The percent reporting no exposure at work increased from 91% to 95% (p<0.0001). The percent reporting the lowest frequency of social exposure increased from 65% to 77% (p<0.0001). In the GEE model, age was inversely associated with exposure (Odds Ratio (OR) per 5 yr=0.80, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI)=0.76, 0.86), as was education (OR for college vs exposure in older adults decreased. Decreasing exposures suggest there may be future declines in ETS-related adverse health outcomes. PMID:23758015

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN
    Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*. * The University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA,RTP, NC ?Current: Colorado...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  9. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  10. Risk-based indicators of Canadians’ exposures to environmental carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. Methods We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Results Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food

  11. Impact of exposure to low concentrations of nitric oxide on protein profile in murine and human pancreatic islet cells

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Limonchi, Rafael; Díaz, Irene; Cahuana, Gladys M; Bautista, Mario; Martín, Franz; Soria, Bernat; Tejedo, Juan R; Bedoya, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Homeostatic levels of nitric oxide (NO) protect efficiently against apoptotic death in both human and rodent pancreatic β cells, but the protein profile of this action remains to be determined. We have applied a 2 dimensional LC-MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF-based analysis to study the impact of protective NO in rat insulin-producing RINm5F cell line and in mouse and human pancreatic islets (HPI) exposed to serum deprivation condition. 24 proteins in RINm5F and 22 in HPI were identified to undergo changes in at least one experimental condition. These include stress response mitochondrial proteins (UQCRC2, VDAC1, ATP5C1, ATP5A1) in RINm5F cells and stress response endoplasmic reticulum proteins (HSPA5, PDIA6, VCP, GANAB) in HPI. In addition, metabolic and structural proteins, oxidoreductases and chaperones related with protein metabolism are also regulated by NO treatment. Network analysis of differentially expressed proteins shows their interaction in glucocorticoid receptor and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathways and eNOS signaling. The results indicate that exposure to exogenous NO counteracts the impact of serum deprivation on pancreatic β cell proteome. Species differences in the proteins involved are apparent. PMID:25658244

  12. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  13. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  14. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Amanpreet S; Tarbutton, G Lester; Levin, Jeffrey L; Plotkin, George M; Lowry, Larry K; Nalbone, J Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products, including organic pesticides such as rotenone with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.5-48.0) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.9-34.3). Use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-3.8), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.1-23.6), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.03-10.3) were also associated with significantly increased risk. A trend of increased PD risk was observed with work history in paper/lumber mill (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 0.7-51.8), exposure to cadmium (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 0.6-44.9), exposure to paraquat (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 0.4-31.6), and insecticide applications to farm animals/animal areas and agricultural processes (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.5-38.1). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population. PMID:19042691

  15. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  16. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  17. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  18. Farming-Associated Environmental Exposures and Atopic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review important farming related environmental factors and host immunologic features with resulting impact on atopic and non-atopic upper and lower respiratory diseases. Data Sources PubMed databases were searched for relevant articles pertaining to farming practices, organic dust exposure, immunology, atopy, rhinitis, asthma, bronchitis and respiratory disease. Study Selections Articles were selected based on relevance to the topic of the review. Results Overall, farming exposures, particularly in children, appears protective against developing IgE-mediated diseases. However, upper and lower respiratory diseases, which tend to be non-allergic marked by enhanced neutrophilic influx, are prevalent in the farming community. These environments are complex and heterogeneous and a large number of environmental factors including dust particles, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria components, peptidoglycans, endotoxins, fungi, gases, pesticides, and allergens are important mediators. Pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors play key roles in the host defense response. An allergy evaluation tailored to the subjects’ environmental history remains important. Therapeutic interventions are limited and attempts to reduce personnel exposure are recommended. Conclusion Upper and lower respiratory adverse health effects, particularly non-IgE mediated, are common to agriculture work and represent a substantial concern for farmers, workers, and their families. Regional and international differences in farming practice in addition to type, timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure are important considerations in the evaluation of symptomatic subjects. PMID:22840248

  19. Sensitization of the Trigeminovascular System following Environmental Irritant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kunkler, Phillip Edward; Zhang, LuJuan; Pellman, Jessica Joan; Oxford, Gerry Stephen; Hurley, Joyce Harts

    2016-01-01

    Background Air pollution is linked to increased emergency room visits for headache and migraine patients frequently cite chemicals or odors as headache triggers, but the association between air pollutants and headache is not well-understood. We previously reported that nasal administration of environmental irritants acutely increases meningeal blood flow via a TRPA1-dependent mechanism, involving the trigeminovascular system. Here, we examine whether chronic environmental irritant exposure sensitizes the trigeminovascular system. Methods Male rats were exposed to acrolein, a TRPA1 agonist, or room air by inhalation for 4 days prior to meningeal blood flow measurements. Some animals were injected daily with a TRPA1 antagonist, AP-18 or vehicle prior to inhalation exposure. Trigeminal ganglia were isolated following blood flow measurements for immunocytochemistry and/or qPCR determination of TRPV1, TRPA1 and CGRP levels. Results Acrolein inhalation exposure potentiated blood flow responses to both TRPA1 and TRPV1 agonists compared to room air. Acrolein exposure did not alter TRPV1 or TRPA1 mRNA levels or TRPV1 or CGRP immunoreactive cell counts in the trigeminal ganglion. Acrolein sensitization of trigeminovascular responses to a TRPA1 agonist was attenuated by pre-treatment with AP-18. Interpretation These results suggest trigeminovascular sensitization as a mechanism for enhanced headache susceptibility after chemical exposure. PMID:25724913

  20. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, S.; von Schirnding, Y. E.; Prapamontol, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions. PMID:11019456

  1. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  2. Reporting back environmental exposure data and free choice learning.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Reporting data back to study participants is increasingly being integrated into exposure and biomonitoring studies. Informal science learning opportunities are valuable in environmental health literacy efforts and report back efforts are filling an important gap in these efforts. Using the University of Arizona's Metals Exposure Study in Homes, this commentary reflects on how community-engaged exposure assessment studies, partnered with data report back efforts are providing a new informal education setting and stimulating free-choice learning. Participants are capitalizing on participating in research and leveraging their research experience to meet personal and community environmental health literacy goals. Observations from report back activities conducted in a mining community support the idea that reporting back biomonitoring data reinforces free-choice learning and this activity can lead to improvements in environmental health literacy. By linking the field of informal science education to the environmental health literacy concepts, this commentary demonstrates how reporting data back to participants is tapping into what an individual is intrinsically motivated to learn and how these efforts are successfully responding to community-identified education and research needs. PMID:26748908

  3. The Influence of Human and Environmental Exposure Factors on Personal NO2 Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO2, passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and comm...

  4. Progress in High Throughput Exposure Assessment for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (SRA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    For thousands of chemicals in commerce, there is little or no information about exposure or health and ecological effects. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has ongoing research programs to develop and evaluate models that use the often minimal chemical information a...

  5. Effect of natural grass pollen exposure on exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, E; Carrá, S; Dario, C; Azzolin, N; Ongaro, R; Marcer, G; Zacchello, F

    1999-01-01

    Exhaled nitiric oxide (NO) is increased in exhaled breath of asthmatic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes of exhaled NO outside and during the pollen season in pollen-allergic asthmatic children. Twenty-one children (age 6 to 16 yr), with a seasonal allergic asthma sensitive to grass pollen, underwent measurements of exhaled NO and pulmonary function before (March), during (May), and after (November) the pollen season. Exhaled NO was measured by a tidal breathing method with a chemiluminescence analyzer and NO steady-state levels were recorded. The timing of the measurements during the pollen season was based on the atmospheric pollen count. Exhaled NO values of asthmatic children were compared with those of 21 sex- and age-matched healthy children. Pulmonary function and symptoms of asthma were also evaluated at each visit. The mean value of exhaled NO before the grass season was 12.7 +/- 5.1 ppb (mean +/- SD), significantly higher when compared with controls (7.8 +/- 2.7 ppb, p < 0.001). In the pollen season there was a significant (p < 0.001) twofold increase in exhaled NO (21.4 +/- 7.6 ppb) that, after the season, returned to values similar (12.8 +/- 5.8 ppb, p = NS) to those found before the season. There were no significant changes in FEV1 before and during the season (98.6% predicted versus 101% predicted, p = NS). We conclude that natural allergen exposure is related to an increase of exhaled NO in asthmatic grass pollen-allergic children even in absence of significant changes in airways function. We speculate that measurement of exhaled NO could be a sensitive noninvasive marker of asthma disease activity. PMID:9872848

  6. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  7. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  8. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Szymczak, W.; Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R.

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  9. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of environmental exposure on composite materials are determined. The environments considered are representative of those experienced by commercial jet aircraft. Initial results have been compiled for the following material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209, and T300/934. Future results will include AS-1/3501-6 and Kevlar 49/F161-188. Specimens are exposed on the exterior and interior of 737 airplanes of three airlines, and to continuous ground-level exposure at four locations. In addition, specimens are exposed in the laboratory to conditions such as: simulated ground-air-ground, weatherometer, and moisture. Residual strength results are presented for specimens exposed for up to five years at five ground-level exposure locations and on airplanes from one airline.

  10. Use of time to pregnancy to study environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.; Weinberg, C.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is need in reproductive epidemiology for sensitive and convenient screening tools that can be used to study environmental and occupational exposures. The measurement of fecundability (the probability of pregnancy in each cycle) by ascertaining how long it takes couples to conceive, may be useful for this purpose. Theoretically, exposures that interfere with any of the biologic processes involved in achieving pregnancy could lower fecundability among exposed men or women. To evaluate problems with collecting data on time to pregnancy, telephone interviews were conducted with nearly 700 pregnant women who reported having planned their pregnancies. Power curves were developed based on the distribution of time to pregnancy in the interviewed population. These curves indicate that relatively small sample sizes are sufficient for investigating an exposure. For example, the authors estimate that to detect a given 50% drop in mean fecundability with 80% power would require data from 55 exposed and 55 unexposed women who are pregnant. Disadvantages of using time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint include susceptibility to selection bias and need for data on several potential confounding variables. The next step in evaluating time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint is to apply it in studies of environmental or occupational exposures.

  11. Genetic Profile, Environmental Exposure, and Their Interaction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Letizia; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of causative mutations for Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as their functional characterization in cellular and animal models has provided crucial insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder. Today, we know that PD pathogenesis involves multiple related processes including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and nitrative stress, microglial activation and inflammation, and aggregation of α-synuclein and impaired autophagy. However, with the exception of a few families with Mendelian inheritance, the cause of PD in most individuals is yet unknown and the identified genetic susceptibility factors have only small effect size. Epidemiologic studies have found increased risk of PD associated with exposure to environmental toxicants such as pesticides, organic solvents, metals, and air pollutants, while reduced risk of PD associated with smoking cigarettes and coffee consumption. The role of environmental exposure, as well as the contribution of single genetic risk factors, is still controversial. In most of PD cases, disease onset is probably triggered by a complex interplay of many genetic and nongenetic factors, each of which conveys a minor increase in the risk of disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge on causal mutation for PD, susceptibility factors increasing disease risk, and the genetic factors that modify the impact of environmental exposure. PMID:26942037

  12. Genetic Profile, Environmental Exposure, and Their Interaction in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Polito, Letizia; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of causative mutations for Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as their functional characterization in cellular and animal models has provided crucial insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder. Today, we know that PD pathogenesis involves multiple related processes including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and nitrative stress, microglial activation and inflammation, and aggregation of α-synuclein and impaired autophagy. However, with the exception of a few families with Mendelian inheritance, the cause of PD in most individuals is yet unknown and the identified genetic susceptibility factors have only small effect size. Epidemiologic studies have found increased risk of PD associated with exposure to environmental toxicants such as pesticides, organic solvents, metals, and air pollutants, while reduced risk of PD associated with smoking cigarettes and coffee consumption. The role of environmental exposure, as well as the contribution of single genetic risk factors, is still controversial. In most of PD cases, disease onset is probably triggered by a complex interplay of many genetic and nongenetic factors, each of which conveys a minor increase in the risk of disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge on causal mutation for PD, susceptibility factors increasing disease risk, and the genetic factors that modify the impact of environmental exposure. PMID:26942037

  13. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, James M.; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

    2010-01-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) approach has evolved over the past 20 years, and the current hypothesis proposes that fetal adaptations to intrauterine and maternal conditions during development shape structure and function of organs. Here we present a review of some environmental exposures that may trigger fetal maladaptations in these processes, including three examples: exposures to tobacco smoke, antidepressant medication, and folic acid deficits in the food supply. We provide a selected review of current research on the effects of each of these exposures on fetal development and birth outcomes, and use the DOHaD approach to suggest how these exposures may alter long-term outcomes. In the interpretation of this literature, we review the evidence of gene–environment interactions based on evaluation of biological pathways and evidence that some exposures to the fetus may be moderated by maternal and fetal genotypes. Finally, we use the design of the National Children’s Study (now in progress) to propose how the DOHaD approach could be used to address questions that have emerged in this area that are relevant to reproductive medicine and subsequent health outcomes. PMID:19711249

  14. Chronic exposure to environmental levels of tribromophenol impairs zebrafish reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jun; Liu Chunsheng; Yu Liqin; Zhou Bingsheng

    2010-02-15

    Tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) is ubiquitously found in aquatic environments and biota. In this study, we exposed zebrafish embryos (F{sub 0}; 2'''' days post-fertilization, dpf) to environmental concentration (0.3 mug/L) and a higher concentration (3.0 mug/L) of TBP and assessed the impact of chronic exposure (120 dpf) on reproduction. TBP exposure did not cause a significant increase in the malformation and reduction in the survival in the F{sub 0}-generation fish. After TBP exposure, the plasma testosterone and estradiol levels significantly increased in males and decreased in females. The transcription of steroidogenic genes (3beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD, CYP17, CYP19A, CYP19B) was significantly upregulated in the brain and testes in males and downregulated in the brain and ovary in females. TBP exposure significantly downregulated and upregulated the expression of VTG in the liver of female and male fish, respectively. Meanwhile, TBP exposure altered the sex ratio toward a male-dominant state. The F{sub 1}-generation larvae exhibited increased malformation, reduced survival, and retarded growth, suggesting that TBP in the aquatic environment has significant adverse effects on fish population.

  15. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIORS OF SOLUBILIZED CARBON NANOTUBES IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS:TRANSFORMATION, SORPTION, AND TOXICITY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed study is expected to provide fundamental and systematic information regarding the environmental and exposure behaviors of solubilized carbon nanotubes. This information will enable science-informed assessments of the environmental risks related to aquatic exposur...

  17. Characterizing Variability and Uncertainty in Exposure Assessments Improves links to Environmental Decision-Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Decisions often rely upon observational data or model estimates. For instance, the evaluation of human health or ecological risks often includes information on pollutant emission rates, environmental concentrations, exposures, and exposure/dose-response data. Whet...

  18. Environmental exposure to manganese in air: Associations with cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M.; Kornblith, Erica S.; Gocheva, Vihra V.; Colledge, Michelle A.; Bollweg, George; Kim, Yangho; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Wright, Chris W.; Adams, Shane W.; Lobdell, Danelle T.

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03 to 1.61 μg/m3 in Marietta and 0.01–6.32 μg/m3 in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59.1) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p < 0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-O Immediate β = −0.19, Rey-O Delayed β = −0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities β = −0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air-Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations. PMID:26096496

  19. Gait abnormalities, ADHD, and environmental exposure to nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith

    2016-08-30

    Papadopoulos et al. (2014) investigated gait profiles of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-CT) compared to typical developing (TD) controls. The authors reported differences in the gait profile of ADHD-CT in the self-selected fast speed category. Additionally, others have proposed a maturational delay hypothesis in gait, demonstrating that gait variability decreases with age in ADHD children. It has been previously suggested that the cognitive impairment seen in conditions like ADHD may result from chronic, environmental exposure to the air pollutant, nitrous oxide (N2O). Exposure to N2O is thought to exert its antinociceptive properties by stimulating release of dynorphin peptides in the central nervous system which act upon kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Opioid-mediated gait abnormalities in ADHD are supported with evidence that prodynorphin mutations in mice lead to cytotoxic levels of dynorphin A (DYN A) and contribute to abnormal gait profiles and gradual loss of motor coordination. Interestingly, constitutive activity of the KOR receptor in rat brain has been recently shown to undergo maturational alterations, suggesting that while altered gait profiles in ADHD may be a function of the enhanced opioidergic activity attributable to chronic exposure to the environmental air pollutant, N2O, age-attenuated constitutive activity of KOR in brain may explain the normalization of these altered gait profiles in older ADHD subjects. PMID:27285951

  20. The Role of Environmental Exposures in Neurodegeneration and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jason R.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Neurodegeneration describes the loss of neuronal structure and function. Numerous neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neurodegeneration. Many are rare and stem from purely genetic causes. However, the prevalence of major neurodegenerative diseases is increasing with improvements in treating major diseases such as cancers and cardiovascular diseases, resulting in an aging population. The neurological consequences of neurodegeneration in patients can have devastating effects on mental and physical functioning. The causes of most cases of prevalent neurodegenerative diseases are unknown. The role of neurotoxicant exposures in neurodegenerative disease has long been suspected, with much effort devoted to identifying causative agents. However, causative factors for a significant number of cases have yet to be identified. In this review, the role of environmental neurotoxicant exposures on neurodegeneration in selected major neurodegenerative diseases is discussed. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were chosen because of available data on environmental influences. The special sensitivity the nervous system exhibits to toxicant exposure and unifying mechanisms of neurodegeneration are explored. PMID:21914720

  1. Clarifying and simplifying the management of environmental exposures under different exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognises three different exposure situations: planned, existing, and emergency. In all three situations, the release of radionuclides into the natural environment leads to exposures of non-human species, as well as having the potential for exposures of the general public. Each release may therefore need separate evaluations of these two consequences in order to clarify the relevant objectives of protection, their compliance with various legal requirements, and how these objectives can be achieved. However, the need to meet more than one objective should not necessarily lead to a more complicated regulatory system. Indeed, with regard to low-level routine discharges from most nuclear plants, there would appear to be scope for simplifying the entire system, to protect both humans and biota, by using discharge consent and specified radionuclide environmental quality standards for water, soil, and air in a manner similar to that used to regulate other major, non-nuclear industries. In contrast, different objectives for humans and the environment need to be set and evaluated independently for existing exposure situations. For emergency situations, the separate consequences of different management options for humans and the environment should be made clear. Should an emergency occur, it is important to have meaningful environmental criteria in order to communicate clearly with the public at large as events unfold. PMID:23089023

  2. Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Loghman-Adham, M

    1997-01-01

    Environmental and industrial lead exposures continue to pose major public health problems in children and in adults. Acute exposure to high concentrations of lead can result in proximal tubular damage with characteristic histologic features and manifested by glycosuria and aminoaciduria. Chronic occupational exposure to lead, or consumption of illicit alcohol adulterated with lead, has also been linked to a high incidence of renal dysfunction, which is characterized by glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes resulting in chronic renal failure, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and gout. A high incidence of nephropathy was reported during the early part of this century from Queensland, Australia, in persons with a history of childhood lead poisoning. No such sequela has been found in studies of three cohorts of lead-poisoned children from the United States. Studies in individuals with low-level lead exposure have shown a correlation between blood lead levels and serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. Chronic low-level exposure to lead is also associated with increased urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins and lysosomal enzymes. The relationship between renal dysfunction detected by these sensitive tests and the future development of chronic renal disease remains uncertain. Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between blood lead levels and blood pressure, and hypertension is a cardinal feature of lead nephropathy. Evidence for increased body lead burden is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of lead nephropathy. Blood lead levels are a poor indicator of body lead burden and reflect recent exposure. The EDTA lead mobilization test has been used extensively in the past to assess body lead burden. It is now replaced by the less invasive in vivo X-ray fluorescence for determination of bone lead content. Images p928-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9300927

  3. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona's Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families' household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice. PMID:27399755

  4. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I.; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice. PMID:27399755

  5. Issues in assessing environmental exposures to manufactured nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Loux, Nicholas T; Su, Yee San; Hassan, Sayed M

    2011-09-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10(-9) m to 10(-7) m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by dimensions of 10(-9) m to 10(-6) m, they differ from both molecular species and bulk particulate matter in the sense that they are unlikely to exhibit significant settling under normal gravitational conditions and they are also likely to exhibit significantly diminished diffusivities (when compared to truly dissolved species) in environmental media. As air/water, air/soil, and water/soil intermedium transport is governed by diffusive processes in the absence of significant gravitational and inertial impaction processes in environmental systems, models of MN environmental intermedium transport behavior will likely require an emphasis on kinetic approaches. This review focuses on the likely environmental fate and transport of MNs in atmospheric and aquatic systems. Should significant atmospheric MNs emission occur, previous observations suggest that MNs may likely exhibit an atmospheric residence time of ten to twenty days. Moreover, while atmospheric MN aggregates in a size range of 10(-7) m to 10(-6) m will likely be most mobile, they are least likely to deposit in the human respiratory system. An examination of various procedures including the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal particle suspension stability in water indicates that more sophisticated approaches may be necessary in order to develop aquatic exposure models of acceptable uncertainty. In addition, concepts such as Critical Coagulation Concentrations and Critical Zeta Potentials may prove to be quite useful in environmental aquatic exposure assessments. PMID:22016703

  6. Issues in Assessing Environmental Exposures to Manufactured Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Loux, Nicholas T.; Su, Yee San; Hassan, Sayed M.

    2011-01-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10−9 m to 10−7 m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by dimensions of 10−9 m to 10−6 m, they differ from both molecular species and bulk particulate matter in the sense that they are unlikely to exhibit significant settling under normal gravitational conditions and they are also likely to exhibit significantly diminished diffusivities (when compared to truly dissolved species) in environmental media. As air/water, air/soil, and water/soil intermedium transport is governed by diffusive processes in the absence of significant gravitational and inertial impaction processes in environmental systems, models of MN environmental intermedium transport behavior will likely require an emphasis on kinetic approaches. This review focuses on the likely environmental fate and transport of MNs in atmospheric and aquatic systems. Should significant atmospheric MNs emission occur, previous observations suggest that MNs may likely exhibit an atmospheric residence time of ten to twenty days. Moreover, while atmospheric MN aggregates in a size range of 10−7 m to 10−6 m will likely be most mobile, they are least likely to deposit in the human respiratory system. An examination of various procedures including the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal particle suspension stability in water indicates that more sophisticated approaches may be necessary in order to develop aquatic exposure models of acceptable uncertainty. In addition, concepts such as Critical Coagulation Concentrations and Critical Zeta Potentials may prove to be quite useful in environmental aquatic exposure assessments. PMID:22016703

  7. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Bielawski, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long term flight and ground exposure on three commercially available graphite-epoxy material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209, and T300/934. Sets of specimens were exposed on commercial aircraft and ground racks for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years. Inflight specimen sites included both the interior and exterior of aircraft based in Hawaii, Texas, and New Zealand. Ground racks were located at NASA-Dryden and the above mentioned states. Similar specimens were exposed to controlled lab conditions for up to 2 years. After each exposure, specimens were tested for residual strength and a dryout procedure was used to measure moisture content. Both room and high temperature residual strengths were measured and expressed as a pct. of the unexposed strength. Lab exposures included the effects of time alone, moisture, time on moist specimens, weatherometer, and simulated ground-air-ground cycling. Residual strengths of the long term specimens were compared with residual strengths of the lab specimens. Strength retention depended on the exposure condition and the material system. Results showed that composite materials can be successfully used on commercial aircraft if environmental effects are considered.

  8. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Dekant, Wolfgang Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 {mu}g/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 {mu}g per person (< 0.1 {mu}g/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population.

  9. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-Back of Environmental Exposure Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants' responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. The authors study how the "exposure experience"--the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants--is shaped by community context and…

  10. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    The data base for composite materials' properties as they are affected by the environments encountered in operating conditions, both in flight and at ground terminals is expanded. Absorbed moisture degrades the mechanical properties of graphite/epoxy laminates at elevated temperatures. Since airplane components are frequently exposed to atmospheric moisture, rain, and accumulated water, quantitative data are required to evaluate the amount of fluids absorbed under various environmental conditions and the subsequent effects on material properties. In addition, accelerated laboratory test techniques are developed are reliably capable of predicting long term behavior. An accelerated environmental exposure testing procedure is developed, and experimental results are correlated and compared with analytical results to establish the level of confidence for predicting composite material properties.

  11. REPRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUATIC EXPOSURE TO TRENBOLONE, AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive and Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exposure to Trenbolone, an Environmental Androgen (Abstract). To be presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Changing Environmental Awareness: Societal Concerns and Scientific...

  12. Response of marine and freshwater algae to nitric acid and elevated carbon dioxide levels simulating environmental effects of bolide impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    One of the intriguing facets of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is the apparently selective pattern of mortality amongst taxa. Some groups of organisms were severely affected and some remained relatively unscathed as they went through the K/T boundary. While there is argument concerning the exact interpretation of the fossil record, one of the best documented extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is that of the calcareous nannoplankton. These organisms include coccolithic algae and foraminiferans. Attempts to explain their decline at the K/T boundary center around chemistry which could affect their calcium carbonate shells while leaving their silica-shelled cousins less affected or unaffected. Two environmental consequences of an extraterrestrial body impact which were suggested are the production of large quantities of nitrogen oxides generated by the shock heating of the atmosphere and the possible rise in CO2 from the dissolution of CaCO3 shells. Both of these phenomena would acidify the upper layers of the oceans and bodies of freshwater not otherwise buffered. The effects of nitric acid, carbon dioxide, or both factors on the growth and reproduction of calcareous marine coccoliths and non-calcareous marine and freshwater species of algae were considered. These experiments demonstrate that nitric acid and carbon dioxide have significant effects on important aspects of the physiology and reproduction of modern algae representative of extinct taxa thought to have suffered significant declines at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Furthermore, calcareous species showed more marked effects than siliceous species and marine species tested were more sensitive than freshwater species.

  13. Environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Littau, Sally R.; Roberge, Jason; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Harris, Robin B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In a cross-sectional study of residents of Arizona, USA (n=215) and Sonora, Mexico (n=163), drinking water was assayed for total arsenic, and daily drinking water arsenic intake estimated. Urine was speciated for arsenic and concentrations were adjusted for specific gravity. Serum was analyzed for MMP-9 using ELISA. Mixed model linear regression was used to assess the relation among drinking water arsenic concentration, drinking water arsenic intake, urinary arsenic sum of species (the sum of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid), and MMP-9, controlling for autocorrelation within households. Drinking water arsenic concentration and intake were positively associated with MMP-9, both in crude analysis and after adjustment for gender, country/ethnicity, age, body mass index, current smoking and diabetes. Urinary arsenic sum of species was positively associated with MMP-9 in multivariable analysis only. Using Akaike’s Information Criterion, arsenic concentration in drinking water provided a better fitting model of MMP-9, than either urinary arsenic or drinking water arsenic intake. In conclusion, arsenic exposure was positively associated with MMP-9 using all three exposure metrics evaluated. PMID:23232971

  14. Environmental exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Andreas; Traas, Theo P

    2007-12-01

    Under the new REACH system, companies importing, producing and marketing chemical substances will be obliged to register the single substances and to carry out a safety assessment for all identified uses during the life cycle of the substance. This duty will apply to about 10,000 existing substances in the EU market exceeding an annual production or import volume of 10 t per company. If the substance is already known to be dangerous or turns out to be dangerous(1) during the hazard assessment, the registrant is obliged to carry out an exposure assessment and a risk characterisation for all identified uses. The goal of the safety assessment is to define the conditions of use that allow for adequate control of risk with regard to health and safety at the work place, consumer safety and protection of the environment. Once the registrant has established and documented these conditions in the Chemicals Safety Report (CSR), that information is to be communicated down the supply chain by means of the Extended Safety Data Sheet (eSDS). The ultimate aim of the new legislation is to establish duties and mechanisms that systematically prevent or limit exposure to dangerous industrial chemicals. The current paper explains this concept with regard to environmental exposure and highlights the challenges and possible solutions. PMID:18000528

  15. Environmental chemical exposures and disturbances of heme synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W E; Stockbridge, H L; Labbe, R F; Woods, J S; Anderson, K E; Bissell, D M; Bloomer, J R; Ellefson, R D; Moore, M R; Pierach, C A; Schreiber, W E; Tefferi, A; Franklin, G M

    1997-01-01

    Porphyrias are relatively uncommon inherited or acquired disorders in which clinical manifestations are attributable to a disturbance of heme synthesis (porphyrin metabolism), usually in association with endogenous or exogenous stressors. Porphyrias are characterized by elevations of heme precursors in blood, urine, and/or stool. A number of chemicals, particularly metals and halogenated hydrocarbons, induce disturbances of heme synthesis in experimental animals. Certain chemicals have also been linked to porphyria or porphyrinuria in humans, generally involving chronic industrial exposures or environmental exposures much higher than those usually encountered. A noteworthy example is the Turkish epidemic of porphyria cutanea tarda produced by accidental ingestion of wheat treated with the fungicide hexachlorobenzene. Measurements of excreted heme precursors have the potential to serve as biological markers for harmful but preclinical effects of certain chemical exposures; this potential warrants further research and applied field studies. It has been hypothesized that several otherwise unexplained chemical-associated illnesses, such as multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, may represent mild chronic cases of porphyria or other acquired abnormalities in heme synthesis. This review concludes that, although it is reasonable to consider such hypotheses, there is currently no convincing evidence that these illnesses are mediated by a disturbance of heme synthesis; it is premature or unfounded to base clinical management on such explanations unless laboratory data are diagnostic for porphyria. This review discusses the limitations of laboratory measures of heme synthesis, and diagnostic guidelines are provided to assist in evaluating the symptomatic individual suspected of having a porphyria. PMID:9114276

  16. Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S K

    1999-01-01

    The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10350518

  17. Shape memory polymer sensors for tracking cumulative environmental exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Ryan; Rauscher, Michael; Vining, Ben; Havens, Ernie; Havens, Teresa; McFerran, Jace

    2010-04-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymers (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, foods and beverages, or medicines, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, the SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastomeric state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring of thermal and moisture exposure over time. This technology was developed through Phase I and Phase II SBIR efforts with the Navy. The emphasis of current research centers on transitioning SMP materials from the lab bench to a production environment. Here, CRG presents the commercialization progress of thermally-activated EET sensors, focusing on fabrication scale-up, process refinements, and quality control. In addition, progress on the development of vapor pressure-responsive SMP (VPR-SMP) will be discussed.

  18. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  19. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposures, Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Variants, and Gene–Pesticide Interactions in a Case–Control Study of Parkinson’s Disease, California (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Kimberly C.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes are candidates for Parkinson’s disease (PD) because NOS enzymes produce nitric oxide (NO), a pro-oxidant that can damage neurons. Widely used organophosphate (OP) pesticides can induce oxidative stress and are reported to increase PD risk. Additionally, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the PON1 (paraoxonase 1) gene influence the ability to metabolize OPs. Objective: Here, we investigated contributions of NOS genes and OP pesticides to PD risk, controlling for PON1 status. Methods: In 357 incident PD cases and 495 population controls, we investigated eight NOS SNPs and interactions with both household and ambient agricultural OP exposures assessed with geographic information system (GIS). Results: In comparing PD in homozygous variant carriers of NOS2A rs1060826 versus homozygous wild-type or heterozygotes, we estimate an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.41). When considering interactions between NOS1 rs2682826 and OP exposure from household use, the OR for frequent OP use alone was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.72, 2.34) and for the CT+TT genotype alone was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.39), and for frequent OP use combined with the CT+TT genotype the OR was 2.84 (95% CI: 1.49, 5.40) (interaction p-value 0.04). Similar results were seen for ambient OP exposure. Interactions between OP exposure and three other NOS1 SNPs and a genetic risk score combining all NOS1 SNPs reached statistical significance. Conclusions: We found that OP pesticides were more strongly associated with PD among participants with variant genotypes in NOS1, consistent with the importance of oxidative stress-inducing mechanisms. Our data provide evidence for NOS1 modifying PD risk in OP exposed populations. Citation: Paul KC, Sinsheimer JS, Rhodes SL, Cockburn M, Bronstein J, Ritz B. 2016. Organophosphate pesticide exposures, nitric oxide synthase gene variants, and gene–pesticide interactions in a case–control study of Parkinson

  20. Influence of environmental exposure on human epigenetic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Marsit, Carmen J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental toxicants can alter epigenetic regulatory features such as DNA methylation and microRNA expression. As the sensitivity of epigenomic regulatory features may be greatest during the in utero period, when critical windows are narrow, and when epigenomic profiles are being set, this review will highlight research focused on that period. I will focus on work in human populations, where the impact of environmental toxicants in utero, including cigarette smoke and toxic trace metals such as arsenic, mercury and manganese, on genome-wide, gene-specific DNA methylation has been assessed. In particular, arsenic is highlighted, as this metalloid has been the focus of a number of studies and its detoxification mechanisms are well understood. Importantly, the tissues and cells being examined must be considered in context in order to interpret the findings of these studies. For example, by studying the placenta, it is possible to identify potential epigenetic adaptations of key genes and pathways that may alter the developmental course in line with the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm. Alternatively, studies of newborn cord blood can be used to examine how environmental exposure in utero can impact the composition of cells within the peripheral blood, leading to immunological effects of exposure. The results suggest that in humans, like other vertebrates, there is a susceptibility for epigenomic alteration by the environment during intrauterine development, and this may represent a mechanism of plasticity of the organism in response to its environment as well as a mechanism through which long-term health consequences can be shaped. PMID:25568453

  1. Environmental toxicology and health effects associated with dinitrotoluene exposure.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Newsome, Cecilia; Glass, Konsuela; Centeno, Jose A; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Bryant, Joseph; Okoh, Joseph; Ishaque, Ali; Brower, Marius

    2003-01-01

    Dinitrotoluenes (DNTs) are nitroaromatic compounds appearing as pale yellow crystalline solids at room temperature. Dinitrotoluenes exist as a mixture of 2 to 6 isomers, with 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT being the most significant. About 500 persons are estimated to be potentially exposed yearly to 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT during the production of munitions and explosives. The main route of human exposure at ammunition facilities is inhalation, but dermal contact and inadvertent ingestion can also be substantial. In factory workers, exposure to DNTs has been linked to many adverse health effects, including cyanosis, vertigo, headache, metallic taste, dyspnea, weakness and lassitude, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Other symptoms including pain or parasthesia in extremities, abdominal discomfort, tremors, paralysis, chest pain, and unconsciousness have also been reported. The primary targets of DNT toxicity are the hematopoietic system (pallor, cyanosis, anemia, and leukocytosis), the cardiovascular system (ischemic heart disease), the nervous system (muscular weakness, headache, dizziness, nausea, insomnia, and tingling pains in the extremities) and the reproductive system (reduction of sperm counts, alteration of sperm morphology, and aspermatogenesis). An association between DNT exposure and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinomas and subcutaneous tumors in rats, as well as renal tumors in mice, has been established. Epidemiologic studies of DNT toxicity have been limited to small groups of workers who had been occupationally exposed at various ammunitions production facilities. Clearly defining the health effects of DNTs with a high degree of confidence has therefore been difficult because of the multigenic nature of occupational exposure. In an attempt to update the toxicologic profile of the DNTs, we hereby provide a critical review of the environmental and toxicologic pathology of DNTs, with a special emphasis on their potential implications for public health

  2. Environmental Exposures and Puberty in Inner-City Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Britton, Julie A; Boguski, Lisa; Hochman, Sarah; Maloney, Nell; Serra, Nicole; Liu, Zhisong; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Larson, Signe; Forman, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background Hormonally active environmental exposures are suspected to alter onset of puberty in girls, but research on this question has been very limited. Objective We investigated pubertal status in relation to hormonally active environmental exposures among a multiethnic group of 192 healthy nine-year old girls residing in New York City. Methods Information was collected on breast and pubic hair stages, weight and height. Phytoestrogen intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Three phytoestrogens and bis-phenolA (BPA) were measured in urine. In a subset, 1,1′-dichloro-2,2′-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in blood plasma and lead (Pb) in blood. Associations of exposures with pubertal stages (present=stage 2+ vs absent=stage 1) were examined using t-tests and Poisson multivariate regression to derive prevalence ratios (PR, 95%-confidence limits [CI]). Results Breast development was present in 53% of girls. DDE, Pb, and dietary intakes of phytoestrogens were not significantly associated with breast stage. Urinary phytoestrogen biomarker concentrations were lower among girls with breast development than with no development. In multivariate models, main effects were strongest for two urinary isoflavones, daidzein (PR 0.89 [0.83-0.96] per ln-μg/g creatinine) and genistein (0.94 [0.88-1.01]). Body mass index (BMI) is a hormonally relevant, strong risk factor for breast development. Therefore, BMI-modification of exposure effects was examined, and associations became stronger. Delayed breast development was observed among girls with below-median BMI and 3rd tertile (high exposure) of urinary daidzein (PR 0.46 [0.26-0.78]); a similar effect was seen with genistein, comparing to girls ≥median BMI and lowest two tertiles (combined) of these isoflavones. With urinary enterolactone a phytoestrogen effect was seen only among girls with high BMI, where breast development was delayed among those with high

  3. Human health perspective on environmental exposure to hydrazines: a review.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, G; Hansen, H

    1998-08-01

    Hydrazines are colorless liquid compounds that have been found at various Department of Defense hazardous waste sites. They are designated as environmental contaminants causing adverse effects to public health and have been identified at many National Priorities List (NPL) hazardous waste sites and federal facilities sites in the United States. Three chemically similar hydrazines-hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine--occur in the environment and cause adverse health effects to persons living near hazardous waste sites. Humans are exposed to hydrazines by drinking contaminated, water, by inhaling contaminated air, or by swallowing or touching contaminated dust. Human occupational data and studies in laboratory animals suggest that people exposed to hydrazines may develop adverse systemic health effects or cancer. Hydrazines have caused cancer in animals following acute- or intermediate- duration exposure by the oral and inhalation routes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the World Health Organization have classified hydrazines as possible cancer-causing environmental contaminants. PMID:9717244

  4. Are environmental exposures to chlorophenoxy herbicides associated with adverse human health effects?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposures to environmental pollutants are suspected of playing a role in the observed increases of many diseases. However, it is difficult to establish a firm link between exposure and disease, because environmental exposures are usually widespread, low-dose in natu...

  5. Diesel exhaust but not ozone increases fraction of exhaled nitric oxide in a randomized controlled experimental exposure study of healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a promising non-invasive index of airway inflammation that may be used to assess respiratory effects of air pollution. We evaluated FENO as a measure of airway inflammation after controlled exposure to diesel exhaust or ozone. Methods Healthy volunteers were exposed to either diesel exhaust (particle concentration 300 μg/m3) and filtered air for one hour, or ozone (300 ppb) and filtered air for 75 minutes. FENO was measured in duplicate at expiratory flow rates of 10, 50, 100 and 270 mL/s before, 6 and 24 hours after each exposure. Results Exposure to diesel exhaust increased FENO at 6 hours compared with air at expiratory flow rates of 10 mL/s (p = 0.01) and at 50 mL/s (p = 0.011), but FENO did not differ significantly at higher flow rates. Increases in FENO following diesel exhaust were attenuated at 24 hours. Ozone did not affect FENO at any flow rate or time point. Conclusions Exposure to diesel exhaust, but not ozone, increased FENO concentrations in healthy subjects. Differences in the induction of airway inflammation may explain divergent responses to diesel exhaust and ozone, with implications for the use of FENO as an index of exposure to air pollution. PMID:23602059

  6. Assessment of carcinogenic risk from personal exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.P.; Post, G.B.; Lioy, P.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Greenberg, A. )

    1993-07-01

    The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) was an investigation of multimedia exposure to the ubiquitous environmental carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The three-phase study was conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey and involved the participation of 14-15 individuals (8-10 homes) during each 14-day monitoring period. Microenvironmental sampling of air, food, water and soil indicated that environmental exposure to BaP was primarily through air and food. Exposure and risk estimates were, therefore, based on the results of personal monitoring of breathing zone air and prepared food samples. Based on a comparison of the range and magnitude of inhalation and dietary BaP exposures, food ingestion was clearly the predominant exposure to pathway. The relative contributions of other potential sources of community exposure to BaP (e.g., soil and drinking water ingestion) were also assessed. The excess cancer risk estimates for food ingestion were consistently greater than those for personal air, reflecting both the predominantly higher BaP exposures through the diet and the higher carcinogenic potency value for oral exposure. Overall, the total lifetime risk from personal exposure to BaP for nonsmokers in the community was estimated at 10(-5). In identifying risk reduction options, it is important to account for the observation that personal activities, lifestyle, and diet strongly influenced individual exposures to BaP.

  7. Environmental pesticide exposure in Honduras following hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed Central

    Balluz, L.; Moll, D.; Diaz Martinez, M. G.; Merida Colindres, J. E.; Malilay, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether environmental contamination occurred in the wake of hurricane Mitch (30-31 October 1998), we conducted a population-based cross-sectional household survey in the barrio of Istoca, Department of Choluteca, Honduras. The goals were to evaluate chemical contamination of potable water and the extent of human exposure to chemicals as a result of extensive flooding. METHODS: The survey consisted of an environmental exposure assessment, which included assaying water and soil samples for contaminants, and taking blood and urine samples from 45 adolescents aged 15-18 years. We also made a subjective questionnaire assessment of 155 households. FINDINGS: There was significant contamination of the soil in Istoca, but no water contamination in the aftermath of hurricane Mitch. The soil levels of chlopyrifos and parathion were 30- and 1000-times higher, respectively, than the Environmental Data Quality Level. However, the most striking finding was the detection of elevated levels of chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides in adolescents. Toxicological analyses of serum specimens showed that 51% of the samples had elevated levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p-DDE) (range, 1.16-96.9 ng/ml) (US reference mean = 3.5 ng/ml) in adults). Dieldrin levels > 0.2 ng/ml were also present in 23% of the serum specimens (serum levels of this analyte in US adolescents are < 0.2 ng/ml). Of 43 urine samples analysed for organophosphate metabolites, 18.6% contained diethyl phosphate (DEP) at levels which were greater that the reference mean of 6.45 micrograms/g creatinine. We also detected elevated levels of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCPY) in 91% and 42% of the samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated levels of chlorinated pesticides were surprising, since although these substances were banned in Honduras 15 years ago it appears that they are still being used in the country. Moreover

  8. Contribution of tobacco smoke to environmental benzene exposure in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Ruppert, T.; Daube, H.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents including benzene were measured in the living rooms of 10 nonsmoking households and 20 households with at least one smoker situated in the city and suburbs of Munich. In the city, the median benzene levels during the evening, when all household members were at home, were 8.1 and 10.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking and smoking homes, respectively. The corresponding levels of 3.5 and 4.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} were considerably lower in the suburbs. Median time-integrated 1-week benzene concentrations in the city were 10.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking homes and 13.1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in smoking homes. In the suburbs, the corresponding values were 3.2 and 5.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. No difference was found between smoking and nonsmoking households located either in the city or in the suburbs. There was no statistically significant difference between benzene exposure of non-smokers in smoking and nonsmoking homes. Nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households in the city had significantly higher exposure to benzene compared to their counterparts living in the suburban. Nonsmokers from all households with smokers were significantly more exposed to benzene than nonsmokers living in the nonsmoking households (personal samplers: 13.2 vs. 7.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.05; benzene in exhalate: 2.6 vs. 1.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.01; trans-muconic acid excretion in urine: 73 vs. 62 {mu}g/g creatinine), but the contribution of ETS to the total benzene exposure was relatively low compared to that from other sources. Analysis of variance showed that at most 15% of the benzene exposure of nonsmokers living in smoking homes was attributable to ETS. For nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households benzene exposure from ETS was insignificant.

  9. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales. PMID

  10. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Aurelie; Baptissart, Marine; Caira, Françoise; Brugnon, Florence; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Volle, David H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Furthermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer (TC). The incidence of TC has been increasing over the past decade. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte). During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications) plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including TC. Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of TC; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures. PMID:23230429

  11. Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon differentially affect passive avoidance performance and nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the basolateral complex of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Jafar; Naseh, Maryam; Baniasadi, Mansoureh; Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hashem

    2013-02-01

    Chronic exposure to low doses of organophosphates during brain development can induce persistent neurochemical and behavioral effects. This study sought to determine the long-lasting effects of developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) on passive avoidance (PA) performance and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons in the subnuclei within basolateral complex of amygdala (BLC). Developing rats were exposed to daily dose (1mg/kg) of CPF or DZN during gestational days 15-18 and postnatal days (PND) 1-4. PA performance was assessed in young adulthood (PND 60). Brain sections were also processed by NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and nNOS immunohistochemistry. Gestational exposure to CPF increased NADPH-d(+)/nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons within the basolateral nucleus (BL) and medial paracapsular intercalated cluster, which was along with PA retention impairment in both male and female rats. Prenatal exposure to DZN did not significantly change the number of NADPH-d(+)/nNOS-IR neurons in the BLC while impaired PA retention in females. Postnatal exposure to CPF decreased NADPH-d(+)/NOS-IR neurons in the BL without affecting PA performance. Exposure to DZN during early postnatal period impaired PA retention in both sexes, albeit to a lesser extent in females, and was along with a considerable sex independent reduction of NADPH-d(+)/NOS-IR neurons in all BLC subnuclei. Our data suggest that developmental exposure to apparently subtoxic dose of CPF and DZN elicit long-lasting impairment in PA retention that are associated, but not necessarily correlated with effects on NADPH-d(+)/NOS-IR neurons in BLC of the amygdala. PMID:23219576

  12. Enhanced nitric oxide production during lead (Pb²⁺) exposure recovers protein expression but not presynaptic localization of synaptic proteins in developing hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Neal, April P; Stansfield, Kirstie H; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2012-02-23

    We have previously reported that lead (Pb(2+)) exposure results in both presynaptic and postsynaptic changes in developing neurons as a result of inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). NMDAR inhibition by Pb(2+) during synaptogenesis disrupts downstream trans-synaptic signaling of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and exogenous addition of BDNF can recover the effects of Pb(2+) on both presynaptic protein expression and presynaptic vesicular release. NMDAR activity can modulate other trans-synaptic signaling pathways, such as nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Thus, it is possible that other trans-synaptic pathways in addition to BDNF signaling may be disrupted by Pb(2+) exposure. The current study investigated whether exogenous addition of NO could recover the presynaptic vesicular proteins lost as a result of Pb(2+) exposure during synaptogenesis, namely Synaptophysin (Syn) and Synaptobrevin (Syb). We observed that exogenous addition of NO during Pb(2+) exposure results in complete recovery of whole-cell Syn levels and partial recovery of Syn and Syb synaptic targeting in Pb(2+)-exposed neurons. PMID:22265330

  13. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  14. Prolonged nitric oxide exposure enhances anoikis resistance and migration through epithelial-mesenchymal transition and caveolin-1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Chanvorachote, Pithi; Pongrakhananon, Varisa; Chunhacha, Preedakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in tumor microenvironment may have a significant impact on metastatic behaviors of cancer. Noncytotoxic doses of NO enhanced anoikis resistance and migration in lung cancer H23 cells via an increase in lamellipodia, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including vimentin and snail, and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). However, the induction of EMT was found in Cav-1-knock down cells treated with NO, suggesting that EMT was through Cav-1-independent pathway. These effects of NO were consistently observed in other lung cancer cells including H292 and H460 cells. These findings highlight the novel role of NO on EMT and metastatic behaviors of cancer cells. PMID:24967418

  15. Assessing noxious effects of dietary exposure to methylmercury, PCBs and Se coexisting in environmentally contaminated rice in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Yang, Yichen; Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenhua; Liu, Xiaojie; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Qu, Yiya; Shi, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury are two of the most ubiquitous environmental contaminants in Guizhou province. Rice is eaten with almost every meal and provides more calories than any single food in Guizhou province. The estimated tolerable daily intake of total mercury, MeHg, Se and PCBs from Guizhou contaminated rice by Chinese people showed that MeHg and/or PCBs exceeded the corresponding limits. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of exposure to environmental contaminated rice on neurobehavioral development and neurobiological disruptions in mice. Animals were treated from postnatal day (PND) 22 to 91. At PND 26-91 days of age, mice were tested for neurobehavioural development and neurochemical level changes. We showed that dietary exposure to environmentally contaminated rice gave rise to different changes in antioxidants. Reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and excess increased nitric oxide (NO) indicated aggravation of oxidative status after long-term dietary intake of Hg and PCBs. Neurobehavioral derangement in the central nervous system and significant delay in the Morris water maze test response on PND 91 are correlated with the increased of c-fos/c-jun expression levels in the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that MeHg neurotoxicity might be a greater hazard than that associated with PCB, but PCB may augment the neurobehavioral deficits caused by increased levels of mercury exposure. The simultaneous intake of selenium might have a protective effect on Hg accumulation in the body, and vitamin C might protect mice against the toxic effects of PCBs. However, the protective role of Se and vitamin C is very limited for multiple-agent pollution. Immediately early genes in the brain response to contaminated rice might be dependent on interaction among NO, NO synthase (NOS), SOD and reduced glutathione (GSH). We should be alert to mental health problems in human beings when any kind of Hg- and PCB-polluted food is

  16. [The effects of prenatal environmental exposures on children development and health].

    PubMed

    Tao, Shuman; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    The negative effects of environmental exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and children development have been confirmed. It has been found that environmental exposures during pregnancy have a great influence on the growth and development of fetus, birth outcomes and children's psychology, behavior and neural development. In this review, according to different types of environmental exposures, we focused on the key issues of the fetus or children induced by four aspects of environment exposure, including environmental chemicals, unhealthy life styles and behaviors, stress and other risk factors, and discussed the adverse effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of infants, children's psychology, behavior, social and cognitive, such as birth defects, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, learning disorder and intelligence development and so on. We also suggested that the researches on mechanism of the negative effects of environmental exposure on children's health should be strengthened in the future. PMID:26926732

  17. Human health perspectives on environmental exposure to benzidine: a review.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, G

    1996-01-01

    Benzidine, an odorless, white to slightly reddish-white crystalline organic compound, is an environmental contaminant that has been identified at about 30 National Priorities List (NPL) hazardous waste sites in the United States. In the environment, it is usually found attached to suspended particles either in its "free" state or as chloride or sulfate salts. In the past, U.S. industries used large quantities of benzidine to produce dyes for paper, clothes, and leather. Since the ban on its production and use in the United States in the 1970s, this compound is imported for specialty uses. People living near hazardous waste sites might be exposed to benzidine by drinking contaminated water, by inhaling contaminated air, or by swallowing or touching contaminated dust. People can also be exposed by using benzidine dyes on paper, clothes, and other materials. Human occupational data and studies of laboratory animals suggest that people exposed to benzidine may develop adverse systemic health effects or cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the World Health Organization (WHO) have classified benzidine as a carcinogen. Urinary bladder cancer is the most common form of cancer caused by exposure to benzidine. The stomach, kidneys, brain, mouth, esophagus, liver, and gallbladder might also be targets. The information presented in the article may help public health officials, physicians, and toxicologists evaluate and develop the health information materials on the nature of benzidine in the environment and its potential impact on public health. PMID:8581430

  18. Effects of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure on locomotor activity, and hippocampal weight, neurons, and nitric oxide synthase activity of the young postnatal guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Gibson, M A; Butters, N S; Reynolds, J N; Brien, J F

    2000-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-catalyzed formation of NO from L-arginine may be involved in ethanol teratogenesis involving the hippocampus. This hypothesis was tested by determining the effects of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure on locomotor activity and on hippocampal weight, number of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells, and NOS activity of the postnatal guinea pig. Timed, pregnant guinea pigs received one of the following chronic oral regimens throughout gestation: 4 g ethanol/kg maternal body weight/day, isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding, or water. At postnatal day (PD) 10, spontaneous locomotor activity was measured. At PD 12, histological analysis was performed on the hippocampal formation, in which hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells were counted; body, brain, and hippocampal weights were measured; and hippocampal NOS enzymatic activity was determined using a radiometric assay. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure produced hyperactivity, decreased the brain and hippocampal weights with no change in body weight, decreased the number of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells by 25-30%, and had no effect on hippocampal NOS activity compared with the two control groups. These data, together with our previous findings in the fetal guinea pig, demonstrate that chronic prenatal ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal NOS activity in near-term fetal life that temporally precedes the selective loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in postnatal life. PMID:10758347

  19. Health implications of exposure to environmental nitrogenous compounds.

    PubMed

    Mensinga, Tjeert T; Speijers, Gerrit J; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2003-01-01

    All living systems need nitrogen for the production of complex organic molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, hormones and enzymes. Due to the intense use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers and livestock manure in modern day agriculture, food (particularly vegetables) and drinking water may contain higher concentrations of nitrate than in the past. The mean intake of nitrate per person in Europe is about 50-140 mg/day and in the US about 40-100 mg/day. In the proximal small intestine, nitrate is rapidly and almost completely absorbed (bioavailability at least 92%). In humans, approximately, 25% of the nitrate ingested is secreted in saliva, where some 20% (about 5-8% of the nitrate intake) is converted to nitrite by commensal bacteria. The nitrite so formed is then absorbed primarily in the small intestine. Nitrate may also be synthesised endogenously from nitric oxide (especially in case of inflammation), which reacts to form nitrite. Normal healthy adults excrete in the urine approximately 62 mg nitrate ion/day from endogenous synthesis. Thus, when nitrate intake is low and there are no additional exogenous sources (e.g. gastrointestinal infections), the endogenous production of nitrate is more important than exogenous sources. Nitrate itself is generally regarded nontoxic. Toxicity is usually the result of the conversion of nitrate into the more toxic nitrite. There are two major toxicological concerns regarding nitrite. First, nitrite may induce methaemoglobinaemia, which can result in tissue hypoxia, and possibly death. Secondly, nitrite may interact with secondary or N-alkyl-amides to form N-nitroso carcinogens. However, epidemiological investigations and human toxicological studies have not shown an unequivocal relationship between nitrate intake and the risk of cancer. The Joint Expert Committee of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (JECFA) and the European Commission's Scientific Committee on

  20. Features of Microglia and Neuroinflammation Relevant to Environmental Exposure and Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Andrew D.; Harry, G. Jean

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are resident cells of the brain involved in regulatory processes critical for development, maintenance of the neural environment, injury and repair. They belong to the monocytic-macrophage lineage and serve as brain immune cells to orchestrate innate immune responses; however, they are distinct from other tissue macrophages due to their relatively quiescent phenotype and tight regulation by the CNS microenvironment. Microglia actively survey the surrounding parenchyma and respond rapidly to changes such that any disruption to neural architecture or function can contribute to the loss in regulation of the microglia phenotype. In many models of neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity, early events of synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss are accompanied by an inflammatory response including activation of microglia, perivascular monocytes, and recruitment of leukocytes. In culture, microglia have been shown to be capable of releasing several potentially cytotoxic substances, such as reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, arachidonic acid derivatives, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines; however, they also produce various neurotrophic factors and quench damage from free radicals and excitotoxins. As the primary source for pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglia are implicated as pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses. Neuroinflammation should be considered as a balanced network of processes whereby subtle modifications can shift the cells toward disparate outcomes. For any evaluation of neuroinflammation and microglial responses, within the framework of neurotoxicity or degeneration, one key question in determining the consequence of neuroinflammation is whether the response is an initiating event or the consequence of tissue damage. As examples of environmental exposure-related neuroinflammation in the literature, we provide an evaluation of data on manganese and diesel exhaust

  1. Unmasking silent neurotoxicity following developmental exposure to environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Andrew D; Aschner, Michael; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Bilbo, Staci D; Caudle, W Michael; Makris, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Silent neurotoxicity, a term introduced approximately 25years ago, is defined as a persistent change to the nervous system that does not manifest as overt evidence of toxicity (i.e. it remains clinically unapparent) unless unmasked by experimental or natural processes. Silent neurotoxicants can be challenging for risk assessors, as the multifactorial experiments needed to reveal their effects are seldom conducted, and they are not addressed by current study design guidelines. This topic was the focus of a symposium addressing the interpretation and use of silent neurotoxicity data in human health risk assessments of environmental toxicants at the annual meeting of the Developmental Neurotoxicology Society (previously the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society) on June 30th, 2014. Several factors important to the design and interpretation of studies assessing the potential for silent neurotoxicity were discussed by the panelists and audience members. Silent neurotoxicity was demonstrated to be highly specific to the characteristics of the animals being examined, the unmasking agent tested, and the behavioral endpoint(s) evaluated. Overall, the experimental examples presented highlighted a need to consider common adverse outcomes and common biological targets for chemical and non-chemical stressors, particularly when the exposure and stressors are known to co-occur. Risk assessors could improve the evaluation of silent neurotoxicants in assessments through specific steps from researchers, including experiments to reveal the molecular targets and mechanisms that may result in specific types of silent neurotoxicity, and experiments with complex challenges reminiscent of the human situation. PMID:27049787

  2. Influence of Environmental Exposures on Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Kim, Woo Jin; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Yoon, Ho Il; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Sang Do

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation and results from environmental factors and genetic factors. Although cigarette smoking is a major risk factor, other environmental exposures can influence COPD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of COPD according to the history of environmental exposure. Methods The study population comprised of 347 subjects with COPD who were recruited from the pulmonary clinics of 14 hospitals within the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease Study Group. We classified environmental exposures according to history of living near factory, and direct exposure history to firewood or briquette. According to living environmental exposures, we compared the frequency of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, quality of life, exercise capacity, and computed tomography phenotypes. Results Thirty-one subjects (8.9%) had history of living near factory, 271 (78.3%) had exposure history to briquette, and 184 (53.3%) had exposure history to firewood. Patients with history of living near a factory had a significantly longer duration of sputum, while patients with exposure to firewood tended to have lower forced expiratory volume in one second, and patients with exposure to briquette tended to have lower six minute walk distance. Conclusion COPD subjects with the history of living near factory had more frequent respiratory symptoms such as sputum. Our data suggest that environmental exposure may influence clinical phenotype of COPD. PMID:24920949

  3. Toxic Environmental Chemicals: The Role of Reproductive Health Professionals In Preventing Harmful Exposures

    PubMed Central

    SUTTON, Patrice; WOODRUFF, Tracey J.; PERRON, Joanne; STOTLAND, Naomi; CONRY, Jeanne A.; MILLER, Mark D.; GIUDICE, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Every pregnant woman in the U.S. is exposed to many and varied environmental chemicals. Rapidly accumulating scientific evidence documents that widespread exposure to environmental chemicals at levels encountered in daily life can adversely impact reproductive and developmental health. Preconception and prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals are of particular import because they may have a profound and lasting impact on health across the life course. Thus, preventing developmental exposures to environmental chemicals would benefit greatly from the active participation of reproductive health professionals in clinical and policy arenas. PMID:22405527

  4. Effect of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure on nitric oxide synthase I and III proteins in the hippocampus of the near-term fetal guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K A; Chiu, J; Reynolds, J N; Brien, J F

    1999-01-01

    Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure suppresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymatic activity, in the hippocampus of the near-term fetal guinea pig at gestational day (GD) 62. The objective of this study was to determine if this decrease in NOS activity is the result of decreased NOS I and NOS III protein expression. Pregnant guinea pigs received oral administration of 4 g ethanol/kg maternal body weight/day (n = 8), isocaloric-sucrose/pair feeding (n = 8), or water (n = 8) from GD 2 to GD 61. The NOS I and NOS III protein expression and localization in the hippocampus were determined using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The chronic ethanol regimen produced fetal body, brain, and hippocampal growth restriction compared with the isocaloric-sucrose/pair fed and water groups but did not affect the expression or localization of NOS I and NOS III proteins in the hippocampus. The decrease in NOS enzymatic activity induced by chronic prenatal ethanol exposure may be the result of posttranslational modification of NOS I and/or NOS III protein in the hippocampus of the near-term fetal guinea pig. PMID:10386828

  5. Prolonged exposure of chromaffin cells to nitric oxide down-regulates the activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase and corresponding mRNA and protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Rut; Torres, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO) when the latter is produced at low concentrations. This enzyme exists mainly as a heterodimer consisting of one α and one β subunit and converts GTP to the second intracellular messenger cGMP. In turn, cGMP plays a key role in regulating several physiological processes in the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of a NO donor on sGC activity and its protein and subunit mRNA levels in a neural cell model. Results Continuous exposure of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture to the nitric oxide donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO), resulted in a lower capacity of the cells to synthesize cGMP in response to a subsequent NO stimulus. This effect was not prevented by an increase of intracellular reduced glutathione level. DETA/NO treatment decreased sGC subunit mRNA and β1 subunit protein levels. Both sGC activity and β1 subunit levels decreased more rapidly in chromaffin cells exposed to NO than in cells exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that NO decreases β1 subunit stability. The presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors effectively prevented the DETA/NO-induced down regulation of sGC subunit mRNA and partially inhibited the reduction in β1 subunits. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of PKG mediates the drop in sGC subunit mRNA levels, and that NO down-regulates sGC activity by decreasing subunit mRNA levels through a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and by reducing β1 subunit stability. PMID:12350235

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSOR AND EXPOSURE INFORMATION FOR OLDER ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product describes results of literature and data reviews to identify important chemical and biological stressors in the aging population, summarize extant exposure information, and identify data gaps.

  7. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-back of Environmental Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants’ responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. We study how the “exposure experience” —the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants— is shaped by community context and the report-back process itself. In addition, we investigate an activist, collective form of exposure experience. We analyze themes of expectations and learning, trust, and action. The findings reveal that while participants interpret scientific results to affirm lay knowledge of urban industrial toxics, they also absorb new information regarding other pollutant sources. By linking the public understanding of science literature to the illness and exposure experience concepts, this study unravels the complex relationship between lay experience and lay understanding of science. It also shows that to support policy development and/or social change, community-based participatory research efforts must attend to participants’ understanding of science. PMID:21673146

  8. MODELING INHALATION AND MULTIMEDIA MULTIPATHWAY HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children and adults to air toxics or multimedia pollutants require careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pollutants that may be present in different media, as well as various routes and pathways of exposures associated with age-specif...

  9. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  10. A BRIEF TARGETED REVIEW OF SUSCEPTIBILITY FACTORS, ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES, ASHTMA INCIDENCE, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE ASHTMA INCIDENCE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetics, obesity, age, and lifestyle are major susceptibility factors in the induction of asthma and can interact with environmental exposures either synergistically or antagonistically. Different environmental exposures that increase or decrease the likelihood of developing as...

  11. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  12. AN INTEGRATED NETWORK APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INTERACTIONS IN COMPLEX DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    DARABOS, CHRISTIAN; QIU, JINGYA; MOORE, JASON H.

    2015-01-01

    Complex diseases are the result of intricate interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. In previous studies, we used epidemiological and genetic data linking environmental exposure or genetic variants to phenotypic disease to construct Human Phenotype Networks and separately analyze the effects of both environment and genetic factors on disease interactions. To better capture the intricacies of the interactions between environmental exposure and the biological pathways in complex disorders, we integrate both aspects into a single “tripartite” network. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms by which chemical agents disrupt biological pathways are still poorly understood. In this study, we use our integrated network model to identify specific biological pathway candidates possibly disrupted by environmental agents. We conjecture that a higher number of co-occurrences between an environmental substance and biological pathway pair can be associated with a higher likelihood that the substance is involved in disrupting that pathway. We validate our model by demonstrating its ability to detect known arsenic and signal transduction pathway interactions and speculate on candidate cell-cell junction organization pathways disrupted by cadmium. The validation was supported by distinct publications of cell biology and genetic studies that associated environmental exposure to pathway disruption. The integrated network approach is a novel method for detecting the biological effects of environmental exposures. A better understanding of the molecular processes associated with specific environmental exposures will help in developing targeted molecular therapies for patients who have been exposed to the toxicity of environmental chemicals. PMID:26776169

  13. Environmental Exposure Effects on Composite Materials for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    This period's activities were highlighted by continued long term and accelerated lab exposure testing, and by completion of all fabrication tasks on the optional material systems, AS1/3501-6 and Kevlar 49/F161-188. Initial baseline testing was performed on the two optional material systems. Long term exposure specimens were returned from three of the four ground rack sites and from two of the three aircraft locations. Test data from specimens returned from Dryden after 2 years exposure do not indicate continuing trends of strength reduction from the 1 year data. Test data from specimens returned from the Wellington, new Zealand ground rack and on Air New Zealand aircraft after 1 year exposure show strength changes fairly typical of other locations.

  14. Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

  15. Occupational and Environmental Exposures Associated with Testicular Germ Cell Tumours: Systematic Review of Prenatal and Life-Long Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Béranger, Rémi; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Schüz, Joachim; Fervers, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed. All selected articles were quality appraised by two independent researchers using the ‘Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale’. Results After exclusion of duplicate reports, 72 relevant articles were selected; 65 assessed exposure in adulthood, 7 assessed parental exposures and 2 assessed both. Associations with occupation was reported for agricultural workers, construction workers, firemen, policemen, military personnel, as well as workers in paper, plastic or metal industries. Electromagnetic fields, PCBs and pesticides were also suggested. However, results were inconsistent and studies showing positive associations tended to had lower quality ranking using the assessment scale (p=0.02). Discussion Current evidence does not allow concluding on existence of any clear association between TGCT and adulthood occupational or environmental exposure. The limitations of the studies may partly explain the inconsistencies observed. The lack of association with adulthood exposure is in line with current hypotheses supporting the prenatal origin of TGCT. Future research should focus on prenatal or early life exposure, as well as combined effect of prenatal and later life exposure. National and international collaborative studies should allow for more adequately powered epidemiological studies. More sophisticated methods for assessing exposure as well as evaluating gene–environment interactions will be necessary to establish

  16. VITELLOGENIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION: A RELATIVE QUANTITATIVE EXPOSURE INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the development of a quantifiable exposure indicator for measuring the presence of environmental estrogens in aquatic systems. Synthetic oligonucleotides, designed specifically for the vitellogenin gene (Vg) transcription product, were used in a Reverse Transcription Po...

  17. FIELD DEPLOYABLE TECHNIQUES TO MONITOR EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS THROUGHOUT THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF WILD BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife prompted this study of effects of exposure to environmental estrogens during the breeding cycle of wild birds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as...

  18. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  19. An exposure-weighted score test for genetic associations integrating environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Han, Summer S; Rosenberg, Philip S; Ghosh, Arpita; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2015-09-01

    Current methods for detecting genetic associations lack full consideration of the background effects of environmental exposures. Recently proposed methods to account for environmental exposures have focused on logistic regressions with gene-environment interactions. In this report, we developed a test for genetic association, encompassing a broad range of risk models, including linear, logistic and probit, for specifying joint effects of genetic and environmental exposures. We obtained the test statistics by maximizing over a class of score tests, each of which involves modified standard tests of genetic association through a weight function. This weight function reflects the potential heterogeneity of the genetic effects by levels of environmental exposures under a particular model. Simulation studies demonstrate the robust power of these methods for detecting genetic associations under a wide range of scenarios. Applications of these methods are further illustrated using data from genome-wide association studies of type 2 diabetes with body mass index and of lung cancer risk with smoking. PMID:26134142

  20. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  1. THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS): BRIEFING TO THE MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  2. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations with Tremor and Motor Function

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and han...

  3. The autoantigen Ro52 is an E3 ligase resident in the cytoplasm but enters the nucleus upon cellular exposure to nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Alexander; Oke, Vilija; Elfving, Ase; Nyberg, Filippa; Covacu, Ruxandra; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie

    2008-12-10

    Patients with the systemic autoimmune diseases Sjoegrens's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus often have autoantibodies against the intracellular protein Ro52. Ro52 is an E3 ligase dependent on the ubiquitin conjugation enzymes UBE2D1 and UBE2E1. While Ro52 and UBE2D1 are cytoplasmic proteins, UBE2E1 is localized to the nucleus. Here, we investigate how domains of human Ro52 regulate its intracellular localization. By expressing fluorescently labeled Ro52 and Ro52 mutants in HeLa cells, an intact coiled-coil domain was found to be necessary for the cytoplasmic localization of Ro52. The amino acids 381-470 of the B30.2 region were essential for translocation into the nucleus. Furthermore, after exposure of HeLa cells to the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO), Ro52 translocated to the nucleus. A nuclear localization of Ro52 in inflamed tissue expressing inducible NO synthetase (iNOS) from cutaneous lupus patients was observed by immunohistochemistry and verified in NO-treated cultures of patient-derived primary keratinocytes. Our results show that the localization of Ro52 is regulated by endogenous sequences, and that nuclear translocation is induced by an inflammatory mediator. This suggests that Ro52 has both cytoplasmic and nuclear substrates, and that Ro52 mediates ubiquitination through UBE2D1 in the cytoplasm and through UBE2E1 in the nucleus.

  4. Indigenous Peoples of North America: Environmental Exposures and Reproductive Justice

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katsi; Plain, Ron; Sanchez, Kathy; Waghiyi, Vi; Miller, Pamela; Dufault, Renee; Sislin, Caitlin; Carpenter, David O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice. Objectives: In this commentary, we review five indigenous communities in various stages of environmental health research and discuss the intersection of environmental health and reproductive justice issues in these communities as well as the limitations of legal recourse. Discussion: The health disparities impacting life expectancy and reproductive capabilities in indigenous communities are due to a combination of social, economic, and environmental factors. The system of federal environmental and Indian law is insufficient to protect indigenous communities from environmental contamination. Many communities are interested in developing appropriate research partnerships in order to discern the full impact of environmental contamination and prevent further damage. Conclusions: Continued research involving collaborative partnerships among scientific researchers, community members, and health care providers is needed to determine the impacts of this contamination and to develop approaches for remediation and policy interventions. PMID:22899635

  5. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    PubMed Central

    White, Allison G.; Watts, George S.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Lutz, Eric A.; Harber, Philip; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb) and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb). To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteriodetes (12%) were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%), Prevotellaceae (12%) and Veillonellacea (7%) being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota. PMID:24566055

  7. Approaches to Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in assessment of individual exposure levels leads to bias, often, but not always, toward the null in estimates of health effects, and to underestimation of the variability of the estimates, leading to anticonservative p-values. In the absence of data on the uncertainty in individual exposure estimates, sensitivity analysis, also known as uncertainty analysis and bias analysis, is available. Hypothesized values of key parameters of the model relating the observed exposure to the true exposure are used to assess the resulting amount of bias in point and interval estimates. In general, the relative risk estimates can vary from zero to infinity as the hypothesized values of key parameters of the measurement error model vary. Thus, we recommend that exposure validation data be used to empirically adjust point and interval estimates of health effects for measurement error. The remainder of this review gives an overview of available methods for doing so. Just as we routinely adjust for confounding, we can and should routinely adjust for measurement error. PMID:20070202

  8. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  9. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies. PMID:26168307

  10. Exposure, epidemiology, and mechanism of the environmental toxicant manganese.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Culbreth, Megan; Aschner, Michael

    2016-07-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that global manganese (Mn) pollution to air and water is a significant threat to human health. Despite this recognition, research is only beginning to comprehend the detrimental effects of exposure. Mn, while essential, is particularly harmful to the central nervous system, and overexposure is symptomatic of several neurological disorders. At-risk populations have been identified, but it is still unclear whether typical exposure levels have any long-term consequences. Those at an elevated risk have diminished intellectual function, learning and memory, and mental development. While the overall mechanism of toxicity is undetermined, Mn has been found to induce oxidative stress, exacerbate mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulate autophagy, and promote apoptosis, ultimately enhancing neurodegeneration. Extrapolation of this in vitro and in vivo data to humans is difficult. There is a definite need to correlate epidemiological studies with causative effects. It is imperative that research efforts endure, so threats are appropriately identified and exposure properly regulated. PMID:27102617

  11. A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHILDREN (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures to Children, which examines the impact of potential exposures during developmental lifestages and subsequent lifestages, while emphasizing the iterative nature of the...

  12. ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

  13. Associations between environmental exposures and asthma control and exacerbations in young children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Smita; Doust, Emma; Cowie, Hilary; Ayres, Jon G; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Objective To complete a systematic review of the literature describing associations between all environmental exposures and asthma symptoms and exacerbations in children up to mean age of 9 years. Design Systematic review. Setting Reference lists of identified studies and reviews were searched for all articles published until November 2013 in electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Controls Trials Register). Participants Studies were selected which examined a link between exposure to environmental factors and asthma symptoms and exacerbations where the study participants were children with a mean age of ⩽9 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures Indices of asthma symptoms, control and exacerbations. Results A total of 27 studies were identified including eight where inhaled allergens and four where environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were the exposures of interest. There was evidence that exposure to allergen, ETS, poor air quality and unflued heaters had a modest magnitude of effect (ORs between 2 and 3). There was also evidence of interactions observed between exposures such as allergen and ETS. Conclusions Exposure to inhaled allergens, ETS, unflued heaters and poor air quality has an important effect on exacerbations in young children with asthma and should be minimised or, ideally, avoided. Better understanding of the effect of exposure to damp housing, air conditioning and dietary factors plus interactions between environmental exposures associated with exacerbations is required. PMID:24523420

  14. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Tracey, Rebecca; Haque, Md M; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm) that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET), a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates), dioxin (TCDD) and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8). After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation). Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease. PMID:22389676

  15. ASSESSING EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN MINORITY AND LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that minority and low income communities are often at greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. Many studies use surrogate measures of exposure for minority and low income populations due the lack of actual data on exposures in these communities. T...

  16. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOXINS: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SUBTLE BEHAVIOR EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been an increase in interest in subtle effects associated with exposure to environmental toxins. ne methodological problem in research in this are involves assessment of degree of contamination when exposure occurs at low and moderate levels. econd problem lie...

  17. Environmental lead exposure and children’s cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    CANFIELD, R. L.; JUSKO, T. A.; KORDAS, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has substantially increased knowledge about the effects of low-level lead exposure on children’s neurobehavioral development. This update article focuses on two specific areas of recent research: low-level effects on cognitive function, and results from experimental and observational studies designed to prevent or reverse the damaging effects of lead on intellectual development, either through chelation therapy or micronutrient supplementation. Taken as a whole, these studies suggest that there is no safe level of lead exposure for young children and, although small, these effects are enduring and possibly permanent. PMID:26660292

  18. Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals and Children's Neurodevelopment: An Update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This review surveys the recent literature on the neurodevelopmental impacts of chemical exposures during pregnancy. The review focuses primarily on chemicals of recent concern, including phthalates, bisphenol-A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds, but also addresses chemicals with longer histories of investigation, including air pollutants, lead, methylmercury, manganese, arsenic, and organophosphate pesticides. For some chemicals of more recent concern, the available literature does not yet afford strong conclusions about neurodevelopment toxicity. In such cases, points of disagreement among studies are identified and suggestions provided for approaches to resolution of the inconsistencies, including greater standardization of methods for expressing exposure and assessing outcomes. PMID:23515885

  19. The contribution of environmental biomonitoring with lichens to assess human exposure to dioxins.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Pereira, Maria João; Soares, Amílcar; Branquinho, Cristina

    2007-05-01

    The contribution of environmental biomonitoring with lichens to assess human exposure to dioxins was the main purpose of this work. For that, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were measured in 66 lichen sampling points. The obtained information significantly improved the basic knowledge on the environmental exposure to dioxins through distinction between effective control areas from areas with moderate atmospheric deposition. It allowed the integration of PCDD/F atmospheric deposition for much longer periods, allowing to relate low levels with long-term chronic effects on health. Thus, the production of high-resolution data on environmental exposure essential to perform reliable environmental health studies was possible. It was argued that PCDD/F in lichens may be used as spatial estimators of the potential risk of inhalation by the population present in the area. An example of the application of this data to select control and exposed areas for environmental health studies was presented. PMID:17321205

  20. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort. PMID:26344491

  1. Evaluating environmental modeling and sampling data with biomarker data to identify sources and routes of exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals results from multiple sources, environmental media, and exposure routes. Ideally, modeled exposures should be compared to biomonitoring data. This study compares the magnitude and variation of modeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures resulting from emissions to outdoor and indoor air and estimated exposure inferred from biomarker levels. Outdoor emissions result in both inhalation and food-based exposures. We modeled PAH intake doses using U.S. EPA's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) county-level emissions data for outdoor inhalation, the CalTOX model for food ingestion (based on NATA emissions), and indoor air concentrations from field studies for indoor inhalation. We then compared the modeled intake with the measured urine levels of hydroxy-PAH metabolites from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) survey as quantifiable human intake of PAH parent-compounds. Lognormal probability plots of modeled intakes and estimated intakes inferred from biomarkers suggest that a primary route of exposure to naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene for the U.S. population is likely inhalation from indoor sources. For benzo(a)pyrene, the predominant exposure route is likely from food ingestion resulting from multi-pathway transport and bioaccumulation due to outdoor emissions. Multiple routes of exposure are important for pyrene. We also considered the sensitivity of the predicted exposure to the proportion of the total naphthalene production volume emitted to the indoor environment. The comparison of PAH biomarkers with exposure variability estimated from models and sample data for various exposure pathways supports that both indoor and outdoor models are needed to capture the sources and routes of exposure to environmental contaminants.

  2. BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS: A SPECIES COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existence of endocrine active substances in the aquatic environment has been clearly established in several studies. Exposure of organisms to both natural and synthetic xenoestrogens have been found to alter biochemical homeostatis and, in some cases, result in reproductive and d...

  3. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN CZECH CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient levels of SO2, NOx, PAHs and heavy metals are elevated in Northern Bohemia as a result of intensive mining and combustion of brown coal. To assess the neurotoxicological effects of exposure to these chemicals, tests from the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES2) we...

  4. Environmental Exposures and Breast Cancer on Long Island

    Cancer.gov

    A nested, case-control study to determine if residence in close proximity to hazardous waste sites, toxic release inventory sites, prior land use (for example, farm land), and exposure to various chemicals in drinking water may be associated with breast cancer on Long Island.

  5. Environmental chemical mixtures: Assessing ecological exposure and effects in streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a USGS fact sheet that describes a collaborative effort between USGS and US EPA to characterize exposures to chemical mixtures and associated biological effects for a diverse range of US streams representing varying watershed size, land-use patterns, and ecotypes.

  6. Exposure to Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to exogenous chemicals can impact endocrine function at multiple sites and through numerous specific modes of action, which may have far-reaching impacts on human health and development. Widespread human exposure to numerous known or suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been documented in the US and worldwide, as have trends for increased rates of endocrine-related diseases and disorders among children. While human epidemiology studies of exposure to EDCs and children’s health remain extremely limited, there is a growing body of evidence showing that exposure to a number of chemicals commonly found in consumer goods, personal care products, food, drinking water, and other sources may adversely impact child development through altered endocrine function. This narrative review provides a brief introduction to several common EDCs (with a specific focus on persistent organic pollutants, phthalates, bisphenol A, and contemporary use pesticides, which only represents a small number of all known or suspected EDCs), an overview of the state of the human evidence for adverse impacts of EDCs on child development (fetal growth, early reproductive tract development, pubertal development, neurodevelopment, and obesity), guidance for health care providers based on current knowledge, and recommendations for future research. PMID:22664748

  7. Role of Metabolomics in Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing demand for the reduction, replacement, and refinement of the use of animal models in exposure assessments has stimulated the pursuit of alternative methods. This has included not only the use of the in vitro systems (e.g., cell cultures) in lieu of in vivo whole an...

  8. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth.

    PubMed

    Winterbottom, Emily F; Fei, Dennis L; Koestler, Devin C; Giambelli, Camilla; Wika, Eric; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Marsit, Carmen J; Karagas, Margaret R; Robbins, David J

    2015-06-01

    Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health. PMID:26288817

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  10. High Throughput Exposure Forecasts for Environmental Chemical Risk (SOT RASS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Email Announcement to RASS: On December 11th we have rescheduled the webinar regarding progress and advances in exposure assessment, which was cancelled due to the government shutdown in October. Dr. Elaine Hubal, Deputy Director of the Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) n...