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Sample records for environmental factors tested

  1. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed

  2. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  3. Effects of environmental and experimental design factors on culturing and testing of Ceriodaphnia dubia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, J.D.; DeGraeve, G.M.; Moore, E.L.; Lenoble, B.J.; Pollock, T.L.; Smith, G.J. )

    1989-09-01

    EPA has developed a 7-day toxicity test to evaluate effects of effluents on Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction. This study evaluated effects of laboratory conditions and culturing and tests procedures on Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction. Temperature, food concentration, chamber size, solution renewal frequency, light quality, illumination, photoperiod, water type, and test organism age were evaluated to determine how these various factors affected individual culturing success and acceptibility and reproducibility of toxicity test results. Test conditions proposed by EPA were evaluated by varying individual environmental or experimental design conditions to determine a range of responses for survival and reproduction under controlled conditions, both with and without a reference toxicant. For those conditions not specified by EPA (e.g., water hardness, light quality), a commonly used range of conditions was evaluated. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Environmental Factors in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed. PMID:23346059

  5. Environmental risk factors for autism.

    PubMed

    Dietert, Rodney R; Dietert, Janice M; Dewitt, Jamie C

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24149029

  6. [Environmental factors of longevity].

    PubMed

    Christen, Yves

    2003-03-01

    A PROBABLE ROLE: The great increase in life expectancy over the past decades and too short a time lapse for any major genetic mutations to intervene, are arguments in favour of the intervention of environmental factors in longevity. A FAIRLY LONG LIST: Various environmental factors can be envisaged: prenatal environment, pollution, radiation and oncogenic agents, notably tobacco, food (quantitatively and qualitatively), medicinal products, stress, education and socio-professional life style, isolation, number of children and sexual activity, sports and exercising, etc. It is highly likely that all these factors, or at least some of them, have a real effect on longevity, although this is difficult to demonstrate directly. A COMBINED EFFECT: The basic idea of this paper is that these environmental factors should be seen as agents, the effects of which would be combined with those of genetic factors, considered as agents of radically different nature. We suggest that, in order to have any real effect, these environmental factors have to work on the same cell mechanisms as those that affect the genetic process, notably the mechanisms related to oxidative stress and genetic expression. PMID:12712686

  7. Overview of environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

  8. von Willebrand Factor Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests , Complete Blood Count , Coagulation Factor VIII , PT , PTT At a Glance Test Sample The Test Common ... platelet aggregation, etc.), PT (prothrombin time) , and/or PTT (partial thromboplastin time) . Other tests may be ordered ...

  9. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  10. Coagulation Factors Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related tests: Prothrombin Time (PT) ; Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) ; Fibrinogen ; von Willebrand Factor At a Glance Test ... prolonged Prothrombin Time (PT) or Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) . These tests are used as screening tools to ...

  11. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  12. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    PubMed

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  13. Noctuid moth diversity along a temperate elevational gradient: testing the role of environmental factors, MDE, and Rapoport's rule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors, including climate, area, and habitat diversity likely influence spatial variation in species diversity along elevational gradients. In this study, we test the relative influence of energy availability, habitat diversity, mid-domain effects, and area on the diversity of noctuid moths i...

  14. A test of social cognitive theory reciprocal and sequential effects: hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors among lottery gamblers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai; Chanchalermporn, Nathanat

    2007-06-01

    This study tested social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) hypotheses of reciprocal and sequential effects among person, environment variables and behavior. The study examined the impact of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on the frequency, amounts of lottery gambling and chasing of particular numbers among Thai lottery gamblers. One hundred and fifty gamblers who visited two temples in Bangkok to search for number clues before buying tickets and 150 gamblers who simply bought lottery tickets from the stalls were recruited for the study. Models were constructed to test the effect of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on gambling behavior, and the reciprocal effect of gambling behavior on hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors. Results confirmed the theoretical reciprocal effects. A sequential effect model showing the effects of environmental factors on superstitious belief, hope and gambling behavior was also constructed and hope was found to be the result of superstitious belief. To reduce lottery gambling, the players need to be warned of their distorted hope and the small chance of winning lottery. PMID:17149670

  15. Environmental factors associated with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus; Stokes, Lynette D.; Warren, Rueben

    2003-01-01

    Asthma, a disease of attacks and remission, continues to account for substantial morbidity and direct economic costs. Numerous studies--epidemiologic, toxicologic and clinical--present evidence for a broad spectrum of environmental risk factors associated with asthma. This review summarizes current thinking on a subset of these factors. Knowledge of potential environmental determinants of asthma is important to both the patient and healthcare professional in the application of multiple modalities of medical and environmental intervention for management of the development, and exacerbation of this chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. PMID:12760611

  16. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  17. Environmental Factors Inducing Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, N

    2012-01-01

    Background An explosion of research has been done in discovering how human health is affected by environmental factors. I will discuss the impacts of environmental cancer causing factors and how they continue to cause multiple disruptions in cellular networking. Some risk factors may not cause cancer. Other factors initiate consecutive genetic mutations that would eventually alter the normal pathway of cellular proliferations and differentiation. Genetic mutations in four groups of genes; (Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Apoptosis genes and DNA repairing genes) play a vital role in altering the normal cell division. In recent years, molecular genetics have greatly increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms in cancer development and utilizing these molecular techniques for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. Inhibition of carcinogenic exposures wherever possible should be the goal of cancer prevention programs to reduce exposures from all environmental carcinogens. PMID:23304670

  18. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values. PMID:26614451

  19. Space Environmental Testing at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauder, Lonny R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of space environmental testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The contents include: 1) Solar Absorptance measurements; 2) Emittance measurements; 3) Transient Calorimetric Technique; 4) Electrostatic charge testing; 5) UV degradation testing; 6) Solar Wind Facility; and 7) Solar Wind testing.

  20. Environmental risk factors for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Kimberlie; Murray, Robin M.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors are clearly important in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the environment in which an individual's genes find expression is also crucial to the development of the illness. In this review of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, we consider risks operating prenatally and perinatally, during childhood, and then later in life prior to illness onset. Some of these risk factors have been well documented, for example, early hazards causing fetal growth retardation or hypoxia, and hazards nearer the onset of illness like drug abuse and migration. Others are much less certain. The importance of interaction between genetic and environmental risk is, however, undoubtedly important and there is emerging evidence for this from a range of sources. As the etiology of schiz-ophrenia is unraveled, the picture becomes more complex, but also more obviously relevant to the plight of the individual patient. PMID:16060597

  1. Johnny Horizon Environmental Test Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Richard; Bentley, William

    Derived from tests presently used by state and federal agencies involved with pollution detection, this Environmental Test Kit contains materials and instructions for ten experiments. Each experiment is designed to test a different aspect of air and water, to find out whether or not the air and water in the tester's immediate area has been…

  2. Johnny Horizon Environmental Test Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Richard; Bentley, William

    Derived from tests presently used by state and federal agencies involved with pollution detection, this Environmental Test Kit contains materials and instructions for ten experiments. Each experiment is designed to test a different aspect of air and water, to find out whether or not the air and water in the tester's immediate area has been

  3. Environmental factors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pantazou, Vasiliki; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is recognized as a disorder involving the immune system, the interplay of environmental factors and individual genetic susceptibility seems to influence MS onset and clinical expression, as well as therapeutic responsiveness. Multiple human epidemiological and animal model studies have evaluated the effect of different environmental factors, such as viral infections, vitamin intake, sun exposure, or still dietary and life habits on MS prevalence. Previous Epstein-Barr virus infection, especially if this infection occurs in late childhood, and lack of vitamin D (VitD) currently appear to be the most robust environmental factors for the risk of MS, at least from an epidemiological standpoint. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) activates VitD production but there are also some elements supporting the fact that insufficient UVR exposure during childhood may represent a VitD-independent risk factor of MS development, as well as negative effect on the clinical and radiological course of MS. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the gut-brain axis, a bidirectional neuro-hormonal communication system between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, components of the intestinal microbiota may be pro-inflammatory, promote the migration of immune cells into the CNS, and thus be a key parameter for the development of autoimmune disorders such as MS. Interestingly most environmental factors seem to play a role during childhood. Thus, if childhood is the most fragile period to develop MS later in life, preventive measures should be applied early in life. For example, adopting a diet enriched in VitD, playing outdoor and avoiding passive smoking would be extremely simple measures of primary prevention for public health strategies. However, these hypotheses need to be confirmed by prospective evaluations, which are obviously difficult to conduct. In addition, it remains to be determined whether and how VitD supplementation in adult life would be useful in alleviating the course of MS, once this disease has already started. A better knowledge of the influence of various environmental stimuli on MS risk and course would certainly allow the development of add-on therapies or measures in parallel to the immunotherapies currently used in MS. PMID:25744944

  4. Testing a Model of Environmental Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Middle and High School Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, S. Colby; Woolley, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the School Success Profile generated by 19,228 middle and high school students were organized into three broad categories of risk and protective factors--control, support, and challenge--to examine the relative and combined power of aggregate scale scores in each category so as to predict academic success. It was hypothesized that higher

  5. Testing a Model of Environmental Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Middle and High School Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, S. Colby; Woolley, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the School Success Profile generated by 19,228 middle and high school students were organized into three broad categories of risk and protective factors--control, support, and challenge--to examine the relative and combined power of aggregate scale scores in each category so as to predict academic success. It was hypothesized that higher…

  6. Environmental factors in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cosselman, Kristen E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-11-01

    Environmental exposure is an important but underappreciated risk factor contributing to the development and severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heart and vascular system are highly vulnerable to a number of environmental agents--ambient air pollution and the metals arsenic, cadmium, and lead are widespread and the most-extensively studied. Like traditional risk factors, such as smoking and diabetes mellitus, these exposures advance disease and mortality via augmentation or initiation of pathophysiological processes associated with CVD, including blood-pressure control, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, vascular function, and atherogenesis. Although residence in highly polluted areas is associated with high levels of cardiovascular risk, adverse effects on cardiovascular health also occur at exposure levels below current regulatory standards. Considering the widespread prevalence of exposure, even modest contributions to CVD risk can have a substantial effect on population health. Evidence-based clinical and public-health strategies aimed at reducing environmental exposures from current levels could substantially lower the burden of CVD-related death and disability worldwide. PMID:26461967

  7. Environmental factors and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Jenerowicz, Dorota; Silny, Wojciech; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Polańska, Adriana; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Olek-Hrab, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    An objective of this article is a review of contemporary knowledge on various environmental factors, that influence prevalence and course of allergic diseases, like asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and also contact dermatitis. Surrounding climate may directly influence each patient, but also determines type of flora and fauna within particular geographical regions and thus affects sources of airborne and food allergens. Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a strong relationship between air pollution and development and exacerbation of asthma and other allergic diseases--main attention has been concentrated on gaseous materials such as ozone (O(3)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), as well as particulate matter (PM), generated by car traffic and industry. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) has the ability to bind proteins and may serve as a potential carrier of allergens, penetrating deep into respiratory tract. Among the most extensively studied environmental factors influencing allergy are airborne allergens: dust mites, pollens, fungi and animal dander. Foods may elicit both true IgE-mediated allergy and also various non-immunological reactions, associated with direct release of mediators or toxic activity. It has been estimated, that over 85,000 chemicals are recognized in the human environment and they may act as contact allergens or irritants, causing allergic or non-allergic contact dermatitis. Among them metals, fragrances, preservatives, botanicals and paraphenylenediamine are considered as the most significant. Infections have always been associated with etiopathogenesis of allergic diseases and they may contribute to exacerbation of their course. PMID:23020042

  8. Environmental factors in Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Pieter J; Dietrich, Andrea; Edwards, Mark J; Elamin, Ishraga; Martino, Davide

    2013-07-01

    Environmental exposures during the prenatal period, perinatal stages, and postnatal life may contribute to onset and course of Tourette syndrome (TS). Pregnancy-related noxious exposures may be more frequent in pregnancies of children who will develop TS, particularly maternal smoking and prenatal life stressors. Lower birth weight and use of forceps at delivery may be associated with tic severity in the offspring; moreover, low birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy may affect the risk of co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Group A streptococcal infections as risk-modifier for TS has not been convincingly demonstrated to date, although an interaction with stressors was suggested. The PANDAS hypothesis is currently undergoing a nosological revision. Only limited anecdotal evidence supports a link of TS to other pathogens. Nevertheless, the relationship between infections and TS may be complex. Recent data point to intrinsically altered immune regulation in TS, which might predispose to both infections and autoimmune mechanisms; however, evidence of cell-mediated and antibody-mediated autoimmunity in TS is still insufficient. Psychosocial stress remains the most important contextual factor influencing tic severity, as confirmed by prospective studies. This might in part be related to enhanced reactivity of the stress response in TS patients, the mechanisms of which need to be explored further. New studies on large prospective cohorts of patients of different age and the identification of reliable biomarkers or endophenotypes indicating early, prenatal exposure to environmental insults are needed. PMID:23092654

  9. Causes of ICU psychosis: the environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Gelling, L

    1999-01-01

    ICU psychosis is common amongst patients admitted to critical care settings. ICU psychosis is the result of a complex interaction between physiological and psychological factors. Environmental factors will contribute to ICU psychosis (including sleep deprivation, excessive noise, separation, poor communication and immobilisation). These environmental factors can be manipulated to reduce the incidence of ICU psychosis. PMID:10358540

  10. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  11. Test fire environmental testing operations at Mound Applied Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes Mound Laboratory`s environmental testing operations. The function of environmental testing is to perform quality environmental (thermal, mechanical, spin, resistance, visual) testing/conditioning of inert/explosive products to assure their compliance with specified customer acceptance criteria. Capabilities, organization, equipment specifications, and test facilities are summarized.

  12. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,

  13. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  14. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  15. Vandalism: Environmental and Social Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2003-01-01

    To explore the relationship between vandalism, college residence hall size, and a number of social factors, 688 college students completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (Presley, Meilman, & Lyerla, 1994), the University Residence Environment Scale (Moos, 1988), and answered questions about their television habits and athletic participation.…

  16. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  17. Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  18. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molodecky, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts.

  20. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-10-01

    The ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' was prepared by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2004''. It was produced this year to provide a more cost-effective and wider distribution of a hardcopy summary of the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' to interested DOE stakeholders.

  1. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with

  2. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  3. Potential Environmental Factors in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Björn; Horton, D Kevin; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are largely unknown, and may always be multiple, including environmental factors. Monogenetic determinants of ALS are involved in roughly 20% of all cases (including 10% familial cases). Less well understood multigenetic causes may contribute to another 20% to 80%. Environmental factors likely play a role in the development of ALS in susceptible individuals, but proved causation remains elusive. This article discusses the possible factors of male gender (males are selectively exposed to different influences, or genetically predisposed to be susceptible), smoking, military service, exercise, electrical exposure, heavy metals, agricultural chemicals, and geographic clusters. PMID:26515627

  4. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2007. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This report meets these objectives for the NTS and three offsite Nevada facilities mentioned in this report.

  5. Geographic and environmental factors in pediatric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gordis, L.

    1986-07-15

    It is important to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the etiology of childhood cancer in order to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms involved and to develop effective means of primary prevention. Geographic differences in cancer incidence as well as changes in incidence over calendar time have long been used to generate clues to possible etiologic agents. The important role of genetic factors in childhood cancer is clear, and is exemplified by the observations in retinoblastoma. The importance of the contributions of environmental factors in general and of specific factors in particular, to the etiology of cancers in children, has proven more difficult to determine. A variety of environmental factors have been implicated to varying degrees in the etiology of different childhood cancers. These factors include physical agents such as radiation, chemical agents such as nitrosamines, and organic solvents, and infectious agents such as the Epstein-Barr virus. The observations that certain compounds may act as teratogens when a prenatal exposure occurs early in pregnancy and as carcinogens when the exposure occurs late in pregnancy, suggests that there may be a continuum of teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. This finding has major implications for the possible biologic mechanisms that could be involved in childhood cancers and for the design of future research of their etiology and prevention. The etiology of childhood cancer should be viewed as an interaction of environmental factors to which the child or his parent were exposed together with varying degrees of genetically determined susceptibility of the child to the carcinogenic effects of these factors.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  7. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic immunologically mediated diseases that often have a relapsing-remitting course in young persons. Genetic-risk polymorphisms explain less than one third of the heritability of disease. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that environmental factors play a significant role in influencing the risk and natural history of disease. Smoking is the most widely and consistently described risk factor. It, however, increases the risk of CD while conferring protection against UC. The gut microbiome is a key component in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several external factors potentially exert an effect by influencing the composition of the gut microbiome or disrupting the intestinal barrier. These external influences include the use of antibiotics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the presence of enteric infections. Data on diet have been inconsistent, but high fiber intake, particularly of soluble fiber, appears to protect against CD, whereas protein intake may increase disease risk. Vitamin D may also play an important protective role, particularly in patients with CD. Neurobehavioral factors, such as stress and depression, also influence the risk of IBD. Systematic and rigorous studies of environmental exposures in the management of IBD are needed. In particular, studies of whether environmental factors can be modified to reduce the likelihood of relapse or improve patient outcomes would be valuable. PMID:23935543

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  9. ETV - VERIFICATION TESTING (ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing is a major component of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The ETV Program was instituted to verify the performance of innovative technical solutions to problems that threaten human health or the environment and was created to substantia...

  10. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    PubMed

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers. PMID:24244044

  11. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  12. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  13. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Santos, Maria J.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  14. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  15. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies. PMID:26075261

  16. The Genetic and Environmental Factors Underlying Hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Bouty, Aurore; Ayers, Katie L; Pask, Andrew; Heloury, Yves; Sinclair, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias results from a failure of urethral closure in the male phallus and affects 1 in 200-300 boys. It is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The development of the penis progresses in 2 stages: an initial hormone-independent phase and a secondary hormone-dependent phase. Here, we review the molecular pathways that contribute to each of these stages, drawing on studies from both human and mouse models. Hypospadias can occur when normal development of the phallus is disrupted, and we provide evidence that mutations in genes underlying this developmental process are causative. Finally, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to hypospadias and their potential immediate and transgenerational epigenetic impacts. PMID:26613581

  17. Galileo environmental test and analysis program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Galileo Project's environmental test and analysis program during the spacecraft development phase - October 1978 through launch in October 1989. After describing the top-level objectives of the program, summaries of-the approach, requirements, and margins are provided. Examples of assembly- and system-level test results are given for both the pre-1986 (direct mission) testing and the post-1986 (Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assist mission) testing, including dynamic, thermal, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), and magnetic. The approaches and results for verifying by analysis that the requirements of certain environments (e.g., radiation, micrometeoroids, and single event upsets) are satisfied are presented. The environmental program implemented on Galileo satisfied the spirit and intent of the requirements imposed by the Project during the spacecraft's development. The lessons learned from the Galileo environmental program are discussed in this paper.

  18. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  19. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  20. The role of environmental factors in asthma.

    PubMed

    Strachan, D P

    2000-01-01

    Although the everyday experience of asthmatic patients provides ample anecdotal evidence that environmental exposures provoke bronchospasm, it has proved more difficult to assess the impact of air quality on the timing of asthma attacks and the prevalence of asthma in populations. Spectacular 'asthma epidemic days' are sometimes attributable to exceptional outdoor aero-allergen exposures. By comparison, effects of inorganic particles and gaseous pollutants in outdoor air on the incidence of asthma attacks are subtle and poorly quantified. Environmental tobacco smoke and mould growth are the indoor factors most consistently associated with respiratory morbidity, but their roles in initiating allergic asthma remain uncertain. Evidence relating asthma risk to fumes from gas cooking, and to allergens from dust mites and household pets remains confused and controversial. It is unlikely that trends in either outdoor or indoor air pollution have contributed substantially to the rise in prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in recent decades. PMID:11359625

  1. Environmental risk factors of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marie, Isabelle; Gehanno, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a complex pathogenesis. Although, there is a growing evidence that environmental factors have an impact on alterations and modulation of epigenetic determinants, resulting in SSc onset and progression. A marked correlation has thus been found between SSc onset and occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the following organic solvents: white spirit, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene, and ketones; the risk associated with high cumulative exposure to silica and organic solvents further appears to be strongly increased in SSc. Altogether, occupational exposure should be systematically checked in all SSc patients at diagnosis, as (1) exposed patients seem to develop more severe forms of SSc and (2) the identification of the occupational agents will allow its interruption, which may lead to potential improvement of SSc outcome. By contrast, based on current published data, there is insufficient evidence that exposure to other chemical agents (including notably pesticides as well as personal care such as silicone and hair dye), physical agents (ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, electric and magnetic fields), and biological agents (infections and diet, foods, and dietary contaminants) is a causative factor of SSc. Further investigations are still warranted to identify other environmental factors that may be associated with SSc onset and progression. PMID:26141606

  2. Environmental testing of escape breathing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stengel, J W

    1982-05-03

    A new generation of 60-minute self-contained breathing apparatus was being introduced into the underground coal mining industry for use as respiratory protection during fires and mine disasters. Little field experience existed from which to predict the survivability of this new life-support equipment. A series of environmental tests was proposed consisting of exposure to heat, cold, shock, and vibration. Treated and untreated apparatus were evaluated and compared by use on human subjects and a mechanical breathing simulator. Results are reported. After field data have been collected, information may be able to be correlated with environmental testing and used as a predictor of survivability.

  3. Psoriasis: familial predisposition and environmental factors.

    PubMed Central

    Kavli, G; Førde, O H; Arnesen, E; Stenvold, S E

    1985-01-01

    In a survey for coronary risk factors 14 667 adult men and women answered a questionnaire on lifestyle, diet, and health, including whether they had psoriasis. The overall prevalence of psoriasis was 4.79% in men and 4.85% in women. The data showed an increasing incidence of psoriasis. The association with family history, lifestyle, diet, and health was explored by multiple regression analysis. The occurrence of psoriasis in first degree relatives contributed to more than 90% of the explained variance for both sexes. Of the other variables, only the positive association with rheumatoid arthritis was significant in both sexes. It is concluded that the examined environmental factors have only minor effects on the prevalence of psoriasis. PMID:3931797

  4. Specialized Environmental Chamber Test Complex: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montz, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Specialized Environmental Test Complex. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  5. Perineal skin injury: extrinsic environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Faria, D T; Shwayder, T; Krull, E A

    1996-08-01

    Little research has been performed to evaluate factors that may exacerbate perineal skin injury in the adult population. But extensive research has been done and knowledge has been gained from studies with diaper dermatitis in infants. Our objectives in writing this article are to define the anatomical area affected, the terms used, and to review the available literature for diaper dermatitis in infants, elucidating the similarities and differences between diaper dermatitis in infants and perineal dermatitis in adults. The six extrinsic environmental factors that have been identified and extensively studied in diaper dermatitis are skin wetness, urine, ammonia, feces, local skin pH and microorganisms. Although the complex interactions of the six factors are still not totally defined, we do know that to prevent perineal skin injury, it is helpful to prevent excessive skin hydration, minimize the interaction of urine and feces, minimize local microorganisms, and maintain skin near its physiologic pH. In general, the six extrinsic factors can be extrapolated and applied to the care of adults. Further research in adult fecal enzymes and pH is still necessary. PMID:8826118

  6. [Effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic physiology and flavonoid constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Gang; Han, Mei; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Sheng-Nan; Yang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    To discuss the effect of environmental factors and photosynthesis on the growing of plant and the content of active components in Scutellaria baicalensis, the photosynthetic physiology index and diurnal changes of flavonoid constituent of S. Baicalensis were observed and tested in flowering and fruiting stages, and in the meantime environmental parameters were recorded. The obtained data were analyzed data by using path analysis and gray correlation analysis. The results showed that PAR and SWC were important environmental factors impacting on photosynthesis of S. baicalensis. SWC, RH and Ca were important environmental factors impacting on baicalin content. PAR, Po and Ta were important environmental factors impacting on baicalein content. PMID:25282878

  7. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  8. SRS environmental technology development field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-09-01

    A critical and difficult step in the development and implementation of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is successfully transferring these technologies to industry and government users for routine assessment and compliance activities. The Environmental Sciences Section of the DOE Savannah River Technology Center provides a forum for developers, potential users, and regulatory organizations to evaluate new technologies in comparison with baseline technologies in a well characterized field test bed. The principal objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive, objective field tests of monitoring and characterization technologies that are not currently used in EPA standard methods and evaluate their performance during actual operating conditions against baseline methods. This paper provides an overview of the field test site and a description of some of the technologies demonstrated at the site including their field applications.

  9. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003 was prepared by Bechtel Nevada to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy and the information needs of the public. This report is meant to be useful to members of the public, public officials, regulators, and Nevada Test Site contractors. The Executive Summary strives to present in a concise format the purpose of the document, the NTS mission and major programs, a summary of radiological releases and doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, and an overview of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Management System. The Executive Summary, combined with the following Compliance Summary, are written to meet all the objectives of the report and to be stand-alone sections for those who choose not to read the entire document.

  10. New Environmental Testing Capabilities at INTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo, Esperanza; Hernandez, Daniel; Garranzo, Daniel; Barandiaran, Javier; Reina, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we aim to present and describe the facilities for aerospace environmental testing at INTA; the Spanish National Institute for Aerospace Technique with emphasis on the Thermal Vacuum testing facility with dimensions 4 m x 4 m x 4 m and a temperature range from +150oC to -175 oC and 10-6 vacuum conditions with the new Thermo Elastic Distortion (TED) measurement capability designed at INTA. It will be presented the validation data for the empty chamber, with specimens such a 3m diameter reflector and antenna towers for both, thermal cycling and TED measurements. For TED, it will be shown the feasibility study and the solution finally selected. Apart from those, it will be shown other complementary facilities for environmental testing such as 320 (2x160) kN dual shaker with a new 3 m x 3 m sliding table and other complementary facilities.

  11. Nevada Test Site Environmental Summary Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  12. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2007 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  13. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  14. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  15. 47 CFR 2.1509 - Environmental and duration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental and duration tests. 2.1509... Position Indicating Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) Environmental and Operational Test Procedures § 2.1509 Environmental and duration tests. The environmental and operational tests in § 2.1509 (a) through (e) are to...

  16. 47 CFR 2.1509 - Environmental and duration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental and duration tests. 2.1509... Position Indicating Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) Environmental and Operational Test Procedures § 2.1509 Environmental and duration tests. The environmental and operational tests in § 2.1509 (a) through (e) are to...

  17. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NTS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NTS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  18. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the other primates, this is an important area for future research. Third, correlational data suggest that there may be some degree of regulation of reproduction by photoperiod in humans at middle to higher latitudes. Populations at these latitudes often show a peak in presumed conceptions associated with the vernal equinox. On the other hand, evidence gathered by neuroendocrinologists tends to argue against reproductive photoresponsiveness in humans. PMID:7610233

  19. What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribbia, John Luke

    This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6. The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation research, therefore, contributes to the environmental sociology, general demography, and environmental demography disciplines by exploring ways in which population-environment relationships work at the local scale.

  20. Cancer prevention: environmental, industrial, and occupational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, N

    1981-03-01

    The possible contribution of occupational and environmental exposures to cancer has been known for many years and is now a highly mature field of study. By the 1950s, a substantial list of agents of processes had been identified as associated with cancer of one organ or another. In the last several decades a number of additions have been made to the list. No doubt more will be found in the future. The last decade, especially, has brought increased public attention to cancer in the workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 has been a significant contributor to the current increase in attention given to cancer occurrences arising from occupational exposures. These have led to increasingly stringent regulations and control requirements. The nature of the chemical and physical factors in occupational cancer will be noted and the estimates of the contribution of occupational factors to total cancer occurrence will be considered. In addition to the workplace exposures, other ways in which cancer may be associated with technology will be described. Included among these are, community air pollution, water contaminants, dietary additives, and hair dyes.

  1. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  2. Comparison of JPL and European Environmental Testing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Forgave, John C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of JPL and European environmental testing standards is presented. The contents include: 1) JPL Environmental Testing Documents; 2) Focus of the Comparison; 3) Test Policy; 4) Documentation; 5) Programmatics; 6) Functional Testing; 7) Reporting; 8) Dynamics Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; 9) Thermal Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; and 10) EMC Test Levels, Durations, & Margins.

  3. Protective environmental factors for neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Grandhe, Siri; Weinfurtner, Kelley; Krupp, Lauren; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Ness, Jayne; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Gorman, Mark; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Lotze, Tim; Aaen, Gregory; Mowry, Ellen M.; Rose, John W.; Simmons, Timothy; Casper, T. Charles; James, Judith; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether early environmental factors, such as cesarean delivery, breastfeeding, and exposure to smoking or herpes viruses, are associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) risk in children. Methods: This is a case-control study of pediatric NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS), and healthy subjects. Early-life exposures were obtained by standardized questionnaire. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus 1 antibody responses were determined by ELISA. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for age at sampling, sex, race, and ethnicity. Results: Early-life exposures were obtained from 36 pediatric subjects with NMO, 491 with MS, and 224 healthy controls. Daycare (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14, 0.78; p < 0.01) and breastfeeding (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18, 0.99; p = 0.05) were associated with lower odds of having NMO compared with healthy subjects. Cesarean delivery tended to be associated with 2-fold-higher odds of NMO compared with having MS/clinically isolated syndrome (OR 1.98, 95% CI 0.88, 4.59; p = 0.12) or with being healthy (OR 1.95, 95% CI 0.81, 4.71; p = 0.14). Sera and DNA were available for 31 subjects with NMO, 189 with MS, and 94 healthy controls. Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus 1, cytomegalovirus exposure, and being HLA-DRB1*15 positive were not associated with odds of having NMO compared with healthy subjects. Conclusions: Exposure to other young children may be an early protective factor against the development of NMO, as previously reported for MS, consistent with the hypothesis that infections contribute to disease risk modification. Unlike MS, pediatric NMO does not appear to be associated with exposures to common herpes viruses. PMID:25339213

  4. Dimensional transformation in tests of spatial and environmental cognition.

    PubMed

    Iwanowska, Kashka; Voyer, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    In previous research, it has been argued that spatial performance on psychometric tests might be accounted for, in part, by the need for test-takers to transform mentally two-dimensional (2-D) test items into a three-dimensional (3-D) representation. With this in mind, the Landscape Perception Test (LPT) was designed to isolate the 2-D to 3-D (and vice versa) transformational aspect of spatial cognition. Gender differences were used as an indirect means to examine the contribution of the 2-D to 3-D transformation to spatial performance. Since the LPT was designed by means of an image relevant to geospatial cognition, measures of environmental cognition, as well as experience in various activities, were also examined. One hundred thirty undergraduate students (66 females and 64 males) completed the Childhood Activities Questionnaire, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Test, the Visualization of Views (VV) Test, the Perspective Taking/Spatial Orientation Test, and the LPT. Results showed higher scores for men than for women on LPT items requiring 2-D to 3-D conversion (LPT23), but not on those requiring the reverse operation. In addition, only the LPT23 produced significant indirect effects of gender on VV Test performance. Performance on the tests was also correlated with environmental cognition and previous experience with spatial activities. The results suggest that dimensional transformation might be a factor significantly contributing to spatial performance. Psychometric aspects of the LPT are also discussed. PMID:23512503

  5. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and could be able to "prime" allergen-induced responses. There are also observations that a thunderstorm occurring during pollen season can induce severe asthma attacks in pollinosis patients. After rupture by thunderstorm, pollen grains may release part of their cytoplasmic content, including inhalable, allergen-carrying paucimicronic particles. PMID:16164436

  6. Review of environmental factors affecting hearing.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J H; Going, J A

    1982-01-01

    The major nongenetic causes of sensorineural hearing loss are exposure to noise, aging, ototoxic drugs, viral and bacterial infections, and interactions between these factors. Regarding exposure to continuous noise, the data base from laboratory and field studies indicates that a risk of hearing loss is present when noise levels exceed 75-80 dBA. As noise level, duration and number of exposures increase so does risk. The data base for other forms of noise (intermittent, impact) is not as established. Risk of hearing loss due to impulse noise increases as the peak SPL exceeds 145-155 dB and as the duration of the impulse, the number of impulses and the number of exposures increase. High-level acoustic impulses can cause severe, permanent hearing loss. Interaction between some steady-state noises and some acoustic impulses can be synergistic, producing extensive injuries to the organ of Corti. Noise can also interact synergistically with some aminoglycoside antibiotics to produce severe injuries in the inner ear. These antibiotics are also capable of producing hearing loss and indeed may do so in up to 55% of the one million persons who receive aminoglycoside antibiotics during the course of treatment for tuberculosis or severe gram-negative infections. Bacterial and viral infections may also produce mild to severe hearing loss. With the development of rubella vaccine and Rhogam, cytomegalovirus may have become the most common cause of congenital deafness. Aging is also a major cause of hearing loss. Exposure to occupational and environmental noise, certain diseases and life styles (diet, stress, drugs) may interact with the specific effects of aging. The result is moderate to severe hearing loss in a majority of older persons. PMID:7044773

  7. Environmental testing for new SOFIA flight hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachenmann, Michael; Wolf, Jürgen; Strecker, Rainer; Weckenmann, Benedikt; Trimpe, Fritz; Hall, Helen J.

    2014-07-01

    New flight hardware for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has to be tested to prove its safety and functionality and to measure its performance under flight conditions. Although it is not expected to experience critical issues inside the pressurized cabin with close-to-normal conditions, all equipment has to be tested for safety margins in case of a decompression event and/or for unusual high temperatures, e.g. inside an electronic unit caused by a malfunction as well as unusual high ambient temperatures inside the cabin, when the aircraft is parked in a desert. For equipment mounted on the cavity side of the telescope, stratospheric conditions apply, i.e., temperatures from -40 °C to -60°C and an air pressure of about 0.1 bar. Besides safety aspects as not to endanger personnel or equipment, new hardware inside the cavity has to function and to perform to specifications under such conditions. To perform these tests, an environmental test laboratory was set up at the SOFIA Science Center at the NASA Ames Research Center, including a thermal vacuum chamber, temperature measurement equipment, and a control and data logging workstation. This paper gives an overview of the test and measurement equipment, shows results from the commissioning and characterization of the thermal vacuum chamber, and presents examples of the component tests that were performed so far. To test the focus position stability of optics when cooling them to stratospheric temperatures, an auto-collimation device has been developed. We will present its design and results from measurements on commercial off-the-shelf optics as candidates for the new Wide Field Imager for SOFIA as an example.

  8. Environmental Testing in Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Inside a thermal vacuum at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, technicians prepare NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for environmental testing.

    The Phoenix lander was encapsulated in its aeroshell -- which included both the back shell and heat shield -- as it was subjected to extreme cold and heat in a vacuum, space-like condition. The spacecraft undergoes extensive environmental testing to confirm Phoenix will perform in the extreme conditions it will experience during its trip from Earth to Mars, during its arrival and landing, and while it works on the surface of Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  10. Environmental Factors in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains largely unresolved, owing in large part to the complexity of interaction between environmental and genetic contributors underlying disease development. Observations of disease clustering, differences in geographical prevalence, and seasonality of diagnosis rates suggest the environmental component to PBC is strong, and epidemiological studies have consistently found cigarette smoking and history of urinary tract infection to be associated with PBC. Current evidence implicates molecular mimicry as a primary mechanism driving loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmunity in PBC, yet other environmentally influenced disease processes are likely to be involved in pathogenesis. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current findings and touch on potential mechanisms behind the environmental component of PBC. PMID:25057950

  11. Environmental factors in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Juran, Brian D; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2014-08-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains largely unresolved, owing in large part to the complexity of interaction between environmental and genetic contributors underlying disease development. Observations of disease clustering, differences in geographical prevalence, and seasonality of diagnosis rates suggest the environmental component to PBC is strong, and epidemiological studies have consistently found cigarette smoking and history of urinary tract infection to be associated with PBC. Current evidence implicates molecular mimicry as a primary mechanism driving loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmunity in PBC, yet other environmentally influenced disease processes are likely to be involved in pathogenesis. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current findings and touch on potential mechanisms behind the environmental component of PBC. PMID:25057950

  12. Tutorial: Test tailoring and the environmental engineering specialist

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    These notes provide an overview of environmental test tailoring with particular emphasis on test tailoring as described in MIL-STD-810D and other tailoring documents. The critical role of the Environmental Engineering Specialist in the tailoring process is examined and includes discussions on how MIL-STD-810D supports current Department of Defense acquisition policies; the significant new technical and administrative features of MIL-STD-810D; how specific tailorable test methods compare with more traditional test methodologies; tailoring for environmental reliability testing and environmental stress screening; potential impacts on program costs, schedules, and existing laboratory test facilities; background rationale for specific test methodologies.

  13. EPIGENETIC TRANSGENERATIONAL ACTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DISEASE ETIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Michael K.; Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The ability of environmental factors to promote a phenotype or disease state not only in the individual exposed but also in subsequent progeny for multiple generations is termed transgenerational inheritance. The majority of environmental factors such as nutrition or toxicants such as endocrine disruptors do not promote genetic mutations or alterations in DNA sequence. In contrast, these factors have the capacity to alter the epigenome. Epimutations in the germ line that become permanently programmed can allow transmission of epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes. This review provides an overview of the epigenetics and biology of how environmental factors can promote transgenerational phenotypes and disease. PMID:20074974

  14. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  15. Environmental Effects on Vertebrate Species Richness: Testing the Energy, Environmental Stability and Habitat Heterogeneity Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhenhua; Tang, Songhua; Li, Chunwang; Fang, Hongxia; Hu, Huijian; Yang, Ji; Ding, Jingjing; Jiang, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Background Explaining species richness patterns is a central issue in biogeography and macroecology. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms driving biodiversity patterns, but the causes of species richness gradients remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explain the impacts of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity factors on variation of vertebrate species richness (VSR), based on the VSR pattern in China, so as to test the energy hypothesis, the environmental stability hypothesis, and the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset was compiled containing the distributions of 2,665 vertebrate species and eleven ecogeographic predictive variables in China. We grouped these variables into categories of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity and transformed the data into 100100 km quadrat systems. To test the three hypotheses, AIC-based model selection was carried out between VSR and the variables in each group and correlation analyses were conducted. There was a decreasing VSR gradient from the southeast to the northwest of China. Our results showed that energy explained 67.6% of the VSR variation, with the annual mean temperature as the main factor, which was followed by annual precipitation and NDVI. Environmental stability factors explained 69.1% of the VSR variation and both temperature annual range and precipitation seasonality had important contributions. By contrast, habitat heterogeneity variables explained only 26.3% of the VSR variation. Significantly positive correlations were detected among VSR, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and NDVI, whereas the relationship of VSR and temperature annual range was strongly negative. In addition, other variables showed moderate or ambiguous relations to VSR. Conclusions/Significance The energy hypothesis and the environmental stability hypothesis were supported, whereas little support was found for the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. PMID:22530038

  16. Environmental risk factors in the incidence of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Hough, Rupert L; Avery, Lisa M; Maltin, Charlotte A; Campbell, Colin D

    2015-11-01

    This review addresses the survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative pathogen of Johne's disease (JD), once it has left its ruminant host. JD has significant economic impact on dairy, beef and sheep industries and is difficult to control due to the long-term sub-clinical nature of the infection, intermittent or persistent MAP shedding during and after this period, inadequate test effectiveness, and the potential for MAP to exist for extended periods outside the host. The role that environmental factors play in the persistence and spread of MAP and consequent disease is assessed. Published risk factor analysis, organism survival across various environmental media and conditions, presence and spread in ruminant and non-ruminant wildlife, and the general potential for survival and multiplication of MAP ex-host both on and off-farm are discussed and knowledge gaps highlighted. An inclusive approach to disease management that takes into account the persistence and transport of the causative organism in on-farm soils and waters, land use and management, dispersal by domestic and non-domestic host species, as well as general animal husbandry is required on those farms where more traditional approaches to disease management have failed to reduce disease prevalence. PMID:24670062

  17. Test-Factor Standardization and Marginal Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kent W.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses M. Rosenberg's Test-Factor Standardization as a type of marginal standardization. To illustrate this relation, the author utilizes a table on abortion attitudes formerly published by K.W. Smith in his commentary on Rosenberg's work. (Author/GC)

  18. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Howard, D.; McClellan, Y.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  19. 1994 site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Kirk-Mayer, Inc., for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400. 1.

  20. 40 CFR 1054.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... on emission-data engines as described in § 1054.125 and 40 CFR part 1065, subpart E. If you change... factors from exhaust durability testing? 1054.245 Section 1054.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... factor using a linear least-squares fit of your test data, but treat the low-hour test point as...

  1. 40 CFR 1054.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on emission-data engines as described in § 1054.125 and 40 CFR part 1065, subpart E. If you change... factors from exhaust durability testing? 1054.245 Section 1054.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... factor using a linear least-squares fit of your test data, but treat the low-hour test point as...

  2. Environmental Design: Focusing on Human Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydeen, James E.

    2003-01-01

    In designing schools, planners must use the criteria of health and safety, performance, comfort, and aesthetics to create a humanized physical environment that stimulates interest and provides motivation for learning and teaching. The human factors in design are sense of place, ownership, community, presence comfort, security, aesthetics,…

  3. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  4. Environmental factors implicated in the causation of adverse pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Nazli; Westerlund Triche, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcome from environmental factors may include congenital anomalies, increased risk for miscarriage, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction and still birth. Apart from adverse pregnancy outcome, there may be effects on the other reproductive functions like menstrual disorders and infertility. Environmental factors which have been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome include smoking, video display terminals, anesthetic gases, antineoplastic drugs and exposure to lead, selenium and inorganic mercury. Amongst these, cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been the leading environmental factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Cigarette Smoking during pregnancy continues to be a significant public health concern. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with low birth weight( < 2500g) Mothers who smoke during pregnancy are twice likely to give birth to low birth weight infants. Similarly air pollution, pesticide exposure, stress have also been associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery. This review gives an overview of the importance of environmental factors in adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:17825680

  5. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andrea; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:24574956

  6. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Christina A; Schmidt, Louis A

    2008-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions. PMID:18728768

  7. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  8. [Aviation noise as an ecological environmental factor].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, O A; Krylov, Iu V; Zaritski?, V V; Skrebnev, S V; Shcherbachenko, G E

    1995-01-01

    Average diurnal doses of noise, received by aviation engineers servicing up-to-date aircrafts and living near air fields, were analyzed. The doses appeared to outnumber the normal values, especially during the work and the sleep. The examinees living in 1-2 km from air fields were proved to have significantly higher auditory thresholds for 1,000-8,000 Hz, in comparison with the examinees residing 5-6 km apart. The excessive noise associated with no occupational matters worsens the hearing restoration after the work, promotes accumulation of the hearing fatigue. Those facts were proved by experiments with audiometry and impedometry. The studies stressed the importance of aviation noise as ecologic factor. PMID:7620794

  9. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Environmental Verification Processes and Test Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Alan R.; Green, Nelson W.

    2006-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the JPL processes for enviornmental verification and testing of aerospace systems is presented. The topics include: 1) Processes: a) JPL Design Principles b) JPL Flight Project Practices; 2) Environmental Verification; and 3) Test Effectiveness Assessment: Inflight Anomaly Trends.

  10. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  11. Impact of environmental factors on the regulation of cyanotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  12. REVIEW OF EPA MATERIALS PROGRAM: ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 authorized the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to conduct research on the effects of air pollutants on the service life of materials. nformation from the materials effects research program will be used by the Agency to conduct cost-...

  13. UV-T-RH combined environmental testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    A combined environmental aging chamber was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The chamber has an ultraviolet (UV) light source that can be varied between 1 to 2 suns, temperature control from -40 to +175 C, and adjustable humidity. Results from two initial aging experiments (Tedlar and amorphous silicon colar cells) were presented.

  14. Environmental tests of metallization systems for terrestrial photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Seven different solar cell metallization systems were subjected to temperature cycling tests and humidity tests. Temperature cycling excursions were -50 deg C to 150 deg C per cycle. Humidity conditions were 70 deg C at 98% relative humidity. The seven metallization systems were: Ti/Ag, Ti/Pd/Ag, Ti/Pd/Cu, Ni/Cu, Pd/Ni/Solder, Cr/Pd/Ag, and thick film Ag. All metallization systems showed a slight to moderate decrease in cell efficiencies after subjection to 1000 temperature cycles. Six of the seven metallization systems also evidenced slight increases in cell efficiencies after moderate numbers of cycles, generally less than 100 cycles. The copper based systems showed the largest decrease in cell efficiencies after temperature cycling. All metallization systems showed moderate to large decreases in cell efficiencies after 123 days of humidity exposure. The copper based systems again showed the largest decrease in cell efficiencies after humidity exposure. Graphs of the environmental exposures versus cell efficiencies are presented for each metallization system, as well as environmental exposures versus fill factors or series resistance.

  15. Viking 1975 Orbiter Development Test Model/Lander Dynamic Test Model dynamic environmental testing - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milder, G.

    1975-01-01

    The current work presents an overview of the Viking 1975 environmental testing from an engineering standpoint. An extremely large vibration test fixture had to be designed, analyzed, and integrated into a test setup that employed hydrostatic bearings in a new fashion. A vibration control system was also required that would allow for thirty-six channels of sine-wave peak select control from acceleration, force-of-strain transducers. In addition, some 68 channels of peak limiting shutdown capability were needed for backup and monitoring of other data during the forced vibration test. Pretesting included analyses of the fixture design, overturning moment, control system capabilities, and response of the entire spacecraft/fixture/exciter system to the test environment. Closed-loop control for acoustic testing was a necessity due to the fact that the Viking spacecraft took up a major portion of the volume of the 10,000 cu ft chamber. The spacecraft emerged from testing undamaged.

  16. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  17. GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING ENVIRONMENTAL TEST PLANS FOR COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report outlines a philosophy and strategy for preparing environmental assessment sampling and analysis (test) plans. Five major points of test plan development are addressed: (1) defining the test objectives, (2) performing an engineering analysis of the test site, (3) develo...

  18. 14. Interior view of Test Cell 10 (environmental) in Components ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Test Cell 10 (environmental) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), showing east and south walls. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Analysis of shock pulses for environmental tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Specifications for shock testing of components that will be used on the Space Shuttle vehicles require very high acceleration levels. A special shock machine was built for testing of rocket components to determine if they can meet the specified accelerations. Calibrations of transducers and methods to monitor the shock tests raised several signature-analysis questions. In this report, calibration capabilities of shock accelerometers are found to be limited to 10,000g. Equivalency of the mechanical shock test and the rocket pyrotechnic shock are examined, and two simple relationships for equivalency are proposed. Five different pulse signature-analysis techniques are tested on analytical and experimental pulse data and recommendations are made for the signature technique which most clearly identifies the magnitude of the impulse applied to the test specimen.

  20. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. PMID:27187441

  1. Tobacco and other environmental risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Sanmartí, Raimon

    2012-01-01

    Many environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), but so far smoking is the only environmental risk factor that has been extensively studied and widely accepted. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing seropositive RA (RF and/or ACPA). Recent studies show that tobacco smoking can influence disease phenotype, with the development of more aggressive disease and greater joint damage; but other studies show contradictory results. Recent data suggests that response to antirheumatic therapy in RA is worse in smokers. In this article we review different environmental factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA, with a special interest in tobacco smoking. PMID:22609003

  2. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. PMID:27187441

  3. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies. PMID:26130261

  4. Block 2 solar cell module environmental test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental tests were performed of on 76 solar cell modules produced by four different manufacturers. The following tests were performed: (1) 28 day temperature and humidity; (2) rain and icing; (3) salt fog; (4) sand and dust; (5) vacuum/steam/pressure; (6) fungus; (7) temperature/altitude; and (8) thermal shock. Environmental testing of the solar cell modules produced cracked cells, cracked encapsulant and encapsulant delaminations on various modules. In addition, there was some minor cell and frame corrosion.

  5. Nevada Test Site environmental data report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1998-03-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for DOE operations. These mandates require compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection regulations. During calendar year (CY) 1996, environmental protection and monitoring programs were conducted at the Nevada Test Site and other DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV)-managed sites in Nevada and across the US. A detailed discussion of these environmental protection and monitoring programs and summary data and assessments for environmental monitoring results are provided in the DOE/NV Annual Site Environmental Report-1996 (ASER), DOE/NV/11718-137. This document provides summary data results and detailed assessments for the environmental monitoring conducted for all DOE/NV-managed sites in CY1996.

  6. Environmental testing of block 3 solar cell modules. Part 1: Qualification testing of standard production modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Qualification tests of solar cell modules are described. These modules continue to show improvement over earlier type modules tested. Cell cracking and delamination are less prevalent, and interconnect problems and electrical degradation from environmental testing are now rare.

  7. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Complex Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Loo, K.M.J; Martens, G.J.M

    2007-01-01

    Complex neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder, (manic) depressive illness and addiction, are thought to result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Association studies on candidate genes and genome-wide linkage analyses have identified many susceptibility chromosomal regions and genes, but considerable efforts to replicate association have been surprisingly often disappointing. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the genetic contribution to complex neurodevelopmental disorders, focusing on the findings from association and linkage studies. Furthermore, the contribution of the interaction of the genetic with environmental and epigenetic factors to the aetiology of complex neurodevelopmental disorders as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:19412416

  8. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  9. [Hazardous environmental factors causing renal damage in children].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Quan; Yi, Zhu-Wen

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous environmental factors invade the body through multiple routes, including ingestion, inhalation and absorption by contact with the skin and mucous membrane. They are from various sources and soil, water, air, building and decorative materials, foods and daily necessities are the main carriers. According to their physical and chemical properties and morphological characteristics, these hazardous factors are classified as metals, inorganic matter, organic matter, radioactive substances, biological toxins, viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and parasites. They cause diseases through blood and urine and also have kidney susceptibility. This article suggests that pediatricians should fully understand the characteristics and seriousness of hazardous environmental factors that cause renal damage, and pay attention to the prevention and control of these factors so as to minimize renal damage in children. PMID:24750822

  10. The mosaic of autoimmunity: the role of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Jozelio Freire; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    The "mosaic of autoimmunity" describes the multifactorial origin and diversity of expression of autoimmune diseases in humans. The term implies that different combinations of the many factors that are involved in auto-immunity produce varying and unique clinical pictures in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Most of the factors involved in autoimmunity can be categorized into four groups: genetic, immune defects, hormonal and environmental factors. In this communication, only the environmental factors are reviewed such as: infectious agents (represented by Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus), vaccines as triggers of autoimmunity, smoking and its relationship with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Some aspects of stress as implicated in causing autoimmunity and the processes leading to autoimmunity are reviewed as well. PMID:19482664

  11. Simulated Space Environmental Testing on Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Dennis A.; Fogdall, Larry B.; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Connell, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An exploratory program has been conducted, to irradiate some mature commercial and some experimental polymer films with radiation simulating certain Earth orbits, and to obtain data about the response of each test film's reflective and tensile properties. Protocols to conduct optimized tests were considered and developed to a "prototype" level during this program. Fifteen polymer film specimens were arranged on a specially designed test fixture. The fixture featured controlled exposure areas, and protected the ends of the samples for later gripping in tensile tests. The fixture featured controlled exposure areas, and protected the ends of the samples for later gripping in tensile tests. The fixture containing the films was installed in a clean vacuum chamber where protons, electrons and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation could simultaneously irradiate the specimens. Near realtime UV rates were used, whereas proton and electron rates were accelerated appreciably to simulate 5 years in orbit during a two month test. Periodically, the spectral reflectance of each film was measured in situ. After the end of the irradiation, final reflectance measurements were made in situ, and solar absorptance values were derived for each specimen. These samples were then measured in air for thermal emittance and for tensile strength. Most specimens withstood the irradiation intact, but with reduced reflectance (increased solar absorptance). Thermal emittance changed slightly in several materials, as did their tensile strength and elongation at break. Conclusions are drawn about the performance of the films. Simulated testing to an expected 5 year dose of electrons and protons consistent with those expected at L2 and 0.98 AU orbits and 100 equivalent solar hours exposure.

  12. Large Scale Flame Spread Environmental Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayman, Lauren K.; Olson, Sandra L.; Gokoghi, Suleyman A.; Brooker, John E.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kacher, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project (SFSDP), as a risk mitigation activity in support of the development of a large-scale fire demonstration experiment in microgravity, flame-spread tests were conducted in normal gravity on thin, cellulose-based fuels in a sealed chamber. The primary objective of the tests was to measure pressure rise in a chamber as sample material, burning direction (upward/downward), total heat release, heat release rate, and heat loss mechanisms were varied between tests. A Design of Experiments (DOE) method was imposed to produce an array of tests from a fixed set of constraints and a coupled response model was developed. Supplementary tests were run without experimental design to additionally vary select parameters such as initial chamber pressure. The starting chamber pressure for each test was set below atmospheric to prevent chamber overpressure. Bottom ignition, or upward propagating burns, produced rapid acceleratory turbulent flame spread. Pressure rise in the chamber increases as the amount of fuel burned increases mainly because of the larger amount of heat generation and, to a much smaller extent, due to the increase in gaseous number of moles. Top ignition, or downward propagating burns, produced a steady flame spread with a very small flat flame across the burning edge. Steady-state pressure is achieved during downward flame spread as the pressure rises and plateaus. This indicates that the heat generation by the flame matches the heat loss to surroundings during the longer, slower downward burns. One heat loss mechanism included mounting a heat exchanger directly above the burning sample in the path of the plume to act as a heat sink and more efficiently dissipate the heat due to the combustion event. This proved an effective means for chamber overpressure mitigation for those tests producing the most total heat release and thusly was determined to be a feasible mitigation strategy to incorporate into the microgravity experiment.

  13. Testing methods and techniques: Environmental testing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Various devices and techniques are described for testing hardware and components in four special environments: low temperature, high temperature, high pressure, and vibration. Items ranging from an automatic calibrator for pressure transducers to a fixture for testing the susceptibility of materials to ignition by electric spark are included.

  14. Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

  15. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  16. 15. Interior view of Test Cell 10 (environmental) in Components ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Test Cell 10 (environmental) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), showing north and east walls. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. The window in the wall to the left enables personnel in the control room to observe component testing in the cell. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TEST PROTOCOL, GENERAL VENTILATION FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification Test Protocol, General Ventilation Filters provides guidance for verification tests.

    Reference is made in the protocol to the ASHRAE 52.2P "Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by P...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES; MASTER TEST PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a master test plan, presenting the objectives and general structure of a field testing program designed for an environmental source assessment of coal cleaning processes. The report, to be used to prepare test plans for individual coal cleaning sites, reflects th...

  19. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrn, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of

  20. Genetic and environmental factors that affect gestation length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated so that more accurate predictions of calving dates could be provided to dairy producers. Data from >8 million calvings from 1999 through 2005 for 5 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, an...

  1. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  2. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrán, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of…

  3. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.

  4. Control and the Aged: Environmental or Personality Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.; Dey, Kay

    Control over self, lifestyle, and environment is a major factor in how one ages. To investigate how age acts as an environmental force in affecting perceptions of control, 45 adults, aged 60-80, from western Kansas were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Tiffany Experienced Control Scales (ECS), the Minnesota…

  5. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ON FETAL TESTES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Fetal Testes Testosterone Production

    Lambright, CS , Wilson, VS , Furr, J, Wolf, CJ, Noriega, N, Gray, LE, Jr.
    US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC

    Exposure of pregnant rodents to certain environmental chemicals during criti...

  6. The role of environmental factors in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Hybenova, Monika; Hrda, Pavlina; Procházková, Jarmila; Stejskal, Vera; Sterzl, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Environmental factors can play an important role in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and other autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the role of heavy metals and infectious agents in AT. Currently, the genes responsible for a metal-induced pathology are known in experimental animals but similar knowledge is lacking in man. Metals such as nickel or mercury induce delayed type T cell hypersensitivity (allergy) which is relatively common, especially in women. T-cell allergy can be studied with the lymphocyte transformation test, LTT-MELISA. It has been found that patients with AT and other autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus and atopic eczema, show increased lymphocyte reactivity in vitro to inorganic mercury, nickel and other metals compared to healthy controls. The important source of mercury is dental amalgam. Replacement of amalgam in mercury-allergic subjects resulted in improvement of health in about 70% of patients. Several laboratory parameters such as mercury-specific lymphocyte responses in vitro and anti-thyroid autoantibodies were normalized as well. In contrast, no changes in health and laboratory results were observed in mercury-allergic patients who did not have their amalgams replaced. The same was true for non-allergic patients who underwent amalgam replacement. Infectious agents such as Helicobacter pylori (Hp) may cause chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactivity in susceptible subjects. The results of in vitro experiments performed with lymphocytes from Hp infected patients indicate that Hp can cause immunosuppression which might be eliminated by successful eradication therapy. In conclusion, heavy metals and Hp infection may play an important role in AT. Laboratory tests, such as LTT-MELISA, can help to determine the specific etiological agents causing inflammation in individual patients. The treatment of AT and other autoimmune diseases might be improved if such agents are eliminated and any future exposure restricted. PMID:20588228

  7. THE TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PRIORITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals...

  8. Environmental test planning, selection and standardization aids available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, E. H.; Foley, J. T.

    1968-01-01

    Requirements for instrumentation, equipment, and methods to be used in conducting environmental tests on components intended for use by a wide variety of technical personnel of different educational backgrounds, experience, and interests is announced.

  9. INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL TEST PLAN FOR SOURCE ASSESSMENT OF COAL GASIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an initial source assessment environmental test plan, developed to investigate the fate of various constituents during coal gasification. The plan is an approach to the problems associated with sampling point selection, sample collection, and sample analysis ...

  10. Familial Influences on Conduct Disorder Reflect 2 Genetic Factors and 1 Shared Environmental Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Context Prior studies suggest that antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence reflects multiple symptomatic dimensions. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the underlying nature of the etiologic influences contributing to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms as defined in the DSM. Objective To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for CD. Design Population-based twin registry. Setting Virginia. Participants Two thousand seven hundred sixty-nine members of male-male twin pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Main Outcome Measure Retrospective self-reported symptoms of CD. Results The best-fitting multivariate twin model included 2 genetic factors, 1 shared environmental common factor, and 1 nonshared environmental common factor, along with criterion-specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects. The CD criteria with the strongest loadings on the 2 genetic factors were, respectively, those reflecting rule breaking (eg, playing hooky) and overt aggressive acts (eg, hurting people). The shared environ mental common factor had salient loadings on a distinct set of criteria reflecting covert delinquent acts (eg, stealing and hurting animals). Loadings on the single non-shared environmental common factor were more uniform and less selective. Scores on the 3 familial CD factors were differentially associated with a range of personality, psychopathology, and demographic factors. Conclusions From a genetic perspective, the DSM criteria for CD do not reflect a single dimension of liability. The familial risk to CD is composed of 2 discrete dimensions of genetic risk, reflecting rule breaking and overt aggression, and 1 dimension of shared environmental risk, reflecting covert delinquency. These 3 familial factors differ meaningfully in their association with a range of relevant validators. PMID:23117573

  11. Program Handles Environmental-Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Freitas Bart, Frances; Fisher, Terry C.; De Luna, Claudia

    1992-01-01

    S3 Data Acquisition and Control System, (S3DACS) monitors, controls, and records information acquired during tests and presents it in various formats for easy access by large number of users. Results automatically stored. Data used in computations, and selectively presented in tabular, graphical, or electronic form. Reports show current or historical events. Network software written in FoxPro/LAN 1.02 and 80386 Assembler.

  12. Environmental Factors Item Development for Persons With Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Tulsky, David; Gray, David B.; Hollingsworth, Holly; Jerousek, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe methods used in operationalizing environmental factors; to describe the results of a research project to develop measures of environmental factors that affect participation; and to define an initial item set of facilitators and barriers to participation after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Design Instrument development included an extensive literature review, item classification and selection, item writing, and cognitive testing following the approach of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Setting Community. Participants Content area and outcome measurement experts (n=10) contributed to instrument development; individuals (n=200) with the target conditions participated in focus groups and in cognitive testing (n=15). Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Environmental factor items were categorized in 6 domains: assistive technology; built and natural environment; social environment; services, systems, and policies; access to information and technology; and economic quality of life. Results We binned 2273 items across the 6 domains, winnowed this pool to 291 items for cognitive testing, and recommended 274 items for pilot data collection. Conclusions Five of the 6 domains correspond closely to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health taxonomy of environmental factors; the sixth domain, economic quality of life, reflects an important construct that reflects financial resources that affect participation. Testing with a new and larger sample is underway to evaluate reliability, validity, and sensitivity. PMID:24378804

  13. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Snchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women. PMID:25725922

  14. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  15. Environmental Health Factors and Sexually Dimorphic Differences in Behavioral Disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors—in particular, those that we are exposed to during perinatal life—can dramatically shape the organism’s risk for later diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. However, depending on the environmental insult, one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other sex. Herein, we focus on two well-defined extrinsic environmental factors that lead to sexually dimorphic behavioral differences in animal models and linkage in human epidemiological studies. These include maternal or psychosocial stress (such as social stress) and exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (such as one of the most prevalent, bisphenol A [BPA]). In general, the evidence suggests that early environmental exposures, such as BPA and stress, lead to more pronounced behavioral deficits in males than in females, whereas female neurobehavioral patterns are more vulnerable to later in life stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering sex differences and developmental timing when examining the effects of environmental factors on later neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25705580

  16. Linking genetic and environmental factors in amphibian disease risk.

    PubMed

    Savage, Anna E; Becker, Carlos G; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2015-07-01

    A central question in evolutionary biology is how interactions between organisms and the environment shape genetic differentiation. The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused variable population declines in the lowland leopard frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); thus, disease has potentially shaped, or been shaped by, host genetic diversity. Environmental factors can also influence both amphibian immunity and Bd virulence, confounding our ability to assess the genetic effects on disease dynamics. Here, we used genetics, pathogen dynamics, and environmental data to characterize L. yavapaiensis populations, estimate migration, and determine relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in predicting Bd dynamics. We found that the two uninfected populations belonged to a single genetic deme, whereas each infected population was genetically unique. We detected an outlier locus that deviated from neutral expectations and was significantly correlated with mortality within populations. Across populations, only environmental variables predicted infection intensity, whereas environment and genetics predicted infection prevalence, and genetic diversity alone predicted mortality. At one locality with geothermally elevated water temperatures, migration estimates revealed source-sink dynamics that have likely prevented local adaptation. We conclude that integrating genetic and environmental variation among populations provides a better understanding of Bd spatial epidemiology, generating more effective conservation management strategies for mitigating amphibian declines. PMID:26136822

  17. Linking genetic and environmental factors in amphibian disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Anna E; Becker, Carlos G; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2015-01-01

    A central question in evolutionary biology is how interactions between organisms and the environment shape genetic differentiation. The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused variable population declines in the lowland leopard frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); thus, disease has potentially shaped, or been shaped by, host genetic diversity. Environmental factors can also influence both amphibian immunity and Bd virulence, confounding our ability to assess the genetic effects on disease dynamics. Here, we used genetics, pathogen dynamics, and environmental data to characterize L. yavapaiensis populations, estimate migration, and determine relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in predicting Bd dynamics. We found that the two uninfected populations belonged to a single genetic deme, whereas each infected population was genetically unique. We detected an outlier locus that deviated from neutral expectations and was significantly correlated with mortality within populations. Across populations, only environmental variables predicted infection intensity, whereas environment and genetics predicted infection prevalence, and genetic diversity alone predicted mortality. At one locality with geothermally elevated water temperatures, migration estimates revealed source–sink dynamics that have likely prevented local adaptation. We conclude that integrating genetic and environmental variation among populations provides a better understanding of Bd spatial epidemiology, generating more effective conservation management strategies for mitigating amphibian declines. PMID:26136822

  18. Intestinal microbiota is a plastic factor responding to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Candela, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Maccaferri, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2012-08-01

    Traditionally regarded as stable through the entire lifespan, the intestinal microbiota has now emerged as an extremely plastic entity, capable of being reconfigured in response to different environmental factors. In a mutualistic context, these microbiome fluctuations allow the host to rapidly adjust its metabolic and immunologic performances in response to environmental changes. Several circumstances can disturb this homeostatic equilibrium, inducing the intestinal microbiota to shift from a mutualistic configuration to a disease-associated profile. A mechanistic comprehension of the dynamics involved in this process is needed to deal more rationally with the role of the human intestinal microbiota in health and disease. PMID:22672911

  19. 1989 environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Other environmental compliance programs such as National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), environmental permits, environmental restoration, and waste management programs are also included. The maximum offsite dose impact from 1989 operations was 8.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem as a result of an unusual occurrence. The population received a collective dose of 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} person-rem from this incidence, while the same populations received 4.94 person-rem from natural background radiation. The 1989 SNL, TTR operations had no adverse impact on the general public or the environment. 18 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD. PMID:26826339

  1. Nurse burnout: personal and environmental factors as predictors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Yanhui; Wang, Linlin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the level of burnout of clinical nurses and to examine the influence of personal and environmental factors on nurse burnout. A total of 717 full-time nurses from six hospitals in Tianjin, China, completed five questionnaires: a demographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and the Nurse Job Stressor Scale. The participants had moderate levels of emotional exhaustion (mean score 23.95 ± 11.11) and depersonalization (mean score 7.90 ± 6.58) and a high level of reduced personal accomplishment (mean score 27.51 ± 10.96). Both personal and environmental factors were correlated with nurse burnout; however, personal factors played bigger roles in predicting personal accomplishment, whereas environmental factors played bigger roles in predicting emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In order to reduce nurse job burnout effectively, administrators should pay more attention to the improvement of nurses' self-efficacy and professional nursing practice environment and the reduction of stressors. PMID:24237882

  2. Environmental factors and primary prevention in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ilonen, Jorma; Vaarala, Outi; Åkerblom, Hans K.; Knip, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing rapidly among children in most European countries over the last decades. Despite of the known strong genetic component in the disease only environmental factors can explain such a rapid change. The increase in incidence has been most conspicuous in the youngest age group, which emphasizes the importance of infancy and early environmental exposures. Nutritional and infectious factors affecting the young child or even the mother during pregnancy have been implicated to be important in the pathogenesis. The identification of single factors has been extremely difficult as reflected by many controversial reports on their importance. This difficulty may also be due to the heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms in different pathways may ultimately be responsible for beta-cell destruction. In most cases the disease is probably caused by a complex interplay between multiple factors including distinct genetic polymorphisms and environmental effects. Exploration of these pathways is needed for the development of effective preventive measures. The implementation of primary prevention trials will ultimately prove the value of various concepts generated for the disease pathogenesis. PMID:20455416

  3. [Environmental factors in the etiopathology of inflammatory bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Barbara; Landowski, Piotr; Korzon, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS) mainly includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). UC and CD are chronic and recurrent conditions, with a tendency to exacerbations and remissions. The incidence of diseases worldwide has increased over the last years. Although the etiology of inflammatory bowel syndrome has been studied intensively it still remains unclear. The development and persistence of inflammation is an effect of numerous factors: proinflammatory (aggressive), regulating bowel mucosa homeostasis and protective factors. Proinflammatory factors include intestinal bacteria, bile acids, digestive enzymes, lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans. Protective mechanisms are impermeability of mucosa barrier, presence of intestinal mucus, activity of secretive immunoglobulins, some prostaglandins and interleukins, glutamine, somatostatin, cortisol and short-chain fatty acids. Factors modifying intestinal mucosa homeostasis consist of genetically determined immunoregulators and activity of intestinal mucosa barrier and some environmental factors (diet, smoking, infections, stress, antibiotics and others). Environmental factors are jointly responsible for IBS occurrence in case of genetically determined dysregulation leading to proinflammatory cytokines overproduction or disturbances in synthesis of cytokines regulating intestinal mucosa homeostasis. PMID:15557701

  4. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1R Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2007-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The subsystem includes an ion engine, power processing unit, feed system components, and thruster gimbal. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing in 2006 to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. The engine was reworked to address most of these findings, renamed PM1R, and the environmental test sequence was repeated. Thruster functional testing was performed before and after the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 min in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included three thermal cycles from 120 to 215 C with hot engine re-starts. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in a few engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. There were no significant changes in engine performance as characterized by engine operating parameters, ion optics performance measurements, and beam current density measurements, indicating no significant changes to the hardware as a result of the environmental testing. The NEXT PM1R engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. The redesigned cathode heater terminations successfully survived the vibration environments. Based on the results of this test program and confidence in the engineering solutions available for the remaining findings of the first test program, specifically the particulate contamination, the hardware environmental qualification program can proceed with confidence

  5. Pleural Mesothelioma in New Caledonia: Associations with Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Francine; Maurizot, Pierre; Mangeas, Morgan; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul; Douwes, Jeroen; Robineau, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background High incidences of malignant mesothelioma (MM) have been observed in New Caledonia. Previous work has shown an association between MM and soil containing serpentinite. Objectives We studied the spatial and temporal variation of MM and its association with environmental factors. Methods We investigated the 109 MM cases recorded in the Cancer Registry of New Caledonia between 1984 and 2008 and performed spatial, temporal, and space–time cluster analyses. We conducted an ecological analysis involving 100 tribes over a large area including those with the highest incidence rates. Associations with environmental factors were assessed using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Results The highest incidence was observed in the Houaïlou area with a world age-standardized rate of 128.7 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 70.41–137.84]. A significant spatial cluster grouped 18 tribes (31 observed cases vs. 8 expected cases; p = 0.001), but no significant temporal clusters were identified. The ecological analyses identified serpentinite on roads as the greatest environmental risk factor (odds ratio = 495.0; 95% CI, 46.2–4679.7; multivariate incidence rate ratio = 13.0; 95% CI, 10.2–16.6). The risk increased with serpentinite surface, proximity to serpentinite quarries and distance to the peridotite massif. The association with serpentines was stronger than with amphiboles. Living on a slope and close to dense vegetation appeared protective. The use of whitewash, previously suggested to be a risk factor, was not associated with MM incidence. Conclusions Presence of serpentinite on roads is a major environmental risk factor for mesothelioma in New Caledonia. PMID:21193386

  6. Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Pacheco, Oscar; Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    Despite intensive evaluation of acute stroke patients, perhaps only half of the attributable stroke risk is usually identified. In addition to traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors-including most recently homocysteine, inflammation, and alterations of coagulation-a number of environmental risk factors for stroke have been identified in the last decade. In this update we review the following: lower education and poor socioeconomic status (probable surrogates for exposure to traditional high-risk behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal control, absence of preventive medical and dental care, and non-compliance of treatment of conditions such as hypertension); depression, stress and affective disorders; obstructive sleep apnea; passive smoking and environmental pollution; infections, in particular periodontal diseases that increase C-reactive protein (CRP); raised body mass index (obesity); exercise, and diet. The possible role of high-fructose corn syrup in the epidemic of obesity in the USA is reviewed. Protective diets include higher consumption of fish, olive oil, grains, fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet), as well as probiotic bacteria in yogurt and dairy products. Careful attention should be given to the patient's environment looking for modifiable factors. The effects of clean environmental air and water, adequate diet and appropriate nutrition, healthy teeth, exercise, and refreshing sleep in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease appear to be quite compelling. Although some of these modifiable risk factors lack evidence-based information, judicious clinical sense should be used to counteract the potentially damaging effects of adverse environmental vascular risk factors. PMID:17655871

  7. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  8. Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor…

  9. The effects of space relevant environmental factors on halophilic Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    Within the last 50 years, space technology has provided tools for transporting terrestrial (microbial) life beyond Earth's protective shield in order to study its responses to selected conditions of space. Microorganisms are ubiquitous and can be found in almost every environment on Earth. They thrive and survive in a broad spectrum of environments and are true masters in adapting to rapidly changing external conditions. Although microorganisms cannot actively grow under the harsh conditions of outer space or other known planets, some microorganisms might be able to survive for a time in space or other planets as dormant, inactive spores or in similar desiccation-resistant resting states, e.g., enclosed in halite crystals or biofilms. Halite crystals are the realm of halophilic Archaea as they have adapted to life at extreme salt concentrations. They can stay entrapped in such crystals for millions of years without losing viability and therefore the family Halobacteriaceae belongs to the group of microorganisms which may survive space travel or may even be found on other planets. Several members of this family have been utilized in space relevant experiments where they were exposed to detrimental environmental conditions such as UV-C radiation, vacuum, temperature cycles (+60(°) C and -25(°) C) and heavy iron bombardment (150 MeV He, 500 MeV Ar and 500 MeV Fe ions). The viability was evaluated by colony forming unit (cfu) counts as well as with the LIFE/DEAD kit. Results revealed that UV-C radiation (up to 1.000 J/m (2) ) has a considerable effect on the viability, whereas the other tested parameters inflict little damage onto the organisms. Repair of UV-C inflicted damage is efficient and several DNA damage repair genes are up-regulated following exposure. Halophilic archaea display a strong resistance against heavy iron bombardment, with dosages of up to 2.000 Gy 500 MeV Fe ions needed to establish a visible effect on the vitality. Genomic integrity after exposure was investigated by several different methods e.g. RAPD - PCR, a technique that elucidates damages within the genome by different amplification patterns. Overall experimental results indicate that halophilic Archaea are able to withstand the exposure to space related environmental factors for a considerable time. This work in combined with others will lead to a detailed understanding of the response of extraterrestrial conditions to halophilic Archaea for astrobiological considerations.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION FACTORS FROM STATE SOURCE TEST PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study in which emission factors were evolved from test data obtained from several Air Quality Management Districts in California and from state environmental agencies in Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, and Texas. The emission factors were developed...

  11. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

  12. An overview of environmental risk factors in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    De Martinis, Massimo; Ciccarelli, Fedra; Sirufo, Maria Maddalena; Ginaldi, Lia

    2016-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease with a complex and multifactorial pathogenesis, characterized by excessive collagen deposition and vasculopathy, leading to skin fibrosis and involvement of internal organs. Regarding the aetiology of SSc, our current knowledge is still limited; however, as for other autoimmune syndromes, the disease is probably caused by both endogenous and exogenous factors. Among the exogenous factors, in the past decades, several environmental exposures, including occupational exposure to pollutants, chemicals and hand-arm vibrations as well as infections, silicone and use of drugs, have been suggested to play a role in the development of SSc. The following review analyzes the most recent literature to examine the relationship between environmental exposures and SSc. PMID:26610037

  13. Environmental factors altering thyroid function and their assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Barsano, C P

    1981-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of modest doses of dietary iodine, radiation, and polyhalogenated biphenyls (PCB's and PBB's) are environmental factors with known or suspected adverse effects on the human thyroid. Iodine consumption in the United States is approaching 1 mg daily for a large segment of the population. Data are reviewed which support the need for concern regarding the long-term adverse effects of dietary iodine on thyroid function, particularly in certain susceptible individuals. Environmental sources of radiation pose a significant risk of thyroid cancer and hypothyroidism under certain circumstances which may be intentional, inadvertent, or accidental. Exposure to polyhalogenated biphenyls during manufacture or as industrial pollutants are hazardous to man and to wildlife in moderate or large quantities and perhaps also in small amounts. The need to investigate the potential harm posed by these factors in the quantities commonly encountered is emphasized. PMID:6263611

  14. Environmental factors altering thyroid function and their assessment.

    PubMed

    Barsano, C P

    1981-04-01

    Chronic ingestion of modest doses of dietary iodine, radiation, and polyhalogenated biphenyls (PCB's and PBB's) are environmental factors with known or suspected adverse effects on the human thyroid. Iodine consumption in the United States is approaching 1 mg daily for a large segment of the population. Data are reviewed which support the need for concern regarding the long-term adverse effects of dietary iodine on thyroid function, particularly in certain susceptible individuals. Environmental sources of radiation pose a significant risk of thyroid cancer and hypothyroidism under certain circumstances which may be intentional, inadvertent, or accidental. Exposure to polyhalogenated biphenyls during manufacture or as industrial pollutants are hazardous to man and to wildlife in moderate or large quantities and perhaps also in small amounts. The need to investigate the potential harm posed by these factors in the quantities commonly encountered is emphasized. PMID:6263611

  15. Race and kidney disease: role of social and environmental factors.

    PubMed Central

    Nzerue, Chike M.; Demissochew, Haliu; Tucker, J. Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the presence of racial disparities among Americans in health outcomes with respect to cardiovascular disease, infant mortality, cancer, and kidney disease. With regard to kidney diseases, these disparities are more dramatic. African, Hispanic, and Native Americans have the highest risks of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The incidence of ESRD is four times higher in African Americans than in whites. Diseases causing chronic kidney failure, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy, are particularly prevalent among African-American patients. In addition to the higher prevalence, the morbidity associated with kidney complications of these diseases appears worse in African-American patients. African Americans also have worse outcomes and a relatively reduced access to kidney transplantation--the best therapy for ESRD. It is highly likely that social and environmental factors play a very significant role in the persistence of these disparities. A detailed understanding of these socioeconomic and environmental factors will be critical in formulating rational public health strategies to redress these disparities. This paper reviews the social, economic and environmental factors that impact on the incidence of ESRD in minority groups. PMID:12152910

  16. Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, James M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

  17. Environmental risk factors and the developmental basis for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Nasser H; Basha, M Riyaz

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose clinical manifestations appear in old age. The hallmark pathological features of AD (amyloid plaques and associated proteins) are present in normal aging indivduals, suggesting that AD may result from the acceleration of normal age-related processes in the brain. The sporadic nature of most AD cases strongly argues for an environmental link that may drive AD pathogenesis; however, it is unclear when this environmental stress may occur. Therefore it is important to identify an environmental trigger(s) and to pinpoint the period during which such factors pose the greatest risk. Recently, we reported that developmental exposure of rats to the xenobiotic metal lead (Pb) resulted in a delayed overexpression (20 months later) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its amyloidogenic Abeta product. Similarly, aged monkeys exposed to Pb as infants also responded in the same way. These data suggest that environmental influences occurring during brain development predetermine the expression and regulation of APP later in life, potentially influencing the course of amyloidogenesis, and argue for both an environmental trigger and a developmental origin of AD. In this review, we present evidence for the developmental basis of neurodegeneration and discuss mechanisms that may explain how perturbations during development can have long-term or delayed consequences in the aging brain. PMID:16519009

  18. Assessing an Environmental Attitude Development Model: Factors Influencing the Environmental Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess-Quimbita, Grace; Pavel, Michael

    A study investigated factors affecting the development of positive attitudes toward environmental issues among college students, focusing on the direct and indirect effects of student background characteristics, institutional characteristics, and college experience and outcomes variables. Data were drawn from the Cooperative Institutional Research…

  19. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  20. 1996 Site environmental report Tonopah test range Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1996) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, clean-up of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE Orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmentals surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized herein.

  1. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne; Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  2. Status of Centralized Environmental Creep Testing Facility Preparation and Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Battiste, Rick

    2006-10-01

    Because the ASME Codes do not cover environmental issues that are crucial in the design and construction of VHTR system, investigation of long-term impure helium effects on metallurgical stability and properties becomes very important. The present report describes the development of centralized environmental creep testing facility, its close collaborations with the experiments in low velocity helium recirculation loop, important lessons learned, upgrades in system design in FY06, and current status of the development.

  3. Impacts of environmental factors on fine root lifespan

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, M. Luke; Guo, Dali

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of fast-cycling roots is a critical parameter determining a large flux of plant carbon into soil through root turnover and is a biological feature regulating the capacity of a plant to capture soil water and nutrients via root-age-related physiological processes. While the importance of root lifespan to whole-plant and ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, robust descriptions of this dynamic process and its response to changes in climatic and edaphic factors are lacking. Here we synthesize available information and propose testable hypotheses using conceptual models to describe how changes in temperature, water, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) availability impact fine root lifespan within a species. Each model is based on intrinsic responses including root physiological activity and alteration of carbohydrate allocation at the whole-plant level as well as extrinsic factors including mycorrhizal fungi and pressure from pathogens, herbivores, and other microbes. Simplifying interactions among these factors, we propose three general principles describing fine root responses to complex environmental gradients. First, increases in a factor that strongly constrains plant growth (temperature, water, N, or P) should result in increased fine root lifespan. Second, increases in a factor that exceeds plant demand or tolerance should result in decreased lifespan. Third, as multiple factors interact fine root responses should be determined by the most dominant factor controlling plant growth. Moving forward, field experiments should determine which types of species (e.g., coarse vs. fine rooted, obligate vs. facultative mycotrophs) will express greater plasticity in response to environmental gradients while ecosystem models may begin to incorporate more detailed descriptions of root lifespan and turnover. Together these efforts will improve quantitative understanding of root dynamics and help to identify areas where future research should be focused. PMID:24904605

  4. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B.; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. Results: The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Conclusions: Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the implementation of appropriate preventive measures. PMID:24121452

  5. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  6. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wruble, D T; McDowell, E M

    1990-11-01

    Prior to 1989 annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the offsite radiological surveillance program conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with this 1989 annual Site environmental report for the NTS, these two documents are being combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection program conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear activities at the Site. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental releases and meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimate calculations. 57 refs., 52 figs., 65 tabs.

  7. Risk factors of obesity in a five year old population. Parental versus environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Billette, A; Miginiac, M; Munoz, F; Rey, S

    1992-10-01

    To be more effective, the prevention of obesity in childhood should be focused on the population at risk. The purpose of the present study is firstly to find correlations between certain environmental factors and obesity in childhood, and secondly to measure the influence of the environmental factors after taking the parental history of obesity into account. This case controlled study includes 704 controls vs. 327 cases selected in a population of five year old school children. The anthropometric assessment was completed at school. Obesity was defined as a weight for height > or = 2 s.d. using the French weight charts for French children based on sex and height. Interviews of the parents recorded parental overweight and child birth overweight as 'constitutional' factors and family structure, socio-economic level and daily lifestyle (sleep, TV viewing, after school care, etc.) as 'environmental' factors. The results show that parental overweight and birth overweight are closely related to the child's obesity at five years of age (estimated relative risks 3.1 and 2.4 respectively). The environmental factors which contribute to child obesity are: southern European origin of the mother, snacks, excessive television viewing and, more importantly, short sleep duration (estimated relative risks = 1.9, 1.3, 2.1 and 4.9 respectively). A logistic regression model, after taking parental overweight into account, shows that the relationship between obesity and short sleep duration persists independently of television viewing. The hypotheses raised by these findings are discussed. PMID:1330951

  8. Associations between environmental factors and incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers. It is caused by neural crest-derived melanocytes - pigmented cells normally present in the epidermis and, sometimes, in the dermis. Methods We performed a review of current knowledge on the risk factors of cutaneous melanoma. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scopus, Scholar Google and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Results Melanoma incurs a considerable public health burden owing to the worldwide dramatic rise in incidence since the mid-1960s. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the predominant environmental risk factor. The role of geographical (latitude) and individual factors such as skin type, life style, vitamin D levels and antioxidant protection, sunburn, and exposure to other environmental factors possibly contributing to melanoma risk (such as cosmetics including sunscreen, photosensitising drugs, and exogenous hormones) are reviewed in this article. Recently, both rare high risk susceptibility genes and common polymorphic genes contributing to melanoma risk have been identified. Conclusions Cutaneous melanoma is a complex cancer with heterogeneous aetiology that continues to increase in incidence. Introduction of new biomarkers may help to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis and individual susceptibility to the disease, and make both prevention and treatment more effective. PMID:22759494

  9. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    The risk of visual impairment and elevated intracranial pressure as a result of low-earth orbit microgravity exposure has directed our attention and research efforts to the eye. While the alterations observed in astronauts returning from long duration missions include vision and neuroanatomical changes observed by non-invasive methods, other effects and subsequent tissue responses at the molecular and cellular level can only be studied by accessing the tissue itself. As a result of this need, several studies are currently taking place within the Human and Health Countermeasures Element (HHC) that use animal models for eye research. The rodent eye has many similarities to the human eye, and both rats and mice have historically been used as models of human eye disease, aiding in the identification of the disease genes, elucidation of mechanisms of disease, as well as in the assessment of therapeutic treatments. These studies attempt to answer two central questions in the etiology of possible vision alterations in the environment of space exploration missions. The first is: what effects and response mechanisms take place in the different eye structures at the cellular and molecular level? The second question is directed to elucidate the contribution of the various environmental stressors (radiation, nutrition, fluid shift) to these effects. Collaborative approaches with internal and external investigators have allowed performing these studies in a most cost-effective fashion, providing preliminary data and laying the bases for testing further hypotheses in future and specifically designed animal experiments. From a study centered on the radioadaptive response in mice, we have learned that the retina responds to low and high dose gamma radiation by elevating antioxidant-related genes at early time points (4hrs) and that this response returns to control levels after 1 day post-irradiation. We are expanding this research with another collaborative study that investigates the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  10. Environmental qualification testing of the prototype pool boiling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J. Andrew

    1992-01-01

    The prototype Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) flew on the STS-47 mission in September 1992. This report describes the purpose of the experiment and the environmental qualification testing program that was used to prove the integrity of the prototype hardware. Component and box level vibration and thermal cycling tests were performed to give an early level of confidence in the hardware designs. At the system level, vibration, thermal extreme soaks, and thermal vacuum cycling tests were performed to qualify the complete design for the expected shuttle environment. The system level vibration testing included three axis sine sweeps and random inputs. The system level hot and cold soak tests demonstrated the hardware's capability to operate over a wide range of temperatures and gave the project team a wider latitude in determining which shuttle thermal altitudes were compatible with the experiment. The system level thermal vacuum cycling tests demonstrated the hardware's capability to operate in a convection free environment. A unique environmental chamber was designed and fabricated by the PBE team and allowed most of the environmental testing to be performed within the project's laboratory. The completion of the test program gave the project team high confidence in the hardware's ability to function as designed during flight.

  11. Risk factors of allergic rhinitis: genetic or environmental?

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Yun

    2005-06-01

    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis represent a global health problem, affecting 10%-25% of the world population. There is clear evidence to support the concept that allergic diseases are influenced by genetic predisposition and environmental exposure. Polymorphisms of candidate genes have been associated with clinical expression of these diseases. However, characterization of these susceptibility markers in discriminating an "allergic individual" from the general population has not yet been achieved, and the value of how this genetic insight leading to recognition of specific subtypes of these disorders still needs to be confirmed. Environmental factors (eg, air pollution and bacterial/viral infection) also play an important role in the development of the diseases. A number of epidemiologic studies have supported the "hygiene hypothesis", which is based on the observations that Th1 responses induced by microbial stimulation can counterbalance allergen-induced Th2 responses. Future studies are needed to identify the key genes or their haplotypes for atopic phenotypes and to investigate the interactions between genetic and environmental factors that influence the complex trait of allergic diseases. This will help us to further understand the etiology of the diseases and develop new avenues for genetically oriented diagnosis and more effective measures of prevention and intervention. PMID:18360551

  12. 21 CFR 864.7290 - Factor deficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Factor deficiency test. 864.7290 Section 864.7290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7290 Factor deficiency test. (a) Identification. A factor...

  13. Methodologic approaches to studying environmental factors in childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Grufferman, S

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about environmental causes of childhood cancer. This is probably due to the relative rarity of cancer in children. In the United States, cancer incidence in adults is over 20 times greater than cancer incidence in children. The situation is compounded by the fact that two groups of cancers, leukemias and brain and spinal tumors, account for half of all childhood cancers. The rarity of childhood cancer renders the conduct of most cohort studies infeasible. The majority of studies assessing potential environmental risk factors for childhood cancers have been case-control studies, which are highly efficient for studying rare diseases. Case-control studies of childhood cancers have been greatly facilitated by using cooperative clinical trial groups for case identification. The national studies that have emerged utilize random-digit telephone dialing and telephone interviewing as feasible and economic means of identifying and interviewing controls. Other approaches such as descriptive epidemiology, ecologic studies, and studies of cancer clusters have proven to be disappointing in elucidating environmental causes of childhood cancer. Descriptive and ecologic studies provide no information on specific exposures of study subjects; rather, they use population levels as surrogates for individual exposure. Studies of cancer clusters have also proven to be disappointing. Although there are numerous difficulties in conducting research on the causes of childhood cancer, these difficulties can be remedied by using carefully designed and conducted studies. It should be remembered that the epidemiologic approach is probably the most likely research venue for uncovering environmental causes of childhood cancer. PMID:9646052

  14. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 minutes in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included a deep cold soak of the engine to temperatures of -168 C and thermal cycling from -120 to 203 C. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in some engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. In general, the NEXT PM1 engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. After resolution of the findings from this test program the hardware environmental qualification program can proceed with confidence.

  15. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    SciTech Connect

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F.; Shobe, J.; Lamperti, P.; Soares, C.; Sengupta, S.

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting.

  16. Husband and wife with sarcoidosis: possible environmental factors involved

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystem disorder of unclear etiology that involves any organ, most commonly the lung and the lymph nodes. It is hypothesized that the disease derives from the interaction between single or multiple environmental factors and genetically determined host factors. Multiple potential etiologic agents for sarcoidosis have been proposed without any definitive demonstration of causality. We report the case of two patients, husband (57 years old) and wife (55 years old), both suffering from sarcoidosis. They underwent a lymph node biopsy by mediastinoscopy which showed a “granulomatous epithelioid giant cell non-necrotising chronic lymphadenitis”. They had lived up to 3 years ago in the country in a farm, in contact with organic dusts, animals such as dogs, chickens, rabbits, pigeons; now they have lived since about 3 years in an urban area where there are numerous chemical industries and stone quarries. The aim of this case report was to focus on environmental factors that might be related to the pathogenesis of the sarcoidosis. PMID:23351275

  17. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  18. Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Results: Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. Conclusions: More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms. PMID:24518932

  19. Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

    2010-10-01

    Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

  20. Environmental testing to prevent on-orbit TDRS failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Can improved environmental testing prevent on-orbit component failures such as those experienced in the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation? TDRS communications have been available to user spacecraft continuously for over 11 years, during which the five TDRS's placed in orbit have demonstrated their redundancies and robustness by surviving 26 component failures. Nevertheless, additional environmental testing prior to launch could prevent the occurrence of some types of failures, and could help to maintain communication services. Specific testing challenges involve traveling wave tube assemblies (TWTA's) whose lives may decrease with on-off cycling, and heaters that are subject to thermal cycles. The development of test conditions and procedures should account for known thermal variations. Testing may also have the potential to prevent failures in which components such as diplexers have had their lives dramatically shortened because of particle migration in a weightless environment. Reliability modeling could be used to select additional components that could benefit from special testing, but experience shows that this approach has serious limitations. Through knowledge of on-orbit experience, and with advances in testing, communication satellite programs might avoid the occurrence of some types of failures, and extend future spacecraft longevity beyond the current TDRS design life of ten years. However, determining which components to test, and how must testing to do, remain problematical.

  1. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W.; Ness, Roberta; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Jordan, Susan M.; Stram, Douglas A.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Goodman, Marc T.; Moysich, Kirsten; Hogdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J.; Brinton, Louise; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Massuger, Leon F.A.G; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.; Van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Berchuck, Andrew; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Iversen, Edwin; McGuire, Valerie; Moorman, Patricia G.; Pharoah, Paul; Pike, Malcolm C.; Risch, Harvey; Sieh, Weiva; Stram, Daniel O.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Whittemore, Alice; Wu, Anna H.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied. Methods Data from 14 ovarian cancer case-control studies were pooled, and stratified analyses by each environmental risk factor with tests for heterogeneity were conducted to determine the presence of interactions for all histological subtypes. A genetic “risk score” was created to consider the effects of all six variants simultaneously. A multivariate model was fit to examine the association between all environmental risk factors and genetic risk score on ovarian cancer risk. Results Among 7,374 controls and 5,566 cases, there was no statistical evidence of interaction between the six SNPs or genetic risk score and the environmental risk factors on ovarian cancer risk. In a main effects model, women in the highest genetic risk score quartile had a 65% increased risk of ovarian cancer compared to women in the lowest (95% CI 1.48-1.84). Analyses by histological subtype yielded risk differences across subtype for endometriosis (phet<0.001), parity (phet<0.01), and tubal ligation (phet=0.041). Conclusions The lack of interactions suggests that a multiplicative model is the best fit for these data. Under such a model, we provide a robust estimate of each risk factor's effect, which sets the stage for absolute risk prediction modeling that considers both environmental and genetic risk factors. Further research into the observed differences in risk across histological subtype is warranted. PMID:23462924

  2. Genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of hypospadias.

    PubMed

    George, Mathew; Schneuer, Francisco J; Jamieson, Sarra E; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the current evidence and knowledge of the aetiology of hypospadias. Hypospadias remains a fascinating anomaly of the male phallus. It may be an isolated occurrence or part of a syndrome or field defect. The increasing use of assisted reproductive techniques and hormonal manipulation during pregnancy may have been associated with an apparent rise in the incidence of hypospadias. Genetic studies and gene analysis have suggested some defects that could result in hypospadias. New light has also been thrown on environmental factors that could modulate candidate genes, causing altered development of the male external genitalia. PMID:25742936

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting the Transmission of Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Natalie; Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Many viruses are capable of infecting the human respiratory tract to cause disease. These viruses display various transmission patterns among humans; however, they all share the ability to transmit from person to person, and their human transmissibility is influenced by the environment in which pathogen and host meet. This review aims to summarize recent and significant observations regarding the impact of environmental factors such as weather and climate, humidity, temperature, and airflow on the transmission of human respiratory viruses. Where possible, knowledge gaps that require further scientific study will be identified. PMID:22440971

  4. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. PMID:23165885

  5. Invertebrates in testing of environmental chemicals: are they alternatives?

    PubMed Central

    Lagadic, L; Caquet, T

    1998-01-01

    An enlarged interpretation of alternatives in toxicology testing includes the replacement of one animal species with another, preferably a nonmammalian species. This paper reviews the potential of invertebrates in testing environmental chemicals and provides evidence of their usefulness in alternative testing methodologies. The first part of this review addresses the use of invertebrates in laboratory toxicology testing. Problems in extrapolating results obtained in invertebrates to those obtained from vertebrates are noted, suggesting that invertebrates can essentially be used in addition to rather than as replacements for vertebrates in laboratory toxicity tests. However, evaluation of the ecologic impact of environmental chemicals must include defining end points that may frequently differ from those classically used in biomedical research. In this context, alternative approaches using invertebrates may be more pertinent. The second part of the review therefore focuses on the use of invertebrates in situ to assess the environmental impact of pollutants. Advantages of invertebrates in ecotoxicologic investigation are presented for their usefulness for seeking mechanistic links between effects occurring at the individual level and consequences for higher levels of biologic organization (e.g., population and community). In the end, it is considered that replacement of vertebrates by invertebrates in ecotoxicity testing is likely to become a reality when basic knowledge of metabolic, physiologic, and developmental patterns in the latter will be sufficient to assess the effect of a given chemical through end points that could be different between invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:9599707

  6. THE FUTURE OF TOXICITY TESTING AND ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology is conducting a two-part study to assess and advance current approaches to toxicity testing and assessment to meet regulatory data needs. The first part of the study was completed January 2006, in which...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT - RILEY GAS PRODUCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a Source Test and Evaluation (STE) of the lignite-fueled Riley Gas Producer as part of EPA's program to define and evaluate the environmental effects of low-Btu gasification. (NOTE: In December 1979, the Gas Producer, fueled by North Dakota (Indianhead...

  8. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Momi, Sukhleen K; Wolber, Lisa E; Fabiane, Stella Maris; MacGregor, Alex J; Williams, Frances M K

    2015-08-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a common condition with complex etiology but a recognized genetic component. Heritability estimates for pure tone audiogram-determined hearing ability lie in the range 26-75%. The speech-in-noise (SIN) auditory test, however, may be better at encapsulating ARHI symptoms, particularly the diminished ability to segregate environmental sounds into comprehendible auditory streams. As heritability of SIN has not previously been reported, we explored the genetic and environmental contributions to ARHI determined by SIN in 2,076 twins (87.8% female) aged 18-87 (mean age 54.4). SIN was found to be significantly heritable (A, unadjusted for age=40%; 95% confidence intervals, CI=32%-47%). With age adjustment, heritability fell (A=25%; 95% CI=16-33%), and a relatively strong influence of environmental exposure unshared within twin siblings was identified (E=75%). To explore the environmental aspects further, we assessed the influence of diet (through the Food Frequency Questionnaire, FFQ), smoking (through self-report and cotinine metabolite levels) and alcohol intake (through the FFQ). A negative influence of high cholesterol diet was observed after adjustment (p=.037). A protective effect of raised serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was observed after adjustment (p=.004). This study is the first assessment of the genetic and environmental influence on SIN perception. The findings suggest SIN is less heritable than pure tone audiogram (PTA) ability and highly influenced by the environment unique to each twin. Furthermore, a possible role of dietary fat in the etiology of ARHI is highlighted. PMID:26081266

  10. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Turnage, J. J.; Jones, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment.

  11. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  12. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  13. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability [1-3]. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions [3-6]. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns [7, 8]. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds [4-6, 7-10]. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  14. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability [1-3]. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions [3-6]. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns [7, 8]. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds [4-6, 7-10]. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products [9].

  15. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  16. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  17. Environmental Factors Related to Multiple Sclerosis in Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    D’Cunha, Anita; Mustafa, Sharik

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is less prevalent among Indians when compared to white populations. Genetic susceptibility remaining the same it is possible that environmental associations may have a role in determining disease prevalence. Aims To determine whether childhood infections, vaccination status, past infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), diet, socioeconomic and educational status were associated with MS. Material and Methods 139 patients and 278 matched control subjects were selected. A validated environmental exposure questionnaire was administered. Estimation of serum H.pylori IgG antibody was done by ELISA. Patients and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*15:01. Results In our cohort a significant association was seen with measles (p <0.007), vegetarian diet (p < 0.001, higher educational status (p <0.0001) and urban living (p <0.0001). An inverse relationship was seen with H.Pylori infection and MS (p <0.001). Measles infection (OR 6.479, CI 1.21- 34.668, p< 0.029) and high educational status (OR 3.088, CI 1.212- 7.872, p< 0.018) were significant risk factors associated with MS. H.pylori infection was inversely related to MS (OR 0. 319, CI 0.144- 0.706, p <0.005). Conclusions Environmental influences may be important in determining MS prevalence. PMID:25902359

  18. Impact of environmental factors on legionella populations in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  19. Some physical factors in toxicological assessment tests.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, V H; Chiou, C T; Schmedding, D; Kohnert, R

    1979-01-01

    Many thousand organic compounds are in common use and new ones introduced daily. With many of these materials, little is known about their toxic hazard. For years scientists have been investigating the relation of structure and properties to biological activity. Among the factors relating to toxicity are bioaccumulation and persistence in the organism. In this study, the relation of partition coefficient and solubility to bioaccumulation of some organochlorine compounds was investigated as was also the reactivity of several organophosphates. The work adds confirmation to the relation of molecular parameters to penetration, accumulation, and persistence in toxic action. PMID:446460

  20. ASTHMA, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS, AND HYPERTENSION AMONG ARAB AMERICANS IN THE METRO DETROIT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of environmental risk factors in asthma etiology has been well-documented, and certain environmental risk factors have also been associated with hypertension. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between hypertension and asthma. This study...

  1. Estimating Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and its Relationship with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632

  2. Methylmercury: A Potential Environmental Risk Factor Contributing to Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yukun

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy or seizure disorder is one of the most common neurological diseases in humans. Although genetic mutations in ion channels and receptors and some other risk factors such as brain injury are linked to epileptogenesis, the underlying cause for the majority of epilepsy cases remains unknown. Gene-environment interactions are thought to play a critical role in the etiology of epilepsy. Exposure to environmental chemicals is an important risk factor. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a prominent environmental neurotoxicant, which targets primarily the central nervous system (CNS). Patients or animals with acute or chronic MeHg poisoning often display epileptic seizures or show increased susceptibility to seizures, suggesting that MeHg exposure may be associated with epileptogenesis. This mini-review highlights the effects of MeHg exposure, especially developmental exposure, on the susceptibility of humans and animals to seizures, and discusses the potential role of low level MeHg exposure in epileptogenesis. This review also proposes that a preferential effect of MeHg on the inhibitory GABAergic system, leading to disinhibition of excitatory glutamatergic function, may be one of the potential mechanisms underlying MeHg-induced changes in seizure susceptibility. PMID:22206970

  3. Ambient Environmental risk factors for childhood wheezing illness.

    PubMed

    Tsabouri, Sophia; Bleta, Anastasia G; Nastos, Panagiotis T; Priftis, Kostas N

    2015-01-01

    It is a great consensus in the scientific community that environmental factors, such as weather conditions and ambient air pollution, have vital impacts on respiratory diseases. Further, these factors imply the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The impacts are more pronounced in sensitive groups of population, such as children and elderly, living in urbanized areas. Over the last three decades, studies have shown changes in production, dispersion and allergen content of pollen and spores, which may be region- and species-specific. In addition, these changes may have been influenced by air pollutants interacting directly with pollen. It is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate change and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations. However, the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity suggests that air pollution and climate changes could be contributing. The objective of this review is to summarize the environmental impacts on pulmonary diseases in children based on recent literature over the world. PMID:25961424

  4. Allergic Asthma: Influence of Genetic and Environmental Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anil B.; Zhang, Zhongjian

    2011-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease in which exposure to allergens causes intermittent attacks of breathlessness, airway hyper-reactivity, wheezing, and coughing. Allergic asthma has been called a “syndrome” resulting from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Worldwide, >300 million individuals are affected by this disease, and in the United States alone, it is estimated that >35 million people, mostly children, suffer from asthma. Although animal models, linkage analyses, and genome-wide association studies have identified numerous candidate genes, a solid definition of allergic asthma has not yet emerged; however, such studies have contributed to our understanding of the multiple pathways to this syndrome. In contrast with animal models, in which T-helper 2 (TH2) cell response is the dominant feature, in human asthma, an initial exposure to allergen results in TH2 cell-dependent stimulation of the immune response that mediates the production of IgE and cytokines. Re-exposure to allergen then activates mast cells, which release mediators such as histamines and leukotrienes that recruit other cells, including TH2 cells, which mediate the inflammatory response in the lungs. In this minireview, we discuss the current understanding of how associated genetic and environmental factors increase the complexity of allergic asthma and the challenges allergic asthma poses for the development of novel approaches to effective treatment and prevention. PMID:21799018

  5. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic immunologically mediated diseases. The key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases is a dysregulated immune response to commensal flora in a genetically susceptible host. Thus intestinal microbial dysbiosis, host genetics, and the external environment all play an important role in the development of incident disease and in determining subsequent disease behavior and outcomes. There are several well-defined or putative environmental risk factors including cigarette smoking, appendectomy, diet, stress and depression, vitamin D as well as hormonal influence. The effect of some of the risk factors appears to differ between CD and UC suggesting that despite shared genetic and immunologic mechanisms, distinct pathways of pathogenesis exist. There is a growing body of literature identifying risk factors for incident disease. There is less rigorous literature defining triggers of relapse, and few controlled clinical trials examining if modification of such risk factors results in an improvement in patient outcomes. This is an area of considerable patient, physician, and scientific interest, and there is an important unmet need for rigorous studies of the external environment in disease pathogenesis and subsequent course. PMID:25204669

  6. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Derakhshan, Mohammad H

    2013-06-01

    Effective prevention and early diagnostic strategies are the most important public health interventions in gastric cancer, which remains a common malignancy worldwide. Preventive strategies require identification and understanding of environmental risk factors that lead to carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the primary carcinogen as this ancient bacterium has a complex ability to interact with its human host. Smoking and salt are strong independent risk factors for gastric cancer whereas alcohol is only a risk when it is heavily consumed. Red meat and high fat increase the risk of gastric cancer however fresh fruits, vegetables (allium family) and certain micronutrients (selenium, vitamin C) reduce the risk, with evidence lacking for fish, coffee and tea. Foods that inhibit H. pylori viability, colonization and infection may reduce cancer risk. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a contributory factor in gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Therefore, modest daily physical activities can be protective against cancer. Foundry workers are at risk for developing gastric cancer with dust iron being an important cause. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), possibly JC virus and radiation but the effects of these are likely to remain small. PMID:23725070

  7. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic immunologically mediated diseases. The key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases is a dysregulated immune response to commensal flora in a genetically susceptible host. Thus intestinal microbial dysbiosis, host genetics, and the external environment all play an important role in the development of incident disease and in determining subsequent disease behavior and outcomes. There are several well-defined or putative environmental risk factors including cigarette smoking, appendectomy, diet, stress and depression, vitamin D as well as hormonal influence. The effect of some of the risk factors appears to differ between CD and UC suggesting that despite shared genetic and immunologic mechanisms, distinct pathways of pathogenesis exist. There is a growing body of literature identifying risk factors for incident disease. There is less rigorous literature defining triggers of relapse, and few controlled clinical trials examining if modification of such risk factors results in an improvement in patient outcomes. This is an area of considerable patient, physician, and scientific interest, and there is an important unmet need for rigorous studies of the external environment in disease pathogenesis and subsequent course. PMID:25204669

  8. Testing gravity using the environmental dependence of dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2011-08-12

    In this Letter, we investigate the environmental dependence of dark matter halos in theories which attempt to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe by modifying general relativity (GR). Using high-resolution N-body simulations in f(R) gravity models which recover GR in dense environments by virtue of the chameleon mechanism, we find a significant difference, which depends on the environment, between the lensing and dynamical masses of dark matter halos. This environmental dependence of the halo properties can be used as a smoking gun to test GR observationally. PMID:21902382

  9. Optimised Environmental Test Approaches in the GOCE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, V.; Giordano, P.; Casagrande, C.

    2004-08-01

    The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) is dedicated to measuring the Earth's gravity field and modelling the geoid with extremely high accuracy and spatial resolution. It is the first Earth Explorer Core mission to be developed as part of ESA's Living Planet Programme and is scheduled for launch in 2006. The program is managed by a consortium of European companies: Alenia Spazio, the prime contractor, Astrium GmbH, the platform responsible, Alcatel Space Industries and Laben, suppliers of the main payloads, respectively the Electrostatic Gravity Gradiometer (EGG) and the Satellite to Satellite Tracking Instrument (SSTI), actually a precise GPS receiver. The GOCE Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) approach is established and implemented in order to demonstrate to the customer that the satellite design meets the applicable requirements and to qualify and accept from lower level up to system level. The driving keywords of "low cost" and "short schedule" program, call for minimizing the development effort by utilizing off-the-shelf equipment combined with a model philosophy lowering the number of models to be used. The paper will deal on the peculiarities of the optimized environmental test approach in the GOCE project. In particular it introduces the logic of the AIV approach and describe the foreseen tests at system level within the SM environmental test campaign, outlining the Quasi Static test performed in the frame of the SM sine vibration tests, and the PFM environmental test campaign pinpointing the deletion of the Sine Vibration test on PFM model. Furthermore the paper highlights how the Model and Test Effectiveness Database (MATD) can be utilized for the prediction of the new space projects like GOCE Satellite.

  10. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp contrast to the strong evidence provided by the appropriate graphs and correlation tests that indicate strong, dominant relationships between body size and environmental factors. Thus, though further research is necessary to settle such uncertainty, we were able to identify, observe, and compare the diversity in body size responses to environmental factors within echinoderms.

  11. An induction into the design of flight test instrumentation systems. [factors affecting the development and design of flight test instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    The development of flight test instrumentation systems based on specific requirements for the flight tests is discussed. The factors which influence the instrumentation system design are described. The use of a measurements list as a device for determining flight test requirements is explained. A block diagram of a typical flight test instrumentation system is provided. The effects of factors such as cost, schedule, personnel, accuracy, environmental qualifications, and reliability are analyzed.

  12. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  13. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental test. (b) Environmental testing after an induced molting period. If you induce a molt in a flock or a group in a flock, you must perform environmental testing for SE in the poultry house at 4 to 6 weeks after the end of any molting process. (1) If an environmental test at 4 to 6 weeks after the...

  14. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental test. (b) Environmental testing after an induced molting period. If you induce a molt in a flock or a group in a flock, you must perform environmental testing for SE in the poultry house at 4 to 6 weeks after the end of any molting process. (1) If an environmental test at 4 to 6 weeks after the...

  15. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental test. (b) Environmental testing after an induced molting period. If you induce a molt in a flock or a group in a flock, you must perform environmental testing for SE in the poultry house at 4 to 6 weeks after the end of any molting process. (1) If an environmental test at 4 to 6 weeks after the...

  16. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental test. (b) Environmental testing after an induced molting period. If you induce a molt in a flock or a group in a flock, you must perform environmental testing for SE in the poultry house at 4 to 6 weeks after the end of any molting process. (1) If an environmental test at 4 to 6 weeks after the...

  17. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach to obtaining real time, superconducting YBa2Cu30(7-x) materials is presented. The work was carried out under the overall direction of Clemson University with tasks being performed at both Clemson and Westinghouse (Aiken, SC). Clemson prepared the tapecast superconducting 123 material and fabricated in into substrate-supported, environmentally-protected conducting links. Following this, all of the elements were individually tested for resistance vs. temperature and Tc; and then a portion of them were kept at Clemson for further testing while a randomly selected group was delivered to Westinghouse for specialized testing and evaluation in their low temperature/high vacuum and radiation facilities. In addition, a number of control samples (12 ea.) were put on the shelf at Clemson for further reference at the end of the testing period. The specific tests conducted at Clemson and Westinghouse/SRC are presented with a summary of the results.

  18. Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) Environmental Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George A.

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits from the environmental testing results by understanding its performance limitations/shortcomings to improve subsequent generations of AMOLED technology. Note that the AMOLED used in this test was not deSigned for the space environment but rather for commercial/industrial terrestrial applications.

  19. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom offilamentous/colonialclusters. These findings highlight that if environmental conditions can partially explain the presence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria, microbial and trophic interactions with filamentous/colonial cyanobacteria should also be considered as potential shaping factors for single-celled communities. Regional climate change scenarios in the Baltic Sea predict environmental shifts leading to higher temperature and lower salinity; conditions identified here as favorable for opportunistic filamentous/colonial cyanobacteria. Altogether, the diversity and complexity of cyanobacterial communities reported here is far greater than previously known, emphasizing the importance of microbial interactions between filamentous and picocyanobacteria in the context of environmental disturbances.

  20. On the Factor Structure of a Reading Comprehension Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the construct validly of a section of a high stakes test, an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis was employed. The rotation used was varimax with the suppression level of 0.30. Eleven factors were extracted out of 35 reading comprehension items. The fact that these factors emerged speak to the construct…

  1. Nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1983-05-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, a basic study of the nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation was carried out to provide fundamental and practical bases for design of fermentation media and culture conditions. The requirements for all active medium components need to be determined in order to establish balanced media, which are important to reduce raw materials costs and to minimize inhibition from buildup of excess feed components in recycle processes with selective ethanol removal. Pulse injection of nutrients into continuous cultures was an effective method for screening active nutrients. In a systematic sensitivity analysis the effect of feed concentration of these individual nutrients was then determined and allowed formulation of media optimal with respect to the major fermentation parameters. Biotin, pantothenate, myo-inositol, potassium and phosphates appeared to stimulate growth preferentially to ethanol production. In contrast, thiamine and pyridoxine appeared to enhance specific ethanol productivity. The effect of ammonium sulfate depended on concentration. A conceptual model was proposed to relate the effects of these nutrients to biochemical pathways and functions. With these data and model the minimum cost combination of raw materials to achieve a medium of well defined components can be determined with a linear program. This computer program shows that many growth factors and minerals can be added to media more economically as pure components than as fractions of complex factors. 225 references, 61 figures, 54 tables.

  2. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-06-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA(®) Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

  3. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  4. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  5. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  6. Plant community assembly at small scales: Spatial vs. environmental factors in a European grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Sebastian; Hempel, Stefan; Ristow, Michael; Rillig, Matthias C.; Kowarik, Ingo; Caruso, Tancredi

    2015-02-01

    Dispersal limitation and environmental conditions are crucial drivers of plant species distribution and establishment. As these factors operate at different spatial scales, we asked: Do the environmental factors known to determine community assembly at broad scales operate at fine scales (few meters)? How much do these factors account for community variation at fine scales? In which way do biotic and abiotic interactions drive changes in species composition? We surveyed the plant community within a dry grassland along a very steep gradient of soil characteristics like pH and nutrients. We used a spatially explicit sampling design, based on three replicated macroplots of 15 × 15, 12 × 12 and 12 × 12 m in extent. Soil samples were taken to quantify several soil properties (carbon, nitrogen, plant available phosphorus, pH, water content and dehydrogenase activity as a proxy for overall microbial activity). We performed variance partitioning to assess the effect of these variables on plant composition and statistically controlled for spatial autocorrelation via eigenvector mapping. We also applied null model analysis to test for non-random patterns in species co-occurrence using randomization schemes that account for patterns expected under species interactions. At a fine spatial scale, environmental factors explained 18% of variation when controlling for spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of plant species, whereas purely spatial processes accounted for 14% variation. Null model analysis showed that species spatially segregated in a non-random way and these spatial patterns could be due to a combination of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. Our grassland study suggests that environmental factors found to be directly relevant in broad scale studies are present also at small scales, but are supplemented by spatial processes and more direct interactions like competition.

  7. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  10. Factors affecting milk ELISA scores of cows tested for Johne’s disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease) has been estimated to cost dairy producers over $1.5 billion per year. The objective of this study was to examine the influence a number of environmental and genetic factors have on ELISA milk test scores for Johne’s diseas...

  11. 40 CFR 1039.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1039.520 Section 1039.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  14. 40 CFR 1042.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1042.520 Section 1042.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE...

  15. 40 CFR 1039.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1039.520 Section 1039.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1054.520 Section 1054.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1042.520 Section 1042.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1054.520 Section 1054.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD...

  19. Hydrologic test plan for the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.C.

    1993-09-30

    Hydrologic tests are planned at seven wells that will be drilled at the proposed Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility (ERDF). These wells are supporting hydrologic, geologic, and hydrochemical characterization at this new facility. Hydrologic testing will consist of instantaneous slug tests, slug interference tests, step-drawdown tests, and constant rate discharge tests (generally single-well). These test results and later groundwater monitoring data will be used to determine groundwater flow directions, flow rates, and the chemical makeup of the groundwater below the proposed ERDF. The seven wells will be drilled in two phases. In Phase I four wells will be drilled and tested: Two to the top of the uppermost aquifer (water table) and two as characterization boreholes to the top of basalt. The Phase I wells are located in the northern portion of the proposed ERDF site (699-32-72, 699-SDF-6, -7 and -8) (Figure 1). If Phase II drilling proceeds, the remaining three wells will be installed and tested (two deep and one shallow). A phased approach to drilling is warranted because of current uncertainty in the land use requirements at the proposed ERDF.

  20. Emerging Neurotoxic Mechanisms in Environmental Factors-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Sondarva, Gautam; Rangasamy, Velusamy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to environmental neurotoxic metals, pesticides and other chemicals is increasingly recognized as a key risk factor in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Oxidative stress and apoptosis have been actively investigated as neurotoxic mechanisms over the past two decades, resulting in a greater understanding of neurotoxic processes. Nevertheless, emerging evidence indicates that epigenetic changes, protein aggregation and autophagy are important cellular and molecular correlates of neurodegenerative diseases resulting from chronic neurotoxic chemical exposure. During the Joint Conference of the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association and the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health, the recent progress made toward understanding epigenetic mechanisms, protein aggregation, autophagy, and deregulated kinase activation following neurotoxic chemical exposure and the relevance to neurodegenerative conditions were one of the themes of the symposium. Dr. Anumantha G. Kanthasamy described the role of acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins in neurotoxicant-induced neurodegenerative processes in the nigral dopaminergic neuronal system. Dr. Arthi Kanthasamy illustrated the role of autophagy as a key determinant in cell death events during neurotoxic insults. Dr. Ajay Rana provided evidence for posttranslational modification of α-synuclein protein by the Mixed Linage Kinase (MLK) group of kinases to initiate protein aggregation in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson’s disease. These presentations outlined emerging cutting edge mechanisms that might set the stage for future mechanistic investigations into new frontiers of molecular neurotoxicology. This report summarizes the views of symposium participants, with emphasis on future directions for study of environmentally and occupationally linked chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22342404

  1. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered. PMID:23956663

  2. Environmental testing of block 2 solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The testing procedures and results of samples of the LSA Project Block 2 procurement of silicon solar cell modules are described. Block 2 was the second large scale procurement of silicon solar cell modules made by the JPL Low-cost Solar Array Project with deliveries in 1977 and early 1978. The results showed that the Block 2 modules were greatly improved over Block 1 modules. In several cases it was shown that design improvements were needed to reduce environmental test degradation. These improvements were incorporated during this production run.

  3. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Hay, Phillipa J

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier) to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. PMID:24728136

  4. Organizational, financial, and environmental factors influencing deans' tenure.

    PubMed

    Levin, R; Bhak, K; Moy, E; Valente, E; Griner, P F

    1998-06-01

    At a time when continuity of leadership in medical schools is most crucial, the tenures of deans continue to decrease. In the present study of factors influencing the tenures of 382 U.S. medical school deans from 1985 to 1994, the authors focused on issues that were likely to have had a greater impact on deans' tenures in recent years. They assumed that longer tenures are associated with less complex organizational factors and more stable environmental factors. Conversely, they assumed that deans and their tenures are adversely affected by an institution's declining financial health, a complex organizational structure, and a changing clinical marketplace where there is rapid growth of managed care. The authors compared the relationships between these factors and the length of deans' tenures during the ten-year period studied. Among the most important findings were the fact that schools that were less healthy financially, that had the same owner as the primary teaching hospital, and that had smaller numbers of faculty tended to have shorter dean's tenures and higher turnovers of deans. While the reason for shorter tenures of deans at schools that are less financially healthy is understandable, the effect of common ownership of the school and teaching hospital is less obvious, but perhaps the greater preoccupation of deans with the clinical enterprise in that circumstance is a significant constraint. The authors hope that the insights from their findings will be useful to future candidates for deanships in their negotiations with university officials and will help all parties reach more explicit agreements on such issues as expectations for financial performance of the medical school and the roles and relationships of the dean and the teaching hospital director. PMID:9653400

  5. Vaccine-induced antibody responses as parameters of the influence of endogenous and environmental factors.

    PubMed Central

    Van Loveren, H; Van Amsterdam, J G; Vandebriel, R J; Kimman, T G; Rümke, H C; Steerenberg, P S; Vos, J G

    2001-01-01

    In laboratory animals, an adequate way to assess effects of environmental exposures on the immune system is to study effects on antigen-specific immune responses, such as after sensitization to T-cell-dependent antigens. This probably also applies to testing effects in the human population. It has thus been suggested that antibody responses to vaccination might be useful in this context. Vaccination responses may be influenced by a variety of factors other than environmental ones. One factor is the vaccine itself; a second is the vaccination procedure used. In addition, the intrinsic capacity of the recipient to respond to a vaccine, which is determined by sex, genetic factors, and age, is important. Psychological stress, nutrition, and (infectious) diseases are also likely to have an impact. We reviewed the literature on vaccine response. With regard to exogenous factors, there is good evidence that smoking, diet, psychological stress, and certain infectious diseases affect vaccination titers, although it is difficult to determine to what extent. Genetic factors render certain individuals nonresponsive to vaccination. In general, in epidemiologic studies of adverse effects of exposure to agents in the environment in which vaccination titers are used, these additional factors need to be taken into consideration. Provided that these factors are corrected for, a study that shows an association of exposure to a given agent with diminished vaccination responses may indicate suboptimal function of the immune system and clinically relevant diminished immune response. It is quite unlikely that environmental exposures that affect responses to vaccination may in fact abrogate protection to the specific pathogen for which vaccination was performed. Only in those cases where individuals have a poor response to the vaccine may exogenous factors perhaps have a clinically significant influence on resistance to the specific pathogen. An exposure-associated inhibition of a vaccination response may, however, signify a decreased host resistance to pathogens against which no vaccination had been performed. PMID:11564609

  6. Scalogram and Factor Analyses of Two Tests of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, James S.; De Avila, Edward A.

    1980-01-01

    Two tests of cognitive development, the Cartoon Conservation Scales, Levels I and II, were designed to measure Piagetian stage-related constructs for children of different age groups. The tests were factor analyzed within age levels and were also analyzed using scalogram and tabular methods to test sequential hypotheses. (Author/CTM)

  7. Environmental factors acting during development to influence MS risk: insights from animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Dimitry N.; Teuscher, Cory

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an increasing incidence in females. Epidemiological data strongly implicate environmental factors acting at the population level during gestation, childhood, and adulthood in the increasing incidence of MS. Several such factors have been implicated in disease risk, but their causality remains unproven, while other factors remain unknown. The understanding of risk factors acting during development is particularly limited. Animal studies could potentially bridge the gap between observational epidemiology and clinical intervention, providing not only direct evidence of causality for a given environmental agent, but also an opportunity to dissect the underlying molecular mechanisms. Given the short gestational and developmental period in rodents, effects of developmental exposure can also be readily addressed. Nonetheless, studies in this area have so far been few. In this review, we summarize the insights gleaned from studies that test environmental influences in animal models of MS, with a particular focus on gestational and early life exposures. PMID:24077054

  8. Nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.

    1983-01-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, a basic study of the nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation was carried out to provide fundamental and practical bases for design of fermentation media and culture conditions. The requirements for all active medium components need to be determined in order to establish balanced media, which are important to reduce raw materials costs and to minimize inhibition from build-up of excess feed components in recycle processes with selective ethanol removal. The effect of feed concentration of individual nutrients was determined and allowed formulation of media optimal with respect to the major fermentation parameters. Biotin, pantothenate, myoinositol, potassium, and phosphates appeared to stimulate growth preferentially to ethanol production. Thiamine and pyridoxine appeared to have the opposite effect. A conceptual model was proposed to relate the effects of these nutrients to biochemical pathways and functions. The minimum cost combination of raw materials to achieve a medium of well defined components can be determined with a linear program. The effect of dissolved oxygen was studied from essentially zero to 346 mm Hg oxygen tension, showing a continuous decline in specific ethanol productivity with increasing oxygen over this range. Long term continuous cultures resulted in decreased media requirements for growth factors and increased tolerance for ethanol inhibition, most probably through adaptation. An ethanol productivity of 5.6 g/l-hr in continuous culture was achieved with a completely synthetic medium with the improved culture.

  9. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2009-03-15

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers. PMID:19168087

  10. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, C.-H.

    2009-03-15

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

  11. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gadad, Bharathi S.; Young, Keith A.; German, Dwight C.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology. PMID:24151553

  12. Supplemental final environmental impact statement for advanced solid rocket motor testing at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Since the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision on the FEIS describing the potential impacts to human health and the environment associated with the program, three factors have caused NASA to initiate additional studies regarding these issues. These factors are: (1) The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agreed to use the same comprehensive procedures to identify and delineate wetlands; (2) EPA has given NASA further guidance on how best to simulate the exhaust plume from the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) testing through computer modeling, enabling more realistic analysis of emission impacts; and (3) public concerns have been raised concerning short and long term impacts on human health and the environment from ASRM testing.

  13. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Koufaris, Costas; Sismani, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25903146

  14. Modulation of the genome and epigenome of individuals susceptible to autism by environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Koufaris, Costas; Sismani, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25903146

  15. Measuring physical activity-related environmental factors: reliability and predictive validity of the European environmental questionnaire ALPHA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A questionnaire to assess physical activity related environmental factors in the European population (a 49-item and an 11-item version) was created as part of the framework of the EU-funded project "Instruments for Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity and fitness (ALPHA)". This paper reports on the development and assessment of the questionnaire's test-retest stability, predictive validity, and applicability to European adults. Methods The first pilot test was conducted in Belgium, France and the UK. In total 190 adults completed both forms of the ALPHA questionnaire twice with a one-week interval. Physical activity was concurrently measured (i) by administration of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) by interview and (ii) by accelerometry (Actigraph device). After adaptations, the second field test took place in Belgium, the UK and Austria; 166 adults completed the adapted questionnaire at two time points, with minimum one-week interval. In both field studies intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and proportion of agreement were computed to assess the stability of the two test scores. Predictive validity was examined in the first field test by correlating the results of the questionnaires with physical activity data from accelerometry and long IPAQ-last 7 days. Results The reliability scores of the ALPHA questionnaire were moderate-to good in the first field testing (ICC range 0.66 - 0.86) and good in the second field testing (ICC range 0.71 - 0.87). The proportion of agreement for the ALPHA short increased significantly from the first (range 50 - 83%) to the second field testing (range 85 - 95%). Environmental scales from both versions of the ALPHA questionnaire were significantly associated with self-reported minutes of transport-related walking, and objectively measured low intensity physical activity levels, particularly in women. Both versions were easily administered with an average completion time of six minutes for the 49-item version and less than two minutes for the short version. Conclusion The ALPHA questionnaire is an instrument to measure environmental perceptions in relation to physical activity. It appears to have good reliability and predictive validity. The questionnaire is now available to other researchers to investigate its usefulness and applicability across Europe. PMID:20504339

  16. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling on the tether, even if the vehicle wheels were locked or the vehicle was on its side. Line pull required to retrieve the vehicle was measured, and side load on the riser calculated from the line pull and line angles. Finally, the decontamination test demonstrated the ability to effectively clean the umbilical and vehicle. The issues addressed and resolved during the testing were: Feasibility of deploying a vehicle- based system, mobility, production rate and limitation of water in the tank during sluicing, mining strategy, operator efficiency, vehicle recovery, and decontamination. Water usage and waste removal rates were used to estimate the time and water usage requirements for cleaning a Hanford SST.

  17. Environmental Test Program for the Mars Exploration Rover Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Terry C.; VanVelzer, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    On June 10 and July 7, 2003 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched two spacecraft from Cape Canaveral, Florida for a six (6) months flight to the Red Planet, Mars. The two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft landed safely on the planet in January 2004. Prior to the successful launch, both of the spacecraft were involved in a comprehensive test campaign that included development, qualification, and protoflight test programs. Testing was performed to simulate the environments associated with launch, inter-planetary cruise, landing on the planet and Mars surface operations. Unique test requirements included operating the spacecraft while the chamber pressure was controlled to simulate the decent to the planet from deep space, high impact landing loads and rover operations on the surface of the planet at 8 Torr and -130 C. This paper will present an overview of the test program that included vibration, pyro-shock, landing loads, acoustic noise, thermal vacuum and solar simulation testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Environmental Test Laboratory facilities in Pasadena, California.

  18. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  19. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  20. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  2. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  3. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  4. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.; Butterfield, C.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  5. Preschool Temperament and Environmental Factors Related to the Five-Factor Model of Personality in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagekull, Berit; Bohlin, Gunilla

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study investigated associations between preschool temperament and environmental factors and school-age personality in 93 Swedish children. Found that personality was predicted by early temperament and environmental factors such as external day care and negative life events. Extraversion was most clearly related to temperament.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico existing environmental analyses bounding environmental test facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Rodney A.; Bailey-White, Brenda E.; Cantwell, Amber

    2009-06-01

    This report identifies current environmental operating parameters for the various test and support facilities at SNL/NM. The intent of this report is solely to provide the limits which bound the facilities' operations. Understanding environmental limits is important to maximizing the capabilities and working within the existing constraints of each facility, and supports the decision-making process in meeting customer requests, cost and schedule planning, modifications to processes, future commitments, and use of resources. Working within environmental limits ensures that mission objectives will be met in a manner that protects human health and the environment. It should be noted that, in addition to adhering to the established limits, other approvals and permits may be required for specific projects.

  7. Thermal Environmental Testing of NSTAR Engineering Model Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.; Becker, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium program will fly a xenon ion propulsion system on the Deep Space 1 Mission. Tests were conducted under NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) Program with 3 different engineering model ion thrusters to determine thruster thermal characteristics over the NSTAR operating range in a variety of thermal environments. A liquid nitrogen-cooled shroud was used to cold-soak the thruster to -120 C. Initial tests were performed prior to a mature spacecraft design. Those results and the final, severe, requirements mandated by the spacecraft led to several changes to the basic thermal design. These changes were incorporated into a final design and tested over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  8. Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Stephen J.; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Zhang, Lena; Wong, Ching; Maxwell, Annette E.; Bastani, Roshan; Taylor, Vicky M.; Chen, Moon S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated liver cancer is a major health disparity among Vietnamese Americans, who have a chronic hepatitis B prevalence rate of 714% and an incidence rate for liver cancer six times that of non-Latino whites. OBJECTIVE Describe factors associated with hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans. DESIGN A population-based telephone survey conducted in 20072008. PARTICIPANTS Vietnamese Americans age 1864 and living in the Northern California and Washington, DC areas (N?=?1,704). MAIN MEASURES Variables included self-reports of sociodemographics, health care factors, and hepatitis B-related behaviors, knowledge, beliefs, and communication with others. The main outcome variable was self-reported receipt of hepatitis B testing. KEY RESULTS The cooperation rate was 63.1% and the response rate was 27.4%. Only 62% of respondents reported having received a hepatitis B test and 26%, hepatitis B vaccination. Only 54% knew that hepatitis B could be transmitted by sexual intercourse. In multivariable analyses, factors negatively associated with testing included: age 3049years, US residence for >10years, less Vietnamese fluency, lower income, and believing that hepatitis B can be deadly. Factors positively associated with testing included: Northern California residence, having had hepatitis B vaccination, having discussed hepatitis B with family/friends, and employer requested testing. Physician recommendation of hepatitis B testing (OR 4.46, 95% CI 3.36, 5.93) and respondent's request for hepatitis B testing (OR 8.37, 95% CI 5.95, 11.78) were strongly associated with test receipt. CONCLUSION Self-reports of hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans remain unacceptably low. Physician recommendation and patient request were the factors most strongly associated with test receipt. A comprehensive effort is needed to promote hepatitis B testing in this population, including culturally-targeted community outreach, increased access to testing, and physician education. PMID:20306150

  9. The effect of environmental factors on elastomeric chain and nickel titanium coil springs.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, C; Ireland, A J; Sherriff, M

    1998-04-01

    It is well known that elastomers exhibit viscoelasticity and as such have their mechanical properties modified by temperature. Nickel titanium archwires are also affected by temperature and have been modified with specific temperature related properties for clinical use. What is less well known is the effect that other environmental factors, such as food, might have on the force delivery properties of both elastomeric materials and nickel titanium coil springs used for space closure. For instance gross colour change in elastomeric chain is a common clinical finding in patients who consume spiced foods. The aim of this work was to determine the effect three common environmental factors namely, water, Coke, and turmeric solution have on elastomeric chain and nickel titanium coil springs. In addition, it was decided to re-examine the effect of temperature at 10, 22, and 37 degrees C on both these space closing materials. Unlike many previous investigations, the test specimens were held at a constant stretch throughout the test period, including during their transfer to the Instron Universal Testing machine for force measurement. Six force measurements were made over the first hour, then at 24 hours and 7 days. A control group of dry specimens, maintained at 22 degrees C, had additional measurements made weekly for a 4-week period. The results indicated that elastomeric chain was affected by all the test environments while nickel titanium springs were only affected by temperature. PMID:9633170

  10. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations. PMID:21729273

  11. 21 CFR 864.7290 - Factor deficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factor deficiency test. 864.7290 Section 864.7290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7290 Factor...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7290 - Factor deficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Factor deficiency test. 864.7290 Section 864.7290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7290 Factor...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7290 - Factor deficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Factor deficiency test. 864.7290 Section 864.7290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7290 Factor...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7290 - Factor deficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Factor deficiency test. 864.7290 Section 864.7290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7290 Factor...

  15. Model Misspecification and Invariance Testing Using Confirmatory Factor Analytic Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analytic procedures are routinely implemented to provide evidence of measurement invariance. Current lines of research focus on the accuracy of common analytic steps used in confirmatory factor analysis for invariance testing. However, the few studies that have examined this procedure have done so with perfectly or near…

  16. The Factor Content of Bilateral Trade: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Krishna, Pravin

    2004-01-01

    The factor proportions model of international trade is one of the most influential theories in international economics. Its central standing in this field has appropriately prompted, particularly recently, intense empirical scrutiny. A substantial and growing body of empirical work has tested the predictions of the theory on the net factor content…

  17. Testing for Heterogeneous Factor Loadings Using Mixtures of Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models

    PubMed Central

    Buzick, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study assessed the viability of mixture confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for measurement invariance testing by evaluating the ability of mixture CFA models to identify differences in factor loadings across populations with identical mean structures. Using simulated data from a model with known parameters, convergence rates, parameter recovery, and the power of the likelihood-ratio test were investigated as impacted by sample size, latent class proportions, magnitude of factor loading differences, percentage of non-invariant factor loadings, and pattern of non-invariant factor loadings. Results suggest that mixture CFA models may be a viable option for testing the invariance of factor loadings; however, without differences in latent means and measurement intercepts, results suggest that larger sample sizes, more non-invariant factor loadings, and larger amounts of heterogeneity are needed to successfully estimate parameters and detect differences across latent classes. PMID:21833229

  18. Modified whole effluent toxicity test to assess and decouple wastewater effects from environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  19. Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  20. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  1. Identifying the Environmental Factors That Determine the Genetic Structure of Populations

    PubMed Central

    Foll, Matthieu; Gaggiotti, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    The study of population genetic structure is a fundamental problem in population biology because it helps us obtain a deeper understanding of the evolutionary process. One of the issues most assiduously studied in this context is the assessment of the relative importance of environmental factors (geographic distance, language, temperature, altitude, etc.) on the genetic structure of populations. The most widely used method to address this question is the multivariate Mantel test, a nonparametric method that calculates a correlation coefficient between a dependent matrix of pairwise population genetic distances and one or more independent matrices of environmental differences. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian method that estimates FST values for each local population and relates them to environmental factors using a generalized linear model. The method is demonstrated by applying it to two data sets, a data set for a population of the argan tree and a human data set comprising 51 populations distributed worldwide. We also carry out a simulation study to investigate the performance of the method and find that it can correctly identify the factors that play a role in the structuring of genetic diversity under a wide range of scenarios. PMID:16951078

  2. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  3. Environmental factors influencing stress corrosion cracking in boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized stainless steels in boiling water reactor (BWR) primary coolant are reviewed, with emphasis on the role the environment plays on both the initiation and propagation processes. Environmental factors discussed include oxygen (corrosion potential), temperature, and dissolved ions in the water and the range of strain rates at which IGSCC occurs. Both crack propagation rates and the range of strain rates at which IGSCC occurs decrease rapidly as temperature is increased above approximately 200/sup 0/C, in essentially the same manner as the solubility of magnetite decreases in acidic solutions. A mechanism of crack propagation is presented base on this observation. To establish water chemistry guidelines for crack-free operation of BWR's containing sensitized stainless steel, more information is needed on the role of absorption of impurities in the surface and deposited oxides and on the interaction between the oxygen and impurity levels required to maintain an electrochemical potential in a range where IGSCC is unlikely to occur. The relative effects of short bursts of impurities and longer term lower concentrations of these same impurities also need to be evaluated.

  4. Environmental factors influencing diatom communities in Antarctic cryoconite holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanish, L. F.; Bagshaw, E. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Fountain, A. G.; Tranter, M.

    2013-12-01

    Cryoconite holes are ice-bound habitats that can act as refuges for aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms on glacier surfaces. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, these holes are often capped by an ice lid that prevents the exchange of material and gases with the surrounding atmosphere and aquatic environment. Diatoms have been documented in cryoconite holes, and recent findings suggest that these habitats may harbour a distinctive diatom flora compared to the surrounding aquatic environments. In this study, we examined diatom community composition in cryoconite holes and environmental correlates across three glaciers in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The diatom communities were dominated by two genera, Muelleria and Diadesmis, both of which had high viability and could have been seeded from the surrounding ephemeral streams. The location of the cryoconite hole within the valley was a key determinant of community composition. A diatom species richness gradient was observed that corresponded to distance inland from the coast and co-varied with species richness in streams within the same lake basin. Cryoconite holes that were adjacent to streams with higher diversity displayed greater species richness. However, physical factors, such as the ability to withstand freeze-thaw conditions and to colonize coarse sediments, acted as additional selective filters and influenced diatom diversity, viability and community composition.

  5. Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, E.L.; Francis, A.J.; Bollag, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35/sup 0/C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15/sup 0/C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction.

  6. Environmental market factors associated with physician career satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mazurenko, Olena; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that physician career satisfaction is declining, but no study has examined the relationship between market factors and physician career satisfaction. Using a theoretical framework, we examined how various aspects of the market environment (e.g., munificence, dynamism, complexity) are related to overall career satisfaction. Nationally representative data from the 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey were combined with environmental market variables from the 2008 Area Resource File. After controlling for physician and practice characteristics, at least one variable each representing munificence, dynamism, and complexity was associated with satisfaction. An increase in the market number of primary care physicians per capita was positively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.9) whereas an increase in the number of specialists per capita was negatively associated with physician satisfaction (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.97). Moreover, an increase in poverty rates was negatively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.01). Lastly, physicians practicing in states with a malpractice crisis (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.96) and/or those who perceived high competition in their markets (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.95) had lower odds of being satisfied. A better understanding of an organization's environment could assist healthcare managers in shaping their policies and strategies to increase physician satisfaction. PMID:23087994

  7. Factor Analysis Studies of the Citizenship Knowledge Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1982-01-01

    The Citizenship Knowledge Test contains subtests designed to measure subareas of the overall construct of citizenship knowledge. Two factor analysis studies indicated that the test is construct valid. It can, therefore, be used as a general measure of the construct citizenship knowledge. (Author/RM)

  8. Environmental testing of an experimental digital safety channel

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Tanaka, T.J.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the NRC-sponsored Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (W) System program. The objective of this study is to investigate failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies when subjected to environmental stressors. The study contributes to the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I&C systems. The EDSC employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) or for retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMYRFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied over ranges that were considerably higher than what the channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified.

  9. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1991-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first dealing with work involved with Clemson University and the second with the results from Westinghouse/Savannah River. Both areas of work involved low noise, low thermal conductivity superconducting grounding links used in the NASA-sponsored Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Project. Clemson prepared the links from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor tape that was mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated with epoxy resin. The Clemson program includes temperature vs. resistance, liquid nitrogen immersion, water immersion, thermal cycling, humidity, and radiation testing. The evaluation of the links under a long term environmental test program is described. The Savannah River program includes gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The progress made in these evaluations is discussed.

  10. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is an exterior view of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator containing the ECLSS Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) testing facility at MSFC. At the bottom right is the data acquisition and control computers (in the blue equipment racks) that monitor the testing in the facility. The ITCS simulator facility duplicates the function, operation, and troubleshooting problems of the ITCS. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  11. Testosterone in tropical birds: effects of environmental and social factors.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Moore, Ignacio T; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Grafen, Alan; Wingfield, John C

    2004-09-01

    Previous investigations suggest that male tropical birds have lower plasma testosterone concentrations than northern latitude species. To test whether this generalization is valid, we analyzed all currently available plasma testosterone data of tropical birds. We focused on peak breeding testosterone levels using phylogenetic and conventional statistics. Explanatory variables considered were social mating system, type of territoriality, breeding season length, and altitude. On average, tropical birds had lower mean peak testosterone levels than northern temperate birds. However, in several tropical species, testosterone levels were well within the range of northern latitude birds. Without controlling for phylogeny, breeding season length, type of territoriality, and altitude explained a significant proportion of the variance in testosterone levels. The shorter the breeding season, the higher the testosterone levels. Tropical birds that defend a breeding season territory had higher testosterone levels than birds that were year-round territorial or colonial, and testosterone levels were positively correlated with altitude. When controlling for phylogeny, only breeding season length predicted testosterone levels. In conclusion, we propose to refine previous notions of low plasma testosterone levels in tropical birds: short breeding seasons and perhaps environmental conditions at high altitudes precipitate conditions under which high testosterone levels are beneficial in the tropics. PMID:15478088

  12. Combining environmental factors and agriculturalists' observations of environmental changes in the traditional terrace system of the Amalfi coast (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Savo, Valentina; Caneva, Giulia; McClatchey, Will; Reedy, David; Salvati, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Terraces are traditional engineered ecosystems that affect the hydro-geological equilibrium, slope stability, and local communities. The aims of this paper are (i) identifying environmental factors that affect terrace stability in the Amalfi Coast, (ii) defining agriculturalists' observations on environmental changes within that system and (iii) exploring potentiality of these observations to better define conservation strategies. All available data on physical and ecological factors recognized to affect the terrace system were collected and analyzed. Interviews were conducted with agriculturalists to obtain long-term observations on environmental factors that interact with this system. Landslides are more frequent where rainfall is high and during winter. Fires have an uneven annual distribution, with higher frequency during summers. Agriculturalists detailed complex interactions among environmental factors, economic elements, and terraces. These observations represent a valuable resource for defining causes and effects of abandonment and for better addressing conservation strategies. PMID:24026942

  13. Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Irigaray, P; Newby, J A; Clapp, R; Hardell, L; Howard, V; Montagnier, L; Epstein, S; Belpomme, D

    2007-12-01

    The increasing incidence of a variety of cancers after the Second World War confronts scientists with the question of their origin. In Western countries, expansion and ageing of the population as well as progress in cancer detection using new diagnostic and screening tests cannot fully account for the observed growing incidence of cancer. Our hypothesis is that environmental factors play a more important role in cancer genesis than it is usually agreed. (1) Over the last 2-3 decades, alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking in men have significantly decreased in Western Europe and North America. (2) Obesity is increasing in many countries, but the growing incidence of cancer also concerns cancers not related to obesity nor to other known lifestyle-related factors. (3) There is evidence that the environment has changed over the time period preceding the recent rise in cancer incidence, and that this change, still continuing, included the accumulation of many new carcinogenic factors in the environment. (4) Genetic susceptibility to cancer due to genetic polymorphism cannot have changed over one generation and actually favours the role of exogenous factors through gene-environment interactions. (5) Age is not the unique factor to be considered since the rising incidence of cancers is seen across all age categories, including children, and adolescents. (6) The fetus is specifically vulnerable to exogenous factors. A fetal exposure during a critical time window may explain why current epidemiological studies may still be negative in adults. We therefore propose that the involuntary exposure to many carcinogens in the environment, including microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and parasites), radiations (radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and many xenochemicals, may account for the recent growing incidence of cancer and therefore that the risk attributable to environmental carcinogen may be far higher than it is usually agreed. Of major concern are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children and food contamination by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and some ingredients and contaminants in cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment. PMID:18055160

  14. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement. Equipment tested here includes the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), the mass spectrometer filament assemblies and sample pumps for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) simulator facility (in the module in the right) duplicates the function and operation of the ITCS in the ISS U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. This facility provides support for Destiny, including troubleshooting problems related to the ITCS.

  15. Environmental factors controlling lake diatom communities: a meta-analysis of published data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, S.

    2014-11-01

    Diatoms play a key role in the development of quantitative methods for environmental reconstruction in lake ecosystems. Diatom-based calibration datasets developed during the last decades allow the inference of past limnological variables such as TP, pH or conductivity and provide information on the autecology and distribution of diatom taxa. However, little is known about the relationships between diatoms and climatic or geographic factors. The response of surface sediment diatom assemblages to abiotic factors is usually examined using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and subsequent forward selection of variables based on Monte Carlo permutation tests that show the set of predictors best explaining the distributions of diatom species. The results reported in 40 previous studies using this methodology in different regions of the world are re-analyzed in this paper. Bi- and multivariate statistics (canonical correlation and two-block partial least-squares) were used to explore the correspondence between physical, chemical and physiographical factors and the variables that explain most of the variance in the diatom datasets. Results show that diatom communities respond mainly to chemical variables (pH, nutrients) with lake depth being the most important physiographical factor. However, the relative importance of certain parameters varied along latitudinal and trophic gradients. Canonical analyses demonstrated a strong concordance with regard to the predictor variables and the amount of variance they captured, suggesting that, on a broad scale, lake diatoms give a robust indication of past and present environmental conditions.

  16. Influence of environmental factors on Argulus japonicus occurrence of Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Wadeh, Hicham; Li, Guoqing

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of abiotic factors on Argulus japonicus occurrence in freshwater ecosystem, we sampled fish, free-swimming parasites, and submerged objects from rivers, fish farms, and ponds (reservoirs and lakes) at 27 locations in Guangdong province, China, from July, 2010, to March, 2013. Friedman's test and Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) were used to investigate relationship between A. japonicus occurrence and abiotic factors in three aquatic systems. Correlation of monthly density, mean density, prevalence, abundance, and intensity of A. japonicus with water temperature, biochemical oxygen demand of 5 days, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia were very significant, but negative relation with pH, dissolved oxygen, and total phosphorus components. Nevertheless, total nitrogen components showed an insignificant impact on A. japonicus incidence. In addition, water temperature and stability were two key factors controlling A. japonicus infestation. Our study revealed the capability of A. japonicus to inhabit and prevail in heavily polluted freshwater. Results demonstrate that A. japonicus has good adaptability to the environmental factors' stress but cannot be used as a biological indicator of environmental pollution. PMID:25127735

  17. A new method for testing the scale-factor performance of fiber optical gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhengxin; Yu, Haicheng; Li, Jing; Li, Chao; Shi, Haiyang; Zhang, Bingxin

    2015-10-01

    Fiber optical gyro (FOG) is a kind of solid-state optical gyroscope with good environmental adaptability, which has been widely used in national defense, aviation, aerospace and other civilian areas. In some applications, FOG will experience environmental conditions such as vacuum, radiation, vibration and so on, and the scale-factor performance is concerned as an important accuracy indicator. However, the scale-factor performance of FOG under these environmental conditions is difficult to test using conventional methods, as the turntable can't work under these environmental conditions. According to the phenomenon that the physical effects of FOG produced by the sawtooth voltage signal under static conditions is consistent with the physical effects of FOG produced by a turntable in uniform rotation, a new method for the scale-factor performance test of FOG without turntable is proposed in this paper. In this method, the test system of the scale-factor performance is constituted by an external operational amplifier circuit and a FOG which the modulation signal and Y waveguied are disconnected. The external operational amplifier circuit is used to superimpose the externally generated sawtooth voltage signal and the modulation signal of FOG, and to exert the superimposed signal on the Y waveguide of the FOG. The test system can produce different equivalent angular velocities by changing the cycle of the sawtooth signal in the scale-factor performance test. In this paper, the system model of FOG superimposed with an externally generated sawtooth is analyzed, and a conclusion that the effect of the equivalent input angular velocity produced by the sawtooth voltage signal is consistent with the effect of input angular velocity produced by the turntable is obtained. The relationship between the equivalent angular velocity and the parameters such as sawtooth cycle and so on is presented, and the correction method for the equivalent angular velocity is also presented by analyzing the influence of each parameter error on the equivalent angular velocity. A comparative experiment of the method proposed in this paper and the method of turntable calibration was conducted, and the scale-factor performance test results of the same FOG using the two methods were consistent. Using the method proposed in this paper to test the scale-factor performance of FOG, the input angular velocity is the equivalent effect produced by a sawtooth voltage signal, and there is no need to use a turntable to produce mechanical rotation, so this method can be used to test the performance of FOG at the ambient conditions which turntable can not work.

  18. Cellular monitoring systems for the assessment of space environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Arenz, A.; Meier, M. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Cellular Biodiagnostic group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such bioassay or biosensor systems will complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. Furthermore, synergistic mutagenic and cancerogenic impacts of the radiation environment together with other potentially genotoxic constituents of the space habitat can be quantified using such systems, whose signals are especially relevant for the molecular damage to the DNA or the chromosomes. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological end-points under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. A second end-point will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized EGFP variant (d2EGFP). The promoter element to be investigated will reflect the activity of the NF-kB stress response pathway as an anti-apoptotic radiation response. DNA damage will be measured by fluorescent analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU). The systems have worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using accelerated particles produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL have given insights into cellular mechanisms relevant for the exceptional radiation field in space. Keywords: space, green fluorescent protein, radiation, gene activation, bioassay, genotoxicity

  19. Properties of peatlands in relation to environmental factors in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of peatland morphology and distribution to environmental factors was investigated in northern and central Minnesota by field sampling of vegetation, soils, and water, and by remote sensing. Maps of peatlands made by machine classification of Landsat data six classes matched field data in 56% of all cases; maps drawn by hand on 1:80,000 scale aerial photographs were 72% correct. Peatland sites fall into two natural groups: ombrotrophic (bogs; pH less than 4.4) and minerotrophic (fens and swamps: pH 4.4 or more and usually greater than 5.6). The presence of certain common vascular-plant taxa can be used to classify sites into these trophic classes with over 90% accuracy. The structure of peatland vegetation is controlled by the soil-water regime, the disturbance history, and, to a less degree, by trophic conditions. Sites that have relatively well-aerated soils and have not been recently disturbed support dense forests. Vegetation structure is weakly related to the degree of decomposition of peat; hence vegetation is a poor indicator for taxonomic units of organic soils. Peatlands are common in Minnesota on surfaces glaciated during the Wisconsin Stage and where the mean annual potential evapotranspiration roughly equals or exceeds the mean annual precipitation. Bogs occur most often on sites where a high water table can be maintained without groundwater discharge, such as in depressions on low-permeability substrates and near local watershed divides on plains. Fens apparently occur in or below areas of groundwater discharge. Swamps (densely forested minerotrophic peatlands) occur in a wide variety of settings where the soil is aerated during the growing season.

  20. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on educating and empowering women in these enclaves. Women are in charge of birth spacing and all aspects of management of energy, food, water and the local environment, more so than men, in most countries. PMID:12284190

  1. Factors Predicting the Ocular Surface Response to Desiccating Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Anastasia; Edwards, Austin; Hays, J. Daniel; Kerkstra, Michelle; Shih, Amanda; de Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify factors predicting the ocular surface response to experimental desiccating stress. Methods. The ocular surfaces of both eyes of 15 normal and 10 dry eye subjects wearing goggles were exposed to a controlled desiccating environment (15%–25% relative humidity and 2–5 L/min airflow) for 90 minutes. Eye irritation symptoms, blink rate, tear meniscus dimensions, noninvasive (RBUT) and invasive tear break-up time, and corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green-dye staining were recorded before and after desiccating stress. Pre- and postexposure measurements were compared, and Pearson correlations between clinical parameters before and after desiccating stress were calculated. Results. Corneal and conjunctival dye staining significantly increased in all subjects following 90-minute exposure to desiccating environment, and the magnitude of change was similar in normal and dry eye subjects; except superior cornea staining was greater in dry eye. Irritation severity in the desiccating environment was associated with baseline dye staining, baseline tear meniscus height, and blink rate after 45 minutes. Desiccation-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining was inversely correlated to baseline tear meniscus width, whereas change in total ocular surface dye staining was inversely correlated to baseline dye staining, RBUT, and tear meniscus height and width. Blink rate from 30 to 90 minutes in desiccating environment was higher in the dry eye than normal group. Blink rate significantly correlated to baseline corneal fluorescein staining and environmental-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions. Ocular surface dye staining increases in response to desiccating stress. Baseline ocular surface dye staining, tear meniscus height, and blink rate predict severity of ocular surface dye staining following exposure to a desiccating environment. PMID:23572103

  2. The relationship between organisational factors and the effectiveness of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Tung, Amy; Baird, Kevin; Schoch, Herbert

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between specific organisational factors (top management support, training, employee participation, teamwork and the link of performance to rewards) with the effectiveness of environmental management. The effectiveness of environmental management is measured in respect of the effectiveness of environmental management processes and environmental performance. Data were collected by mail survey questionnaire from a random sample of 899 senior financial officers in Australian manufacturing organisations. The findings highlight the significance of the effectiveness of environmental management processes as an antecedent of environmental performance and a mediator of the relationship between organisational factors and environmental performance. The findings provide managers with an insight into the specific organisational factors that they need to focus on to enhance the effectiveness of environmental management. PMID:24952341

  3. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  4. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  5. Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine: policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life. PMID:11995631

  6. Measuring Several Aspects of Attention in One Test: The Factor Structure of Conners's Continuous Performance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Kovalik-Gran, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Continuous performance tests are known to typically measure sustained attention but usually also yield parameters that potentially measure other subprocesses of attention. The aim of the present study was to test the factor structure of the Conners's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) in a heterogeneous clinical sample consisting of…

  7. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON NATURALISTIC DRIVING IN OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lixi; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Aksan, Nazan S; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Reduced visibility and other environmental factors can impair driver ability to respond to roadway hazards. We examined the effects of reduced visibility on naturalistic driving in 66 drivers, including 45 at-risk drivers with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 21 controls. We analyzed three months of electronic data using "black box" recorder technology and assessed the extent to which driver speed, longitudinal acceleration, and lateral acceleration metrics depend on ambient visibility from web-based environmental data archives. We calculated summary driving metrics within 10-second intervals, and reduced these to within-subject means and tested for associations of interest. OSA drivers did not differ from controls with respect to electronic measures or visibility conditions in which they drove. On average, drivers drove slower when visibility was reduced. After controlling for speed, variations in lateral and longitudinal acceleration were positively associated with high-visibility conditions. These findings suggest that drivers exert greater vehicular control when visibility is limited, and that this association is not just due to slower speeds. Weaker relationships between visibility and driving measures in OSA suggest reduced adaptive strategies. Our methods provide a framework for analyzing the effects of other environmental factors on driving, and we provide an additional example using wind speed. PMID:25374964

  8. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  9. Solderability and environmental testing of Sn-plated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, N.R.; Hosking, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corrosion on the solderability of Sn plated surfaces was evaluated with 60Sn-40Pb solder. Tin thicknesses of 10, 50, and 150 {mu}in on Ni plated Cu were studied. The 10 {mu}in. plating gave the smallest solder meniscus rise. A general decrease in contact angle, or increase in wettability, was observed with increasing Sn plating. The environmental exposures retarded the wetting rate and increased the time to maximum wetting, particularly with only 10 {mu}in. of Sn. Although the solderability of the 50 and 150 {mu}in. surfaces wee not significantly affected by the test conditions, an intermediate plating thickness of 100 {mu}in. is preferred for processing flexibility. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. [Testing doses? Environmental health stakes associated with nanotechnologies].

    PubMed

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we analyse how nanoscience and nanotechnology have given birth to an important environmental health controversy regarding the potential sanitary dangers of engineered nanomaterials. We show how this controversy is part of a larger picture, made of a series of social and scientific disputes about the effects of man made chemicals on the human body. We show how these disputes have contributed throughout the 20th century to the emergence and the transformation of toxicology as a scientific field, and to test the robustness of the dose paradigm that constitues the cornerstone of this discipline. We suggest that the contemporary emergence of a new scientific field known as "nanotoxicolgy" must be interpreted as a successful adaptation of this paradigm to the specific toxicological questions raised by engineered nanomaterials. PMID:21850975

  11. 1995 Site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other organizations environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  12. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer.

    PubMed

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2016-06-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors that can predict which counselees are most likely to develop psychological problems after presymptomatic genetic testing. Counselees with a 50 % risk of BRCA1/2 or Lynch syndrome completed questionnaires at three time-points: after receiving a written invitation for a genetic counseling intake (T1), 2-3 days after receiving their DNA test result (T2), and 4-6 weeks later (T3). The psychological impact of the genetic test result was examined shortly and 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Subsequently, the influence of various potentially prognostic factors on psychological impact were examined in the whole group. Data from 165 counselees were analyzed. Counselees with an unfavorable outcome did not have more emotional distress, but showed significantly more cancer worries 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Prognostic factors for cancer worries after genetic testing were pre-existing cancer worries, being single, a high risk perception of getting cancer, and an unfavorable test result. Emotional distress was best predicted by pre-existing cancer worries and pre-existing emotional distress. The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result appears considerable if it is measured as "worries about cancer." Genetic counselors should provide additional guidance to counselees with many cancer worries, emotional distress, a high risk perception or a weak social network. PMID:26475052

  13. Quantifying the effects of geographical and environmental factors on distribution of stream bacterioplankton within nature reserves of Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongming; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Yu, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Bacterioplankton are important components of freshwater ecosystems and play essential roles in ecological functions and processes; however, little is known about their geographical distribution and the factors influencing their ecology, especially in stream ecosystems. To examine how geographical and environmental factors affect the composition of bacterioplankton communities, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone sequencing to survey bacterioplankton communities in 31 samples of streamwater from seven nature reserves in Fujian province, southeast China. Our results revealed that dominant bacterioplankton communities exhibited a distinct geographical pattern. Further, we provided evidence for distance decay relationships in bacterioplankton community similarity and found similar community gradients in response to elevation and latitude. Both redundancy analyses and Mantel tests showed that bacterioplankton community composition was significantly correlated with both environmental (electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, and PO4-P) and geographical factors (latitude, longitude, and elevation). Variance partitioning further showed that the joint effect of geographical and environmental factors explained the largest proportion of the variation in distribution of bacterioplankton communities (13.6 %), followed by purely geographical factors (11.2 %), and purely environmental factors (0.6 %). The Betaproteobacteria were the most common taxa in the streams, followed by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. Therefore, our results suggest that the biogeographical patterns of stream bacterioplankton communities across the Fujian nature reserves are more influenced by geographical factors than by local physicochemical properties. PMID:25787217

  14. Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Carlos F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Trent, D.; Stewart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.

  15. Environmental Factors Affecting the Permanence of Library Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Carl J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews pertinent evidence relating to deterioration originating with air pollution, heat, humidity, light, and biological agents; and suggests how librarians may lengthen the useful life of library materials through environmental controls. (Author/JS)

  16. Indoor environmental risk factors in young asthmatics: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Lindfors, A; Wickman, M; Hedlin, G; Pershagen, G; Rietz, H; Nordvall, S L

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and ninety three children with asthma and 318 controls aged 1-4 years were evaluated for atopic heredity and exposure to possible indoor risk factors for asthma-for example exposure to furred pets, tobacco smoke, and home dampness. A subgroup of cases were classified as cat and/or dog allergic on the basis of skin prick tests. Heredity for asthma was a significant risk factor (odds ratio (OR) 3.0, confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 4.6). Environmental tobacco smoke was associated with an excess risk for asthma (OR 1.7, CI 1.1 to 2.3) and signs of home dampness tended to increase this risk (OR 1.3, CI 0.9 to 2.0). High dose exposure to cat and/or dog resulted in an increased risk only in asthma cases sensitised to cat and/or dog (OR 2.7, CI 1.0 to 7.3). A combination of high dose exposure to cat and/or dog, environmental tobacco smoke and damp housing was associated with an OR of 8.0 (CI 1.9 to 34.1). Raised indoor humidity has been shown to reflect low air exchange, which may also lead to increased doses of inhaled aeroallergens and tobacco smoke, and contribute to the interaction between the three risk factors. PMID:8554356

  17. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kotarska, Katarzyna; Wunsch, Ewa; Jodko, Lukasz; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Bania, Izabela; Lawniczak, Malgorzata; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzislawa; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women) who had received a liver transplantation (LT) at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF)-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI). The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5%) had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04). A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  18. Epidemiological studies of migration and environmental risk factors in the inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yanna; Butcher, Rhys; Leong, Rupert W

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are idiopathic chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract well known to be associated with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Permissive genotypes may manifest into clinical phenotypes under certain environmental influences and these may be best studied from migratory studies. Exploring differences between first and second generation migrants may further highlight the contribution of environmental factors towards the development of IBD. There are few opportunities that have been offered so far. We aim to review the available migration studies on IBD, evaluate the known environmental factors associated with IBD, and explore modern migration patterns to identify new opportunities and candidate migrant groups in IBD migration research. PMID:24574798

  19. Update on Environmental Risk Factors for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anixt, Julia S.; Loe, Irene M.; Chirdkiatgumchai, Vilawan; Kuan, Lisa; Gilman, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder affecting 5% to 10% of children. Although considered to be a highly familial disorder, ADHD heritability estimates of 60% to 80% highlight the considerable role that environmental factors may still play in disorder susceptibility. Proposed ADHD environmental risk factors include prenatal substance exposures, heavy metal and chemical exposures, nutritional factors, and lifestyle/psychosocial factors. This paper reviews the literature published in 2010 investigating the association between environmental risk factors and ADHD or related symptomatology. Sources of risk factor exposure and the proposed mechanism by which each exposure is linked to ADHD-related neurobehavioral changes are also reported. Methodologic limitations of the current literature are discussed, and guidelines for future study are proposed. An improved understanding of the role that environmental factors play in ADHD etiology is critical to future ADHD prevention efforts. PMID:21779823

  20. [Relationships between soil organic carbon and environmental factors in gully watershed of the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Rong; Shao, Ming-An; Gao, Jian-Lun

    2008-10-01

    Understanding the distribution of organic carbon fractions in soils and their relationships with environmental factors are very important for appraising soil organic carbon status and assessing carbon cycling in the Loess Plateau. In this research, through field investigation and laboratory analysis, we studied the relationships between soil organic carbon and environmental factors in a gully watershed of the Loess Plateau. The environmental factors are landforms, land use conditions and soil types. The results showed that total soil organic carbon presented less variance, while high labile organic carbon presented greater variance. The variation coefficients of them are 34% and 43%, respectively, indicating that the variability of organic carbon in soils increased with the increasing of their activities. Total soil organic carbon, labile organic carbon, middle and high labile organic carbon were highly interrelated and presented similar distribution trend with environmental factors. Among different landforms, land uses, and soil types, the highest contents of organic carbon in different fractions were observed in plateau land, forest and farm lands, and black loessial soils, while the lowest contents of them were observed in gully bottom, grass land, and rubified soils, respectively. The relationships between organic carbon and environmental factors indicate that environmental factors not only directly influence the distribution of soil organic carbon, but also indirectly influence them through affecting the relationships among organic carbon fractions. The relationship between total organic carbon and labile organic carbon responses rapidly to environmental factors, while that between middle labile organic carbon and high labile organic carbon responses slowly to environmental factors. PMID:19143389

  1. A Report on the Effects of Environmental and Institutional Factors on College and University Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakower, Jack Y.; Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The effects of five environmental and five institutional factors on college and university enrollments during the period between 1975-1976 and 1980-1981 were studied with a sample of 2,101 institutions. The environmental factors were federal student aid, state student aid, number of 18-year-olds, unemployment, and level of economic wealth as…

  2. The Relationship between Environmental Factors and State Appropriations to Public Universities. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layzell, Daniel T.; Lyddon, Jan W.

    The relationship between the external environment and state appropriations to public higher education is analyzed, focusing on the following: (1) the extent to which environmental factors explain yearly appropriations outcomes for public four-year colleges and universities; (2) which environmental factors are most important and which are least…

  3. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Testing Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which utilizes the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) technology. The VCD is used for integrated testing of the entire Water Recovery System (WRS) and development testing of the Urine Processor Assembly. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  4. Adolescent illegal drug use: the impact of personality, family, and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Brook, D W; De La Rosa, M; Whiteman, M; Johnson, E; Montoya, I

    2001-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the domains of environmental factors, family illegal drug use, parental child-rearing practices, maternal and adolescent personality attributes, and adolescent illegal drug use. A nonclinical sample of 2,837 Colombian youths and their mothers were interviewed about intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors in their lives. Results indicated that certain environmental factors (e.g., violence, drug availability, and machismo), family drug use, a distant parent-child relationship, and unconventional behavior are risk factors for adolescent illegal drug use. As hypothesized, results showed that the adverse effects of family illegal drug use on adolescent drug use can be buffered by protective parental child-rearing practices and environmental factors, leading to less adolescent illegal drug use. Prevention and treatment efforts should incorporate protective environmental, familial, and intrapersonal components in order to reduce adolescent illegal drug use. PMID:11392919

  5. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  6. Environmental factors associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental deficits.

    PubMed

    Mendola, Pauline; Selevan, Sherry G; Gutter, Suzanne; Rice, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    A number of environmental agents have been shown to demonstrate neurotoxic effects either in human or laboratory animal studies. Critical windows of vulnerability to the effects of these agents occur both pre- and postnatally. The nervous system is relatively unique in that different parts are responsible for different functional domains, and these develop at different times (e.g., motor control, sensory, intelligence and attention). In addition, the many cell types in the brain have different windows of vulnerability with varying sensitivities to environmental agents. This review focuses on two environmental agents, lead and methylmercury, to illustrate the neurobehavioral and cognitive effects that can result from early life exposures. Special attention is paid to distinguishing between the effects detected following episodes of poisoning and those detected following lower dose exposures. Perinatal and childhood exposure to high doses of lead results in encephalopathy and convulsions. Lower-dose lead exposures have been associated with impairment in intellectual function and attention. At high levels of prenatal exposure, methylmercury produces mental retardation, cerebral palsy and visual and auditory deficits in children of exposed mothers. At lower levels of methylmercury exposure, the effects in children have been more subtle. Other environmental neurotoxicants that have been shown to produce developmental neurotoxicity include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, pesticides, ionizing radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, and maternal use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and cocaine. Exposure to environmental agents with neurotoxic effects can result in a spectrum of adverse outcomes from severe mental retardation and disability to more subtle changes in function depending on the timing and dose of the chemical agent. PMID:12216063

  7. Environmental Assessment for the Brilliant Pebbles Tether Test at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to conduct a captive flight test of a prototype Brilliant Pebble (BP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A Brilliant Pebble is a small, maneuverable, rocket powered, laser-equipped vehicle being designed to detect, track, and intercept ballistic missiles. The tests described in this Environmental Assessment would allow the vehicle to be tested at the earth`s surface, before the more expensive tests in space take place. To simulate the zero gravity conditions found in space, the BP vehicle would be hung from a very high tower, allowing the vehicle to maneuver freely in the horizontal plane. To simulate tracking and interception, a way to produce rapidly approaching laser light reflections must be devised. The proposed action is to install a long line of shuttered reflectors, which would be capable of opening and closing extremely rapidly under remote control. These reflectors would be installed in a straight line leading toward, but not exactly at, the BP hanging from the tower. These reflectors would then be opened and shut in a very rapid sequence, beginning at the far end. As the BP`s laser touched the sequence of opening reflectors, the return signals would appear to the BP to be the reflections from a rapidly approaching ``target.`` An on-board computer would then calculate the speed and (apparent) trajectory of the ``target,`` as indicated by the reflected light signals. The computer would then direct the rocket motors to fire in a specific direction to intercept the ``target`` as it approached the tower. The sequence of increasingly complex tasks required to suppose this test are described in detail in the following pages, along with an analysis of potential environmental, health, and safety effects.

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Brilliant Pebbles Tether Test at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to conduct a captive flight test of a prototype Brilliant Pebble (BP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A Brilliant Pebble is a small, maneuverable, rocket powered, laser-equipped vehicle being designed to detect, track, and intercept ballistic missiles. The tests described in this Environmental Assessment would allow the vehicle to be tested at the earth's surface, before the more expensive tests in space take place. To simulate the zero gravity conditions found in space, the BP vehicle would be hung from a very high tower, allowing the vehicle to maneuver freely in the horizontal plane. To simulate tracking and interception, a way to produce rapidly approaching laser light reflections must be devised. The proposed action is to install a long line of shuttered reflectors, which would be capable of opening and closing extremely rapidly under remote control. These reflectors would be installed in a straight line leading toward, but not exactly at, the BP hanging from the tower. These reflectors would then be opened and shut in a very rapid sequence, beginning at the far end. As the BP's laser touched the sequence of opening reflectors, the return signals would appear to the BP to be the reflections from a rapidly approaching target.'' An on-board computer would then calculate the speed and (apparent) trajectory of the target,'' as indicated by the reflected light signals. The computer would then direct the rocket motors to fire in a specific direction to intercept the target'' as it approached the tower. The sequence of increasingly complex tasks required to suppose this test are described in detail in the following pages, along with an analysis of potential environmental, health, and safety effects.

  9. Brazilian version of the instrument of environmental assessment Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF): translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Pinho, Brena A. S.; Nascimento, Isabella O.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental factors are essential for the characterization of human functioning and disability; however, the shortage of standardized instruments to assess environmental factors has limited the design of scientific investigations directed at identifying barriers to and facilitators of social participation of people with disabilities. Objectives : To translate to Brazilian Portuguese, cross-culturally adapt, and verify the reliability of an environmental assessment questionnaire, entitled Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF). Method : The questionnaire was translated to Portuguese, analyzed, translated back to English, and compared with the original version. The final version (CHIEF-BR) was submitted to 47 caregivers of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The intra-rater reliability was tested using quadratic kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), through interviews of 23 caregivers drawn from the total sample, on two occasions 10 days apart. Results : During submission of the questionnaires, it was observed that examples were needed in order to facilitate the understanding of the questions related to the politics sub-scale. Quadratic kappa showed that test-retest reliability of each question varied from 0.28 to 1.0 for the frequency score and from 0.30 to 0.98 for the magnitude score. Intraclass correlation coefficients for total scores showed high consistency indices (ICC≥0.92) for test-retest. Conclusion : The Brazilian version of the CHIEF was reproducible and applicable to the study sample. It may serve as an instrument to characterize the environmental barriers as well as a way to document the effects of interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of such barriers on the participation of children and adolescents with CP. PMID:25003279

  10. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  11. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  12. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  13. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  14. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENT DISABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A number of environmental agents have been shown to demonstrate neurotoxic effects either in human or laboratory animal studies. Critical windows of vulnerability to the effects of these agents occur both pre- and postnatally. The nervous system is relatively un...

  16. Environmental Linguistics: A Typology of Visual Factors in Shopping Malls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, John D.; Sewell, Edward H., Jr.

    Environment may be regarded as a form of communication, with environmental linguistics becoming a new discipline that will have to be explored. Its goal is to demystify some of the constructs that contribute to the built environment as a communication tool. Treating the built environment as a language requires a recognition of its dynamic nature.…

  17. Social and Environmental Factors Associated with Preschoolers' Nonsedentary Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The twofold purposes of the investigation were (a) to describe with direct observation data the physical activity behaviors and the accompanying social and environmental events of those behaviors for children in preschools and (b) to determine which contextual conditions were predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and…

  18. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

  19. Environmental and physico-chemical factors induce VBNC state in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Valérie; Federighi, Michel; Declerq, Eric; Jugiau, Florence; Cappelier, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of bacterial survival in natural environments have indicated that some organisms lose culturability on appropriate media under certain conditions and yet still exhibit signs of metabolic activity and thus viability. This reproducible loss of culturability in many bacterial species led to the description of a "Viable But Non Culturable" (VBNC) state. The purpose of this article is to determine environmental and physico-chemical factors which induce the VBNC state in a food-borne pathogen that has become a public concern: Listeria monocytogenes. The factors, i.e. inoculum size, natural sunlight, temperature (4 degrees C or 20 degrees C), NaCl concentration (0% or 7%) and pH (5 or 6) were studied on 4 strains (LO28, ATCC 19115, Scott A, CNL 895807). The culturability of the starved cell suspension was determined in each condition tested by the spread plate count, and the cell activity was determined by the Direct Viable Count technique and CTC-DAPI double staining. A strain effect was found in different test conditions. For the LO 28 and ATCC 19115 strains, the VBNC state was very transient in certain conditions. For the other strains tested (Scott A, CNL 895807), the VBNC state was maintained throughout the observation period. In the dark, the incubation temperature was the main factor in the production of VBNC forms in L. monocytogenes. However, natural sunlight rapidly produced the VBNC state in L. monocytogenes cells in microcosm water. We conclude that because of its ubiquity and the factors studied which are met in the food industry, the presence of VBNC L. monocytogenes cells could pose a major public health problem since they cannot be detected by traditional culturing methods. Further investigations are needed to establish virulence before and after resuscitation of VBNC L. monocytogenes cells. PMID:12199363

  20. A New Generation of Leaching Tests – The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides an overview of newly released leaching tests that provide a more accurate source term when estimating environmental release of metals and other constituents of potential concern (COPCs). The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) methods have been (1) develo...

  1. A New Generation of Leaching Tests The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides an overview of newly released leaching tests that provide a more accurate source term when estimating environmental release of metals and other constituents of potential concern (COPCs). The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) methods have been (1) develo...

  2. IERL-RTP PROCEDURES MANUAL: LEVEL 1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BIOLOGICAL TESTS FOR PILOT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual gives Level 1 biological testing procedures (recommended by Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory--Research Triangle Park) for personnel experienced in conducting bioassays on samples from industrial and energy producing processes. The phased environmental asses...

  3. Early Life Environmental Exposures and Height, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Older Adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures like rainfall and temperature influence infectious disease exposure and nutrition, two key early life conditions linked to later life health. However, few tests of whether early life environmental exposures impact adult health have been performed, particularly in developing countries. This study examines the effects of experiencing rainfall and temperature shocks during gestation and up through the first four years after birth on measured height, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors using data on adults aged 50 and above (N=1,036) from the 2007–2008 World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and district-level meteorological data from India. Results from multivariate logistic regressions show that negative rainfall shocks during gestation and positive rainfall shocks during the post-birth period increase the risk of having adult hypertension and CVD risk factors. Exposure to negative rainfall shocks and positive temperature shocks in the post-birth period increases the likelihood of falling within the lowest height decile. Prenatal shocks may influence nutrition in utero, while postnatal shocks may increase exposure to infectious diseases and malnutrition. The results suggest that gestation and the first two years after birth are critical periods when rainfall and temperature shocks take on increased importance for adult health. PMID:26266969

  4. Influence of environmental factors on the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Numerous environmental factors have been linked with inflammatory bowel disease. These include smoking, diet, hygiene, drugs, geographical and psychosocial factors. These factors may either increase the risk of or protect against developing this condition and can also affect the course of illness in a positive or negative manner. A number of studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on inflammatory bowel diseases as a whole as well as on ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease separately. As there are differences in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, the effect of environmental factors on their onset and course is not always similar. Some factors have shown a consistent association, while reports on others have been conflicting. In this article we discuss the current evidence on the roles of these factors on inflammatory bowel disease, both as causative/protective agents and as modifiers of disease course. PMID:26811649

  5. Influence of environmental factors on the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok

    2016-01-21

    Numerous environmental factors have been linked with inflammatory bowel disease. These include smoking, diet, hygiene, drugs, geographical and psychosocial factors. These factors may either increase the risk of or protect against developing this condition and can also affect the course of illness in a positive or negative manner. A number of studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on inflammatory bowel diseases as a whole as well as on ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease separately. As there are differences in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the effect of environmental factors on their onset and course is not always similar. Some factors have shown a consistent association, while reports on others have been conflicting. In this article we discuss the current evidence on the roles of these factors on inflammatory bowel disease, both as causative/protective agents and as modifiers of disease course. PMID:26811649

  6. Etiology of obsessions and compulsions: General and specific genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Jang, Kerry L

    2016-03-30

    Evidence suggests that a general etiologic factor plays a role in many forms of psychopathology, possibly including obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. A twin study (N=307 twin pairs) of OC symptoms and their endophenotypes was conducted to investigate the role of general and symptom-specific etiologic factors. OC symptoms and endophenotypes were found to have complex etiologies, being shaped by OC-specific genetic and environmental factors, and by genetic and environmental factors that shape psychopathology in general. Understanding the general and specific etiologies underlying OC symptoms has implications for improving treatments outcomes through the development of therapies that target general and/or specific factors. PMID:26921046

  7. Genetic and environmental factors affecting host response to drugs and other chemical compounds in our environment.

    PubMed Central

    Vesell, E S; Passananti, G T

    1977-01-01

    Compared to laboratory animals, humans are extremely heterogenous with respect to the many factors that can influence the distribution and biological effects of toxic chemicals. This heterogeneity can prevent an accurate assessment of the impact of a particular toxic compound on the health of an individual subject. Some of the factors that can significantly modify the host response to certain drugs, which serve in this review as a model for environmental chemicals, are enumerated and discussed. Although the mechanisms by which many of these factors modify the biological effects of certain environmental chemicals and drugs have been determined in some cases, better definition of the nature of interactions between these factors and environmental chemicals in a particular individual is required at a biochemical and molecular level. Recommendations are offered for the further development of our knowledge concerning interactions between environmental chemicals and such factors in a particular individual. PMID:598349

  8. Factorization Tests with Cabibbo-Favored Hadronic B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, Richard; Honscheid, K.; Pedlar, T.; von Toerne, E.; Wilksen, T.

    2002-04-01

    Based on a data sample of 9.7 million Υ(4s)arrow B barB decays recorded with CLEO II and II.V we present new measurements of cabibbo-favored, hadronic B meson decays. Precise measurements of these decays provide tests of the factorization hypothesis and allow us to examine the theoretical models which are used to constrain the unitarity triangle. Isospin relations in B arrow D(*) π decays permit the investigation of final state interactions.

  9. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  10. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical

  11. Environmental factors and the development of disease and injury in the alimentary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, H P

    1977-01-01

    This review examines interactions between the alimentary tract and environmental agents. In these intera"ctions the alimentary tract is considered as an integrated organ system extending from mouth to anus. The alimentary tract shares with the skin and its appendages and the respiratory system the distinction of being a portal of entry into the human body for environmental agents as well as a target for their action. Food and water-borne environmental agents enter the body via the alimentary tract. By injurying the alimentary tract environmental agents after their portal of entry and thereby modulate their effects on the organism. Such modulation may enhance or depress effects of these agents. Interactions between environmental factors and the alimentary tract depend on (1) factors related to the alimentary tract that are determined by anatomic, physiologic, and biochemical considerations; (2) factors related to the environmental agents; and (3) individually determined factors. The role of these factors in development of disease and injury is considered. Environmental diseases of the alimentary tract and environmental agents acting on the gut are discussed and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:598351

  12. OFFSITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT: RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas continued its Offsite Radiological Safety Program for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other sites of past underground nuclear tests. For each test, the Laboratory provided airborne ...

  13. 76 FR 81467 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing... environmental assessment concerning authorization to ship for the purpose of field testing, and then to field... risk analysis prepared to assess the risks associated with the field testing of this vaccine,...

  14. 78 FR 58514 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing of a DNA Immunostimulant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing... testing of the following unlicensed product: Requester: Bayer HealthCare LLC, Animal Health Division... prepared an environmental assessment concerning authorization to ship for the purpose of field testing,...

  15. Dissection of genetic and environmental factors involved in tomato organoleptic quality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the main tomato breeding objectives is to improve fruit organoleptic quality. However, this task is made somewhat challenging by the complex nature of sensory traits and the lack of efficient selection criteria. Sensory quality depends on numerous factors, including fruit colour, texture, aroma, and composition in primary and secondary metabolites. It is also influenced by genotypic differences, the nutritional regime of plants, stage of ripening at harvest and environmental conditions. In this study, agronomic, biochemical and sensory characterization was performed on six Italian heirlooms grown in different environmental conditions. Result We identified a number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes. PCA analysis was used to highlight some biochemical, sensory and agronomic discriminating traits: this statistical test allowed us to identify which sensory attributes are more closely linked to environmental conditions and those, instead, linked to the genetic constitution of tomato. Sweetness, sourness, saltiness and tomato flavour are not only grouped in the same PCA factor, but also result in a clear discrimination of tomato ecotypes in the three different fields. The three different traditional varieties cluster on the basis of attributes like juiciness, granulosity, hardness and equatorial diameter, and are therefore more closely related to the genetic background of the cultivar. Conclusion This finding suggests that a different method should be undertaken to improve sensory traits related to taste perception and texture. Our results might be used to ascertain in what direction to steer breeding in order to improve the flavour characteristics of tomato ecotypes. PMID:21453463

  16. Social Environmental Stressors, Psychological Factors, and Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Sims, Mario; Brown, Tony N.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Taylor, Herman A.; Williams, David R.; Crook, Errol

    2010-01-01

    Kidney disease is one of the most striking examples of health disparities in American public health. Disparities in the prevalence and progression of kidney disease are generally thought to be a function of group differences in the prevalence of kidney disease risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. However, the presence of these comorbidities does not completely explain the elevated rate of progression from chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease among high-risk populations such as African Americans. We believe that the social environment is an important element in the pathway from CKD risk factors to CKD and end-stage renal disease. This review of the literature draws heavily from social science and social epidemiology to present a conceptual frame specifying how social, economic, and psychosocial factors interact to affect the risks for and the progression of kidney disease. PMID:19240646

  17. Environmental risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis among cattle in high-risk areas.

    PubMed

    Winkler, B; Mathews, F

    2015-11-01

    Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case-control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role. PMID:26559511

  18. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, phase I: System design and test methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALNWS) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBNW) and AP600. It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALNWS. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  19. The influence of personal and environmental factors on professionalism in medical education

    PubMed Central

    West, Colin P; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2007-01-01

    Background Professionalism is a critical quality for physicians to possess. Physician professionalism has received increased attention in recent years, with many authorities suggesting that professionalism is in decline. An understanding of the factors contributing to professionalism may allow the development of more effective approaches to promoting this quality in medical education. Discussion We propose a model of personal and environmental factors that contribute to physician professionalism. Personal factors include distress/well-being, individual characteristics, and interpersonal qualities. Environmental factors include institutional culture, formal and informal curricula, and practice characteristics. Promotion of professionalism requires efforts directed at each of these elements. Summary One responsibility of medical education is to foster the development of professionalism among its learners. Both personal and environmental factors play a role in physician professionalism. Accordingly, institutions should consider these factors as efforts to promote physician professionalism evolve. PMID:17760986

  20. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  1. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  2. Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

  3. Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwigsen, Gail

    The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

  4. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility program: Eleven additional chemicals: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    An Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess the environmental consequences of spill testing eleven hazardous materials at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site (NTS). These chemicals are: chlorosulfonic acid, fluorosulfonic acid, hydrogen chloride, methyl trichlorosilane, nitrogen tetroxide, oleum, silicon tetrachloride, sulfur-trioxide, titanium tetrachloride, trichlorosilane, and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. DOE has determined that the proposed spill testing of these eleven hazardous materials at LGFSTF at Frenchman Flat is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will not be prepared.

  5. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF FOUR IMMUNOASSAY TEST KITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, beginning as an initiative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1995, verifies the performance of commercially available, innovative technologies that can be used to measure environmental quality. The ETV p...

  6. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  7. Importance of environmental factors on the richness and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in tropical headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is essential to understand the interactions between local environmental factors (e.g., physical habitat and water quality) and aquatic assemblages to conserve biodiversity in tropical and subtropical headwater streams. Therefore, we evaluated the relative importance of multipl...

  8. [Environmental factors as supportive components in communication and care for hospitalized elderly].

    PubMed

    Prochet, Teresa Cristina; da Silva, Maria Julia Paes

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory work with a qualitative approach was performed with 117 health professionals and undergraduate students in So Paulo State countryside. The goal was to identify environmental factors that could play a role in health professionals' communication with elderly patients. The findings were organized and grouped in seven categories: sound and vibration factors, decorative and spatial factors, light factors, colors and textures, heat and ventilation factors, hygiene and personal safety factors, and visual signs. It was found that making use of environmental factors while providing care services to the elderly may lead to effective health care. These factors not only interfere with patients' welfare and recovery, but also play a role in the relationship between health professionals and elderly patients. PMID:23032341

  9. ROLE OF SCALE FACTOR DURING TENSILE TESTING OF SMALL SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N; Busby, Jeremy T; Field, Kevin G; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Gray, Mr. Sean

    2014-01-01

    The influence of scale factor (tensile specimen geometry and dimensions) on mechanical test results was investigated for different widely used types of small specimens (SS-1, SS-2, SS-3, and SS-J3) and a set of materials. It was found that the effect of scale factor on the accurate determination of yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and uniform elongation values was weak; however, clear systematic differences were observed and should be accounted for during interpretation of results. In contrast, total elongation values were strongly sensitive to variations in specimen geometry. Modern experimental methods like digital image correlation allow the impact of scale factor to be reduced. Using these techniques, it was shown that true stress true strain curves describing strain-hardening behavior were very close for different specimen types. The limits of miniaturization are discussed, and an ultra-miniature specimen concept was suggested and evaluated. This type of specimen, as expected, may be suitable for SEM and TEM in situ testing.

  10. Diversity and Equity in Environmental Organizations: The Salience of These Factors to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dorceta E.

    2007-01-01

    Diversity in environmental institutions is of increasing concern to scholars and practitioners. The author examined student perceptions of the importance of 20 diversity and equity factors in their decisions to accept a job. A national sample of 1,239 students in 9 environmental disciplines (biological sciences, geosciences, natural resources,…

  11. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. (a) The NEPA regulations at 40 CFR 1501.1 contain... environment impacts on the human environment are: (1) Legislative proposals. (2) Initial program... quality of the human environment. Where a legislative EIS or environmental assessment is part of...

  12. Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental populations of faecal indicator bacteria, and the processes by which these populations become nonpoint sources and influence nearshore water quality. The different possible sources of these indicator bacteria are presented. These include groundwater, springs and seeps, aquatic sediments, beach sand, birds, Cladophora and plant wrack. Also discussed are the environmental factors (moisture, sunlight, temperature and salinity) influencing their survival.

  13. Diversity and Equity in Environmental Organizations: The Salience of These Factors to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dorceta E.

    2007-01-01

    Diversity in environmental institutions is of increasing concern to scholars and practitioners. The author examined student perceptions of the importance of 20 diversity and equity factors in their decisions to accept a job. A national sample of 1,239 students in 9 environmental disciplines (biological sciences, geosciences, natural resources,

  14. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. (a) The NEPA regulations at 40 CFR 1501.1 contain... environment impacts on the human environment are: (1) Legislative proposals. (2) Initial program... quality of the human environment. Where a legislative EIS or environmental assessment is part of...

  15. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. (a) The NEPA regulations at 40 CFR 1501.1 contain... environment impacts on the human environment are: (1) Legislative proposals. (2) Initial program... quality of the human environment. Where a legislative EIS or environmental assessment is part of...

  16. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. (a) The NEPA regulations at 40 CFR 1501.1 contain... environment impacts on the human environment are: (1) Legislative proposals. (2) Initial program... quality of the human environment. Where a legislative EIS or environmental assessment is part of...

  17. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. (a) The NEPA regulations at 40 CFR 1501.1 contain... environment impacts on the human environment are: (1) Legislative proposals. (2) Initial program... quality of the human environment. Where a legislative EIS or environmental assessment is part of...

  18. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  19. Semivolatile and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smoke. Cleanup, speciation, and emission factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, L.A.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M. |

    1995-06-01

    Studies of phase distributions and emission factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) require collection and analysis of very small samples. To achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity, a method has been devised and tested for extraction and cleanup of gas- and particulate-phase ETS samples. Gas-phase species were trapped by polymeric sorbents, and particles were trapped on filters. The samples were extracted with hot cyclohexane, concentrated, and passed through silica solid-phase extraction columns for cleanup. After solvent change, the PAH were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with two programmed fluorescence detectors. PAH concentrations in 15-mg aliquots of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649 (urban dust/organics) agreed well with published values. Relative precision at the 95% confidence level was 8% for SRM 1649 and 20% for replicate samples (5-mg) of ETS particles. Emission factors have been measured for a range of gas- and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ETS. The emission factors per cigarette were 13.0 {+-} 0.5 mg of particulate matter, 11.2 + 0.9 {mu}g for gas-phase napthalene, and 74 {+-} 10 ng for particulate benzo[a]pyrene. 21 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Foods, Drugs and Environmental Factors: Novel Kounis Syndrome Offenders.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Giannopoulos, Sotiris; Soufras, George D; Kounis, George N; Goudevenos, John

    2015-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is hypersensitivity coronary disorder induced by various types of environmental exposures, drugs, conditions and stents. Allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are associated with this syndrome. The disorder manifests as coronary spasms, acute myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis and affects the cerebral and mesenteric as well as coronary arteries. Importantly, its manifestations are broad and its etiology is continuously increasing. Recently, a variety of unusual etiologies have been reported including Anisakis simplex, scombroid syndrome, the use of Gelofusin or ultrasound contrast agents, kiwifruit, fly bites, and bee stings. Furthermore, losartan and the paradox of corticosteroid allergy have been implicated as possible causes. Although not rare, Kounis syndrome is infrequently diagnosed. Therefore, awareness of its etiology, manifestations and pathophysiology is important for providing the proper diagnosis and treatment and determining prognosis. PMID:26134186

  1. Simulating environmental and psychological acoustic factors of the operating room.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Christopher L; Dudaryk, Roman; Ayers, Andrew L; McNeer, Richard R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an operating room simulation environment was adapted to include quadraphonic speakers, which were used to recreate a composed clinical soundscape. To assess validity of the composed soundscape, several acoustic parameters of this simulated environment were acquired in the presence of alarms only, background noise only, or both. These parameters were also measured for comparison from size-matched operating rooms at Jackson Memorial Hospital. The parameters examined included sound level, reverberation time, and predictive metrics of speech intelligibility in quiet and noise. It was found that the sound levels and acoustic parameters were comparable between the simulated environment and the actual operating rooms. The impact of the background noise on the perception of medical alarms was then examined, and was found to have little impact on the audibility of the alarms. This study is a first in kind report of a comparison between the environmental and psychological acoustical parameters of a hospital simulation environment and actual operating rooms. PMID:26723340

  2. Adolescent suicidal risk: psychological, problem solving, and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Fremouw, W; Callahan, T; Kashden, J

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the life stress and problem-solving interactional model of suicide proposed by Clum, Patsiokas, and Luscomb (1979). Thirty-three hospitalized suicidal adolescents were compared with 21 adolescents hospitalized for other psychiatric problems and with 89 controls. The assessment battery was composed of psychological measures, problem-solving measures, and environmental and family measures. The discriminant analyses revealed that the suicide group could be discriminated from the psychiatric control group but not from the high school control group. Unexpectedly, life stresses did not contribute to the identification of current suicide risk. The results suggest the importance of assessing suicide risk at the time of admission to minimize any subsequent changes in the risk group. PMID:8475532

  3. An indicator for effects of organic toxicants on lotic invertebrate communities: Independence of confounding environmental factors over an extensive river continuum.

    PubMed

    Beketov, Mikhail A; Liess, Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Distinguishing between effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors on ecosystems is a fundamental problem in environmental science. In river systems the longitudinal gradient of environmental factors is one of the most relevant sources of dissimilarity between communities that could be confounded with anthropogenic disturbances. To test the hypothesis that in macroinvertebrate communities the distribution of species' sensitivity to organic toxicants is independent of natural longitudinal factors, but depends on contamination with organic toxicants, we analysed the relationship between community sensitivity SPEAR(organic) (average community sensitivity to organic toxicants) and natural and anthropogenic environmental factors in a large-scale river system, from alpine streams to a lowland river. The results show that SPEAR(organic) is largely independent of natural longitudinal factors, but strongly dependent on contamination with organic toxicants (petrochemicals and synthetic surfactants). Usage of SPEAR(organic) as a stressor-specific longitude-independent measure will facilitate detection of community disturbance by organic toxicants. PMID:18547697

  4. Rule-Based Models of the Interplay between Genetic and Environmental Factors in Childhood Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Meln, Erik; Bergstrm, Anna; Torabi Moghadam, Behrooz; Pulkkinen, Ville; Acevedo, Nathalie; Orsmark Pietras, Christina; Ege, Markus; Braun-Fahrlnder, Charlotte; Riedler, Josef; Doekes, Gert; Kabesch, Michael; van Hage, Marianne; Kere, Juha; Scheynius, Annika; Sderhll, Cilla; Pershagen, Gran; Komorowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of allergic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of how such factors act together is lacking. To elucidate the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in allergic diseases, we used a novel bioinformatics approach that combines feature selection and machine learning. In two materials, PARSIFAL (a European cross-sectional study of 3113 children) and BAMSE (a Swedish birth-cohort including 2033 children), genetic variants as well as environmental and lifestyle factors were evaluated for their contribution to allergic phenotypes. Monte Carlo feature selection and rule based models were used to identify and rank rules describing how combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the risk of allergic diseases. Novel interactions between genes were suggested and replicated, such as between ORMDL3 and RORA, where certain genotype combinations gave odds ratios for current asthma of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.6) and 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.0) in the BAMSE and PARSIFAL children, respectively. Several combinations of environmental factors appeared to be important for the development of allergic disease in children. For example, use of baby formula and antibiotics early in life was associated with an odds ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 4.5-12.0) of developing asthma. Furthermore, genetic variants together with environmental factors seemed to play a role for allergic diseases, such as the use of antibiotics early in life and COL29A1 variants for asthma, and farm living and NPSR1 variants for allergic eczema. Overall, combinations of environmental and life style factors appeared more frequently in the models than combinations solely involving genes. In conclusion, a new bioinformatics approach is described for analyzing complex data, including extensive genetic and environmental information. Interactions identified with this approach could provide useful hints for further in-depth studies of etiological mechanisms and may also strengthen the basis for risk assessment and prevention. PMID:24260339

  5. Relationship between stages of smoking acquisition and environmental factors among junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Otake, Keiko; Shimai, Satoshi

    2002-02-01

    To study the relationship of stages of smoking acquisition and environmental factors, 757 Japanese junior high school students (390 boys and 367 girls) anonymously answered a questionnaire regarding the four stages of smoking acquisition (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, and action stages) and environmental factors of smoking behavior. Analysis showed that the influence of advertising and students' interpersonal situations on smoking behavior increased from the precontemplation stage to the action stage. PMID:11898993

  6. Strategy for the assessment of neurobehavioral consequences of environmental factors.

    PubMed Central

    Tilson, H A; Cabe, P A

    1978-01-01

    One of the critical issues confronting the evolving discipline of behavioral and neurological toxicology is the general lack of test validation in animal models. This paper seeks to provide a strategy aimed at resolving this important problem. It is proposed that test validation be accomplished by evaluating known neurotoxins in a battery of tests chosen to assess in animal models a wide range of effects on the basis of reported human toxicosis symptomatology. We propose to measure ongoing home cage motor activity, food consumption, water consumption, clay consumption (and the diurnal cycling of these), neurological/physiological indices (reflexes, autonomic signs, equilibrium/gait, balance, tremor, reactivity, and muscular strength), and aspects of cognitive and associative behavior involving both endogenous and exogenous (sensory) control of responding. An integrated, time-efficient scheme, covering 90 days of chemical treatment and 30 days of post-dosing recovery will be used. Chemical substances to be evaluated were chosen with the view of representing classes of neurotoxic effects. For initial study, triethyltin was chosen as an agent producing demyelination of nerves, acrylamide as an agent producing "dying-back" neuropathy, and methylmercury as an agent producing mixed central and peripheral neuropathies. Agents which attack specific loci in the nervous system and those producing anoxia will not be assessed in the first stages of this research due to lack of species generality of known effects, present lack of appropriate exposure facilities, or other problems. In addition, two drugs (amphetamine and sodium salicylate) will be investigated to support the generality of the testing procedures. By comparing the observed results of the neurotoxins in the animal models with the predicted effects based on reported human symptomatology, some decision concerning the validity of each procedure will be made. It is expected that the validation of tests to be used in behavioral and neurological toxicology will permit the meaningful assessment of more complex issues, such as the mechanisms by which neurotoxins act. PMID:720319

  7. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26544151

  8. Design, Development, Testing, and Evaluation: Human Factors Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard; Hobbs, Alan; OHara, John; Null, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    While human-system interaction occurs in all phases of system development and operation, this chapter on Human Factors in the DDT&E for Reliable Spacecraft Systems is restricted to the elements that involve "direct contact" with spacecraft systems. Such interactions will encompass all phases of human activity during the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and maintenance phases of the spacecraft lifespan. This section will therefore consider practices that would accommodate and promote effective, safe, reliable, and robust human interaction with spacecraft systems. By restricting this chapter to what the team terms "direct contact" with the spacecraft, "remote" factors not directly involved in the development and operation of the vehicle, such as management and organizational issues, have been purposely excluded. However, the design of vehicle elements that enable and promote ground control activities such as monitoring, feedback, correction and reversal (override) of on-board human and automation process are considered as per NPR8705.2A, Section 3.3.

  9. Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.

    PubMed

    Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

    2011-10-01

    Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657

  10. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and pressure via satellite. The GEMS data will be validated against reference observations provided by current weather instrumentation located at KSC. This paper will report on the results of the GEMSTONE project and discuss the challenges encountered in developing an airborne sensor system.

  11. Environmental statement for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and Mississippi Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The environmental impact was investigated for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Mississippi Test Facility. The installations are described, and the missions, environmental impact, and commitment of resources are discussed. It is concluded that there are negligible adverse environmental effects related to these two installations.

  12. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  13. AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY (AEERL) PROCEDURES MANUAL: LEVEL 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGICAL TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual provides detailed procedures for EPA/AEERL's Level 1 terrestrial bioassays. (Some test methods designated for AEERL's Level 1 environmental assessment biological testing program are sufficiently new that little or no published literature is available describing specifi...

  14. Environmental factors that influence prescribed burning in the Northern Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, A.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Piehl, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Several environmental conditions were recorded and analyzed for 192 prescribed burns in the Northern Great Plains. The purpose of these burns was to improve wildlife habitat and manipulate native prairie vegetation. All of the fires occurred in grassland and shrubsteppe vegetation types. Fuels were predominantly grasses and forbs intermixed with patches of shrubs. Nearly all of the fuels were 0.05 cm/h, do not burn. However, these are good conditions to burn stockpiles of unwanted fuels that are usually high risk elements during regular prescribed burns.2) Produce partial burns. Partial burns are defined as those where fire is discontinuous and patches of standing and lodged vegetation are left unburned. Partial burns occur most often when fine fuels feel moist when handled, where less than 2 days have passed since the last measurable precipitation, and when cloud cover is complete. Other conditions associated with partial burns are relative humidities >50 percent, temperatures 32 km/h, relative humidities 35 deg.C. These conditions occur most often in July, August, and September, but can occur anytime from April through October.

  15. Clinical, Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Congenital Vertebral Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Giampietro, P.F.; Raggio, C.L.; Blank, R.D.; McCarty, C.; Broeckel, U.; Pickart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) pose a significant health problem because they can be associated with spinal deformities, such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, in addition to various syndromes and other congenital malformations. Additional information remains to be learned regarding the natural history of congenital scoliosis and related health problems. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the process of somite formation, which gives rise to vertebral bodies, there is a wide gap in our understanding of how genetic factors contribute to CVM development. Maternal diabetes during pregnancy most commonly contributes to the occurrence of CVM, followed by other factors such as hypoxia and anticonvulsant medications. This review highlights several emerging clinical issues related to CVM, including pulmonary and orthopedic outcome in congenital scoliosis. Recent breakthroughs in genetics related to gene and environment interactions associated with CVM development are discussed. The Klippel-Feil syndrome which is associated with cervical segmentation abnormalities is illustrated as an example in which animal models, such as the zebrafish, can be utilized to provide functional evidence of pathogenicity of identified mutations. PMID:23653580

  16. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  17. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  18. The Dependability of General-Factor Loadings: The Effects of Factor-Extraction Methods, Test Battery Composition, Test Battery Size, and Their Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Rafael, Fawziya A.; Bergeron, Renee; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    To understand the extent to which the general-factor loadings of tests are inherent in their characteristics or due to the sampling of tests, the number of tests in the correlation matrix, and the factor-extraction methods used to obtain them, test scores from a large sample of young adults were inserted into independent and overlapping batteries…

  19. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  20. Epidemiology of skin cancer: role of some environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Triassi, Maria; Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Torre, Guglielma; Annunziata, Maria Carmela; De Vita, Valerio; Pastore, Francesco; D'Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth's surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people's behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer. PMID:24281212

  1. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  2. Environmental assessment of the 40 kilowatt fuel cell system field test operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1982-05-01

    This environmental assessment examines the potential environmental consequences, both adverse and beneficial, of the 40 kW fuel cell system system field test operation. The assessment is of necessity generic in nature since actual test sites were not selected. This assessment provides the basis for determining the need for an environmental impact statement. In addition, this assessment provides siting criteria to avoid or minimize negative environmental impacts and standards for determining candidate test sites, if any, for which site specific assessments may be required.

  3. Environmental assessment of the 40 kilowatt fuel cell system field test operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1982-01-01

    This environmental assessment examines the potential environmental consequences, both adverse and beneficial, of the 40 kW fuel cell system system field test operation. The assessment is of necessity generic in nature since actual test sites were not selected. This assessment provides the basis for determining the need for an environmental impact statement. In addition, this assessment provides siting criteria to avoid or minimize negative environmental impacts and standards for determining candidate test sites, if any, for which site specific assessments may be required.

  4. Combined vibration/temperature/sideload environmental testing of UHF blade antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volker, R.

    1979-01-01

    Service problems encountered on the F-4 aircraft showed that the environmental qualification requirements for the UHF blade antenna were not adequate. Although the individual environmental levels were stringent enough, only combined environmental testing could duplicate the conditions in which service problems occurred. Techniques for applying static side load simultaneously with vibration and temperature were developed. The combined environment testing was instrumental in the rapid assessment of antenna modifications and resulted in a final configuration which proved satisfactory in service. A need to include combined environmental testing for qualification of blade antennas was established.

  5. A Secreted Factor Coordinates Environmental Quality with Bacillus Development

    PubMed Central

    Ababneh, Qutaiba O.; Tindall, Amanda J.; Herman, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Entry into sporulation is governed by the master regulator Spo0A. Spo0A accumulates in its active form, Spo0A-P, as cells enter stationary phase. Prior reports have shown that the acute induction of constitutively active Spo0A during exponential growth does not result in sporulation. However, a subsequent study also found that a gradual increase in Spo0A-P, mediated through artificial expression of the kinase, KinA, during exponential growth, is sufficient to trigger sporulation. We report here that sporulation via KinA induction depends on the presence of an extracellular factor or factors (FacX) that only accumulates to active levels during post-exponential growth. FacX is retained by dialysis with a cutoff smaller than 500 Dalton, can be concentrated, and is susceptible to proteinase K digestion, similar to described quorum-sensing peptides shown to be involved in promoting sporulation. However, unlike previously characterized peptides, FacX activity does not require the Opp or App oligopeptide transporter systems. In addition, FacX activity does not depend on SigH, Spo0A, or ComX. Importantly, we find that in the presence of FacX, B. subtilis can be induced to sporulate following the artificial induction of constitutively active Spo0A. These results indicate that there is no formal requirement for gradual Spo0A-P accumulation and instead support the idea that sporulation requires both sufficient levels of active Spo0A and at least one other signal or condition. PMID:26657919

  6. Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers. PMID:25551518

  7. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.5 Environmental testing for...

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of the Constellation Program A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Carolyn D.

    2007-01-01

    This document is an environmental assessment that examines the environmental impacts of a proposed plan to clear land and to construct a test stand for use in testing the J-2X rocket engine at simulated altitude conditions in support of NASA's Constellation Program.

  9. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context. Practical advice for parents includes how to foster children's preferences for healthy foods and how to promote acceptance of new foods by children. Parents need to understand the costs of coercive feeding practices and be given alternatives to restricting food and pressuring children to eat. Providing parents with easy-to-use information regarding appropriate portion sizes for children is also essential as are suggestions on the timing and frequency of meals and snacks. Especially during early and middle childhood, family environments are the key contents for the development of food preferences, patterns of food intake, eating styles, and the development of activity preferences and patterns that shape children's developing weight status. Designing effective prevention programs will, however, require more complete knowledge than currently available regarding behavioral intermediaries that foster overweight, including the family factors that shape activity patterns, meals taken away from home, the impact of stress on family members' eating styles, food intake, activity patterns, and weight gain. The research presented here provides an example of how ideas regarding the effects of environmental factors and behavioral mediators on childhood overweight can be investigated. Such research requires the development of reliable and valid measures of environmental variables and behaviors. Because childhood overweight is a multifactorial problem, additional research is needed to develop and test theoretic models describing how a wide range of environmental factors and behavioral intermediaries can work in concert with genetic predispositions to promote the development of childhood overweight. The crucial test of these theoretic models will be in preventive interventions. PMID:11494642

  10. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal

  11. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  12. EXAMINING EPIDEMIOLOGIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MICROBIAL RISKS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project will: 1) help define the role of HuCV in drinking water risks; and 2) elucidate the impact of population-level factors, such as secondary transmission and immunity, as well as environmental factors, such as transport through the distribution system, on ri...

  13. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  14. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing

  15. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of geneenvironment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51065 same-sex twins from 25715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of geneenvironment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  16. Environmental factors influencing cyanobacteria community structure in Dongping Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuetang; Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Xie, Jun

    2013-11-01

    The present study was conducted to provide a detailed understanding of the variation in cyanobacterial communities of Dongping Lake, which is the final water volume adjusting and storing lake in the east route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. The spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria was assessed from May 2010 to October 2012 based on monthly samples collected from three stations. Over the 30-month survey, 15 genera and 25 species of cyanobacteria were identified, with cyanobacterial abundance at each monitoring station ranging from undetected to 3.04x10(7) cells/L, average of 4.27x10(6) cells/L. The dominant cyanobacterial species were Pseudanabaena limnetica and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi and not the usual bloom-forming genera such as Microcystis and Anabaena. Cyanobacterial community structure and water quality variables exhibited substantial changes over the period of survey. Redundancy analysis, Pearson correlations, and regression analysis were applied to analyze the relationships among the variables. The results suggested that temperature and chemical oxygen demand were key drivers of the cyanobacterial community composition in Dongping Lake. In addition, the concentration of inorganic nitrogen in the lake had a profound effect on the cyanobacterial abundance as a non-limiting factor in warm periods. PMID:24552047

  17. The environmental factors as reason for emotional tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakova, L.

    The information from environment is a reason of activation of an organism, it calls abrupt changings in nervous processes and it offers emotions. One part of emotions organizes and supports activity, others disorganize it. In fields of perception, of making decision, fulfilment of operatings, of learning the emotional excitation raises the level of carrying-out more easy problems and reduces of more difficult one. The report are presented the outcomes of quantitative determination of a level of emotional tension on successful activity. The inverse of the sign of influencing on efficiency of activity of the man is detected. The action of the emotional tension on efficiency of professional work was demonstrated to have similarly to influencing of motivation according to the law Yerkes -Dodson. The report introduces a mathematical model of connection of successful activity and motivations or the emotional tension. Introduced in the report the outcomes can serve the theoretical idealized basis of the quantitative characteristics of an estimation of activity of astronauts in conditions of the emotional factors at a phase of selection

  18. The Relationships between Environmental Factors and Violent Behaviors in Adolescent Students of Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Razieh; Heidari, Kamal; Davari, Hossein; Espanani, Morteza; Poursalehi, Mojtaba; Naeini, Shokooh Eghtedari; Rastkerdar, Zeinabsadat; Azizi, Amir; Zakizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a global issue that has received considerable attention during recent years. Available research has suggested various factors, mostly family and social factors, to possibly affect violence. As previous studies have not examined the relationship between these factors and violent behaviors in adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between environmental factors and violence in adolescents. Methods: This descriptive, correlational research used cluster sampling to select 5500 adolescent students from Isfahan Province (Iran). Data were collected through a 21-item researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was modified according to the relevant experts’ opinions and had Cronbach's alpha of 0.82. The collected data were analyzed by applying multiple regression analysis in SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Most participants (89.1%) lived in urban areas and about half (49.8%) of them were female. Linear regression test showed violent behaviors to have significant, inverse relationships with love and affection in the family (β = −0.097; P < 0.001) and watching drama and comedy movies (β = −0.128; P < 0.001 and β = −0.032; P = 0.030, respectively). There were significant, direct relationships between violent behaviors in adolescents and aggressive behaviors in the family (β =0.099; P < 0.001) and watching crime, police, and action movies (β =0.129; P < 0.001, detective movies β =0.043; P < 0.001, and β =0.061; P < 0.001, respectively). However, the incidence of violent behaviors was not significantly related with the effects of peers and presence of sports facilities. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed love and affection and healthy pastime (e.g. watching comedy and drama movies) in the family to reduce violent behaviors in adolescents. In contrast, aggressive behaviors in the family, watching crime, police, and action movies were found to increase violent behaviors in adolescents. PMID:26157573

  19. Environmental and genetic risk factors for eating disorders: What the clinician needs to know

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Patients and families are often aware of research on genetic factors influencing eating disorders. Accurate interpretations of research on environmental and genetic risk factors can be empowering to patients and families; however, misinterpretations could prove detrimental. The clinician who is not versed in genetic research may feel ill-prepared to discuss the nuances of genetic research with patients and families. In this paper the authors discuss what is known about genetic and environmental risk factors with an emphasis on gene-environment interplay in order to increase clinicians’ comfort level with discussing these complex issues with their patients. PMID:19014858

  20. In silico Testing of Environmental Impact on Embryonic Vascular Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding risks to embryonic development from exposure to environmental chemicals is a significant challenge given the diverse chemical landscape and paucity of data for most of these compounds. EPA’s Virtual Embryo project is building in silico models of morphogenesis to tes...

  1. In silico Testing of Environmental Impact on Embryonic Vascular Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding risks to embryonic development from exposure to environmental chemicals is a significant challenge given the diverse chemical landscape and paucity of data for most of these compounds. EPAs Virtual Embryo project is building in silico models of morphogenesis to tes...

  2. Does extreme environmental severity promote plant facilitation? An experimental field test in a subtropical coastal dune.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Camila T; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Prado, Paulo Inácio K L

    2015-07-01

    The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) postulates how the balance between plant competition and facilitation shifts along environmental gradients. Early formulations of the SGH predicted that facilitation should increase monotonically with stress. However, a recent theoretical refinement of the SGH postulates stronger facilitation under moderate stress, followed by a decreasing role of facilitation in the most severe environments. We conducted field experiments along the most severe part of a coastal dune gradient in southeast Brazil to test the effect of stress on the intensity and importance of the net interactions between two tree species. First, we compared the performance of distinct life stages of Ternstroemia brasiliensis in the presence and absence of Guapira opposita adults along a beach-to-inland gradient, a gradient of environmental severity. To test the effect of one stress factor in particular, we also manipulated water availability, a limiting resource due to the sandy soils. At the most severe part of the coastal gradient (i.e. closest to the seashore), both intensity and importance of the interaction between G. opposita and T. brasiliensis were negatively related to stress, with a pattern consistent across distinct life stages of the target species. However, the sign of the net interaction depended on the life stage of the target species. Our results provide empirical evidence that the role of facilitation tends to wane, leading to neutral or even negative net interactions between species as stress reaches its maximum, as predicted by the recent refinements of the SGH. PMID:25761446

  3. 77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing... of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Interleukin-2 ] Immunomodulator, Live... risks associated with the field testing of this vaccine, examines the potential effects that...

  4. 75 FR 9016 - Fifty-Fifth Meeting, RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment... Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment. DATES: The meeting...

  5. The influence of environmental, biotic and spatial factors on diatom metacommunity structure in Swedish headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Göthe, Emma; Angeler, David G; Gottschalk, Steffi; Löfgren, Stefan; Sandin, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Stream assemblages are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering and biotic interactions) and regional factors (e.g., dispersal related processes). The relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e., regional) factors structuring stream assemblages has been frequently assessed in previous large-scale studies, but biotic predictors (potentially reflecting local biotic interactions) have rarely been included. Diatoms may be useful for studying the effect of trophic interactions on community structure since: (1) a majority of experimental studies shows significant grazing effects on diatom species composition, and (2) assemblages can be divided into guilds that have different susceptibility to grazing. We used a dataset from boreal headwater streams in south-central Sweden (covering a spatial extent of ∼14000 km(2)), which included information about diatom taxonomic composition, abundance of invertebrate grazers (biotic factor), environmental (physicochemical) and spatial factors (obtained through spatial eigenfunction analyses). We assessed the relative importance of environmental, biotic, and spatial factors structuring diatom assemblages, and performed separate analyses on different diatom guilds. Our results showed that the diatom assemblages were mainly structured by environmental factors. However, unique spatial and biological gradients, specific to different guilds and unrelated to each other, were also evident. We conclude that biological predictors, in combination with environmental and spatial variables, can reveal a more complete picture of the local vs. regional control of species assemblages in lotic environments. Biotic factors should therefore not be overlooked in applied research since they can capture additional local control and therefore increase accuracy and performance of predictive models. The inclusion of biotic predictors did, however, not significantly influence the unique fraction explained by spatial factors, which suggests low bias in previous assessments of unique regional control of stream assemblages. PMID:23967290

  6. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. PMID:24821503

  7. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  8. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  9. [Environmental factors in the development of type 1 diabetes -- a new insight].

    PubMed

    P?aczkiewicz-Jankowska, Ewa; Szybi?ski, Zbigniew; Huszno, Bohdan

    2007-01-01

    According to the traditional model of pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes - it develops in genetically susceptible individuals in whom environmental factors trigger an autoimmune process of beta-cell destruction. Although susceptibility may be inherited, there is a growing body of evidence showing the role of environmental factors that might not only trigger but also perpetuate the chronic autoimmune process. These factors may exert their action long before the disease manifests itself clinically, which significantly hampers their identification. Three groups of environmental factors that were most widely studied include of viral infections, feeding patterns in infancy and toxic compounds (especially nitrites). Other factors possibly playing a role in modifying the development of the disease are vaccinations, psychological stress and climatological factors. The authors summarize the data supporting the role of environmental factors in the development of the disease and show a more recent model of type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. It may partly explain why the disease incidence increased has so much in the last three decades despite markedly improved hygiene and health care standards. PMID:17941471

  10. miREFRWR: a novel disease-related microRNA-environmental factor interactions prediction method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing

    2016-01-26

    Increasing evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) can functionally interact with environmental factors (EFs) to affect and determine human diseases. Uncovering the potential associations between diseases and miRNA-EF interactions could benefit the understanding of the underlying disease mechanism at miRNA and EF levels, miRNA signatures identification, and drug repurposing. In this study, based on the assumption that similar miRNAs (EFs) tend to interact with similar EFs (miRNAs) in the context of a given disease and under the framework of random walk with restart (RWR), a novel method of miREFRWR was developed to uncover the hidden disease-related miRNA-EF interactions by implementing random walks on an miRNA similarity network and EF similarity network, respectively. miREFRWR was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation, which achieved an AUC of 0.9500. It has been demonstrated that miREFRWR can effectively identify potential interactions in all the test classes, even if these test samples only share either EFs or miRNAs with the training samples. Furthermore, many predictive results for acute promyelocytic leukemia and breast cancer (67 and 10 interactions out of the top 1% predictions, respectively) have been verified by independent experimental studies. It is anticipated that miREFRWR could be a useful and important biological resource for biomedical research. PMID:26689259

  11. The Savannah River Environmental Technology Field Test Platform: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.; Riha, B.D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Jarosch, T.R.; Looney, B.B.; Raymond, R.

    1995-03-14

    The principal goal in the development of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is transferring them to organizations and individuals for use in site assessment and compliance monitoring. The DOE complex has devised several strategies to facilitate this transfer including joint research projects between private industries and government laboratories or universities (CRADAs) and streamlined licensing procedures. One strategy that has been under-utilized is a planned sequence gradually moving from laboratory development and field demonstration to long term evaluation and onsite use. Industrial partnership and commercial production can be initiated at any step based on the performance, market, user needs, and costs associated with the technology. This approach allows use of the technology by onsite groups for compliance monitoring tasks (e.g. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management), while following parallel research and development organizations the opportunity to evaluate the long term performance and to make modifications or improvements to the technology. This probationary period also provides regulatory organizations, potential industrial partners, and potential users with the opportunity to evaluate the technology`s performance and its utility for implementation in environmental characterization and monitoring programs.

  12. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  13. [Relationships between characteristics of ground bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Pi, Chun-yan; Tian, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on bryophyte species composition, species diversity and the relationship between bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing City, by using biodiversity indices and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), based on the data of 44 plots. The results revealed that 86 species belonging to 43 genera and 25 families were found in saxicolous bryophyte communities, while 46 species belonging to 28 genera and 22 families were found in terricolous ones. The diversity indices of both saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities from campuses were higher than those of parks, natural scenic resorts, Jinyunshan National Nature Reserve. TWINSPAN classified saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities into three and two groups, respectively. CCA results showed canopy density was the major environmental factor of saxicolous bryophyte communities influencing bryophyte distribution in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. Soil pH, canopy density and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in terricolous bryophyte communities in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and water content of the soil were the major environmental factors in those of natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. PMID:26995924

  14. Geographical variation in dementia: examining the role of environmental factors in Sweden and Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Tom C.; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Hannah, Jean; Wyper, Grant; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.; Starr, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of geographical variation in dementia rates and suggest explanations for this variation. Small-area studies are scarce, and none has adequately investigated the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the distribution of dementia. Methods We present two complementary small-area hierarchical Bayesian disease mapping studies using the comprehensive Swedish Twin Registry (n=27,680) and the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey cohort (n=37,597). The twin study allowed us to isolate the area in order to examine the effect of unshared environmental factors. The Scottish Mental Survey study allowed us to examine various epochs in the life course – approximately age 11 years and adulthood. Results We found a 2-to 3- fold geographical variation in dementia odds in Sweden, after twin random effects – likely to capture genetic and shared environmental variance – were removed. In Scotland we found no variation in dementia odds in childhood but substantial variation, following a broadly similar pattern to Sweden, by adulthood. Conclusions There is geographical variation in dementia rates. Most of this variation is likely to result from unshared environmental factors that have their effect in adolescence or later. Further work is required to confirm these findings and identify any potentially modifiable socio-environmental risk factors for dementia responsible for this geographical variation in risk. However, if these factors do exist and could be optimized in the whole population, our results suggest that dementia rates could be halved. PMID:25575031

  15. [Effect of environmental factors on fish community structure in the Huntai River Basin at multiple scales].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2014-09-01

    In June 2012, fishes was investigated at 65 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. Forty species were collected, belonging to 9 orders, 14 families,33 genera. Cobitidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant fishes in the community structure in the Huntai River basin, accounting for 13. 21% and 65. 83% of the fish community, respectively. There were two types of spatial distribution of fish community, one was distributed in the head water and tributaries in the upstream, and the other was in the plain rivers. Nemachilus nudus, Cobitis granoei and Phoxinus lagowskii dominated the local community in the upper reaches of the Dahuofang Reservoir and shenwo River, while Carassius ayratus and Hemiculter leucisculdus dominated the local community in the plain rivers. CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) was used to distinguish the primary environmental variables that affected the fish community structure. The results indicated fish community was mainly affected by environment factors at watershed and reach scales. Proportions of woodland and urban land, and altitude were three important environmental factors affecting the fish community at the watershed scale. Dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, pH and habitat inhomogeneity significantly affected the fish community at the reach scale, whereas substrate didn't show significant influence at the microhabitat scale. Environmental factors at watershed scale explained 7. 66% of the variation of fish community structure, environmental factors at reach scale explained 10. 57% of the variation of fish community structure. Environmental factors at reach scale influenced the fish community more significantly. PMID:25518673

  16. Appraisal of tests to predict the environmental behavior of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sheenan, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains a series of articles assessing the value of the tests carried out - including their usefulness and accuracy - in predicting the effect of chemicals on the environment. Industry leaders critically appraise and evaluate the effectiveness of these tests and their impact on the worldwide problem of chemical pollution.

  17. Testing the mapping between redshift and cosmic scale factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Prada, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    The canonical redshift-scale factor relation, 1/a = 1 + z, is a key element in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model of the big bang cosmology. Despite its fundamental role, this relation has not yet undergone any observational tests since Lemaître and Hubble established the expansion of the Universe. It is strictly based on the assumption of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric describing a locally homogeneous and isotropic universe and that photons move on null geodesics of the metric. Thus any violation of this assumption, within general relativity or modified gravity, can yield a different mapping between the model redshift z = 1/a - 1 and the actually observed redshift zobs, i.e. zobs ≠ z. Here, we perform a simple test of consistency for the standard redshift-scale factor relation by determining simultaneous observational constraints on the concordance ΛCDM cosmological parameters and a generalized redshift mapping z = f(zobs). Using current baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and Type Ia supernova (SN) data we demonstrate that the generalized redshift mapping is strongly degenerated with dark energy. Marginalization over a class of monotonic functions f(zobs) changes substantially degeneracy between matter and dark energy density: the density parameters become anticorrelated with nearly vertical axis of degeneracy. Furthermore, we show that current SN and BAO data, analysed in a framework with the generalized redshift mapping, do not constrain dark energy unless the BAO data include the measurements from the Ly α forest of high-redshift quasars.

  18. Testing the mapping between redshift and cosmic scale factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Prada, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    The canonical redshift-scale factor relation, 1/a = 1 + z, is a key element in the standard ΛCDM model of the Big Bang cosmology. Despite its fundamental role, this relation has not yet undergone any observational tests since Lemaître and Hubble established the expansion of the Universe. It is strictly based on the assumption of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric describing a locally homogeneous and isotropic universe and that photons move on null geodesics of the metric. Thus any violation of this assumption, within general relativity or modified gravity, can yield a different mapping between the model redshift z = 1/a - 1 and the actually observed redshift zobs, i.e. zobs ≠ z. Here we perform a simple test of consistency for the standard redshift-scale factor relation by determining simultaneous observational constraints on the concordance ΛCDM cosmological parameters and a generalized redshift mapping z = f(zobs). Using current baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and Type Ia supernova (SN) data we demonstrate that the generalized redshift mapping is strongly degenerated with dark energy. Marginalization over a class of monotonic functions f(zobs) changes substantially degeneracy between matter and dark energy density: the density parameters become anticorrelated with nearly vertical axis of degeneracy. Furthermore, we show that current SN and BAO data, analyzed in a framework with the generalized redshift mapping, do not constrain dark energy unless the BAO data include the measurements from the Ly-α forest of high-redshift quasars.

  19. Environmental Domains and Range-Limiting Mechanisms: Testing the Abundant Centre Hypothesis Using Southern African Sandhoppers

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Simone; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Cannicci, Stefano; Porri, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Predicting shifts of species geographical ranges is a fundamental challenge for conservation ecologists given the great complexity of factors involved in setting range limits. Distributional patterns are frequently modelled to “simplify” species responses to the environment, yet the central mechanisms that drive a particular pattern are rarely understood. We evaluated the distributions of two sandhopper species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), Talorchestia capensis and Africorchestia quadrispinosa along the Namibian and South African coasts, encompassing three biogeographic regions influenced by two different oceanographic systems, the Benguela and Agulhas currents. We aimed to test whether the Abundant Centre Hypothesis (ACH) can explain the distributions of these species’ abundances, sizes and sex ratios and examined which environmental parameters influence/drive these distributions. Animals were collected during a once-off survey at 29 sites over c.3500 km of coastline. The ACH was tested using a non-parametric constraint space analysis of the goodness of fit of five hypothetical models. Distance Based Linear Modelling (DistLM) was performed to evaluate which environmental traits influenced the distribution data. Abundance, size and sex ratio showed different patterns of distribution. A ramped model fitted the abundance (Ramped North) and size (Ramped South) distribution for A. quadrispinosa. The Inverse Quadratic model fitted the size distribution of T. capensis. Beach slope, salinity, sand temperature and percentage of detritus found on the shore at the time of collection played important roles in driving the abundance of A. quadrispinosa. T. capensis was mainly affected by salinity and the morphodynamic state of the beach. Our results provided only some support for the ACH predictions. The DistLM confirmed that the physical state of the beach is an important factor for sandy beach organisms. The effect of salinity and temperature suggest metabolic responses to local conditions and a role in small to mesoscale shifts in the range of these populations. PMID:23372740

  20. OHMSETT (OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TANK) EVALUATION TESTS: THREE OIL SKIMMERS AND A WATER JET HERDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of performance tests was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility with three selected oil spill pickup devices (Skimmers) and a water jet boom/skimmer transition device. The objective of the skimmer tests were to establish the range of bes...

  1. The contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the duration of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    York, Timothy P; Eaves, Lindon J; Neale, Michael C; Strauss, Jerome F

    2014-05-01

    This review describes how improvements in biometric-genetic studies of twin kinships, half-sibships, and cousinships have now demonstrated a sizeable fetal genetic and maternal genetic contribution to the spontaneous onset of labor. This is an important development because previous literature for the most part reports only an influence of the maternal genome. Current estimates of the percent of variation that is attributable to fetal genetic factors range from 11-35%; the range for the maternal genetic contribution is 13-20%. These same studies demonstrate an even larger influence of environmental sources over and above the influence of genetic sources and previously identified environmental risk factors. With these estimates in hand, a major goal for research on pregnancy duration is to identify specific allelic variation and environmental risk to account for this estimated genetic and environmental variation. A review of the current literature can serve as a guide for future research efforts. PMID:24096276

  2. The Contribution of Genetic and Environmental Factors to the Duration of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    YORK, Timothy P.; EAVES, Lindon J.; NEALE, Michael C.; STRAUS, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes how improvements in biometrical-genetic studies of twin kinships, half-sibships and cousinships have now demonstrated a sizeable fetal genetic and maternal genetic contribution to the spontaneous onset of labor. This is an important development since previous literature for the most part only reports an influence of the maternal genome. Current estimates of the percent of variation attributable to fetal genetic factors range from 11% to 35% while the range for the maternal genetic contribution is 13-20%. These same studies demonstrate an even larger influence of environmental sources over and above the influence of genetic sources and previously identified environmental risk factors. With these estimates in hand, a major goal for research on pregnancy duration is to identify specific allelic variation and environmental risk to account for this estimated genetic and environmental variation. A review of the current literature can serve as a guide for future research efforts. PMID:24096276

  3. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010–2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  4. Factors affecting the performance of the styles cell transformation test.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M R; Dehnel, J M

    1980-08-01

    The effects of certain factors on the performance of the cell transformation test of Styles were examined by testing the demonstrability of transformation of cells of a subclone of BHK21 C13 in response to treatment with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetamidofluorene. An important requirement for success was supplementation of the soft agar medium with a serum which supported microcolony formation by a high proportion of the cells. Increasing the concentration of an unsuitable serum improved the results obtained; this suggests that the serum was inadequate rather than inhibitory. Alteration of the concentration of S-9 fraction used to activate the precarcinogens benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetamidofluorene had little effect on the induction of transformation by either. A clearer distinction between the transformation frequencies for control and treated cells was usually obtained when 500 microm rather than 200 microm was the minimum diameter set for definition of transformation. It is suggested that, to assess the validity of results obtained with compounds which appear to induce transformation only at highly toxic levels, transformation frequencies for treated cells should be compared with those for control cells seeded at comparable densities. PMID:11272119

  5. Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?

    PubMed Central

    Knibbs, Luke D.; Sly, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people experience poorer health than non-Indigenous people, and this well-described inequality has been observed in many countries. The contribution of different risk factors to the health ‘gap’ has understandably focussed on those factors for which there are sufficient data. However, this has precluded environmental risk factors – those present in air, water, food, and soil – due to a lack of data describing exposures and outcomes. These risk factors are demonstrably important at the global scale, as highlighted by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Here, we describe how a greater focus on environmental risk factors is required in order to define their role in the Indigenous health gap. We use the Australian context as a case study of an issue we feel has global analogues and relevance. Suggestions for how and why this situation should be remedied are presented and discussed. PMID:24802385

  6. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    SciTech Connect

    Agogino, Karen; Sanchez, Rebecca

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  7. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  8. [Effects of environmental factors on litter decomposition in arid and semi-arid regions: A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Lin; Lian, Jie; Qu, Hao; Yue, Xiang-Fei

    2013-11-01

    Litter decomposition is one of the important biochemical processes in arid and semi-arid regions, and a key component of regional nutrient turnover and carbon cycling, which is mainly affected by climate, litter quality, and decomposer community. In order to deeply understand the relationships between litter decomposition and environmental factors in arid and semi-arid regions, this paper summarized the research progress in the effects of abiotic factors (soil temperature, precipitation, and ultraviolet-B radiation) and biotic factors (litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure) on the litter decomposition in these regions. Among the factors, precipitation and ultraviolet-B radiation are considered to be the main limiting factors of litter decomposition. In arid and semi-arid regions, precipitation can significantly increase the litter decomposition rate in a short term, while the photo-degradation induced by ultraviolet-B radiation, due to the strong and long-term radiation, can increase the decomposition rate of terrestrial litter. Litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure are mainly affected by the type of ecosystems in a long term. However, the affecting mechanisms of these environmental factors on litter decomposition are still not very clear. It was suggested that the future litter ecological research should be paid more attention to the interaction of environmental factors under climate change, the variations of litter decomposition at different spatial scales, and the establishment of litter decomposition models in relation to the synergistic interactions of multiple factors. PMID:24564163

  9. Environmental risk factors for type 1 diabetes in Rome and province

    PubMed Central

    Visalli, N; Sebastiani, L; Adorisio, E; Conte, A; De Cicco, A L; D'Elia, R; Manfrini, S; Pozzilli, P; the, I

    2003-01-01

    Background: In subjects genetically susceptible to type 1 diabetes, exposure to environmental factors during the gestational period, the neonatal period, and the first years of life is thought to play an important role in triggering the immune process leading to ß cell destruction. Aims: To investigate risk factors for inhabitants of continental Italy. Methods: A case-control study of 150 type 1 diabetes cases and 750 control subjects (age range 6–18 years) was carried out in Rome and its province, measuring the exposure to environmental risk factors. Results: Three environmental factors were found to occur significantly more in the diabetic group than in the controls. During the mothers' pregnancies, the one risk factor which proved to be higher in diabetics than in controls was maternal infectious disease. During the neonatal period, no risk factors associated with the disease were detected. During early life, eczema and a short duration of breast feeding (less than three months), occurred significantly more in diabetic cases than controls. Conclusion: Eczema and breast feeding for less than three months are risk factors for type 1 diabetes in a southern European population. The type, duration, and mode of treatment for infectious diseases during pregnancy need additional investigation as risk factors for type 1 diabetes. PMID:12876166

  10. Influence of age and selected environmental factors on reproductive performance of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Trauger, D.L.; Austin, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Age, productivity, and other factors affecting breeding performance of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) are poorly understood. Consequently, we tested whether reproductive performance of female canvasbacks varied with age and selected environmental factors in southwestern Manitoba from 1974 to 1980. Neither clutch size, nest parasitism, nest success, nor the number of ducklings/brood varied with age. Return rates, nest initiation dates, renesting, and hen success were age-related. Return rates averaged 21% for second-year (SY) and 69% for after-second-year (ASY) females (58% for third-year and 79% for after-third-year females). Additionally, water conditions and spring temperatures influenced chronology of arrival, timing of nesting, and reproductive success. Nest initiation by birds of all ages was affected by minimum April temperatures. Clutch size was higher in nests initiated earlier. Interspecific nest parasitism did not affect clutch size, nest success, hen success, or hatching success. Nest success was lower in dry years (17%) than in moderately wet (54%) or wet (60%) years. Nests per female were highest during wet years. No nests of SY females were found in dry years. In years of moderate to good wetland conditions, females of all ages nested. Predation was the primary factor influencing nest success. Hen success averaged 58% over all years. The number of ducklings surviving 20 days averaged 4.7/brood. Because SY females have lower return rates and hen success than ASY females, especially during drier years, management to increase canvasback populations might best be directed to increasing first year recruitment (no. of females returning to breed) and to increasing overall breeding success by reducing predation and enhancing local habitat conditions during nesting.

  11. Identification of biological and environmental risk factors for language delay: The Let's Talk STEPS study.

    PubMed

    Korpilahti, Pirjo; Kaljonen, Anne; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to identify demographic factors for language delays at an early age. The risk analysis covered 11 biological and 8 environmental factors. The mothers' concerns regarding language development were also examined. A total of 226 children from a Finnish cohort study were invited to participate in language assessments at 36 months. The test results for word finding and language comprehension were compared with parental questionnaires about children's vocabulary at 13 and 24 months. Regression analysis revealed that the father's social class (t=-2.79, p=0.006) and working full time (t=-2.86, p=0.005) significantly predicted children's language delay. In addition, language comprehension was significantly predicted by the mother's social class (t=-2.06, p=0.041) and by gender, with an advantage to girls (t=-2.71, p=0.008). Vocabulary at 24 months was a powerful predictor for lexical development (t=4.58, p<0.0001) and language comprehension (t=4.85, p<0.0001) at 36 months. Mothers' concerns were correlated with children's limited lexicons as early as 24 months (r=0.31, p<0.0001) and poor language comprehension (r=-0.35, p<0.0001) at 36 months. Mothers were especially concerned if the parents needed special education during school years. At the population-level, gender was the most powerful biological factor in predicting language delays. Similarly, both parents' social status had predictive value for the child's language development. In addition, it was found that the mother's concern about her child's slow language acquisition should be taken into account when making decisions regarding special support. PMID:26700576

  12. Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (LEAP) test program. Supplemental environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    The proposed action is to modify previously planned Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (LEAP) Test Program activities (LEAP EA, July 1991, Ref 32) at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico; Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR), U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA); and Wake Island. The proposed action includes modifications of flight trajectories for LEAP flights 3, 5, and 6. Two additional flights, LEAP-X and LEAP-7 have been added to the program. LEAP-X is a single rocket test flight from KMR and LEAP-7 is a two-rocket test flight from KMR and Wake Island. Component/assembly ground tests will take place at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), Space Data Division (SDD), Chandler, Arizona; Phillips Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, California; Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International; Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, Kent, Washington; Hughes Aircraft Corporation, Missile Systems Group, Canoga Park California; Aerojet, Sacramento, California; and Thiokol Corporation, Elkton, Maryland.

  13. The Seine Net--An Overlooked Environmental Testing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Sidney I.

    1977-01-01

    Through seining individuals, families, camps, and schools can continuingly test the aquatic life just beyond the waterline. This article discusses the process of using a seine net and what can be found in the net. (NQ)

  14. E/O (Electro-Optical) augmentation environmental temperature test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papke, A.

    1983-09-01

    Determined were performance characteristics of the electro-optical automatic test equipment (ATE) at the operating temperature extremes of 65 F and 90 F. The most significant fact determined during testing was that the amount of optical path shifting and focus change experienced during temperature excursion between the two extremes was minimal and well within the capabilities of the built-in compensating adjustment features.

  15. Critical Environmental Factors for Transportation Cycling in Children: A Qualitative Study Using Bike-Along Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10–12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used ‘bike-along interviews’ with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi-) urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library) within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. Results The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (in)directly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. Conclusion Road safety is of major concern in this 10–12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport. PMID:25250738

  16. Human factors in environmental management: New directions from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.A.; Savage, S.F.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental management is the general term given to modern attempts to seek technological solutions to certain constrained environmental problems. it involves developing and applying new technologies that respond to changes in environmental policy. It does not eliminate the need for environmental ethics'' in society. Nor does it substitute for the fundamental changes in political and social structures that are needed for dealing with large-scale environmental issues. The scope of these issues can be illustrated by looking at the Hanford Site. Since 1943, the 560-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state has been the production source of much of the nuclear weapons-grade radioactive materials for the United States. The legacy of 50 years of producing fissile materials has been an environmental cleanup problem of impressive proportions. In 1989, with the Cold War winding down, Secretary of Energy James Watkins established a new vision for Hanford as the flagship for waste management research.'' As plans and preparations for cleanup work proceed at the Hanford Site and around the world, the need for well-orchestrated environmental management methodologies has become increasingly apparent. In 1990, a Human Factors Engineering Group was established in the Technology Planning and Analysis Center at PNL to provide appropriate support for the Laboratory's research efforts. At an ever-increasing rate, these research efforts require integrating human performance into complex environmental technology systems. The endeavor of responding to the Laboratory's research needs has provided innovative opportunities for the application of the concept of Human Factors. Discussed are some of the major applications of Human Factors to environmental management.

  17. Impact of environmental factors on the emergence, transmission and distribution of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Liang, Li-Jun; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that poses a great threat to human health and economic well-being worldwide. The effects of environmental factors such as changing climate and human activities on the ecology of this protozoan are being discovered. Accumulated evidence shows that changes of these environmental factors can exert influence on the occurrence, transmission and distribution of T. gondii. This article reviews studies from different geographical regions with varying climates, social cultures and animal welfare standards. It aims to illustrate how these environmental factors work, highlighting their importance in influencing the ecology of T. gondii, as well as providing clues which may contribute to preventing transmission of this important zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26965989

  18. Occupational and environmental exposures as risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G

    2004-10-01

    Although genetic susceptibility plays a strong role in the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), recent research has provided new evidence of the potential influence of environmental factors in the risk for this disease. This paper describes epidemiologic and experimental research pertaining to occupational and environmental sources of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, solvents and pesticides, and two "lifestyle" factors (smoking and hair dye use). As has been seen with other systemic autoimmune diseases (eg, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis), a series of epidemiologic studies, using different designs in different settings, have demonstrated relatively strong and consistent associations between occupational silica exposure and SLE. The type and quality of exposure assessment is an important consideration in evaluating these studies. Recent experimental studies examined the effect of trichloroethylene exposure in MRL+/+ mice, but to date there have been few epidemiologic studies of solvents and SLE. There are numerous avenues with respect to environmental factors in SLE that need additional research. PMID:15355749

  19. Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production. PMID:25874206

  20. [Spatial and temporal changes of emerging environmental pollution accidents and impact factors in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; L, Yong-long; He, Gui-zhen; Wang, Tie-yu; Luo, Wei; Shi, Ya-juan

    2008-09-01

    Based on environmental statistics data from 1993 to 2005, spatial distribution and temporal tendency of the environmental pollution and destruction accidents and their external causes were analyzed by using GIS and non-parametric correlation methods. It was concluded that (1) during the study period, annual environmental pollution accidents was maximally 3001 times in 1994 and minimally 1406 in 2005, while the frequency decreased in general. In addition, water and air accidents occupied the most; (2) environmental pollution and destruction accidents centralized in southeast and middle parts of China, mainly in Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangxi; (3) factors including population, GDP, company number and industrial waste water discharge had positive impacts on frequency of environmental pollution and destruction accidents, while in developed provinces the frequency was only correlated with company number. PMID:19068665

  1. Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Using an Artificial Growth System and Plant Fitness Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production. PMID:25874206

  2. Comprehensive baseline environmental audit of former underground test areas in Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of Former Underground Test Areas (FUTAS) in the States of Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico. DOE and contractor systems for management of environmental protection activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were not within the scope of the audit. The audit was conducted May 16-May 26, 1994, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program{close_quotes}, establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is to enhance environmental protection and minimize risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission using systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE`s environmental programs within line organizations and supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. These evaluations function as a vehicle through which the Secretary and program managers are apprised of the status and vulnerabilities of Departmental environmental activities and environmental management systems. Several types of evaluations are conducted, including: (1) comprehensive baseline environmental audits; (2) routine environmental audits; (3) environmental management assessments; and (4) special issue reviews.

  3. Environmental Factors in an Ontario Community with Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, Jeavana; Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McFarlan, Ken; Lemonde, Manon; George, Clemon; Sanchez, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In Ontario, there are significant geographical disparities in colorectal cancer incidence. In particular, the northern region of Timiskaming has the highest incidence of colorectal cancer in Ontario while the southern region of Peel displays the lowest. We aimed to identify non-nutritional modifiable environmental factors in Timiskaming that may be associated with its diverging colorectal cancer incidence rates when compared to Peel. Methods: We performed a systematic review to identify established and proposed environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence, created an assessment questionnaire tool regarding these environmental exposures, and applied this questionnaire among 114 participants from the communities of Timiskaming and Peel. Results: We found that tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, residential use of organochlorine pesticides, and potential exposure to toxic metals were dominant factors among Timiskaming respondents. We found significant differences regarding active smoking, chronic alcohol use, reported indoor and outdoor household pesticide use, and gold and silver mining in the Timiskaming region. Conclusions: This study, the first to assess environmental factors in the Timiskaming community, identified higher reported exposures to tobacco, alcohol, pesticides, and mining in Timiskaming when compared with Peel. These significant findings highlight the need for specific public health assessments and interventions regarding community environmental exposures. PMID:24762360

  4. An environmental testing facility for Space Station Freedom power management and distribution hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackola, Arthur S.; Hartjen, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    The plans for a new test facility, including new environmental test systems, which are presently under construction, and the major environmental Test Support Equipment (TSE) used therein are addressed. This all-new Rocketdyne facility will perform space simulation environmental tests on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) hardware to Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Engineering Model, Qualification Model, and Flight Model levels of fidelity. Testing will include Random Vibration in three axes - Thermal Vacuum, Thermal Cycling and Thermal Burn-in - as well as numerous electrical functional tests. The facility is designed to support a relatively high throughput of hardware under test, while maintaining the high standards required for a man-rated space program.

  5. Environmental Test Activity on the Flight Modules of the GLAST LAT Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Brigida, M.; Caliandro, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Loparco, F.; Marangelli, B.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mirizzi, N.; Raino, S.; Spinelli, P.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari

    2007-02-15

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a gamma-ray telescope consisting of a silicon micro-strip detector tracker followed by a segmented CsI calorimeter and covered by a segmented scintillator anticoincidence system that will search for {gamma}-rays in the 20 MeV-300 GeV energy range. The results of the environmental tests performed on the flight modules (towers) of the Tracker are presented. The aim of the environmental tests is to verify the performance of the silicon detectors in the expected mission environment. The tower modules are subjected to dynamic tests that simulate the launch environment and thermal vacuum test that reproduce the thermal gradients expected on orbit. The tower performance is continuously monitored during the whole test sequence. The environmental test activity, the results of the tests and the silicon tracker performance are presented.

  6. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  7. Survival of the hermit crab, Clibanarius vittatus, exposed to selenium and other environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Recent investigations of water quality criteria have frequently examined the effects of a pollutant; however, a more realistic investigation would consider effects of multiple environmental factors and their interactions with the pollutant. Awareness of selenium as a pollutant is increasing. The growing sulfur and petroleum industries are only two of the potential sources of the element on the Texas coast. This study examined the toxicity of selenium to hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc) under twelve different combinations of temperature and salinity. Additionally, the impact of the organisms' original environment was considered as an environmental factor.

  8. Effect of environmental factors on hydrogen permeation in line pipe steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, M.; Totsuka, N.; Kurisu, T.; Hane, T.; Nakai, Y.

    1988-10-01

    The hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility of line pipe steel is affected by the hydrogen permeation rate. Many environmental factors, such as the partial pressure of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, temperature, cations, and the solution pH, affect the hydrogen permeation rate. This paper investigates the influence of these environmental factors on hydrogen permeation by using an autoclave with an electrochemical permeation measurement system. The results are discussed based on the corrosion film analysis of the steel surface.

  9. Space Station Freedom environmental database system (FEDS) for MSFC testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, Gail S.; Williams, Wendy; Chiu, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The Water Recovery Test (WRT) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the first demonstration of integrated water recovery systems for potable and hygiene water reuse as envisioned for Space Station Freedom (SSF). In order to satisfy the safety and health requirements placed on the SSF program and facilitate test data assessment, an extensive laboratory analysis database was established to provide a central archive and data retrieval function. The database is required to store analysis results for physical, chemical, and microbial parameters measured from water, air and surface samples collected at various locations throughout the test facility. The Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) was utilized to implement a secured on-line information system with the ECLSS WRT program as the foundation for this system. The database is supported on a VAX/VMS 8810 series mainframe and is accessible from the Marshall Information Network System (MINS). This paper summarizes the database requirements, system design, interfaces, and future enhancements.

  10. Manufacture, Installation, and Testing of New Environmentally Friendly Hydropower Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, C. L.; T. J. Dresser, Jr.; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-01-02

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydro Turbine Program, the Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County (Grant PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shared in the Advanced Hydro Turbine (AHT) design, production support, field testing, and maintenance evaluation. Based on concerns about the ongoing reliability of the Wanapum turbines, Grant PUD explored replacing the Wanapum turbines with AHTs to increase hydraulic efficiency, improve power output, increase hydraulic capacity, achieve equal or better survival of juvenile salmon passage, and improve water quality by reducing spill during periods of high river flows. In February 2005, under DE-FC36-02ID14410, Grant PUD upgraded Unit No. 8 at the Wanapum development of the Priest Rapids Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 2114) with the installation of an AHT, the first of ten scheduled turbine upgrades at the Wanapum development. In accordance with the July 23, 2004 FERC Order Modifying and Approving Amendment of License Application and consistent with the December 16, 2004 FERC Order Amending License to incorporate the National Marine Fisheries Service’s Biological Opinion issued May 3, 2004, Grant PUD was required to conduct biological testing on the first installed AHT, proving that the AHT met the specified performance criteria for juvenile salmon passage survival. This report summarizes the results of that biological testing, along with the AHT commissioning testing; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations used to gain further insight into the results of biological testing; Sensor Fish Device data acquisition of pressure, acceleration, and rotations changes experienced by migrating fish in severe hydraulic environments; and additional biological (C-start behavior) testing.

  11. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-12-31

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  12. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  13. Influence of environmental factors in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Legaki, Evangelia; Gazouli, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases that are manifested after disruption of a genetic predisposed individual and its intestinal microflora through an environmental stimulus. Urbanization and industrialization are associated with IBD. Epidemiological data, clinical observations and family/immigrants studies indicate the significance of environmental influence in the development of IBD. Some environmental factors have a different effect on the subtypes of IBD. Smoking and appendectomy is negatively associated with UC, but they are aggravating factors for CD. A westernized high fat diet, full of refined carbohydrates is strongly associated with the development of IBD, contrary to a high in fruit, vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acid-3 diet that is protective against these diseases. High intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and oral contraceptive pills as well as the inadequacy of vitamin D leads to an increased risk for IBD and a more malignant course of disease. Moreover, other factors such as air pollution, psychological factors, sleep disturbances and exercise influence the development and the course of IBD. Epigenetic mechanism like DNA methylation, histone modification and altered expression of miRNAS could explain the connection between genes and environmental factors in triggering the development of IBD. PMID:26855817

  14. Influence of environmental factors in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legaki, Evangelia; Gazouli, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases that are manifested after disruption of a genetic predisposed individual and its intestinal microflora through an environmental stimulus. Urbanization and industrialization are associated with IBD. Epidemiological data, clinical observations and family/immigrants studies indicate the significance of environmental influence in the development of IBD. Some environmental factors have a different effect on the subtypes of IBD. Smoking and appendectomy is negatively associated with UC, but they are aggravating factors for CD. A westernized high fat diet, full of refined carbohydrates is strongly associated with the development of IBD, contrary to a high in fruit, vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acid-3 diet that is protective against these diseases. High intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and oral contraceptive pills as well as the inadequacy of vitamin D leads to an increased risk for IBD and a more malignant course of disease. Moreover, other factors such as air pollution, psychological factors, sleep disturbances and exercise influence the development and the course of IBD. Epigenetic mechanism like DNA methylation, histone modification and altered expression of miRNAS could explain the connection between genes and environmental factors in triggering the development of IBD. PMID:26855817

  15. Predicting the Distribution Pattern of Small Carnivores in Response to Environmental Factors in the Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Kalle, Riddhika; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Qureshi, Qamar; Sankar, Kalyanasundaram

    2013-01-01

    Due to their secretive habits, predicting the pattern of spatial distribution of small carnivores has been typically challenging, yet for conservation management it is essential to understand the association between this group of animals and environmental factors. We applied maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to build distribution models and identify environmental predictors including bioclimatic variables, forest and land cover type, topography, vegetation index and anthropogenic variables for six small carnivore species in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. Species occurrence records were collated from camera-traps and vehicle transects during the years 2010 and 2011. We used the average training gain from forty model runs for each species to select the best set of predictors. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic plot (ROC) ranged from 0.81 to 0.93 for the training data and 0.72 to 0.87 for the test data. In habitat models for F. chaus, P. hermaphroditus, and H. smithii “distance to village” and precipitation of the warmest quarter emerged as some of the most important variables. “Distance to village” and aspect were important for V. indica while “distance to village” and precipitation of the coldest quarter were significant for H. vitticollis. “Distance to village”, precipitation of the warmest quarter and land cover were influential variables in the distribution of H. edwardsii. The map of predicted probabilities of occurrence showed potentially suitable habitats accounting for 46 km2 of the reserve for F. chaus, 62 km2 for V. indica, 30 km2 for P. hermaphroditus, 63 km2 for H. vitticollis, 45 km2 for H. smithii and 28 km2 for H. edwardsii. Habitat heterogeneity driven by the east-west climatic gradient was correlated with the spatial distribution of small carnivores. This study exemplifies the usefulness of modeling small carnivore distribution to prioritize and direct conservation planning for habitat specialists in southern India. PMID:24244470

  16. Predicting the distribution pattern of small carnivores in response to environmental factors in the Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Riddhika; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Qureshi, Qamar; Sankar, Kalyanasundaram

    2013-01-01

    Due to their secretive habits, predicting the pattern of spatial distribution of small carnivores has been typically challenging, yet for conservation management it is essential to understand the association between this group of animals and environmental factors. We applied maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to build distribution models and identify environmental predictors including bioclimatic variables, forest and land cover type, topography, vegetation index and anthropogenic variables for six small carnivore species in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. Species occurrence records were collated from camera-traps and vehicle transects during the years 2010 and 2011. We used the average training gain from forty model runs for each species to select the best set of predictors. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic plot (ROC) ranged from 0.81 to 0.93 for the training data and 0.72 to 0.87 for the test data. In habitat models for F. chaus, P. hermaphroditus, and H. smithii "distance to village" and precipitation of the warmest quarter emerged as some of the most important variables. "Distance to village" and aspect were important for V. indica while "distance to village" and precipitation of the coldest quarter were significant for H. vitticollis. "Distance to village", precipitation of the warmest quarter and land cover were influential variables in the distribution of H. edwardsii. The map of predicted probabilities of occurrence showed potentially suitable habitats accounting for 46 km(2) of the reserve for F. chaus, 62 km(2) for V. indica, 30 km(2) for P. hermaphroditus, 63 km(2) for H. vitticollis, 45 km(2) for H. smithii and 28 km(2) for H. edwardsii. Habitat heterogeneity driven by the east-west climatic gradient was correlated with the spatial distribution of small carnivores. This study exemplifies the usefulness of modeling small carnivore distribution to prioritize and direct conservation planning for habitat specialists in southern India. PMID:24244470

  17. 78 FR 29698 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. The environmental assessment... Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. Possible Field Test Locations: Arizona, Florida, Georgia, New York, North...

  18. The development of an Infrared Environmental System for TOPEX Solar Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noller, E.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental testing and flight qualification of the TOPEX/POSEIDON spacecraft solar panels were performed with infrared (IR) lamps and a control system that were newly designed and integrated. The basic goal was more rigorous testing of the costly panels' new composite-structure design without jeopardizing their safety. The technique greatly reduces the costs and high risks of testing flight solar panels.

  19. 76 FR 59481 - Fifty Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

  20. 76 FR 22161 - Fifty Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...