Science.gov

Sample records for environmental health hazards

  1. Urban Environmental Health Hazards and Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on “Improving the living environment” prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings. PMID:17450427

  2. Environmentally Related Health Hazards in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James B.; Neuroth, Richard

    The quality of air inside the schoolhouses of America may have a profound effect on students' ability to concentrate on their lessons. The environmental hazards that influence the quality of the indoor air (IAQ) of our schools have not been well understood. Research evidence suggests that school age children and youth (especially those under the…

  3. Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-01-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  4. Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure. We also reviewed analytical techniques used to determine the characteristics of people residing in areas potentially exposed to environmental hazards and emerging geostatistical techniques that are more appropriate for EJ analysis than conventional statistical methods. We concluded by providing several recommendations regarding future research and data needs for EJ assessment that would lead to more reliable results and policy solutions. PMID:21836113

  5. Worrying About Terrorism and Other Acute Environmental Health Hazard Events

    PubMed Central

    Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. Methods. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Results. Only 15% worried “a great deal” about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Conclusions. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning. PMID:22397346

  6. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  7. Environmental Health and Safety Hazards Experienced by Home Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Polivka, Barbara J.; Wills, Celia E.; Darragh, Amy; Lavender, Steven; Sommerich, Carolyn; Stredney, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The number of personnel providing in-home health care services is increasing substantially. The unique configuration of environmental hazards in individual client homes has a significant impact on the safety and health of home health care providers (HHPs). This mixed-methods study used data from a standardized questionnaire, focus groups, and individual interviews to explore environmental health and safety hazards encountered by HHPs in client homes. The participant sample (N = 68) included nurses, aides, therapists, and owners/managers from a variety of geographic locations. The most often-reported hazards were trip/slip/lift hazards, biohazards, and hazards from poor air quality, allergens, pests and rodents, and fire and burns. Frequency of identified key hazards varied by room, that is, kitchen (e.g., throw rugs, water on floor), bathroom (e.g., tight spaces for client handling), bedroom (e.g., bed too low), living room (e.g., animal waste), and hallway (e.g., clutter). Findings indicate the need for broader training to enable HHPs to identify and address hazards they encounter in client homes. PMID:26268486

  8. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  9. Occupational and environmental health hazards in the plastics industry.

    PubMed Central

    Eckardt, R E

    1976-01-01

    A brief description of the potential occupational health hazards encountered in the manufacture of plastics (polymers) is given. In general, these hazards are due to the monomers used to make the various plastics, to unreacted monomer contained within the finished products, and to the fillers, stabilizers, pigments, inhibitors, and initiators used in fabricating the finished products. They run the gamut from angiosarcomas of the liver due to vinyl chloride, to dermatitis and asthma-like reactions due to the initiators used with epoxy resins. PMID:140799

  10. Modern Environmental Health Hazards: A Public Health Issue of Increasing Significance in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C.; Sanders III, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa’s environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent’s disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. Data sources We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. Data synthesis The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Conclusion Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa’s disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa’s environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future. PMID:19590675

  11. Health and Environmental Hazards of Electronic Waste in India.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Anwesha

    2016-04-01

    Technological waste in the form of electronic waste (e-waste) is a threat to all countries. E-waste impacts health and the environment by entering the food chain in the form of chemical toxicants and exposing the population to deleterious chemicals, mainly in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. This special report tries to trace the environmental and health implications of e-waste in India. The author concludes that detrimental health and environmental consequences are associated with e-waste and the challenge lies in producing affordable electronics with minimum chemical toxicants. PMID:27188068

  12. Large animal model for health hazard assessment of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Costa, D.L.; Janoff, A.; Susskind, H.; Weiss, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of large animals for the experimental assessment of human health hazards associated with inhaled pollutants are discussed. Results from studies designed to elucidate mechanisms controlling pulmonary function at the organismal, cellular and molecular level are presented. It is shown that studies in large animals permit technically sophisticated approaches not feasible in small animals and not permissible in man. Use of large animals also permits serial, non-invasive determinations of structural and functional changes which may be of temporal importance. 6 references.

  13. Status of scrap (recyclable) dental amalgams as environmental health hazards or toxic substances.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K D

    1989-07-01

    This article presents information garnered after an investigation by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1987 of dentists and others who had sold scrap dental amalgam to refiners who had "arranged for the disposal or treatment ... of hazardous substances," and were responsible for adverse consequences associated with their subsequent management and refining. Information about the health hazard status of scrap dental amalgams was obtained by: interviews with toxicologists, review of published lists of toxic and hazardous materials, and survey of biomedical publications (1977 through 1987) concerning toxicity or health hazards associated with dental amalgams. The conclusions were that scrap dental amalgam is not: a waste substance to be disposed of, but is a product of commercial value; identified or regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Transportation, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the US Public Health Service, or the Centers for Disease Control as an environmental health hazard or toxic substance; identified by toxicologists and persons responsible for solid waste regulation as a toxic substance or environmental health hazard; nor proved by scientific study to be toxic or hazardous in the manner and form in which it is collected and stored by dentists and subsequently sold to metal refiners. PMID:2668374

  14. An analytical assessment of population reaction to environmental health hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiukaitis, B.

    1994-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), being a nuclear production facility, has created concern for the communities in the surrounding areas. After completing a Perceived Risk Survey (PRS) in 1993, it was found that some people express their concerns by contacting a public official. Thus, the Legislative Environmental Health Survey (LEHS) was created. This survey asked legislators of Georgia and South Carolina to respond to questions concerning various environmental concerns. The questions reflected how the legislators viewed their constituencies` concerns. These two surveys were compared to find differences in legislators` and public views.

  15. Comparing the health and environmental hazards of different energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy and environment can pose difficult challenges for policy makers and scientists. Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with quite different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Risk-assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Coal and nuclear fuel cycles are compared in respect to morbidity and mortality. Other cycles (oil, gas and renewables) are also examined. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing devices as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input-output methods. Input-output analysis allows comparisons of direct and system-wide impacts. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be explicitly recognized in the results, including uncertainty in validity of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. By use of several methods progress has been made in understanding the relative impact of energy technologies.

  16. The influence of environmental hazard maps on risk beliefs, emotion, and health-related behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J

    2013-08-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N = 446) answered questions about a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem's seriousness mediated attributes' influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  17. The Influence of Environmental Hazard Maps on Risk Beliefs, Emotion, and Health-related Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N=446) answered questions for a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem’s seriousness mediated attributes’ influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  18. Environmental Health and Safety Hazards Experienced by Home Health Care Providers: A Room-by-Room Analysis.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Barbara J; Wills, Celia E; Darragh, Amy; Lavender, Steven; Sommerich, Carolyn; Stredney, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The number of personnel providing in-home health care services is increasing substantially. The unique configuration of environmental hazards in individual client homes has a significant impact on the safety and health of home health care providers (HHPs). This mixed-methods study used data from a standardized questionnaire, focus groups, and individual interviews to explore environmental health and safety hazards encountered by HHPs in client homes. The participant sample (N = 68) included nurses, aides, therapists, and owners/managers from a variety of geographic locations. The most often-reported hazards were trip/slip/lift hazards, biohazards, and hazards from poor air quality, allergens, pests and rodents, and fire and burns. Frequency of identified key hazards varied by room, that is, kitchen (e.g., throw rugs, water on floor), bathroom (e.g., tight spaces for client handling), bedroom (e.g., bed too low), living room (e.g., animal waste), and hallway (e.g., clutter). Findings indicate the need for broader training to enable HHPs to identify and address hazards they encounter in client homes. PMID:26268486

  19. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Lithner, Delilah; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Göran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out. PMID

  20. Health Hazard Evaluations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH HHE Media Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs) Language: English en Español Recommend on Facebook ... or employers can ask the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program to help learn whether health hazards ...

  1. Indicator-based assessment of environmental hazards and health effects in the industrial cities of upper Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Wcislo, Eleonora; Dutkiewicz, Tadeusz; Konczalik, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Using an indicator-based approach, we assessed environmental hazards and related health effects in populations of industrial cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Upper Silesia, Poland, and analyzed the relationship between environment and health. We adopted the method developed by Dutkiewicz et al. for assessing large geographic areas. Based on routinely collected environmental and health data, two groups of indicators, environmental indicators (EIs) and health status indicators (HSIs), related to environmental contamination were selected. The EI and HSI values were normalized and aggregated into synthetic measures using Strahl's taxonometric method. The synthetic measures indicated the intensity of environmental hazards and health outcomes. We used a three-level index scale to compare and rank the cities under the study and, consequently, to facilitate decision making. Findings of the assessment identified cities where actions aimed at reducing environmental hazards and improving population health status should be established as priorities. These cities included Chorzów, Katowice, Sosnowiec, Bytom, and Zabrze. We found a high correlation between the synthetic measures of environmental indicators and the synthetic measure of health status indicators (r = 0.77), as well as a high level of consistency between environmental hazard indices and environmental-related health status indices (73%). This may indicate the existence of a causal relationship between the environmental contamination within industrial cities and the health status of their inhabitants. PMID:12417485

  2. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-01-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed. PMID:8793340

  3. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-06-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed. PMID:8793340

  4. Fiber contamination of vermiculites: a potential occupational and environmental health hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Moatamed, F.; Lockey, J.E.; Parry, W.T.

    1986-10-01

    Vermiculite ores from Montana, Virginia, and South Africa have been analyzed for the presence of amphibole contamination. Fibrous actinolite was found in unexpanded Montana vermiculite ore at a maximum concentration of 0.2%. The fibers persisted in the expanded ore at a maximum concentration of 0.6%. Actinolite was also found in the Virginia vermiculite ore but at a lower concentration and mostly as cleavage fragments with low length-to-width ratios. South African ore contained rare anthophyllite fibers also with low length-to-width ratios. Vermiculite ores have the potential for amphibole contamination and can represent potential health hazards without proper occupational and environmental control measures.

  5. Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: Man-Made Hazards, Vulnerability Factors, and Risk to Environmental Health.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Christopher; Sase, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to examine the environmental health implications of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster from an all-hazards perspective. The authors performed a literature review that included Japanese and international nuclear guidance and policy, scientific papers, and reports on the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island disasters while also considering all-hazards preparedness rubrics in the U.S. The examination of the literature resulted in the following: a) the authors' "All-Hazards Planning Reference Model" that distinguishes three planning categories-Disaster Trigger Event, Man-Made Hazards, and Vulnerability Factors; b) the generalization of their model to other countries; and c) advocacy for environmental health end fate to be considered in planning phases to minimize risk to environmental health. This article discusses inconsistencies in disaster planning and nomenclature existing in the studied materials and international guidance and proposes new opportunity for developing predisaster risk assessment, risk communication, and prevention capacity building. PMID:26427265

  6. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  7. Interdisciplinarity and participatory approaches to environmental health: reflections from a workshop on social, economic and behavioural factors in the genesis and health impact of environmental hazards.

    PubMed

    Huby, Meg; Adams, Rupert

    2009-04-01

    This paper reviews a workshop discussion postulated on the notion that social, economic and behavioural factors are responsible for the creation of environmental hazards and benefits that, in turn, can affect human health, with concomitant effects on future social well-being. The workshop case study centred on environmental health investigations, public engagement and partnership work undertaken following the death of two neighbouring children in Cheshire. Discussion included questions of causality and generalisability. It revealed how the attribution of responsibility for environmental damage to health is fraught with difficulties. It may often militate against an informed and open debate among interested parties, with concomitant implications for reducing the danger from environmental hazards. To improve communication, vocabulary needs to be free from jargon and acronyms, and differences in conceptual approach between different disciplines need to be better understood. The definition of the 'community' is itself far from clear-cut, yet questions of how to involve this community in intervention processes are important ones. The workshop identified a clear need for better, more considered forms of communication with communities and the public if fears are to be allayed, but recognised the additional costs that this would incur. PMID:18958398

  8. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... research framework that integrates the many different disciplines required to address the complex... provide the potential for SRP research to address complex environmental problems, particularly related to sites impacted by hazardous substances. In addition to addressing complex problems, the SRP wants...

  9. Health effects of hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Dearwent, Steve M; Mumtaz, M Moiz; Godfrey, Gail; Sinks, Thomas; Falk, Henry

    2006-09-01

    Since 1995, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has evaluated environmental contaminants and human health risks at nearly 3000 sites. Hazardous substances at these sites include newly emerging problems as well as historically identified threats. ATSDR classifies sites according to the degree of hazard they represent to the public. Less than 1% of the sites investigated are considered urgent public health hazards where chemical or physical hazards are at levels that could cause an immediate threat to life or health. Approximately 20% of sites have a potential for long-term human exposures above acceptable risk levels. At almost 40% of sites, hazardous substances do not represent a public health hazard. Completed exposure pathways for contaminants in air, water, and soil have been reported at approximately 30% of evaluated sites. The most common contaminants of concern at these sites include heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. This article reviews ATSDR's ongoing work by examining the historic hazard of lead, the contemporary hazard of asbestos, and the emerging issue of perchlorate contamination. PMID:17119223

  10. Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; James, John; Russo, Dane; Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; Groves, Theron

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Health activity for the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was formed to develop an overall strategy for safeguarding crew members from potential airborne hazards anticipated on missions of extended duration. These efforts were necessary because of major modifications to the air revitalization system of the U.S. Space Shuttle and an increased potential for environmental health risks associated with longer space flights. Degradation of air quality in the Shuttle during a space flight mission has the potential to affect the performance of the crew not only during piloting, landing, or egress, but also during space flight. It was anticipated that the risk of significant deterioration in air quality would increase with extended mission lengths and could result from: (1) a major chemical contamination incident, such as a thermodegradation event or toxic leak, (2) continual accumulation of volatile organic compounds to unacceptable levels, (3) excessive levels of airborne particles, (4) excessive levels of microorganisms, or (5) accumulation of airborne pathogens.

  11. Environmental health impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations: anticipating hazards--searching for solutions.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and monitoring of air toxics, water quality issues, influenza pandemics and antibiotic resistance, and community health and socioeconomic issues. The workgroup reports that follow outline the state of the science and public health concerns relating to livestock production as they apply to each workgroup topic. The reports also identify areas in which further research is needed and suggest opportunities to translate science to policy initiatives that would effect improvements in public and environmental health. Viable solutions to some of the current environmental health problems associated with CAFOs are outlined. In addition, these reports bring to light several major concerns, including air and water contamination, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock, and the specter of influenza outbreaks arising from siting industrialized poultry and swine production in proximity to each other and to humans. PMID:17384781

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS AND ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS: HAZARD IDENTIFICATION USING INTERREGION COMPARISONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study, because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Therefore, individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be the right to...

  13. Environmental Health and Safety Hazards of Indigenous Small-Scale Gold Mining Using Cyanidation in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ana Marie R.; Lu, Jinky Leilanie DP.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This cross-sectional study aimed at the environmental health hazards at work and cyanide exposure of small-scale gold miners engaged in gold extraction from ores in a mining area in the Philippines. METHODS Methods consisted of structured questionnaire-guided interviews, work process observation tools, physical health assessment by medical doctors, and laboratory examination and blood cyanide determination in the blood samples of 34 indigenous small-scale gold miners from Benguet, Philippines. RESULTS The small-scale gold miners worked for a mean of 10.3 years, had a mean age of 36 years, with mean lifetime mining work hours of 18,564. All were involved in tunneling work (100%) while a considerable number were involved in mixing cyanide with the ore (44%). A considerable number were injured (35%) during the mining activity, and an alarming number (35%) had elevated blood cyanide level. The most prevalent hazard was exposure to chemicals, particularly to cyanide and nitric acid, which were usually handled with bare hands. CONCLUSION The small-scale gold miners were exposed to occupational and environmental hazards at work. PMID:27547035

  14. Indoor Pollutants: Environmental Hazards to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Alerts parents, teachers, and others to some of the leading indoor environmental hazards to young children which are caused by various types of indoor pollutants: cigarette smoke; heating/cooking equipment; asbestos; pesticides; art supplies; radon; and lead. Also suggests ways to reduce these health hazards. (BB)

  15. [The restructuring of national sanitary inspectorate with regard to environmental hazards and health needs of the population].

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Marek L

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the history of Polish sanitary and epidemiological services from 1918 until contemporary times. Emphasizing many achievements of National Sanitary Inspectorate, which are responsible for the low sick-rate of infectious diseases in Poland, the article also points to the increasing number and growing severity of environmental hazards in recent years. The article discusses problems caused by the "old" infectious diseases, which, though until recently regarded as passed, are posing threats to the society nowadays (e.g. TB, pestis, cholera). Equally, the article highlights problems caused by the "new" highly infectious diseases (e.g. Ebola fever, AIDS). Moreover, the article focuses on the particularly relevant subject of tackling biological weapons, the use of which can be traced past the recent events after September 11 and back to the Middle Ages. Finally, the article stresses the role of sanitary and epidemiological services in fighting recent animal epidemics, such as foot-and-mouth disease and mad cow disease. Discussing particular cases of the environmental hazards mentioned above, recorded in Poland, the article emphasizes the importance of the proper staff selection for National Sanitary Inspectorate. In the past decade in Poland, Sanitary Inspectors were selected mostly with regard to their political orientation, rather than their professional background. The author of the article hopes that human life and health will be treated with more respect in Poland in the neart future and the positions of Sanitary Inspectors will be given to professionals with proper epidemiological preparation. Radical changes in the policy of staff selection, modernization of training programs, as well as creation of a more practical structure of National Sanitary Inspectorate are the necessary conditions for transforming sanitary and epidemiological services in Poland into reliable and prestigious institutions, capable of dealing with the environmental hazards

  16. National Center for Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z # Environmental Health Topics Emergency and Environmental Health Services Chemical Weapons Elimination Environmental Health Services Healthy Homes Healthy Places – Community Design Lead Poisoning Prevention Vessel Sanitation Environmental Hazards and Health Effects Air Pollution ...

  17. Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Substances--A Major Campus Environmental Health & Safety Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donald A.; Sorensen, Alfred J.

    1980-01-01

    A broad spectrum of potentially hazardous chemicals offers serious exposure risks to members of college and university communities. A formal program is needed to minimize exposure to these substances and maintain a prevention oriented protective program. The University of Massachusetts has developed such a program. (JN)

  18. Health hazards of photography.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, J; Forst, L

    2001-01-01

    Photographers are exposed to chemical, physical, and psychological hazards during the course of their work. Photojournalists are at physical risk from motor vehicle crashes and work in war zones. Ergonomic risk comes from handling heavy equipment as well as work in awkward postures in dangerous positions. Darkroom exposure to chemical agents may lead to respiratory, allergic, and nervous system disease. Psychological problems come from chaotic work organization. Digital photography may reduce the prevalence of chemical exposure, although it may increase the risk of musculoskeletal illness. Simple hygiene measures may prevent illness in photographers. An increasing number of printed resources is available to professional and amateur photographers; this information may help them protect their health while they enjoy their art. PMID:11567918

  19. AENV: Studying Environmental Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Larry W.

    1975-01-01

    The Division of Advanced Environmental Research and Technology (AENV) examines those environmental problems outside the responsibilities of other federal agencies. Present areas of concern include: organic threats to the environment, energy, land-use decisions, weather modification, earthquakes, and the development of a data base for understanding…

  20. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Results of the environmental health activities and needs assessment of the South Carolina statewide family practice system for the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: EHAP Volume 1, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Musham, C.; Hainer, B.

    1993-05-01

    An activities and needs assessment was conducted to determine what each of the seven family practice residency programs in South Carolina is providing in environmental health education. In addition, this study was designed to determine: what are the barriers to greater emphasis on environmental health in family practice residency programs and, what the basic environmental health educational goals for family practice residency programs should be.

  1. Kennedy Space Center Environmental Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Joanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Topic considered include: environmental health services; health physics; ionizing radiation; pollution control; contamination investigations; natural resources; surface water; health hazard evaluations; combustion gas; launch support; asbestos; hazardous noise; and ventilation.

  2. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some environmental risks are a part of the natural world, like radon in the soil. Others are the result of human activities, like lead poisoning from paint, or exposure to asbestos or mercury from mining or industrial use. NIH: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

  3. Monitoring environmental levels of trace elements near a hazardous waste incinerator: human health risks after a decade of regular operations.

    PubMed

    Giné Bordonaba, Jordi; Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2011-12-01

    In 1998, we initiated an environmental surveillance program of the only hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Spain. The concentrations of a number of metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, and V) were analyzed in soil and vegetation samples collected around the facility. Since then, periodical measurements of these same elements have been performed in both matrices. In 2009 and 2010, soil and vegetation samples were again collected, and the levels of the above elements were determined. In general terms, the temporal trends in metal concentrations were not homogeneous, showing significant changes between the baseline and the latest surveys. Metal levels in soil and herbage samples analyzed in the current survey were similar to recent data reported for other urban and industrial areas, being notably lower than the reference values set by national regulatory organisms. Moreover, more than 10 years after regular operations of the HWI, exposure to metals would not mean, either now or in past surveys, any carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic health risks for the population living in the neighborhood. PMID:21710372

  4. Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

  5. Poor People as Environmental Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douw, John

    1979-01-01

    In the United States Court of Appeals decision which ruled against New York City's plan to build 160 units of public housing in its West Side Urban Renewal Area, low income people were viewed as a threat to the environment in the same way as more familiar kinds of hazards protected against by federal environmental law. (Author/EB)

  6. Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmelle, P.; Stix, J.; Baxter, P.; Garcia-Alvarez, J.; Barquero, J.

    2002-09-01

    Masaya volcano (560 m a.s.l.), Nicaragua, resumed its degassing activity in mid-1993 with the continuous emission of SO2 at rates increasing from 600 metric tons (t) day-1 (7.0 kg s-1) in 1995 to 1800 t day-1 (21.0 kg s-1) in 1999. The low-altitude gas plume is typically blown westward by the prevailing wind across the Masaya caldera and Las Sierras highlands, which are at a higher elevation than the gas vent. In this study, the areal distribution of atmospheric SO2 concentrations was monitored within 44 km of the vent with a network of passive samplers. Measured SO2 air concentrations ranged from <2 to 90 ppbv in 1998 and from <2 to 230 ppbv in 1999. The data suggest that the volcanic emissions influenced air quality across a 1,250-km2 area downwind. Local topography exerts a strong control on plume dispersal, and hilltops are particularly prone to fumigation and thus, to high ambient SO2 levels. In a zone 22 km2 in size located within 15 km of the source, the response of vegetation to sustained exposure to high atmospheric dose of volcanic SO2 and HF resulted in a strong reduction in the number of plant communities. A transition zone of somewhat indefinite boundary surrounds the devastated zones and exhibits vegetation damage in the form of leaf injury. In addition to the environmental impacts of the volcanic emissions, both short- and long-term public health hazards may exist in areas most exposed to the plume. The harmful effects of the volcanic emissions on cultivated vegetation could be diminished by using windbreaks made of gas-tolerant trees and shrubs such as Eugenia jambos, Brosimum utile and Clusia rosea. The current gas crisis at Masaya volcano provides an unique opportunity for investigating the atmospheric, environmental and medical impacts of volcanic gases and aerosols.

  7. Hazardous waste transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement -- human health endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Lazaro, M.A.

    1994-03-01

    In this presentation, a quantitative methodology for assessing the risk associated with the transportation of hazardous waste (HW) is proposed. The focus is on identifying air concentrations of HW that correspond to specific human health endpoints.

  8. Health Care Wide Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Employee Downloads Additional Information Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Mercury Needlesticks Noise Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/ ... Staphylococcus aureus Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Lack ...

  9. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Use of diatom distributions to monitor environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.H.

    1993-12-01

    A variety of approaches has been used in the past to assess the environmental impact of anthropogenic contaminants. One reliable index for aquatic environments is the analysis of diatom species distribution; the focus in this case being on the Savannah River. The completed objectives of this study were: (A) the development and use of procedures for measuring diatom distribution in the water column and (B) the development and evaluation of sediment sampling methods for retrospective analysis.

  10. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Formaldehyde

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous cons...

  11. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrylonitrile was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous con...

  12. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR QUINOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for quinoline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constit...

  13. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ANILINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for aniline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinatti, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constitue...

  14. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Soomaroo, Lee; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Reviews of mass gathering events have traditionally concentrated on crowd variables that affect the level and type of medical care needed. Weather and environmental hazards at mass gathering events have not been fully researched. This review examines these events and aims to provide future suggestions for event organisers, medical resource planners, and emergency services, including local hospital emergency departments. Methods A review was conducted using computerised data bases: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, HMIC and EMBASE, with Google used to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications, to identify grey literature. All peer-review literature articles found containing information pertaining to lessons identified from mass gathering disasters due to weather or environmental hazards leading to participant death, injury or illness were analysed and reviewed. Disasters occurring due to crowd variables were not included. These articles were read, analysed, abstracted and summarised. Results 20 articles from literature search were found detailing mass gathering disasters relating directly to weather or environmental hazards from 1988 – 2011, with only 17 cases found within peer-review literature. Two events grey literature from 2011 are due to undergo further inquiry while one article reviews an event originally occurring in 1922. Analysis of cases were categorised in to heat and cold-related events, lightning and storms and disease outbreak. Conclusions Mass gathering events have an enormous potential to place a severe strain on the local health care system, Prior health resource and environmental planning for heat & cold-related illness, lightning & storms, and disease outbreak can advance emergency preparedness and response to potential disasters. Citation: Soomaroo L, Murray V. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 31 Keywords: Mass Gatherings, Disasters, Sporting Events, Festivals, Concerts

  15. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  16. Environmental Hazards in Your School: A Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this document provides information on many environmental hazards young children may be exposed to today in school buildings. Topics discussed include: (1) the definition, location, and health hazards of asbestos as well as responsible management practices, current legal requirements, and…

  17. Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body. PMID:23012342

  18. How credible are the study results? Evaluating and applying internal validity tools to literature-based assessments of environmental health hazards.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Andrew A; Cooper, Glinda S; Jahnke, Gloria D; Lam, Juleen; Morgan, Rebecca L; Boyles, Abee L; Ratcliffe, Jennifer M; Kraft, Andrew D; Schünemann, Holger J; Schwingl, Pamela; Walker, Teneille D; Thayer, Kristina A; Lunn, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health hazard assessments are routinely relied upon for public health decision-making. The evidence base used in these assessments is typically developed from a collection of diverse sources of information of varying quality. It is critical that literature-based evaluations consider the credibility of individual studies used to reach conclusions through consistent, transparent and accepted methods. Systematic review procedures address study credibility by assessing internal validity or "risk of bias" - the assessment of whether the design and conduct of a study compromised the credibility of the link between exposure/intervention and outcome. This paper describes the commonalities and differences in risk-of-bias methods developed or used by five groups that conduct or provide methodological input for performing environmental health hazard assessments: the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, the Navigation Guide, the National Toxicology Program's (NTP) Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) and Office of the Report on Carcinogens (ORoC), and the Integrated Risk Information System of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-IRIS). Each of these groups have been developing and applying rigorous assessment methods for integrating across a heterogeneous collection of human and animal studies to inform conclusions on potential environmental health hazards. There is substantial consistency across the groups in the consideration of risk-of-bias issues or "domains" for assessing observational human studies. There is a similar overlap in terms of domains addressed for animal studies; however, the groups differ in the relative emphasis placed on different aspects of risk of bias. Future directions for the continued harmonization and improvement of these methods are also discussed. PMID:26857180

  19. Environmental Hazards: An Eighth Grade Inquiry Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1983-01-01

    A eighth-grade environmental hazards unit is described. Includes unit objectives, typical activities, and a taxonomy of environmental hazards. Indicates that the unit helps develop skills in thinking critically and helps in clarifying environmental values by examining three major traditions of American environmentalism: biocentric, ecological, and…

  20. Rethinking the Scope of Environmental Injustice: Perceptions of Health Hazards in a Rural Native American Community Exposed to Carbon Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Thomas E.; Webb, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    We use in-depth interviews, participant observation, and document analysis to examine perceptions of environmental health and justice among Native Americans in a rural Oklahoma community. Residents live near the Continental Carbon Company, which manufactures a rubber compound know as "carbon black." Ponca tribal members believe their respiratory…

  1. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  2. Evaluation of health effects from hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites stems from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies and includes consultant as well as corporate viewpoints. The work evolved from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Environmental Epidemiology sponsored by the Center for Environmental Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and the U.S. EPA. Contents-One: Scope of the Hazardous Wastes Problems. Evaluating Health Effects at Hazardous Waste Sites. Historical Perspective on Waste Disposal. Two: Assessment of Exposure to Hazardous Wastes. Chemical Emissions Assessment for Hazardous Waste Sites. Assessing Pathways to Human Populations. Methods of Defining Human Exposures. Three: Determining Human Health Effects. Health Risks of Concern. Expectations and Limitations of Human Health Studies and Risk Assessment. Four: Case Studies. Love Canal. Hardeman County, Tennessee. Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. Five: Defining Health Risks at Waste Sites. Engineering Perspectives from an Industrial Viewpoint. Role of Public Groups. Integration of Governmental Resources in Assessment of Hazards.

  3. BEHAVIORAL HAZARD IN HEALTH INSURANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294

  4. Teaching Coastal Hazard, Risk, and Environmental Justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Blockstein, D.; Davis, F.; McDaris, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience literacy and expertise play a role in all societal issues that involve the Earth. Issues that range from environmental degradation and natural hazards to creating sustainable economic systems or livable cities. Human health and resilience also involves the Earth. Environmental hazard issues have dimensions and consequences that have connections to environmental justice and disproportionate impacts on people based on their ethnicity, gender, cultural and socioeconomic conditions. Often these dimensions are hidden or unexplored in common approaches to teaching about hazards. However, they can provide importance context and meaning to students who would not otherwise see themselves in STEM disciplines. Teaching geoscience in a framework of societal issues may be an important mechanism for building science and sustainability capacity in future graduates. In May 2015, the NSF STEP center InTeGrate held a workshop in New Orleans, LA on teaching about Coastal Hazards, Risk and Environmental Justice. This was an opportunity to bring together people who use these topics as a powerful topic for transdisciplinary learning that connects science to local communities. This workshop was tailored for faculty members from minority-serving institutions and other colleges and universities that serve populations that are under-represented in the geosciences and related fields. The workshop outcome was a set of strategies for accomplishing this work, including participants' experience teaching with local cases, making connections to communities, and building partnerships with employers to understand workforce needs related to interdisciplinary thinking, sustainability science and risk. The participants articulated both the great need and opportunity for educators to help learners to explore these dimensions with their students as well as the challenge of learning to teach across disciplines and using controversial topics.

  5. Environmental Hazards Education for Childbirth Educators

    PubMed Central

    Ondeck, Michele; Focareta, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to educate childbirth educators about environmental hazards and provide resources. Hazardous chemicals have been found in cord blood, placenta, meconium, and breastmilk samples. These chemicals include commonly known hazards such as lead, mercury, and environmental tobacco smoke, as well as some pesticides, solvents, products containing chlorine, and other chemicals referred to as “persistent organic pollutants.” The fetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental chemicals that can disrupt the developmental process at critical times during gestation. Childbirth educators are encouraged to inform themselves in order to inform childbearing families to take preventive action and explore alternative behaviors to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. PMID:20808430

  6. Health hazards of passive smoking.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, M P; LeMaistre, C A; Newell, G R

    1988-01-01

    "Environmental tobacco smoke" (ETS) is the term used to characterize tobacco combustion products inhaled by nonsmokers in the proximity of burning tobacco. Over 3800 compounds are in tobacco smoke, many of which are known carcinogens. Most ETS exposure is from sidestream smoke emitted from the burning tip of the cigarette. Sidestream smoke is hazardous because it contains high concentrations of ammonia, benzene, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and many carcinogens. Nonsmokers chronically exposed to ETS are believed to assume health risks similar to those of a light smoker. Children of parents who smoke have more respiratory infections, more hospitalizations for bronchitis and pneumonia, and a smaller rate of increase in lung function compared to children of parents who do not smoke, particularly during the first year of life. Among adults with preexisting health conditions such as allergies, chronic lung conditions, and angina, the symptoms of these conditions are exacerbated by exposure to ETS. The acute health effects among healthy adults include headaches, nausea, and irritation of the eyes and nasal mucous membranes. The evidence for a relationship between ETS and cancer at sites other than lung is insufficient to draw any positive conclusions. For lung cancer, studies have consistently shown an excess risk between 10% and 300%, with a summary relative risk of 1.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.5). A dose-response relation is suggested but difficult to assess completely. Histologic types of lung cancer are generally similar to those most closely associated with active smoking, although other histologic types have also been found. Both excess relative risks and the dose responses are underestimates of the true excess risk and of the range of dose-response effect. Although the temporal relationship between exposure and disease occurrence is established, many questions are unanswered. The findings are consistent with many known biologic effects of active smoking and

  7. Healthful School Living: Environmental Health in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Daryl E.

    1987-01-01

    Environmental health, as it relates to schools, is defined. Site, chemical, biological, and physical health hazards are identified. Recommendations and precautions to help achieve optimal health, safety, and comfort are presented. Resources are noted. (Author/MT)

  8. Environmental Hazards: What You Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNardo, Cathy

    1996-01-01

    Discusses what school business officials should know concerning environmental hazards in educational facilities, particularly bloodborne pathogens (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B), lead in paint and water, and asbestos. The keys to managing environmental hazards are education and a knowledgeable inhouse employee or outside consultant…

  9. Mercury poisoning in Nicaragua: a case study of the export of environmental and occupational health hazards by a multinational corporation.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A; Velasquez, E; Belmar, R; Coye, M; Drucker, E; Landrigan, P J; Michaels, D; Sidel, K B

    1981-01-01

    Pennwalt Inc., a multinational chemical and pharmaceutical firm based in the United States, operates a chloralkali plant in Managua, Nicaragua. This plant utilizes elemental mercury in the production of chlorine and caustic soda for markets throughout Central America. The plant was recently found to be contaminating the waters of Lake Managua (on which the plant is located) with 2 to 4 tons of inorganic mercury effluent per year-over 40 tons in the 13-year history of the plant. Examination of the 152 workers employed in the plant showed that 56(37 percent) were suffering symptoms and signs of mercury poisoning, including tremors (in 45), memory and attention deficits (in 45) and paresthesias (in 52). Levels of airborne mercury vapor in the plant were found to range as high as 600 microgram/m3. (The airborne standard set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration is 100 microgram/m3.) Workers in the plant had never been alerted to the hazards of mercury. The plant was found to be in deteriorated condition, with no recent investments in maintenance or modern safety equipment. It is reported that the parent corporation, Pennwalt, has been withdrawing capital from the operation (and from Nicaragua) since the fall of the Somoza regime. PMID:7239735

  10. Mercury poisoning in Nicaragua: a case study of the export of environmental and occupational health hazards by a multinational corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, A.; Velasquez, E.; Belmar, R.; Coye, M.; Drucker, E.; Landrigan, P.J.; Michaels, D.; Sidel, K.B.

    1981-01-01

    Pennwalt Inc., a multinational chemical and pharmaceutical firm based in the United States, operates a chloralkali plant in Managua, Nicaragua. This plant utilizes elemental mercury in the production of chlorine and caustic soda for markets throughout Central America. The plant was recently found to be contaminating the waters of Lake Managua (on which the plant is located) with 2 to 4 tons of inorganic mercury effluent per year-over 40 tons in the 13-year history of the plant. Examination of the 152 workers employed in the plant showed that 56(37 percent) were suffering symptoms and signs of mercury poisoning, including tremors (in 45), memory and attention deficits (in 45) and paresthesias (in 52). Levels of airborne mercury vapor in the plant were found to range as high as 600 microgram/m3. (The airborne standard set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration is 100 microgram/m3.) Workers in the plant had never been alerted to the hazards of mercury. The plant was found to be in deteriorated condition, with no recent investments in maintenance or modern safety equipment. It is reported that the parent corporation, Pennwalt, has been withdrawing capital from the operation (and from Nicaragua) since the fall of the Somoza regime.

  11. Environmental Public Health Surveillance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice; Crosson, William

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELiX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM2.5 concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. While use of the Air Quality System (AQS) PM2.5 data alone could meet HELIX-Atlanta specifications, there are only five AQS sites in the Atlanta area, thus the spatial coverage is not ideal. We are using NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for estimating daily ground level PM2.5 at 10 km resolution over the metropolitan Atlanta area supplementing the AQS ground observations and filling their spatial and temporal gaps.

  12. Presenteeism: a public health hazard.

    PubMed

    Widera, Eric; Chang, Anna; Chen, Helen L

    2010-11-01

    "Presenteeism" occurs when an employee goes to work despite a medical illness that will prevent him or her from fully functioning at work. This problem has been well studied in the business and social science literature, and carries increased importance in the health care setting due to the risk of infectious disease transmission in vulnerable patient populations. In this manuscript, we discuss an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a long-term care facility and the role presenteeism played in disease transmission and extension of the outbreak. We use existing literature to point out the hazards of presenteeism in the health care sector. We will also discuss factors that may be involved in the decision to work while ill and propose policy changes that may reduce the incidence of presenteeism in health care organizations. PMID:20549378

  13. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you healthy? Is your environment healthy for you? What does it mean to be healthy? Does it mean you're not achy, or that you are not visibly sick? The World Health Organization defines health broadly as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being. This means that bei...

  15. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... manmade. Learn More Air Pollution Chemicals Climate Change Water Pollution Next Previous Interested in a trailer of our ...

  16. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it can lead to health problems. ... of the natural world, like radon in the soil. Others are the result of human activities, like ...

  17. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, A M

    2004-08-01

    This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled. PMID:15289583

  18. Environmental hazard evaluation of amalgam scrap.

    PubMed

    Fan, P L; Chang, S B; Siew, C

    1992-11-01

    Amalgam scrap was subjected to two different Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) extraction procedures to determine if it presents an environmental hazard. The results indicate that concentrations of mercury and silver in the extracts do not exceed the EPA's maximum allowable concentrations. It was concluded that amalgam scrap is not a hazardous solid waste. Proper handling of amalgam scrap disposal by recycling is, however, highly recommended. PMID:1303382

  19. Environmental Health Promotion: Bridging Traditional Environmental Health and Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…

  20. [Is amalgam a health hazard?].

    PubMed

    Göhring, Till N; Schicht, Olivier O; Imfeld, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Since more than 100 years amalgam is successfully used for the functional restoration of decayed teeth. During the early 1990s the use of amalgam has been discredited by a not very objective discussion about small amounts of quicksilver that can evaporate from the material. Recent studies and reviews, however, found little to no correlation between systemic or local diseases and amalgam restorations in man. Allergic reactions are extremely rare. Most quicksilver evaporates during placement and removal of amalgam restorations. Hence it is not recommended to make extensive rehabilitations with amalgam in pregnant or nursing women. To date, there is no dental material, which can fully substitute amalgam as a restorative material. According to present scientific evidence the use of amalgam is not a health hazard. PMID:18517065

  1. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  2. The Theory-based Influence of Map Features on Risk Beliefs: Self-reports of What is Seen and Understood for Maps Depicting an Environmental Health Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Vatovec, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Theory-based research is needed to understand how maps of environmental health risk information influence risk beliefs and protective behavior. Using theoretical concepts from multiple fields of study including visual cognition, semiotics, health behavior, and learning and memory supports a comprehensive assessment of this influence. We report results from thirteen cognitive interviews that provide theory-based insights into how visual features influenced what participants saw and the meaning of what they saw as they viewed three formats of water test results for private wells (choropleth map, dot map, and a table). The unit of perception, color, proximity to hazards, geographic distribution, and visual salience had substantial influences on what participants saw and their resulting risk beliefs. These influences are explained by theoretical factors that shape what is seen, properties of features that shape cognition (pre-attentive, symbolic, visual salience), information processing (top-down and bottom-up), and the strength of concrete compared to abstract information. Personal relevance guided top-down attention to proximal and larger hazards that shaped stronger risk beliefs. Meaning was more local for small perceptual units and global for large units. Three aspects of color were important: pre-attentive “incremental risk” meaning of sequential shading, symbolic safety meaning of stoplight colors, and visual salience that drew attention. The lack of imagery, geographic information, and color diminished interest in table information. Numeracy and prior beliefs influenced comprehension for some participants. Results guided the creation of an integrated conceptual framework for application to future studies. Ethics should guide the selection of map features that support appropriate communication goals. PMID:22715919

  3. Environmental Hazards in the Child Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene; Boulton, Pamla

    1993-01-01

    Presents research findings regarding the susceptibility of young children to various indoor environmental pollutants including cigarette smoke, heating and cooking equipment, art supplies, lead, and asbestos. Discusses assessment, management, and prevention of environmental hazards to provide guidelines for achieving a safe child care environment.…

  4. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Hydrazine and Hydrazine Sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constitu...

  5. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACRYLAMIDE (Final Report 1985)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrylamide was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous consti...

  6. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR AMETRYN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for ametryn was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of ...

  7. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR TEMEPHOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Temephos was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CARBOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for carbofurans was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range...

  9. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for atrazine was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  10. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CYCLOATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for cycloate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  11. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR TCMTB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for TCMTB was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of wa...

  12. Environmental health and Hispanic children.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, R; Delgado, J L; Herrell, R

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indicators that Hispanics face a disproportionate risk of exposure to environmental hazards. Ambient air pollution, worker exposure to chemicals, indoor air pollution, and drinking water quality are among the top four threats to human health and are all areas in which indicators point to elevated risk for Hispanic populations. These data, juxtaposed with data on the health status of Hispanics, tell us that the environmental health status of Hispanics and their children is poor. At the same time, significant inadequacies in the collection of data on Hispanics make it difficult to make improving Hispanic environmental health status a priority. These inadequacies include the failure to use Hispanic identifiers in data collection and failure to collect sample sizes large enough to allow for breakouts of data by Hispanic subgroup. In addressing environmental justice issues, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) should prioritize improving the quantifiability of environmental exposures and risk based on race or ethnicity. However, improving data should not be the prerequisite to significant, affirmative steps by DHHS and U.S. EPA to address environmental and environmental health problems facing Hispanic communities. In particular, a health-based approach to environmental justice should be the priority. PMID:8549482

  13. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  14. Florida county health department, environmental health 2006 survey: do rural counties know "what to do' in a chemical or all-hazards event?

    PubMed

    Becker, Alan; Suther, Sandra; Dutton, Matthew; Kearney, Gregory D; Xu, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to determine basic plans and collaboration with first responder stakeholders and to identify perceived roles and responsibilities in preparing for and responding to a chemical disaster. A survey was developed and provided to environmental health personnel at county health departments (CHDs) in Florida. Most of the counties had good collaborative relationships with first responder stakeholders. A little more than half of the respondents had access to a resource manual with contact information and had developed and maintained a chemical plan. Rural counties were less likely to know "what to do" or their responsibility in a chemical disaster; however, both rural and nonrural counties were equally likely not to have a written plan. Public health agencies at the local CHD must be the communicators of public health messages in coordination with the incident commander and the state communications office in a chemical disaster, so it is important to strengthen collaboration and cooperation with chemical response stakeholders. PMID:25619031

  15. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-31

    This report describes activities and reports on progress for the first quarter (July--September) of the fourth year of the grant to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) at the Medical University of South Carolina. It reports progress against the grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant. The objectives of EHAP stated in the proposal to DOE are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health-oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management.

  16. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The objectives of the EHAP program stated in the proposal to DOE are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication which recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all, (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects, and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  18. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  19. Health hazards of fire fighters: exposure assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt-Rauf, P W; Fallon, L F; Tarantini, T; Idema, C; Andrews, L

    1988-01-01

    There is growing concern over the detrimental health effects to firefighters produced by exposure to combustion byproducts of burning materials. To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters during their routine occupational duties, members of the Buffalo Fire Department were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. Furthermore, in many cases of the worst exposure to these materials respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity, and thus these levels represent actual direct exposure of the firefighters. Many of these materials have been implicated in the production of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases, which may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk for these illnesses among firefighters. PMID:3179235

  20. Occupational Health Hazards in ICU Nursing Staff

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Couto, Djalma Ticiani; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Branco, Anadergh Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 26 nurses and 96 nursing technicians from a public hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. A Likert-type work-related symptom scale (WRSS) was used to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological, and social risks. Data were analyzed with the use of the SPSS, version 12.0, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical significance and differences in occupational health hazards at the beginning and at the end of the workers' careers. As a workplace, ICUs can cause work health hazards, mostly physical, to nurses and nursing technicians due to the frequent use of physical energy and strength to provide care, while psychological and social hazards occur to a lesser degree. PMID:21994814

  1. Hazardous waste management; Environmental Protection Agency. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1980-02-26

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, provides for the development and implementation of a comprehensive program to protect human health and the environment from the improper management of hazardous waste. A fundamental premise of the statute is that human health and the environment will best be protected by careful management of the transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste, in accordance with standards developed under the Act. In today's Federal Register, the Environmental Protection Agency is publishing several documents setting in motion a series of events which will culminate in full implementation of the hazardous waste control program. This document sets forth definitions of words and phrases which appear in the subsequent Parts as well as general guidance for the use of these regulations and provisions which are generally applicable to all Parts. PMID:10245321

  2. Statistical Methods for Linking Health, Exposure, and Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Frances Jean; White, LuAnn Ellis; Langlois, Elizabeth Cullen; Shorter, Charles Franklin; Swalm, Christopher Martin; Shaffer, Jeffrey George; Hartley, William Ralph

    2004-01-01

    The Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) proposes to link environmental hazards and exposures to health outcomes. Statistical methods used in case–control and cohort studies to link health outcomes to individual exposure estimates are well developed. However, reliable exposure estimates for many contaminants are not available at the individual level. In these cases, exposure/hazard data are often aggregated over a geographic area, and ecologic models are used to relate health outcome and exposure/hazard. Ecologic models are not without limitations in interpretation. EPHTN data are characteristic of much information currently being collected—they are multivariate, with many predictors and response variables, often aggregated over geographic regions (small and large) and correlated in space and/or time. The methods to model trends in space and time, handle correlation structures in the data, estimate effects, test hypotheses, and predict future outcomes are relatively new and without extensive application in environmental public health. In this article we outline a tiered approach to data analysis for EPHTN and review the use of standard methods for relating exposure/hazards, disease mapping and clustering techniques, Bayesian approaches, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for estimation of posterior parameters, and geostatistical methods. The advantages and limitations of these methods are discussed. PMID:15471740

  3. [Health hazards of physical inactivity].

    PubMed

    Helajärvi, Harri; Lindholm, Harri; Vasankari, Tommi; Heinonen, Olli J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and non-communicable diseases and related costs increase with physical inactivity. In addition to the lack of recreational exercise, a sedentary lifestyle also seems to have a negative effect of health, independently of other lifestyle and risks. New means, as well as multidisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration, are required in order to improve health and well-being on the population level and to reduce health-related costs. New, more effective operational models are also needed in health communication in order to achieve the desired and more permanent results. PMID:26591649

  4. Environmental Health Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Alan; Smith, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes an environmental health science technology curriculum designed to provide technicians in the areas of air, water and wastewater analyses, treatment plant operators, public health enforcement officers, and pollution inspectors. (GS)

  5. Clean Pools Can Still Pose Health Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... faster." The findings were published recently in the Journal Environmental Science & Technology . So, how can one swim safely this ... director, Florida Department of Health; April 28, 2016, Journal Environmental Science & Technology HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  6. Attitudes toward environmental hazards: Where do toxic wastes fit?

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Cooper, K.; Martin, M.

    1997-10-01

    The public is continually faced with making decisions about the risks associated with environmental hazards, and, along with managers and government officials, must make informed decisions concerning possible regulation, mitigation, and restoration of degraded sites or other environmental threats. We explored the attitudes regarding several environmental hazards of six groups of people: undergraduate science majors, undergraduate nonscience majors, and graduate students in environmental health, in ecological risk assessment, and in nonscience disciplines, as well as nonstudents over 35 yr of age. We had predicted that there would be significant differences in attitudes between science and nonscience majors and as a function of age. Relative concerns could be divided into three discrete classes (in descending order of concern): (1) general ecological problems (cutting tropical forests, polluting groundwater, trash along the coasts, lead in drinking water, and acid rain), (2) radon and nuclear wastes, and finally (3) specific nuclear waste facilities, chromium, fertilizers and pesticides, and electromagnetic waves. For any hazard, attitudes were consistent across groups with regard to ranking the severity of the environmental problem and willingness to expend funds to solve the problems. Attitudes about spending money to develop methods to evaluate risk fell in the middle level of concern. There were no major differences among classes of college-age students, or between them and older nonstudents. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Hazardous waste compliance in health care settings.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Rita M; Vogenberg, F Randy

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceutical waste has become an urgent public health and environmental protection issue in recent years, leading to a variety of sometimes-conflicting federal and state legislation and regulations that health care entities must take seriously. PMID:25673960

  8. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmaro, G. M.; Cardinale, M. A.; Summerfield, B. R.; Tipton, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials.

  9. Environmental health program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  10. In-situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Lower, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by laboratory analysis of environmental samples or by measurement of biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. The organisms most commonly used to assess mutagenicity under real-world conditions are flowering plants, wild and captive mammals, and aquatic vertebrates. Plant species have been used to monitor ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the USA, nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also to assess potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals can be used as sentinels to provide information on effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed to assess health hazards and prioritize clean-up efforts at hazardous-waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution.

  11. In situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Lower, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of the environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by the laboratory analysis of the environmental samples or by the measurement of the biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. The induced toxic effects are often the result of synergistic and antagonistic interactions among various physical and chemical factors that are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, conceivably the biological effects measured on or near the impacted site have greater relevancy for hazard assessment to man than from the data derived from the environmental samples analyzed in the lab. The organisms most commonly employed for the assessment of mutagenicity under real-world conditions are: (1) flowering plants, (2) wild and captive mammals, and (3) aquatic vertebrates. Plant species such as Tradescantia paludosa, Zea mays, and Osmunda regalis have been used for monitoring ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the U.S.A., nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also for the assessment of potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals such as dogs can be used as sentinels to provide information on the effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate the environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed for assessing the health hazards and prioritizing the clean-up efforts at hazardous waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution. 51 references.

  12. The EPA Children's Environmental Health Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.

    Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that pose a risk to their health. This yearbook provides information to the public on the activities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect children from environmental hazards, including the latest information on the unique threats of environmental…

  13. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-31

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards, both chemical and radiation, on the health and well-being of all; (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes the progress made this quarter in the following areas: public and professional outreach; science programs; clinical programs; and information support and access systems.

  14. Are Computers Hazardous to Your Child's Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Personal Computing, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Two potential health hazards have been suggested in relation to long-term use of computer video monitors: radiation and vision problems (fatigue, eyestrain, eye damage). This article examines some available evidence on these issues. Journal availability: Hayden Publishing Company, 50 Essex Street, Rochelle Park, NJ 07662. (SJL)

  15. Systematic Review of Control Measures to Reduce Hazardous Drug Exposure for Health Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Crickman, Rachael; Finnell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Because of their involvement in the transport, handling, preparation, administration, or disposal of hazardous medications, health care workers across multiple settings are at risk for adverse health consequences from exposure to these drugs. This review presents evidence-based strategies to mitigate the harmful exposures. These include engineering controls, full use of personal protective equipment, medical and environmental monitoring, hazard identification, and the need for a comprehensive hazardous drug control program that includes education and training for health care workers. PMID:26417920

  16. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR PYRIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Pyridine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions...

  17. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR BENZIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Benzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency action...

  18. 2013 environmental health legislation.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Doug; Ellis, Amy C

    2013-10-01

    The NEHA Government Affairs program has a long and productive association with the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). The organizations have worked together on any number of legislative and policy areas that directly impact the environmental health profession. One of the keys to the successes of the NEHA/NCSL collaboration has been the recognition of the fact that often some of the most significant legislation and policy initiatives related to environmental public health occur in state legislatures. The states have, in a very real sense, been the innovators in developing new programs and practices. In recognition of this fact, we have asked NCSL to provide occasional overviews of state environmental public health legislative activity, covering topics that are of the most pressing public concern. Doug Farquhar, program director for NCSI's Environmental Health Program, has worked with NCSL since 1990. Mr. Farquhar directs development, management, and research for the Environmental Health Program. These projects encompass consultation and policy analysis of state and federal policies and statutes, regulations, and programs regarding environmental and related topics for state legislatures and administrative programs. Amy Ellis is a law clerk for NCSL within the Environment, Energy, and Transportation Group. As a law clerk she has researched a wide variety of environmental health policies. She is expected to obtain her JD from the University of Colorado Law School in 2015. PMID:24288852

  19. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-30

    The objectives of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) stated in the proposal to DOE are to: develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes activities and reports on progress for the third quarter (January--March) of the third year of the grant. It reports progress against these grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant. Questions, comments, or requests for further information concerning the activities under this grant can be forwarded to Jack Davis in the EHAP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (803) 727-6450.

  20. Pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus

    2005-01-01

    The links between environmental agents, environmental conditions, and disease and disability among children are receiving increasing attention. Evidence abounds that children are more susceptible than adults to the damaging effects of environmental agents and conditions. This evidence is illuminated by the much-publicized and expanding research agenda on the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and treatment of environmentally related disease in the pediatric population. Encouragingly, advances in molecular biology and other sciences are providing important tools to aid pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in meeting the environmental health needs of children. PMID:15712790

  1. 75 FR 48979 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  2. 75 FR 82033 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  3. 75 FR 68367 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  4. 77 FR 66853 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied, Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  5. 78 FR 42968 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  6. 75 FR 55807 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  7. 76 FR 58521 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  8. 77 FR 30019 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  9. 77 FR 61771 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  10. 76 FR 21387 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  11. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  12. 75 FR 41506 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  13. 77 FR 43849 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  14. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  15. 75 FR 20371 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  16. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  17. Learning Pathways in Environmental Science Education: The Case of Hazardous Household Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandrakis, George N.

    2006-01-01

    The present study draws on environmental science education to explore aspects of children's conceptual change regarding hazardous household items. Twelve children from a fifth-grade class attended a 300-h teaching module of environmentally oriented science activities aimed at assessing their awareness about the environmental and health hazards…

  18. Environmental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A

    2003-08-01

    Egypt shares most of the environmental problems of developing countries. One of the most important health and environmental problems is air pollution resulting from using fuel, burning operations, and the increase of automobile exhaust in cities. Moreover, the deficiency of efficient sanitation services and water pollution caused by the breaking down of old and consumed water networks, as well as the various problems in construction, designing and maintenance of sewage system resulted in the appearance and prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases. There are several examples of exposure to chemical genotoxicants, and lifestyle exposures in the population, which create unique combinations of environmental risk factors for diseases such as cancer. Environmental factors may interact with infection and lead to enhancement of carcinogenicity processes. Currently, there is a growing interest in environmental mutagenicity and carcinogenicity research. The use of different biomarkers and genetic susceptibility testing can contribute effectively to risk assessment. The Government of Egypt recognizes and deals seriously with these problems. The State Ministry of Environment has initiated new policies that include risk minimization, law enforcement, treatment of pollution at source, mitigation procedures and inter-sectorial collaboration. The Ministry of Health and Population recognized the link between economic development, environment and health. It elaborated a national environment health strategy in accordance with the format of the regional and global environmental health policy. This strategy identified priority areas, which requires further action to be taken and to be implemented. Environmental health was included as one of the four main objectives of the strategic Healthy Egyptians 2010 Initiative. Specific objectives and plans for the initiative are presented. PMID:12971689

  19. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services. PMID:15346681

  20. Low Wages as Occupational Health Hazards.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; De Vogli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The history of occupational medicine has been characterized by ever-widening recognition of hazards, from fires in 1911 to asbestos in the 1960s, to job strain in the 1990s. In this essay, we argue for broadening the recognition further to include low wages. We first review possible mechanisms explaining the effects of wages on health or health behaviors. Mechanisms involve self-esteem, job satisfaction, deprivation, social rank, the "full" price of bad health, patience, and the ability to purchase health-producing goods and services. Second, we discuss empirical studies that rely on large, typically national, data sets and statistical models that use either instrumental variables or natural experiments and also account for other family income. Finally, we draw implications for laws governing minimum wages and labor unions. PMID:27158950

  1. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  2. Hazard communication/right-to-know for health care facilities.

    PubMed

    Brandys, R C

    1991-01-01

    This manual is intended to provide useful information on the various new and pending health and safety regulations that affect hospitals. The governing bodies promulgating these regulations are the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state and local governments. The majority of this document is dedicated to the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (or federal Employee Right-to-Know Law) and the EPA Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III Regulations (or federal Community Right-to-Know Law). PMID:10116963

  3. Environmental integrity, racism, health.

    PubMed

    Westra, L

    1996-05-17

    Environmental degradation seriously affects human health. Thus, a close relationship exists between the protection of ecosystem integrity and wilderness on one hand, and human health on the other. However, there is an overarching, holistic perspective in laws and regulations--as well as morality--to to maintain a healthy relationship between the two. Problem areas focused on in this paper are: (a) climate change and global warming; (b) food production; and (c) global equity. This paper argues for the principle of integrity, which provides an holistic perspective, suggested as a better approach than that of current regulations to mitigate against associated threats to human health. PMID:8693347

  4. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  5. Arsenic residue in the products and by-products of chicken and ducks: a possible concern of avian health and environmental hazard to the population in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Samanta, Srikanta; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Arsenicosis caused due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world. We evaluated the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic on chicken and duck in an arsenic endemic zone. The concentration of arsenic was higher in chicken and duck feed and their by-products than that in the respective samples of control area. Arsenic concentration in the eggs of both chicken and duck was higher than that in the respective samples of control area. Thus, we concluded that arsenic enters into food chain through the intake of contaminated eggs. Furthermore, adverse health effect of arsenic on avian population is due to the alteration in haematobiochemical indices. PMID:23033209

  6. Continuing Environmental Health Education for Environmental Health Personnel, Lesson Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Environmental Health, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents the sixth and final lesson on general environmental health, appearing since January, 1977 in this journal. Twenty-five multiple choice questions appear dealing with environmental health topics such as food sanitation, milk sanitation, vector control, public health housing, institutional environmental health, waste disposal, air pollution,…

  7. Health hazards in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Geiser, K

    1986-01-01

    The microelectronics industry is explored as a source of occupational health hazards resulting from the extensive use of toxic chemicals in the production of semiconductor chips and the assembly of electronic components. Information is provided on the range of chemicals used in the industry and their particular health implications. Case materials are drawn from Massachusetts' "Route 128" region and California's "Silicon Valley." Problems with worker exposure in the plants are compared with the risks experienced by residents of local neighborhoods from the leakage of industrial chemicals from underground storage tanks into the local groundwater used for drinking water. The recent development of the industry, its highly innovative character, the absence of unions and organizations for worker protection, and the persistence of a public perception that the industry is relatively safe and clean, are all identified as determinants of the extent of health hazards posed by chemical exposure. The paper concludes with recommendations for further studies, worker organization, and increased attention to the reduction of the volume and toxicity of chemicals in industrial production. PMID:3957508

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CHLORPYRIFOS AND CHLORPYRIFOS-METHYL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos methyl was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous con...

  9. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR LEAD ALKYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for lead alkyls was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous const...

  10. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  11. Dust: A major environmental hazard on the earth's moon

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Vaniman, D.; Lehnert, B.

    1990-01-01

    On the Earth's Moon, obvious hazards to humans and machines are created by extreme temperature fluctuations, low gravity, and the virtual absence of any atmosphere. The most important other environmental factor is ionizing radiation. Less obvious environmental hazards that must be considered before establishing a manned presence on the lunar surface are the hazards from micrometeoroid bombardment, the nuisance of electro-statically-charged lunar dust, and an alien visual environment without familiar clues. Before man can establish lunar bases and lunar mining operations, and continue the exploration of that planet, we must develop a means of mitigating these hazards. 4 refs.

  12. Dust: A major environmental hazard on the Earth's moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiken, Grant; Vaniman, David; Lehnert, Bruce

    On the Earth's Moon, obvious hazards to humans and machines are created by extreme temperature fluctuations, low gravity, and the virtual absence of any atmosphere. The most important other environmental factor is ionizing radiation. Less obvious environmental hazards that must be considered before establishing a manned presence on the lunar surface are the hazards from micrometeoroid bombardment, the nuisance of electro-statically-charged lunar dust, and an alien visual environment without familiar clues. Before man can establish lunar bases and lunar mining operations, and continue the exploration of that planet, we must develop a means of mitigating these hazards.

  13. Environmental Projects. Volume 9: Construction of hazardous materials storage facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards. This report is one in a series of reports describing environmental projects at GDSCC. The construction of two hazardous materials and wastes storage facilities and an acid-wash facility is described. An overview of the Goldstone complex is also presented along with a description of the environmental aspects of the GDSCC site.

  14. Health and environmental effects profile for azobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for azobenzene was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Azobenzene has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (ql*) for azobenzene is .108 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for azobenzene is 100.

  15. Health and environmental effects profile for formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) or a carcinogenic potency factor for formaldehyde. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for formaldehyde is 10.

  16. Health and environmental effects profile for dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Dinitrotoluene was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Dinitrotolene has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factors (q1*) for 2,4-, 2,6- and technical dinitrotoluene was .68, .23, and .23 (mg/kg/day)-1, respectively, for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for 2.4-, 2.6- and technical dinitrotoluene is 100. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value for 2.3-, 2.5- and 3.4-dinitrotoluene.

  17. Health and environmental effects profile for aniline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for aniline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinatti, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Aniline has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for aniline is .026 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for aniline is 1000.

  18. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.

  19. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  20. Environmental Health: Health Care Reform's Missing Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadope, Cece Modupe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A series of articles that examine environmental health and discuss health care reform; connections between chlorine, chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins and reproductive disorders and cancers; the rise in asthma; connections between poverty and environmental health problems; and organizations for health care professionals who want to address…

  1. Hazardous-waste sites: Priority health conditions and research strategies--United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-07

    Uncontrolled disposal sites containing hazardous waste and other contaminants have created national environmental problems (1). Because of potential health problems associated with the more than 33,000 hazardous-waste sites in the United States, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)--as part of its federally legislated mandate--has developed a list of seven priority health conditions (PHCs) to (1) assist in evaluating potential health risks to persons living near these sites and (2) determine program and applied human health research activities involving hazardous substances identified at the sites. This report summarizes the development and intended applications of the seven PHCs.

  2. Educating Future Environmental Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Knechtges, Paul L; Kelley, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Future environmental health problems will require a new generation of educated and trained professionals. Efforts to enhance the environmental public health workforce have been promoted by several organizations. While progress has been measured by these organizations, many environmental health academic programs are experiencing budget reductions and lower enrollments. One of the reasons for this trend is the so-called higher education crisis. We argue that training is not equivalent to education in the environmental health sciences, albeit the two terms are often used interchangeably. Organizations involved with the education, training, and credentialing of environmental health professionals must work together to ensure the viability and effectiveness of environmental health academic programs. PMID:26617460

  3. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  4. Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

  5. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  6. Space vehicle propulsion systems - Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, G. K.; Disimile, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation of hazards which exist in geo-lunar space and have the potential to negatively affect a long-term mission-oriented spacecraft systems is presented based on published data. The hazards are categorized as pervasive (radiation), incident specific (meteoroids and thermal shock), and chemically corrosive (monatomic oxygen). It appears that the number one priority should be the development of new materials; and the secondary concern should be the development of fabrication techniques for the exterior hull, so that incident specific hazards can be minimized in an active fashion. The pervasive hazard can be dealt with by exploring on-board circuit technology with ancillary monitoring systems. Effects of thermal shock on the exterior nozzle, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber geometry seem to need more investigation.

  7. Potential health hazards of radiation. Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-19

    During World War II and the Cold War, the federal government developed and operated industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Some of these sites processed uranium and vanadium, and upon closure, left behind millions of cubic yards of mill tailings on the sites and throughout the nearby communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the cleanup of these areas to minimize the risks to the public and environment from exposure to the tailings and the radon gas they produce.

  8. Hazardous waste management system: identification and listing of hazardous waste--Environmental Protection Agency. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    PubMed

    1981-11-17

    The Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] is today revising the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to exempt certain categories of mixtures of solid wastes and hazardous wastes from the presumption of hazardousness presently contained in the regulations. EPA is taking this action because the Agency believes that the risk posed to human health and the environment from the management of these waste mixtures is not substantial, so that automatically defining these waste mixtures as hazardous is inappropriate. This amendment will substantially reduce the regulatory burden to those persons who would otherwise have applied the regulations for hazardous waste management to these mixtures. PMID:10253363

  9. Chattanooga Creek: case study of the public health nursing role in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L

    1995-10-01

    Public health nurses have two primary roles in protecting their communities from hazardous substances: community assessment and health education. Developing assessment skills in environmental health enables public health nurses to collaborate with other federal, state, and county agencies in identifying public health hazards and making health-based recommendations at hazardous waste sites needing remedial or removal interventions. Community health education empowers communities to minimize their exposure to hazardous wastes in their environment. Methods for community environmental health assessment and interventions are demonstrated in this article by activities conducted at the Chattanooga Creek site in Chattanooga, Tennessee. A thorough assessment and collaborative approach between government agencies, local health professionals, and community members resulted in a successful community health education program and this site's placement on the National Priorities List. PMID:7479542

  10. Occupational and environmental reproductive hazards education and resources for communities of color.

    PubMed Central

    Dula, A; Kurtz, S; Samper, M L

    1993-01-01

    Little research has been published on the occupational and environmental hazards affecting people of color. Even less is known about the hazards that affect women of color. Although women of color have always been aggressive participants in the work force, their labor activity has increased dramatically over the last decade. Current job placement patterns suggest that women of color are concentrated in the lowest-paying and most hazardous jobs. In this paper, we specifically focus on occupational and environmental reproductive health concerns. We write with the understanding that reproductive hazards can affect pregnant women, nonpregnant women, and men, as well as the health and development of young children. Emphasis is placed primarily on African American women, because information on Hispanic, Native American, and Asian women is very limited. We discuss the participation of women of color in the labor force, using the U.S. Department of Labor categories. We review specific occupational hazards associated with each category of work and briefly discuss environmental hazards, noting that communities of color are at a disproportionate risk of exposure. Finally, we present the consensus report of the Community Education Working Group from the Woods Hole Conference on Occupational and Environmental Reproductive Hazards. PMID:8243389

  11. Coal hydrogenation and environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, R A

    1976-01-01

    Planning of coal hydrogenation processes, such as liquifaction and gasification, requires consideration of public health implications. Commercial plants will require coal quantities greater than or equal to 20,000 tons/day and the large size of these plants calls for careful consideration of the potential health hazards from the wastes and products of such processes. Analysis of pollution potential can roughly be divided into three categories: raw material structure and constituents, process design, and mode of plant operation. Identifiable pollutants include hydrogen cyanide, phenols, cresols, carbonyl and hydrogen sulfides, ammonia, mercaptans, thiocyanides, aniline, arsenic, trace metals and various polycyclic hydrocarbons. One study of workers in a hydrogenation process has revealed an incidence of skin cancer 16-37 times that expected in the chemical industry. In addition, a number of high boiling point liquid products were identified as being carcinogenic, and air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene up to 18,000 mug/1000 m3 were reported. Health statistics on occupational groups in other coal conversion industries have shown significantly higher lung cancer rates, relative to groups without such occupational exposures. These data suggest that coal hydrogenation plants must be carefully planned and controlled to avoid harm to environmentally and occupationally exposed populations. PMID:789066

  12. Environmental victims: environmental injustice issues that threaten the health of children living in poverty.

    PubMed

    Cureton, Shava

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty are disproportionately at risk from and affected by environmental hazards. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, 13 million children in America live in poverty. Thus, not only are millions of children living in poverty but are also living in environments that are hazardous to their health. Impoverished children are more likely to live in environments with heavily polluting industries, hazardous waste sites, contaminated water and soil, in old housing with deteriorating lead-based paint, in areas with limited access to healthy food, and more. Poor children residing in these toxic environments are either at risk or suffer from a myriad of health disparities, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, obesity, and hyperactivity. This unfortunate reality is better known as environmental injustice. Environmental injustice recognizes that economically disadvantaged groups are adversely affected by environmental hazards more than other groups. To remedy this dilemma, environmental justice seeks to address these unfair burdens of environmental health hazards on poor communities. The purpose of this article is to (a) examine the environmental living conditions of children living in poverty, (b) examine the environmental health disparities of children living in poverty, (c) discuss environmental justice legislation, (d) describe government initiatives to improve environmental health, and (e) propose recommendations that executes measures to protect the health of children. PMID:22206190

  13. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  14. Environmental protection for hazardous materials incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, B.D.; Carter, R.J.; Dobson, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.; Ogle, P.S.; VanCleave, A.K.

    1990-02-01

    This document was prepared to provide the US Air Force fire protection community with an integrated program for handling hazardous materials (HAZMAT)s and hazardous material incidents. The goal of the project was to define and identify a computer system for the base fire departments that would facilitate hazard assessment and response during HAZMAT emergencies, provide HAZMAT incident management guidelines, and provide a training tool to simulate emergency response during normal times. Site visits to Air Force bases were made to observe existing HAZMAT related organizations, their methods and procedures used in HAZMAT management, and to collect personnel input for the development of the computerized Hazardous Materials Incident Management System (HMIMS). The study concentrated on defining strategic areas of concern to emergency response personnel. Particular emphasis was given to such areas as responsibilities and roles for response agencies; personnel requirements to handle HAZMAT incidents; procedures to follow during HAZMAT incidents and decontamination; personnel evacuation; postincident evaluation and feedback; emergency response personnel participation in installation restoration program; personal protective clothing; mutual air requirements; and training. Future recommendations were made for purchase, use, storage, disposal, and management of HAZMATs during their life cycle on bases and during incidents. This detailed technical report and the HMIMS are expected to meet the integrated HAZMAT program needs primarily of Air Force fire departments and secondarily in other response agencies. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  16. Unequal exposure to ecological hazards: environmental injustices in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Daniel R; Krieg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    This study analyzes the social and geographic distribution of ecological hazards across 368 communities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Combining census data with a variety of environmental data, we tested for and identified both income-based and racially based biases to the geographic distribution of 17 different types of environmentally hazardous sites and industrial facilities. We also developed a composite measure of cumulative exposure to compare the relative overall risks characteristic of each community. To the best of our knowledge, this point system makes this the first environmental justice study to develop a means for measuring and ranking cumulative exposure for communities. The study also controls for the intensity of hazards in each community by accounting for the area across which hazards are distributed. The findings indicate that ecologically hazardous sites and facilities are disproportionately located and concentrated in communities of color and working-class communities. The implication of this research for policymakers and citizen advocates is that cumulative exposure of residents to environmentally hazardous facilities and sites should receive greater consideration regarding community demographics and environmental health indicators. We conclude that the provision of additional resources for environmental monitoring and ranking, as well as yearly progress reports, is necessary for communities and state agencies to achieve equal access to clean and healthy environments for all residents. PMID:11929739

  17. Citizen participation and empowerment: the case of local environmental hazards.

    PubMed

    Rich, R C; Edelstein, M; Hallman, W K; Wandersman, A H

    1995-10-01

    Local environmental hazards place millions of citizens at risk of physical, emotional, and financial harm. While the discovery of such hazards can be fundamentally disempowering for individuals and communities, few scholars have examined the dynamics of empowerment in this context. We explore the relationships among forms of empowerment, citizen participation, and local environmental hazards, and offer a model of the processes of empowerment and disempowerment appropriate to a broad range of citizen issues. On the basis of this analysis we recommend a partnership approach to community decision making that is designed both to reduce the likelihood that local environmental hazards will develop and to minimize the disempowering impact of any threats that do occur. PMID:8851344

  18. Remote sensing of coastal environmental hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huh, Oscar K.; Roberts, Harry H.; Rouse, Lawrence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examples of the application of NOAA High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data to natural hazards and disasters are reviewed. The examples discussed include flooding of the Ganges River Delta; detecting effects of salt water intrusion into freshwater marshes; detecting fires, smoke plumes, and oil slicks; and monitoring of ocean currents and eddies. The present limitations of the HRPT data and future prospects are briefly discussed.

  19. Health and environmental effects profile for chloranil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Chloranil was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Chloranil has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor for chloranil is 0.0403 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for chloranil is 1000.

  20. Health and environmental effects profile for chlorthiophos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Chlorthiophos was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Chlorthiophos has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for chlorthiophos is 0.8 microgram/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 500 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  1. Health and environmental effects profile for Carbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Carbazole was prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Quantitative estimates have been presented provided sufficient data are available. Carbazole has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for carbazole is .028/(mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  2. Environmental Health Disparities: A Framework Integrating Psychosocial and Environmental Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Payne-Sturges, Devon C.

    2004-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that social and environmental factors interact to produce racial and ethnic environmental health disparities, it is still unclear how this occurs. Despite continued controversy, the environmental justice movement has provided some insight by suggesting that disadvantaged communities face greater likelihood of exposure to ambient hazards. The exposure–disease paradigm has long suggested that differential “vulnerability” may modify the effects of toxicants on biological systems. However, relatively little work has been done to specify whether racial and ethnic minorities may have greater vulnerability than do majority populations and, further, what these vulnerabilities may be. We suggest that psychosocial stress may be the vulnerability factor that links social conditions with environmental hazards. Psychosocial stress can lead to acute and chronic changes in the functioning of body systems (e.g., immune) and also lead directly to illness. In this article we present a multidisciplinary framework integrating these ideas. We also argue that residential segregation leads to differential experiences of community stress, exposure to pollutants, and access to community resources. When not counterbalanced by resources, stressors may lead to heightened vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:15579407

  3. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  4. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  5. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  6. Study on the health hazards of scrap metal cutters.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Wong, P H; Kwok, S F

    1989-12-01

    Scrap metal cutters seemed to be left out in most preventive programmes as the workers were mainly contract workers. The health hazards of scrap metal cutting in 54 workers from a foundry and a ship breaking plant were evaluated. Environmental sampling showed lead levels ranging from 0.02 to 0.57 mg/m3 (threshold limit values is 0.15 mg/m3). Exposure to lead came mainly from the paint coat of the metals cut. Metal fume fever was not reported although their main complaints were cough and rhinitis. Skin burns at all stages of healing and residual scars were seen over hands, forearms and thighs. 96% of the cutters had blood lead levels exceeding 40 micrograms/100 ml with 10 workers exceeding 70 micrograms/100 ml. None had clinical evidence of lead poisoning. The study showed that scrap metal cutting is a hazardous industry associated with significant lead exposure. With proper medical supervision, the blood lead levels of this group of workers decreased illustrating the importance of identifying the hazard and implementing appropriate medical surveillance programmes. PMID:2635395

  7. Health and environmental effects profile for phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phenol was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates were presented provided sufficient data are available. Phenol has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. A Reference Dose (RfD), for phenol is 0.04 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for phenol is 10.

  8. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzotrichloride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzotrichloride was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Benzotrichloride has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor for benzotrichloride is 12.63 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for benzotrichloride is 10.

  9. Occupational health hazards of mine workers*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, K. S.; Lee, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Mining has always been among the most hazardous of occupations, and with the increasing demand for coal and minerals safety in mines assumes even greater importance. This article describes the present situation with regard to conditions in mines, the diseases and disabilities resulting from them, and measures that can be taken to prevent or treat them. The hazards covered are: accidents, dust (including poisoning by certain ores), high temperature and humidity, noise and vibration, toxic gases, and miscellaneous other hazards. PMID:307452

  10. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  11. 75 FR 63844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  12. 77 FR 16844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  13. 75 FR 46950 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  14. 76 FR 5594 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  15. 75 FR 41505 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  16. 76 FR 35225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  17. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  18. 76 FR 27653 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  19. 78 FR 13358 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  20. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  1. 75 FR 45133 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  2. Race, class, and environmental health: a review and systematization of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1995-04-01

    This paper analyzes and systematizes the race and class differentials in exposure to toxic hazards and actual health outcomes. Research is categorized into the following: Proximity to known hazards includes (1) presence of hazardous waste sites and facilities (landfills, incinerators, Superfund sites), (2) exposure to air pollution, (3) exposure to various environmental hazards, e.g., toxic releases and hazards in pesticides and foods; Regulation, amelioration and cleanup includes (4) record of decisions (RODs) and cleanups at NPL sites, (5) regulatory action, as measured by assessed fines for environmental pollution; Health effects includes (6) specific health outcomes which are related to environmental burden (e.g., blood lead levels). Proximity to prospective hazards includes (7) sitting decisions for incinerators, hazardous waste sites, and nuclear storage sites. The overwhelming bulk of evidence supports the "environmental justice" belief that environmental hazards are inequitably distributed by class, and especially race. PMID:7588491

  3. Hazardous Wastes. Two Games for Teaching about the Problem. Environmental Communications Activities. Bulletin 703.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Two games are presented which demonstrate the complexity of the hazardous waste problem through an introduction to the: (1) economics of waste disposal; (2) legislation surrounding waste disposal; (3) necessity to handle wastes with care; (4) damages to the environmental and human health resulting from improper disposal; (5) correct ways to…

  4. Environmental public health tracking: piloting methods for surveillance of environmentally related diseases in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Patrick; Mohammed, Mohammed A

    2009-04-01

    An effective environmental public health tracking system integrates data and intelligence on environmental hazards, exposures, and health outcomes to focus interventions on reducing the impact of environmental contamination on public health. Most work in this area in the UK has focused on assessing data on hazards that are relatively easy to obtain. However, most hazards will present no actual risk and information on exposure is required to make an effective risk assessment. Obtaining exposure data is technically challenging, expensive, and potentially raises ethical concerns. Consequently, the Health Protection Agency is exploring methods for targeting geographical zones for efficient detailed environmental assessment (including exposure assessment). This paper describes and assesses three methods (indirect standardization, statistical process control (SPC) and kernel density contouring) for the surveillance of potentially environmentally related diseases for this purpose. While the evaluation demonstrates the utility of the three methods, particularly SPC, the comparison was limited due to ethical approval issues. PMID:18982414

  5. SNTP environmental, safety, and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

  6. Garbage imperialism: health implications of dumping hazardous wastes in Third World countries.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, K R

    1992-11-01

    This paper calls for studies of the potential health implications of today's hazardous waste disposal practices, and suggests that such studies are urgently needed in Third World countries where industrial nations are increasingly dumping their unwanted waste materials. The United States produces enormous quantities of hazardous waste each year, and approximately 1,200 "priority hazardous waste sites" presently threaten the nation's health. Because of environmental regulations, landfill closings, and citizen opposition to local waste facilities, industrialized countries are increasingly disposing of their problematic materials by shipping them to the Third World, where they pose substantial threats to human health and the environment. From a political economy perspective, this paper suggests that global health would be better served by reducing hazardous waste production, encouraging reusing and recycling, and restricting or banning international shipment of toxic wastes. PMID:1300412

  7. Community Capacity for Environmental Health Promotion: Determinants and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    The human response to an environmental hazard can either reduce or exacerbate its impact on health. This article reviews determinants of community-level responses to environmental health hazards. The aim is to identify factors that can enhance a community's capacity to protect itself and to suggest public health strategies that can increase such…

  8. Comparing Environmental Conditions Using Indicators of Pollution Hazard

    PubMed

    Turner; Ruffio; Roberts

    1997-07-01

    / Land use/land cover classifications for 1973 and 1991, derived from the interpretation of satellite imagery, are quantified on the basis of biophysical land units in a study area in southeastern Australia. Nutrient export potentials are estimated for each land unit based on their composition of land use/land cover classes. Spatial and temporal comparisons are made of the land units based on the calculated pollution hazard indicators to provide an insight into changes in the state of the environment and the regional significance of land use changes. For example, one ecosystem, unique to the study, showed a large increase in pollution hazard over the study period as a manifestation of an 11-fold rise in cleared area and an expansion of cropping activities. The benefits to environmental management in general are discussed.KEY WORDS: Land cover change; Nutrient export; Environmental condition; Pollution hazard; Agricultural pollution; Nonpoint source pollution; Diffuse pollution; Environmental degradation PMID:9175549

  9. Environmental health program in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrazzo, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    The NASA policy on environmental health uses medical and environmental concepts to: (1) Determine the health status of employees; (2) prevent illness and promote good health among employees; and (3) identify and control factors that affect the health of personnel and quality of environment. Evaluation and control of physical, chemical, radiological and biological factors surrounding personnel and which represent physiological and psychological stresses and impairment are considered.

  10. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-17

    On June 23, 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FG01-92EW50625 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). The objectives of the EHAP program stated in the proposal to DOE are to: (1) Develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication which recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all. (2) Develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) Identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes activities and reports on progress for the second year of the grant.

  11. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine.

  12. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Benzidine has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for benzidine is 234.13 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for benzidine 100.

  13. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids, pain medication, and antibiotics. OTHER HAZARDS Bats Viral infections such as rabies and viral hemorrhagic fevers can ... bites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Aug;71(2):239–50. Gibbons RV. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, ...

  14. Third-hand smoke exposure and health hazards in children.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, G; Simoni, M; Cibella, F; Ferrara, F; Liotta, G; Malizia, V; Corsello, G; Viegi, G; La Grutta, S

    2013-03-01

    Smoking still represents a huge public health problem. Millions of children suffer the detrimental effects of passive smoking. An increasing number of countries have recently issued laws to regulate smoking in public places. Instead, homes remain a site where children are dangerously exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The combination of tobacco smoke pollutants which remain in an indoor environment, the so-called 'third-hand smoke' (THS), represent a new concept in the field of tobacco control. THS consists of pollutants that remain on surfaces and in dust after tobacco has been smoked, are re-emitted into the gas-phase, or react with other compounds in the environment to form secondary pollutants. Indoor surfaces can represent a hidden reservoir of THS constituents that could be re-emitted long after the cessation of active smoking. Human exposure to THS pollutants has not yet been thoroughly studied. Infants and children are more prone to the risks related to THS exposure than adults because they typically spend more time indoors and have age-specific behaviours that may expose them to potential health hazards from THS. Further investigations are warranted to study the health effects of THS relevant to different exposure pathways and profiles. It would also be very important to evaluate how THS may affect the lung development through the in utero exposure during the pre-natal life. We aimed at reviewing recent findings published about THS, with special reference to the effects on children's health. PMID:23741945

  15. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights. PMID:21733799

  16. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhong; Buregyeya, Esther; Musoke, David; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Whalen, Christopher; Bazeyo, William; Williams, Phillip; Ssempebwa, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE), working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. Conclusion. Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed. PMID:25802531

  17. Partnering to Reduce Environmental Hazards Through a Community-Based “Healthy Home Museum”:Education for Action

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Garrison, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Home environmental hazards can pose health threats, particularly to low-income children living in substandard housing. National agencies urge integrated treatment of such hazards; locally, however, home hazard reduction is often managed issue-by-issue. Helping diverse local groups understand the sources, health impacts, and solutions to home hazards is a critical first step toward action. Rochester's Healthy Home was a hands-on museum operated by a community-university partnership from 2006–2009 with the goal of supporting community members' and groups' efforts to address key environmental health hazards in high-risk housing. A secondary goal was to build connections between interest groups, government, and academic stakeholders to advance systems changes in support of environmental justice. Rochester's Healthy Home educated nearly 3,500 visitors about reducing home environmental hazards, served as a focal point for community action, and integrated over 30 local groups into the Healthy Home Partnership, which continues to meet regularly. Over 75% of visitors reported taking an action to improve their home's health following their visit. This hands-on and action-oriented training model generated attention and interest in replication in other cities. This collaboration showed that a collaboratively operated, interactive “healthy home museum” can build residents' capacity to reduce home health hazards while changing local policies and practices to sustainably promote healthier homes. PMID:25897345

  18. Lessons in environmental health in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M; Goldstein, B D

    1999-01-01

    Environmental health has evolved rapidly in recent decades, drawing largely on new analytic technologies, advanced data acquisition and modeling, mechanistic studies in toxicology, and the conceptual framework of risk assessment. The latter combines toxicologic and epidemiologic data with improved techniques for quantifying exposure, producing estimates of risks from environmental hazards or conditions to selected target populations. The public and governments have become increasingly concerned with environmental health and quality. The major lessons have been (a) environmental-health scientists must participate in policy debates; (b) environmental health problems are exceedingly complex and require interdisciplinary research; and (c) environmental health is a global issue. The globalization of commerce, the untested impact of international trade agreements, increased migration, and especially increased population, have profound impact on the quality as well as availability of air, water, land, and food. Global atmospheric transport of pollutants and the effect on atmosphere and climate are two examples of globalization of environmental health. PMID:10352848

  19. Trends in Environmental Health Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews the trends in environmental health engineering and describes programs in environmental engineering technology and the associated environmental engineering courses at Western Kentucky University (four-year program), Wytheville Community College (two-year program), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (four-year program). (PR)

  20. Issues in environmental epidemiological research: the example of environmental lead and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1989-01-01

    Modern environmental epidemiology encompasses the "traditional" area of physico-chemical hazards, along with health hazards in the societal environment (e.g. noise, stress, social organisation), and, increasingly, supranational problems (e.g. ozone depletion, global warming). As governments undertake environmental management, improved quantitative estimates of environmental risks to health are needed. Methodological difficulties of environmental epidemiological research include problems of exposure measurement, of estimating exposure at the level of the individual, and of detecting relatively small effects (particularly at low exposure levels). The health hazards of occupational lead exposure are well documented. The health hazards of environmental exposure to lead, within the general population, remain a focus of continuing epidemiological research. Indeed, the reported adverse effects upon the developing central nervous system of young children are now central to public health debate about environmental lead exposure standards. Recent evidence from cohort studies in several countries indicates adverse effects of environmental lead exposure upon early childhood mental development. In South Australia, a cohort study of children born in a lead smelter community, Port Pirie, has revealed evidence of such an effect. After controlling for many potential confounding factors (social, behavioural, family, and medical), cumulative postnatal lead exposure was found to be weakly associated with an adverse effect upon mental development at age two years and, more strongly, at age four years. The relations between environmental epidemiological research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:2803846

  1. Fluorescent light bulbs - energy saver or environmental hazard?

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    Businesses and homeowners have installed millions of fluorescent light bulbs in buildings around the country in the last few decades. Because fluorescent light bulbs are energy efficient and save electricity, environmentalists and governmental officials - including U.S. EPA - have promoted their use. Yet, fluorescent bulbs raise environmental concerns of their own. When these bulbs burn out, environmental and facility managers face complex issues about whether the old bulbs are regulated as hazardous waste.

  2. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report describes activities and reports on progress for the second quarter (October 93 - December 93) of the second year of the grant to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). It reports progress against grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant.

  3. Environmental Hazards and Systems Schools. Technical Report No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Arthur

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of incorporating certain protective concepts into selected systems-constructed schools. These concepts were to be incorporated at a minimal cost increase, with minimal sacrifice of amenities, and with no detrimental effect on facility configuration. The environmental hazards taken into…

  4. Contested Environmental Hazards and Community Conflict over Relocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Dennis K.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the literature on contaminated communities indicates that environmental hazards lead to conflict and dissension. In this paper we examine the salient dimensions of conflict and factionalism in a rural Oklahoma community. The community is heavily contaminated from 80 years of commercial mining operations and was one of the first…

  5. No Safe Place: Environmental Hazards & Injustice along Mexico's Northern Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.; Aguilar, Maria de Lourdes Romo; Aldouri, Raed

    2010-01-01

    This article examines spatial relationships between environmental hazards (i.e., pork feed lots, brick kilns, final assembly plants and a rail line) and markers of social marginality in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Juarez represents an opportunity for researchers to test for patterns of injustice in a recently urbanizing metropolis of the Global South.…

  6. Environmental Equity and Health: Understanding Complexity and Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Stover, Gabriel N.; Rosenthal, Joyce E.; Sherard, Donna

    2003-01-01

    The authors invoke a population health perspective to assess the distribution of environmental hazards according to race/ethnicity, social class, age, gender, and sexuality and the implications of these hazards for health. The unequal burden of environmental hazards borne by African American, Native American, Latino, and Asian American/Pacific Islander communities and their relationship to welldocumented racial/ethnic disparities in health have not been critically examined across all population groups, regions of the United States, and ages. The determinants of existing environmental inequities also require critical research attention. To ensure inclusiveness and fill important gaps, scientific evidence is needed on the health effects of the built environment as well as the natural environment, cities and suburbs as well as rural areas, and indoor as well as outdoor pollutants. PMID:12554571

  7. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

  8. Hazardous waste: its impact on human health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wyes, H W

    1997-01-01

    Hazardous waste management is of great concern to the nations of Europe. The European public, like that in North America, expresses great concern that hazardous waste is impacting individual health and degrades the environment. The level of resources and degree of hazardous waste problems varies widely throughout Europe. In particular, the Central and Eastern European countries face enormous challenges in trying to solve their waste problems. Progress in managing the hazardous waste burden is evident in Europe, but cooperation across the nations of Europe will be essential to assure success. PMID:9200783

  9. Communication models in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action. PMID:23898914

  10. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Maleic anhydride has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for maleic anhydride is 0.10 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for maleic anhydride is 100.

  11. Asbestos substitutes: A closer look at potential health hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that, with the possible exception of some relatively minor, specialized uses, the need for asbestos in industrial and consumer products has come to an end. Although there are apparent cost or performance penalties in some applications, adequate substitute materials have been found. It seems likely that these penalties will diminish with time. The existence of asbestos materials in older structures, however, will require continued vigilance. Although no material is completely safe under all conditions of exposure, the health hazards of many asbestos substitutes are relatively minor. Mica and perlite are low hazard materials, unless the perlite has >1% free silica. Vermiculite is presumed to be of low hazard potential, unless it is contaminated with asbestos fibers. Ordinary fibrous glass is one of the most common substitute materials, and it is of low inhalation hazard. Ultrafine glass fibers may be hazardous, but their use is thus far limited to special applications. Mineral wools are considered to be of low hazard by an acknowledged authority, ACGIH; however, some mineral wools have a high fraction of thin fibers, and these may be of higher hazard potential. Thin ceramic fiber material is presumed by many to be as hazardous as the asbestos it replaces, but a recently-completed animal study found no excess cancers. The uses of carbon fiber material are highly specialized, and there is little information on health effects as yet. Organic fibers appear to be of very low hazard potential. 8 refs.

  12. Report to Congress on metal recovery, environmental regulation and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report has been completed in response to congressional requests for EPA to conduct a study on the effects of existing regulations on metal recovery of the Nation's waste, how metal recovery can be encouraged, and how these materials should be regulated to protect human health and the environment. Chapters include an introduction and overview to metal recovery of Hazardous Waste and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste Regulation, report methodology and limitations, characterization of RCRA subtitle C metal-bearing hazardous wastes, RCRA subtitle regulations affecting metal recovery of hazardous waste, assessment of RCRA subtitle C regulation on metal recovery from hazardous waste in the United States, case studies of metal recovery operations subject to RCRA jurisdiction, assessment of U.S. balance of trade and strategic metals issues and their relationship to metal recovery of hazardous wastes, encouraging environmentally sound metal recovery. Appendices provide examples for source reduction in industries that generate metal-bearing hazardous waste and more specific information on hazards associated with metals.

  13. Is Your School Hazardous to Children's Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Norma L.

    1993-01-01

    Children are at high risk of exposure to dangerous chemicals because of their low weight, incompletely developed body defenses, rapidly growing body tissues, and small passages susceptible to inflammations and spasms. Five areas of concern involving school maintenance include art supplies, lead-based compounds, hazardous cleaning substances,…

  14. Ground Fault--A Health Hazard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Clinton O.

    1977-01-01

    A ground fault is especially hazardous because the resistance through which the current is flowing to ground may be sufficient to cause electrocution. The Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (G.F.C.I.) protects 15 and 25 ampere 120 volt circuits from ground fault condition. The design and examples of G.F.C.I. functions are described in this article.…

  15. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34–3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70–3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34–4.34 among males and 1.18–3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose–response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225

  16. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34-3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70-3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34-4.34 among males and 1.18-3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose-response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225

  17. OREGON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROFILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority and Low Income Populations, and in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, this project will profile the state of Oregon to identify environmental justice communi...

  18. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2014-01-15

    An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials. PMID:24239259

  19. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Naphthalene (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Naphthalene was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency acti...

  20. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL BROMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Methyl Bromide was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency a...

  1. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Xylenes (o-, m-, p-)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Xylenes (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emerg...

  2. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Nitrotoluenes (o-, m-, p-)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Nitrotoluenes (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for...

  3. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CARBON DISULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Carbon Disulfide was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency...

  4. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR 3,3'-DIMETHYLBENZIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under section 3301 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for eme...

  5. Health assessment of environmental pollutants; Proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O. )

    1987-01-01

    The health assessments of environmental air contaminants are at present frequently based upon probability of cancer, if this has been identified as a potential result of prolonged exposure to the particular inhalation hazard. However, for many airborne hazards chronic inhalation exposure may result in morbidity or mortality risks due to chronic degenerative diseases such as emphysema, fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that may be nearly as great or greater than those of more widely recognized neoplastic or proliferative disease. The relative hazards of environmentally released radioactive and chemical air contaminants, i.e., radon daughters and diesel engine exhaust, are discussed as examples.

  6. 78 FR 64221 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  7. Safety and Health Hazard Observations in Hmong Farming Operations

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, R. L.; Krenz, J.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation. PMID:24911689

  8. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation. PMID:24911689

  9. Continuing Environmental Health Education: A Course for Environmental Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Raymond A.; Walter, William G.

    1979-01-01

    This lesson is the third of a series of six lessons on general environmental health. The series of multiple choice tests covers administration, food sanitation, vector control, housing, radiation, accident prevention, water supplies, waste disposal, air pollution, noise pollution, occupational health, recreation facilities, and water pollution.…

  10. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Environmental risk management Advisory Committee handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Handbook contains information about the objectives of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program, the make-up of the Advisory Committee and Advisory Committee procedures. Functions of the Advisory Committee are outlined, along with guidelines for meetings and establishing agendas.