Science.gov

Sample records for environmental health indicator

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  2. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions. PMID:19503956

  3. Environmental Health Indicators of Climate Change for the United States: Findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    English, Paul B.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. Data sources We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Data extraction Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. Data synthesis We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. Conclusions A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity. PMID:20049116

  4. Indicators of environmental health in the urban setting.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    The North American population is approximately 80% urbanized and spends almost 90% of the time indoors. Accordingly, the built environment is the most important--one might almost say "natural"--human environment. Urban settlements incorporate within their boundaries natural ecosystems of plant and animal life (often highly adapted to the urban environment), and are in turn incorporated within wider bioregions and global ecosystems. But urban settlements are not just built and natural physical environments, they are social, economic, cultural and political environments; the whole constitutes an urban ecosystem. These ecosystems have profound implications for the physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual well-being of their human inhabitants, as well as for human beings remote from these urban ecosystems. Therefore, this paper discusses urban ecosystems and human health and presents a framework for indicators of environmental health in the urban setting based on such an understanding. The concepts of environmental viability, ecological sustainability, urban livability, community conviviality, social equity, and economic adequacy are discussed in relation to human health and are used to organize proposed candidate indicators for urban ecosystems and public health. PMID:12425175

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS: STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Purpose: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving in the direction of measuring and assessing human health and ecological outcomes. The new "outcome" measures complement the more traditional approaches by more closely reflecting the actual public health...

  6. Tracking health and the environment: a pilot test of environmental public health indicators.

    PubMed

    Dreyling, Erin; Dederick, Elizabeth J; Chari, Ramya; Resnick, Beth; Malecki, Kristen Chossek; Burke, Thomas; Neff, Roni

    2007-12-01

    Examining the relationship between health outcomes and environmental exposures requires summary measures, or indicators. To advance the use of indicators, the Johns Hopkins Center for Excellence in Environmental Public Health Tracking piloted three pairs of indicators: 1) air toxics and leukemia in New Jersey, 2) mercury emissions and fish advisories in the United States, and 3) urban sprawl and obesity in New Jersey. These analyses illustrate the feasibility of creating environmental hazard, exposure, and health outcome indicators, examining their temporal and geographic trends, and identifying their temporal and geographic relationships. They also show the importance of including appropriate caveats with the findings. The authors' investigations demonstrate how existing environmental health data can be used to create meaningful indicator measures to further the understanding of environment-related diseases and to help prioritize and guide interventions. Indicators are the foundation of environmental public health tracking, and increased use and development of them are necessary for the establishment of a nationwide tracking network capable of linking environmental exposures and health outcomes. PMID:18189034

  7. Workgroup Report: Developing Environmental Health Indicators for European Children: World Health Organization Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Pond, Kathy; Kim, Rokho; Carroquino, Maria-Jose; Pirard, Philippe; Gore, Fiona; Cucu, Alexandra; Nemer, Leda; MacKay, Morag; Smedje, Greta; Georgellis, Antonis; Dalbokova, Dafina; Krzyzanowski, Michal

    2007-01-01

    A working group coordinated by the World Health Organization developed a set of indicators to protect children’s health from environmental risks and to support current and future European policy needs. On the basis of identified policy needs, the group developed a core set of 29 indicators for implementation plus an extended set of eight additional indicators for future development, focusing on exposure, health effects, and action. As far as possible, the indicators were designed to use existing information and are flexible enough to be developed further to meet the needs of policy makers and changing health priorities. These indicators cover most of the priority topic areas specified in the Children’s Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) as adopted in the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Health and Environment in 2004, and will be used to monitor the implementation of CEHAPE. This effort can be viewed as an integral part of the Global Initiative on Children’s Environmental Health Indicators, launched at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. PMID:17805431

  8. MEASURING THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER REDUCTIONS BY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OUTCOME INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantifiable indicators will measure the progress of local and national PM reduction strategies in lowering population exposure to PM and positively impacting public health. These environmental health outcome indicators will ultimately serve to inform and evaluate environmen...

  9. Meeting Report: Development of Environmental Health Indicators in Brazil and Other Countries in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando F.; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia C.; Netto, Guilherme F.; Galvão, Luis A.C.; Cancio, Jacira A.; Bonini, Estela M.; Corvalan, Carlos F.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the Brazilian experience on the design and implementation of environmental health, with contributions from Argentina, Canada, and Cuba, presented at the International Symposium on the Development of Indicators for Environmental Health Integrated Management, held in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, on 17–18 June 2004. The methodology for the development of environmental health indicators has been used as a reference in the implementation of environmental health surveillance in Brazil. This methodology has provided tools and processes to facilitate the understanding and to measure the determinants of risks to environmental health, to help decision makers control those risks. PMID:16966096

  10. Life expectancy as an indicator of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Gulis, G

    2000-02-01

    Whether or not life expectancy at birth is related to the quality of life as expressed by global economical, environmental and nutritional measures is the primarily studied question in this article. Two models, set of independent variables and multivariate analysis was performed. An attempt to estimate the role of studied variables in overall life expectancy was done, too. A descriptive, ecological study design was used. The population of 156 countries have been taken into account, using data from published databases [7, 9]. Access to safe drinking water, per capita gross domestic product, literacy, calories available as percentage of needs and per capita public health expenditures were taken as exposure, and compared with life expectancy at birth. A linear regression model was used to estimate the role of different exposures on life expectancy at birth. A correlation matrix for all variables and life expectancy at birth is presented in the article. Literacy and access to safe drinking water are statistically significant variables (p < 0.001) also after fitting a linear regression model. The correlation coefficient for the linear model was 0.8823 (R2 = 0.7784). Shares of years of life from overall life expectancy attributed to studied variables were 28.06, 9.42, 2.04 and 1.93% for literacy, access to safe drinking water, GDP and calories available as percentage of needs, respectively. PMID:10845266

  11. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-01-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162

  12. A review of frameworks for developing environmental health indicators for climate change and health.

    PubMed

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-07-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162

  13. A Review of Medication Use as an Indicator of Human Health Impact in Environmentally Stressed Areas.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha A; Kim, Diane Dabok; Jagals, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed from literature the feasibility of medication use as an indicator of health outcomes in environmentally stressed areas, especially where a paucity of typical epidemiological and other risk-based data are encountered. The majority of studies reported were about medication use as an indicator of adverse respiratory effects from air pollution in developed countries. Studies to a lesser extent pointed to medication use as indicator of health outcomes associated with other environmental health stressors such as water, noise pollution, and habitat conditions. The relationship between environmental stressors and medication use strongly suggests that medication use could be used to measure the impact of environmental stressors that otherwise could not be measured by epidemiological or other impact assessment studies, typically in settings where morbidity and mortality data might not be not accessible. PMID:27325069

  14. Indicator-based assessment of environmental hazards and health effects in the industrial cities of upper Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Wcislo, Eleonora; Dutkiewicz, Tadeusz; Konczalik, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Using an indicator-based approach, we assessed environmental hazards and related health effects in populations of industrial cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Upper Silesia, Poland, and analyzed the relationship between environment and health. We adopted the method developed by Dutkiewicz et al. for assessing large geographic areas. Based on routinely collected environmental and health data, two groups of indicators, environmental indicators (EIs) and health status indicators (HSIs), related to environmental contamination were selected. The EI and HSI values were normalized and aggregated into synthetic measures using Strahl's taxonometric method. The synthetic measures indicated the intensity of environmental hazards and health outcomes. We used a three-level index scale to compare and rank the cities under the study and, consequently, to facilitate decision making. Findings of the assessment identified cities where actions aimed at reducing environmental hazards and improving population health status should be established as priorities. These cities included Chorzów, Katowice, Sosnowiec, Bytom, and Zabrze. We found a high correlation between the synthetic measures of environmental indicators and the synthetic measure of health status indicators (r = 0.77), as well as a high level of consistency between environmental hazard indices and environmental-related health status indices (73%). This may indicate the existence of a causal relationship between the environmental contamination within industrial cities and the health status of their inhabitants. PMID:12417485

  15. Environmental health indicators and sanitation-related disease in developing countries: limitations to the use of routine data sources.

    PubMed

    Kolsky, P J; Blumenthal, U J

    1995-01-01

    This article explores conceptual issues in the development and use of environmental health indicators for basic problems related to water and sanitation in developing countries. In this context, faecal contamination is the most important environmental health problem, responsible for the death of approximately 3 million children a year, and the infection of hundreds of millions. Good indicators would be invaluable in assessing the magnitude and source of such problems in different settings. PMID:8585231

  16. Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition on self-reported health status

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health researchers ideally integrate social, environmental, and clinical measures to identify predictors of poor health. Chemicals measured in human tissues are often evaluated in relation to intangible or rare health outcomes, or are studied one chemical at a time. Using ...

  17. Putting indicators to work. A summary of roundtable presentations on the Latin American and Caribbean experience with environmental health indicators.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Chris

    2002-01-01

    A roundtable was held at the conclusion of the formal conference presentations to present and discuss experiences in Latin America and the Caribbean with indicator selection, implementation and use. Four presentations were given covering the following topics: the Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) implementation of a core indicators program in the Americas; Latin America's use and application of the WHO developed Driving forces, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action framework (DPSEEA) for indicators; the Chilean experience in identifying, selecting and implementing indicators for use throughout the country; and finally, the use and application of the WHO DPSEEA framework to the issue of water quality monitoring in Brazil. Each paper presented a summary of knowledge gained to date from their experience and some of the strengths and challenges identified from the various approaches taken. The summary presented here provides a brief overview of the presentations given at the workshop. PMID:12425179

  18. An Approach to Developing Local Climate Change Environmental Public Health Indicators, Vulnerability Assessments, and Projections of Future Impacts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs) are used by local, state, and federal health agencies to track the status of environmental hazards; exposure to those hazards; health effects of exposure; and public health interventions designed to reduce or prevent the hazard, exposure, or resulting health effect. Climate and health EPHIs have been developed at the state, federal, and international levels. However, they are also needed at the local level to track variations in community vulnerability and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance community resilience. This review draws on a guidance document developed by the U.S. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative climate change working group to present a three-tiered approach to develop local climate change EPHIs. Local climate change EPHIs can assist local health departments (LHDs) in implementing key steps of the 10 essential public health services and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Building Resilience Against Climate Effects framework. They also allow LHDs to incorporate climate-related trends into the larger health department planning process and can be used to perform vulnerability assessments which can be leveraged to ensure that interventions designed to address climate change do not exacerbate existing health disparities. PMID:25349621

  19. An approach to developing local climate change environmental public health indicators, vulnerability assessments, and projections of future impacts.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Adele; English, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs) are used by local, state, and federal health agencies to track the status of environmental hazards; exposure to those hazards; health effects of exposure; and public health interventions designed to reduce or prevent the hazard, exposure, or resulting health effect. Climate and health EPHIs have been developed at the state, federal, and international levels. However, they are also needed at the local level to track variations in community vulnerability and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance community resilience. This review draws on a guidance document developed by the U.S. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative climate change working group to present a three-tiered approach to develop local climate change EPHIs. Local climate change EPHIs can assist local health departments (LHDs) in implementing key steps of the 10 essential public health services and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Building Resilience Against Climate Effects framework. They also allow LHDs to incorporate climate-related trends into the larger health department planning process and can be used to perform vulnerability assessments which can be leveraged to ensure that interventions designed to address climate change do not exacerbate existing health disparities. PMID:25349621

  20. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  1. The use of remote sensors to relate biological and physical indicators to environmental and public health problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between biological, ecological and botanical structures, and disease organisms and their vectors which might be detected and measured by remote sensing are determined. In addition to the use of trees as indicators of disease or potential disease, an attempt is made to identify environmental factors such as soil moisture and soil and water temperatures as they relate to disease or health problems and may be detected by remote sensing. The following three diseases and one major health problem are examined: Malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Encephalitis and Red Tide. It is shown that no single species of vascular plant nor any one environmental factor can be used as the indicator of disease or health problems. Entire vegetation types, successional stages and combinations of factors must be used.

  2. Internationally Comparable Health Indices

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Erik; Kapteyn, Arie; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intractable problems in international health research is the lack of comparability of health measures across countries or cultures. We develop a cross-country measurement model for health in which functional limitations, self-reports of health, and a physical measure are interrelated to construct health indices. To establish comparability across countries, we define the measurement scales by the physical measure while other parameters vary by country to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in response patterns. We find significant cross-country variation in response styles of health reports along with variability in genuine health that is related to differences in national income. Our health indices achieve satisfactory reliability of about 80% and their gradients by age, income, and wealth for the most part show the expected patterns. Moreover, the health indices correlate much more strongly with income and net worth than self reported health measures. PMID:20572201

  3. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some environmental risks are a part of the natural world, like radon in the soil. Others are the result of human activities, like lead poisoning from paint, or exposure to asbestos or mercury from mining or industrial use. NIH: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

  4. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Donham, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10114933

  5. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Maple, Brenda T.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1991-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10122365

  6. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Cathy A.; Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Lazenby, Helen C.

    1992-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10120177

  7. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Singer, Naphtale; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1991-01-01

    Contained in this regular feature of the journal is a section on each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10112766

  8. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Cathy A.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Levit, Katharine R.; Maple, Brenda T.; Stewart, Madie W.

    1991-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10110874

  9. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1993-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:25372246

  10. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1993-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:25372574

  11. Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA): piloting an integrative design for evaluating environmental health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Modem methods in molecular biology and advanced computational tools show promise in elucidating complex interactions that occur between genes and environmental factors in diseases such as asthma; however appropriately designed studies are critical for these methods to...

  12. Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; James, John; Russo, Dane; Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; Groves, Theron

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Health activity for the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was formed to develop an overall strategy for safeguarding crew members from potential airborne hazards anticipated on missions of extended duration. These efforts were necessary because of major modifications to the air revitalization system of the U.S. Space Shuttle and an increased potential for environmental health risks associated with longer space flights. Degradation of air quality in the Shuttle during a space flight mission has the potential to affect the performance of the crew not only during piloting, landing, or egress, but also during space flight. It was anticipated that the risk of significant deterioration in air quality would increase with extended mission lengths and could result from: (1) a major chemical contamination incident, such as a thermodegradation event or toxic leak, (2) continual accumulation of volatile organic compounds to unacceptable levels, (3) excessive levels of airborne particles, (4) excessive levels of microorganisms, or (5) accumulation of airborne pathogens.

  13. Towards validating use of self reported health (SRH) for community-based studies: Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental health impact assessment (HIA) studies, should consider social, behavioral, nutritional, dietary, environmental exposure and health risk factors at both the individual and community levels. Chemicals measured in blood or urine are often evaluated in relation to one ...

  14. MACROPHAGE AGGREGATES AS INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing awareness of adverse effects of environmental contamination has lead to scrutiny of various biomarkers as early indicators of these effects. he use of splenic macrophage aggregates (MA) as indicators of fish health and environmental degradation was evaluated using thr...

  15. ECOSYSTEM HEALTH: ENERGY INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Ecosystem Health and Ecological Integrity
    2. Historical Background on Ecosystem Health
    3. Energy Systems Analysis, Health and Emergy
    4. Energy and Ecosystems
    5. Direct Measures of Ecosystem Health
    6. Indirect Measures of Ecosystem Health

  16. GENETIC INDICATORS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    University of California, Davis, Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory; US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory, Molecular Ecology Research Division, Cincinnati, OH; US EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Breeze, FL;...

  17. Use of biomarkers to indicate exposure of children to organophosphate pesticides: implications for a longitudinal study of children's environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Denise; Barr, Dana B; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Because of their history of widespread use in the United States and unknown long-term health effects, organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are being considered as a chemical class of interest in planning for the National Children's Study, a longitudinal study of children's environmental health. The availability and appropriate use of biomarkers to determine absorbed doses of environmental chemicals such as OPs are critical issues. Biomarkers of OP exposure are typically measured in blood and urine; however, postpartum meconium has been shown to be a promising matrix for assessing cumulative in utero exposure to the fetus, and studies are currently in progress to determine the utility of using saliva and amniotic fluid as matrices. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available OP exposure monitoring methods (cholinesterase inhibition in blood, pesticides in blood, metabolites in urine and alternative matrices); study design issues for a large, long-term study of children's environmental health; and current research and future research needs. Because OPs are rapidly metabolized and excreted, the utility of one-time spot measurements of OP biomarkers is questionable unless background exposure levels are relatively stable over time or a specific time frame of interest for the study is identified and samples are collected accordingly. Biomarkers of OP exposure can be a valuable tool in epidemiology of children's environmental health, as long as they are applied and interpreted appropriately. PMID:14644670

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you healthy? Is your environment healthy for you? What does it mean to be healthy? Does it mean you're not achy, or that you are not visibly sick? The World Health Organization defines health broadly as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being. This means that bei...

  19. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... manmade. Learn More Air Pollution Chemicals Climate Change Water Pollution Next Previous Interested in a trailer of our ...

  20. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it can lead to health problems. ... of the natural world, like radon in the soil. Others are the result of human activities, like ...

  1. Ecosystem Health: Energy Indicators.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Just as for human beings health is a concept that applies to the condition of the whole organism, the health of an ecosystem refers to the condition of the ecosystem as a whole. For this reason, the study and characterization of ecosystems is fundamental to establishing accurate ...

  2. [Indicators for population and individual risk in assessing the effect of environmental factors on the health of children].

    PubMed

    Berdnik, O V; Serykh, L V; Antomonov, M Iu

    2001-01-01

    Populational studies define a risk for abnormalities forming in children residing in varying polluted areas and compare it with the risk due to other health-forming factors. To define an individual risk, the authors have developed scales rating the likelihood of abnormalities that can occur in each child in relation to the biomedical or social risk factors in children, to their residence in poor environmental areas, to the child's age and sex. PMID:11665543

  3. Thermodynamic indicators for environmental certification.

    PubMed

    Panzieri, Margherita; Porcelli, Marcello; Pulselli, Federico Maria

    2002-09-01

    The Earth is an open thermodynamic system, that remains in a steady state far from the equilibrium, through energy and matter exchanges with the surrounding environment. These natural constraints, which prevent the system from maximizing its entropy, are threatened by human action and our ecosystem needs urgent protection. In this viewpoint the environmental certification was born, according to international standards ISO 14001, ISO 14040, and European Regulation EMAS. These are voluntary adhesions to a program of environmental protection by companies, administrations and organizations which, starting from the respect of the existing environmental laws and regulations, decide to further improve their environmental performance. To obtain and maintain certification of a system is necessary to apply some indicators to evaluate its environmental performance and to demonstrate its progressive improvement. Here we propose to use for this purpose the thermodynamic indicators produced from energy analysis by Odum. The case study is Montalcino city (Italy) and energy indicators are used to evaluate environmental performance of this system where exist different activities, from agricultural productions, to tourism. Results show that energy analysis could become a valid standard monitoring method for environmental certification, especially in consideration of its wide application field. PMID:12407910

  4. Environmental Health Promotion: Bridging Traditional Environmental Health and Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL HELATH INDICATORS-DIVERSE PROGRAMS, COMMON METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Environmental Health Indicators are quantitative measures of important environmental health factors that can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented policies or programs for ...

  6. Biometric parameters of the bream (Abramis brama) as indicators for long-term changes in fish health and environmental quality--data from the German ESB.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Diana; Paulus, Martin; Veith, Michael; Klein, Roland

    2015-02-01

    Piscifaunal health depends upon the state and quality of the aquatic environment. Variations in physical condition of fish may therefore be attributed to changes in environmental quality. Based on time series of up to 20 years of biometric data of bream from multiple sampling sites of the German environmental specimen bank (ESB), this study assessed whether changes in biometric parameters are able to indicate long-term alterations in fish health and environmental quality. Evaluated biometric parameters of fish health comprised length and weight of individuals of a defined age class, the condition factor, lipid content and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Although there are negative trends of the HSI, the overall development of health parameters can be interpreted as positive. This seems to suggest that health parameters conclusively mirror the long-term improvement of water quality in the selected rivers. However, the applicability of the condition factor as well as lipid content as indicators for fish health remained subject to restrictions. Altogether, the results from the ESB confirmed the high value of biometric parameters for monitoring of long-term changes in state and quality of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24824506

  7. Study of the Continuous Improvement Trend for Health, Safety and Environmental Indicators, after Establishment of Integrated Management System (IMS) in a Pharmaceutical Industry in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mariouryad, Pegah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Nasiri, Parvin; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Background Nowadays, organizations try to improve their services and consequently adopt management systems and standards which have become key parts in various industries. One of these management systems which have been noticed in the recent years is Integrated Management System that is the combination of quality, health, safety and environment management systems. Aim This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the improvement trend after establishment of integrated management system for health, safety and environment indicators, in a pharmaceutical industry in Iran. Materials and Methods First, during several inspections in different parts of the industry, indicators that should have been noted were listed and then these indicators were organized in 3 domains of health, safety and environment in the form of a questionnaire that followed Likert method of scaling. Also, the weight of each index was resulted from averaging out of 30 managers and the viewpoints of the related experts in the field. Moreover, by checking the documents and evidence of different years (5 contemplation years of this study), the score of each indicator was determined by multiplying the weight and score of the indices and were finally analysed. Results Over 5 years, scores of health scope indicators, increased from 161.99 to 202.23. Score in the first year after applying the integrated management system establishment was 172.37 in safety part and in the final year increased to 197.57. The changes of environmental scope rates, from the beginning of the program up to the last year increased from 49.24 to 64.27. Conclusion Integrated management systems help organizations to improve programs to achieve their objectives. Although in this study all trends of health, safety and environmental indicator changes were positive, but at the same time showed to be slow. So, one can suggest that the result of an annual evaluation should be applied in planning future activities for the years ahead

  8. Spider webs as environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Hose, G C; James, J M; Gray, M R

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of spider webs from limestone arches in New South Wales, Australia showed levels of lead and zinc to be several times higher at Jenolan Caves than reference sites at Abercrombie and Wombeyan Caves. The high concentrations at Jenolan were attributed to emissions from motor vehicles that travel through the arch. Analysis of water-soluble ions in webs from Jenolan and Abercrombie Caves showed large differences between the sites, which could be explained by differences in the geology and biology of the cave environments. Spider webs proved useful indicators of environmental chemistry and undoubtedly have applications beyond the cave environments studied here. PMID:12442796

  9. The risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children as an environmental health indicator to guide preventive activities in Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Cifuentes, Enrique; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Romieu, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an environmental health indicator for use as a basis for developing preventive measures against Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children from the rural municipalities of Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and September 1998 among 1171 children under 14 years of age living in 588 dwellings selected from 11 communities. Trained interviewers used a questionnaire to identify risk factors for infection (socioeconomic, sanitation and hygiene variables) and collected stool samples from each child for parasitological tests. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 12.2%. The results showed the protective effects of availability of water in the washbasin and better hygiene, sanitation and socioeconomic status; the interactive effect of crowding was five times larger in households without water in the washbasin than in those having water. There was a statistically significant association between infection and children's age. CONCLUSION: The environmental health indicator, which incorporated the most significant biological, environmental and social factors associated with the risk of A. lumbricoides infection in children from these communities, should contribute to the development of surveillance tools and health protection measures in this population. PMID:11884972

  10. MECHANISTIC INDICATORS OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA (MICA): A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH FOR THE INTEGRATION OF MULTIFACTORIAL EXPOSURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modem methods in molecular biology and advanced computational tools show promise in elucidating complex interactions that occur between genes and environmental factors in diseases such as asthma. However, appropriately designed studies are critical for these methods to reach the...

  11. Environmental health and Hispanic children.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, R; Delgado, J L; Herrell, R

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indicators that Hispanics face a disproportionate risk of exposure to environmental hazards. Ambient air pollution, worker exposure to chemicals, indoor air pollution, and drinking water quality are among the top four threats to human health and are all areas in which indicators point to elevated risk for Hispanic populations. These data, juxtaposed with data on the health status of Hispanics, tell us that the environmental health status of Hispanics and their children is poor. At the same time, significant inadequacies in the collection of data on Hispanics make it difficult to make improving Hispanic environmental health status a priority. These inadequacies include the failure to use Hispanic identifiers in data collection and failure to collect sample sizes large enough to allow for breakouts of data by Hispanic subgroup. In addressing environmental justice issues, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) should prioritize improving the quantifiability of environmental exposures and risk based on race or ethnicity. However, improving data should not be the prerequisite to significant, affirmative steps by DHHS and U.S. EPA to address environmental and environmental health problems facing Hispanic communities. In particular, a health-based approach to environmental justice should be the priority. PMID:8549482

  12. Environmental Health Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Alan; Smith, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes an environmental health science technology curriculum designed to provide technicians in the areas of air, water and wastewater analyses, treatment plant operators, public health enforcement officers, and pollution inspectors. (GS)

  13. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS INITIATIVE AND BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), there are several on-going programs and projects that collect health and environmental information. The USEPA's Environmental Indicators Initiative is one such program which includes the development of environmenta...

  14. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Timothy S.; Echols, Kathy R.; Davis, Anne P.; May, Tom W.; Orazio, Carl E.; Coyle, James J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    Seven fish species were collected from 14 sites on rivers in the Colorado River Basin (CDRB) from August to October 2003. Spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants were documented and contaminant effects on the fish were assessed. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Colorado River and on the Yampa, Green, Gunnison, San Juan, and Gila Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using performance-based and instrumental methods. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) was measured using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations were elevated throughout the CDRB, and pesticides concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 ?g/g ww) at all sites except from the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 ?g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 ?g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 ?g/g ww). Concentrations of other banned pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds

  15. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  16. 2013 environmental health legislation.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Doug; Ellis, Amy C

    2013-10-01

    The NEHA Government Affairs program has a long and productive association with the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). The organizations have worked together on any number of legislative and policy areas that directly impact the environmental health profession. One of the keys to the successes of the NEHA/NCSL collaboration has been the recognition of the fact that often some of the most significant legislation and policy initiatives related to environmental public health occur in state legislatures. The states have, in a very real sense, been the innovators in developing new programs and practices. In recognition of this fact, we have asked NCSL to provide occasional overviews of state environmental public health legislative activity, covering topics that are of the most pressing public concern. Doug Farquhar, program director for NCSI's Environmental Health Program, has worked with NCSL since 1990. Mr. Farquhar directs development, management, and research for the Environmental Health Program. These projects encompass consultation and policy analysis of state and federal policies and statutes, regulations, and programs regarding environmental and related topics for state legislatures and administrative programs. Amy Ellis is a law clerk for NCSL within the Environment, Energy, and Transportation Group. As a law clerk she has researched a wide variety of environmental health policies. She is expected to obtain her JD from the University of Colorado Law School in 2015. PMID:24288852

  17. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  18. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health.

    PubMed

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is "at risk" is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  19. Pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus

    2005-01-01

    The links between environmental agents, environmental conditions, and disease and disability among children are receiving increasing attention. Evidence abounds that children are more susceptible than adults to the damaging effects of environmental agents and conditions. This evidence is illuminated by the much-publicized and expanding research agenda on the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and treatment of environmentally related disease in the pediatric population. Encouragingly, advances in molecular biology and other sciences are providing important tools to aid pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in meeting the environmental health needs of children. PMID:15712790

  20. Environmental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A

    2003-08-01

    Egypt shares most of the environmental problems of developing countries. One of the most important health and environmental problems is air pollution resulting from using fuel, burning operations, and the increase of automobile exhaust in cities. Moreover, the deficiency of efficient sanitation services and water pollution caused by the breaking down of old and consumed water networks, as well as the various problems in construction, designing and maintenance of sewage system resulted in the appearance and prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases. There are several examples of exposure to chemical genotoxicants, and lifestyle exposures in the population, which create unique combinations of environmental risk factors for diseases such as cancer. Environmental factors may interact with infection and lead to enhancement of carcinogenicity processes. Currently, there is a growing interest in environmental mutagenicity and carcinogenicity research. The use of different biomarkers and genetic susceptibility testing can contribute effectively to risk assessment. The Government of Egypt recognizes and deals seriously with these problems. The State Ministry of Environment has initiated new policies that include risk minimization, law enforcement, treatment of pollution at source, mitigation procedures and inter-sectorial collaboration. The Ministry of Health and Population recognized the link between economic development, environment and health. It elaborated a national environment health strategy in accordance with the format of the regional and global environmental health policy. This strategy identified priority areas, which requires further action to be taken and to be implemented. Environmental health was included as one of the four main objectives of the strategic Healthy Egyptians 2010 Initiative. Specific objectives and plans for the initiative are presented. PMID:12971689

  1. National Center for Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z # Environmental Health Topics Emergency and Environmental Health Services Chemical Weapons Elimination Environmental Health Services Healthy Homes Healthy Places – Community Design Lead Poisoning Prevention Vessel Sanitation Environmental Hazards and Health Effects Air Pollution ...

  2. Environmental integrity, racism, health.

    PubMed

    Westra, L

    1996-05-17

    Environmental degradation seriously affects human health. Thus, a close relationship exists between the protection of ecosystem integrity and wilderness on one hand, and human health on the other. However, there is an overarching, holistic perspective in laws and regulations--as well as morality--to to maintain a healthy relationship between the two. Problem areas focused on in this paper are: (a) climate change and global warming; (b) food production; and (c) global equity. This paper argues for the principle of integrity, which provides an holistic perspective, suggested as a better approach than that of current regulations to mitigate against associated threats to human health. PMID:8693347

  3. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  4. Continuing Environmental Health Education for Environmental Health Personnel, Lesson Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Environmental Health, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents the sixth and final lesson on general environmental health, appearing since January, 1977 in this journal. Twenty-five multiple choice questions appear dealing with environmental health topics such as food sanitation, milk sanitation, vector control, public health housing, institutional environmental health, waste disposal, air pollution,…

  5. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  6. Environmental Health: Health Care Reform's Missing Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadope, Cece Modupe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A series of articles that examine environmental health and discuss health care reform; connections between chlorine, chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins and reproductive disorders and cancers; the rise in asthma; connections between poverty and environmental health problems; and organizations for health care professionals who want to address…

  7. Educating Future Environmental Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Knechtges, Paul L; Kelley, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Future environmental health problems will require a new generation of educated and trained professionals. Efforts to enhance the environmental public health workforce have been promoted by several organizations. While progress has been measured by these organizations, many environmental health academic programs are experiencing budget reductions and lower enrollments. One of the reasons for this trend is the so-called higher education crisis. We argue that training is not equivalent to education in the environmental health sciences, albeit the two terms are often used interchangeably. Organizations involved with the education, training, and credentialing of environmental health professionals must work together to ensure the viability and effectiveness of environmental health academic programs. PMID:26617460

  8. Environmental indicators of intra-urban hetererogeneity.

    PubMed

    Rego, Rita Franco; Lima, Veronica Cadena; Lima, Ana Cerqueira; Barreto, Mauricio L; Prado, Matildes S; Strina, Agostino

    2013-06-01

    A large number of human diseases are related to poor access to water and sewer systems, inadequate solid waste management and deficient storm water drainage. The goal of this study was to formulate environmental sanitation indicators and classify sanitation conditions in specific sewer basins and their respective neighborhoods. The database used contains information on the following sanitation components in these areas: water supply, sewer systems, urban drainage, road pavement, building typology and public cleaning. Data was analyzed using cluster analysis. The key variable of each component was identified, and eight sewer basins and twenty-three neighborhoods were classified into the following categories: good, regular, and poor. The use of environmental sanitation indicators allows decision makers to identify critical areas and define priorities for improving environmental sanitation conditions. PMID:23778549

  9. INDICATORS OF GREAT BASIN RANGELAND HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early-warning indicators of rangeland health can be used to estimate the functional integrity of a site and may allow sustainable management of desert rangelands. The utility of several vegetation canopy-based indicators of rangeland health at 32 Great Basin rangeland locations was investigated. T...

  10. SNTP environmental, safety, and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

  11. Environmental health program in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrazzo, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    The NASA policy on environmental health uses medical and environmental concepts to: (1) Determine the health status of employees; (2) prevent illness and promote good health among employees; and (3) identify and control factors that affect the health of personnel and quality of environment. Evaluation and control of physical, chemical, radiological and biological factors surrounding personnel and which represent physiological and psychological stresses and impairment are considered.

  12. Socioeconomic indicators that matter for population health.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Paula M; Pritchard, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Increasing research and policy attention is being given to how the socioeconomic environment influences health. This article discusses potential indicators or metrics regarding the socioeconomic environment that could play a role in an incentive-based system for population health. Given the state of the research regarding the influence of socioeconomic contextual variables on health outcomes, the state of data and metrics for these variables at the local level, and the potential for program and policy intervention, we recommend a set of metrics related to the socioeconomic composition of a community (including poverty, unemployment, and public assistance rates); educational attainment and achievement; racial segregation; and social-capital indicators such as density of voluntary organizations and voter turnout. These indicators reflect the evidence that population health gains depend on improvements in many of the fundamental social determinants of health, including meaningful employment, income security, educational opportunities, and engaged, active communities. PMID:20550832

  13. Indicators of recent environmental change in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, G.C.; D`Arrigo, R.D.; Juday, G.

    1997-12-31

    Climate models predict that global warming due to the effects of increasing trace gases will be amplified in northern high latitude regions, including Alaska. Several environmental indicators, including tree-ring based temperature reconstructions, borcal forest growth measurements and observations of glacial retreat all indicate that the general warming of the past century has been significant relative to prior centuries to millenia. The tree-ring records for central and northern Alaska indicate that annual temperature increased over the past century, peaked in the 1940s, and are still near the highest level for the past three centuries (Jacoby and D`Arrigo 1995). The tree-ring analyses also suggest that drought stress may now be a factor limiting growth at many northern sites. The recent warming combined with drier years may be altering the response of tree growth to climate and raising the likelihood of forest changes in Alaska and other boreal forests. Other tree-ring and forest data from southern and interior Alaska provide indices of the response of vegetation to extreme events (e.g., insect outbreaks, snow events) in Alaska (Juday and marler 1996). Historical maps, field measurements and satellite imagery indicate that Alaskan glaciers have receded over the past century (e.g., Hall and Benson 1996). Severe outbreaks of bark beetles may be on the increase due to warming, which can shorten their reproductive cycle. Such data and understanding of causes are useful for policy makers and others interested in evaluation of possible impacts of trace-gas induced warming and environmental change in the United States.

  14. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  15. Trends in Environmental Health Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews the trends in environmental health engineering and describes programs in environmental engineering technology and the associated environmental engineering courses at Western Kentucky University (four-year program), Wytheville Community College (two-year program), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (four-year program). (PR)

  16. Quality measurement indicators for Iranian Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, quality is a serious concern in development of organizations. There are various indicators to assess quality and the purpose of this study was to identify the main indicators for quality measurement of Iranian health centers. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in three stages: first, review of the literature was performed to identify different indicators for quality measurement in health centers; second, a tworound Delphi process was used with participation of 18 experts in both rounds; third, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied to give weights to each indicator. Results: Twenty-seven indicators were identified from the literature review stage. The Delphi method reduced the list to 4 indicators. Developing a quality plan in the health center had the highest weight (38%) and percentage of followed complaints the lowest (12%). The consistency rate was 7.2% indicating appropriateness of the data. Conclusion: This list of indicators can be used as a template for measuring quality of health centers in Iran and possibly in other developing countries. PMID:26034730

  17. Communication models in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action. PMID:23898914

  18. Lake ecosystem health assessment: indicators and methods.

    PubMed

    Xu, F L; Tao, S; Dawson, R W; Li, P G; Cao, J

    2001-09-01

    A set of ecological indicators including structural, functional, and system-level aspects were proposed for a lake ecosystem health assessment, according to the structural, functional, and system-level responses of lake ecosystems to chemical stresses including acidification, eutrophication and copper, oil and pesticide contamination. The structural indicators included phytoplankton cell size and biomass, zooplankton body size and biomass, species diversity, macro- and micro-zooplankton biomass, the zooplankton phytoplankton ratio, and the macrozooplankton microzooplankton ratio. The functional indicators encompassed the algal C assimilation ratio, resource use efficiency, community production, gross production/respiration (i.e. P/R) ratio, gross production standing crop biomass (i.e. P/B) ratio, and standing crop biomass unit energy flow (i.e. B/E) ratio. The ecosystem-level indicators conisisted of ecological buffer capacities, energy, and structural energy. Based on these indicators, a direct measurement method (DMM) and an ecological modeling method (EMM) for lake ecosystem health assessment were developed. The DMM procedures were designed to: (1) identify key indicators; (2) measure directly or calculate indirectly the selected indicators; and, (3) assess ecosystem health on the basis of the indicator values. The EMM procedures were designed to: (1) determine the structure and complexity of the ecological model according to the lake's ecosystem structure; (2) establish an ecological model by designing a conceptual diagram, establishing model equations, and estimating model pararmeters; (3) compare the simulated values of important state variables and process rates with actual observations; (4) calculate ecosystem health indicators using the ecological model; and, (5) assess lake ecosystem health according to the values of the ecological indicators. The results of a case study demonstrated that both methods provided similar results which corresponded with the

  19. OREGON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROFILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority and Low Income Populations, and in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, this project will profile the state of Oregon to identify environmental justice communi...

  20. Evaluating microbial indicators of environmental condition in Oregon rivers.

    PubMed

    Pennington, A T; Harding, A K; Hendricks, C W; Campbell, H M

    2001-12-01

    Traditional bacterial indicators used in public health to assess water quality and the Biolog system were evaluated to compare their response to biological, chemical, and physical habitat indicators of stream condition both within the state of Oregon and among ecoregion aggregates (Coast Range, Willamette Valley, Cascades, and eastern Oregon). Forty-three randomly selected Oregon river sites were sampled during the summer in 1997 and 1998. The public health indicators included heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli (EC). Statewide, HPC correlated strongly with physical habitat (elevation, riparian complexity, % canopy presence, and indices of agriculture, pavement, road, pasture, and total disturbance) and chemistry (pH, dissolved O2, specific conductance, acid-neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon, total N, total P, SiO2, and SO4). FC and EC were significantly correlated generally with the river chemistry indicators. TC bacteria significantly correlated with riparian complexity, road disturbance, dissolved O2, and SiO2 and FC. Analyzing the sites by ecoregion, eastern Oregon was characterized by high HPC, FC, EC, nutrient loads, and indices of human disturbance, whereas the Cascades ecoregion had correspondingly low counts of these indicators. The Coast Range and Willamette Valley presented inconsistent indicator patterns that are more difficult to characterize. Attempts to distinguish between ecoregions with the Biolog system were not successful, nor did a statistical pattern emerge between the first five principle components and the other environmental indicators. Our research suggests that some traditional public health microbial indicators may be useful in measuring the environmental condition of lotic systems. PMID:11915970

  1. Evaluating Microbial Indicators of Environmental Condition in Oregon Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Alan T.; Harding, Anna K.; Hendricks, Charles W.; Campbell, Heidi M. K.

    2001-12-01

    Traditional bacterial indicators used in public health to assess water quality and the Biolog® system were evaluated to compare their response to biological, chemical, and physical habitat indicators of stream condition both within the state of Oregon and among ecoregion aggregates (Coast Range, Willamette Valley, Cascades, and eastern Oregon). Forty-three randomly selected Oregon river sites were sampled during the summer in 1997 and 1998. The public health indicators included heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli (EC). Statewide, HPC correlated strongly with physical habitat (elevation, riparian complexity, % canopy presence, and indices of agriculture, pavement, road, pasture, and total disturbance) and chemistry (pH, dissolved O2, specific conductance, acid-neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon, total N, total P, SiO2, and SO4). FC and EC were significantly correlated generally with the river chemistry indicators. TC bacteria significantly correlated with riparian complexity, road disturbance, dissolved O2, and SiO2 and FC. Analyzing the sites by ecoregion, eastern Oregon was characterized by high HPC, FC, EC, nutrient loads, and indices of human disturbance, whereas the Cascades ecoregion had correspondingly low counts of these indicators. The Coast Range and Willamette Valley presented inconsistent indicator patterns that are more difficult to characterize. Attempts to distinguish between ecoregions with the Biolog system were not successful, nor did a statistical pattern emerge between the first five principle components and the other environmental indicators. Our research suggests that some traditional public health microbial indicators may be useful in measuring the environmental condition of lotic systems.

  2. Environmental policy indicators: A systems model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Leslie Edwards; Cayer, N. Joseph

    1993-09-01

    This article describes and tests a systems theory-based policy indicators model. The framework is used to examine propositions about linkages between states' ecological-spatial characteristics and subsequent selected solid waste management (SWM) -related environmental policies. It was hypothesized that state characteristics of: (1) population density (used as a garbage-per-land area index), (2) population convergence within urban areas, and (3) percent population change in the interval 1980 1985, could jointly explain state variation in both the number and the vigor of SWM policy outputs. Greater levels of spatial pressure were proposed to be related directly to more numerous, more convincing policies. Proposals are grounded in the literature of organizational search theory, crisis stimulation, and technological pressure. Results revealed that the sociospatial model in fact could explain a reasonable proportion of policy variation across states. However, not all hypotheses are supported. Population change shows an indirect, rather than the anticipated direct, relationship with policy output levels. In addition, when used in the model as a pollution intensity index, population density failed to contribute significantly to an explanation of differences in state SWM policy levels. The analysis raises questions about changes occurring over time in the nature and direction of linkages between sociospatial measures and policy responses. This study suggests that strengthening policy indicator models may require questioning key assumptions and theoretical bases, conducting longitudinal studies, and factoring in political, economic, and other policy environment forces.

  3. Continuing Environmental Health Education: A Course for Environmental Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Raymond A.; Walter, William G.

    1979-01-01

    This lesson is the third of a series of six lessons on general environmental health. The series of multiple choice tests covers administration, food sanitation, vector control, housing, radiation, accident prevention, water supplies, waste disposal, air pollution, noise pollution, occupational health, recreation facilities, and water pollution.…

  4. Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

  5. An economic approach to environmental indices

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses the directional output distance function from economic productivity theory as an alternative approach to environmental index construction. We use the directional output distance function to aggregate multiple environmental objectives into one measure of environme...

  6. Health Literacy, Smoking, and Health Indicators in African American Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A; Cano, Miguel A; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical health (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after we controlled for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  7. Taking Environmental Health Education Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Pauline M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a nursing school developed innovative relationships with government and community agencies to integrate environmental health in the curriculum. Provides suggestions for curriculum development and student and faculty involvement; lists resources. (SK)

  8. Environmental health--champions of One Health.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Christopher; Stull, Paul A; Balster, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The authors find overwhelming evidence among environmental health practitioners that One Health disease reporting concepts are essential to the early detection of, and expedient recovery from, pandemic disease events. The authors also find, however, extraordinary evidence that local public health is not prepared, and potentially unaware of their responsibility, to be the initiator of the zoonotic infectious disease information intelligence necessary to make such early event mitigation possible. The authors propose that NEHA take an affirmative step towards the development of local public health-initiated biosurveillance systems by organizing and leading a tabletop study group that includes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Institute of Medicine, and a robust panel of NEHA state affiliates. This study group should discuss the infrastructure necessary for local public health-the frontline against community-acquired infectious disease-to be the initiators of environmental health, veterinary, and medical One Health biosurveillance systems. The need to establish a community-focused, integrated disease prevention strategy that cautions people about the risks associated with food, water, animal, and contaminated environmental media, both prior to and during epidemic and pandemic events is equally important. PMID:23947288

  9. Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Stream Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brook S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes Ohio's Scenic Rivers Monitoring Program that uses benthic macroinvertebrates, such as the stonefly, mayfly, and water penny beetle larva, as key indicators of water quality and stream health. Presents a three-category scheme for invertebrates based upon their tolerance to pollution. Students can collect samples of these organisms,…

  10. Health Indicators: A Tool for Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.

    2006-01-01

    A visual tool used to evaluate instructional program performance has been designed by the University of Hawaii Community College system. The tool combines features from traffic lights, blood-chemistry test reports, and industry production control charts, and is labeled the Program Health-Indicator Chart. The tool was designed to minimize the labor…

  11. Environmental health program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  12. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  13. Health Care Performance Indicators for Health Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Ronchi, Elettra; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Health Information Systems (HISs) are expected to have a positive impact on quality and efficiency of health care. Rapid investment in and diffusion of HISs has increased the importance of monitoring the adoption and impacts of them in order to learn from the initiatives, and to provide decision makers evidence on the role of HISs in improving health care. However, reliable and comparable data across initiatives in various countries are rarely available. A four-phase approach is used to compare different HIS indicator methodologies in order to move ahead in defining HIS indicators for monitoring effects of HIS on health care performance. Assessed approaches are strong on different aspects, which provide some opportunities for learning across them but also some challenges. As yet, all of the approaches do not define goals for monitoring formally. Most focus on health care structural and process indicators (HIS availability and intensity of use). However, many approaches are generic in description of HIS functionalities and context as well as their impact mechanisms on health care for HIS benchmarking. The conclusion is that, though structural and process indicators of HIS interventions are prerequisites for monitoring HIS impacts on health care outputs and outcomes, more explicit definition is needed of HIS contexts, goals, functionalities and their impact mechanisms in order to move towards common process and outcome indicators. A bottom-up-approach (participation of users) could improve development and use of context-sensitive HIS indicators. PMID:27198102

  14. Environmental Lead and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marie

    This paper discusses the threat to children's health posed by environmental exposure to lead, focusing on public policy issues surrounding lead exposure in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia, the current blood lead level at which there is a health concern is at or above 25 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl) of blood for infants and…

  15. Epigenomics in Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Brock C.; Marsit, Carmen J.

    2011-01-01

    This review considers the emerging relationships between environmental factors and epigenetic alterations and the application of genome-wide assessments to better define these relationships. First we will briefly cover epigenetic programming in development, one-carbon metabolism, and exposures that may disrupt normal developmental programming of epigenetic states. In addition, because a large portion of epigenetic research has focused on cancer, we discuss exposures associated with carcinogenesis including asbestos, alcohol, radiation, arsenic, and air pollution. Research on other exposures that may affect epigenetic states such as endocrine disruptors is also described, and we also review the evidence for epigenetic alterations associated with aging that may reflect cumulative effects of exposures. From this evidence, we posit potential mechanisms by which exposures modify epigenetic states, noting that understanding the true effect of environmental exposures on the human epigenome will require additional research with appropriate epidemiologic studies and application of novel technologies. With a more comprehensive understanding of the affects of exposures on the epigenome, including consideration of genetic background, the prediction of the toxic potential of new compounds may be more readily achieved, and may lead to the development of more personalized disease prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22303378

  16. Urban Environmental Health Hazards and Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on “Improving the living environment” prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings. PMID:17450427

  17. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR QUINOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for quinoline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constit...

  18. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Formaldehyde

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous cons...

  19. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrylonitrile was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous con...

  20. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ANILINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for aniline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinatti, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constitue...

  1. Health Care Indicators: Hospital, Employment, and Price Indicators for the Health Care Industry: Second Quarter 1999

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Mary Lee; Heffler, Stephen K.; Donham, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    This feature presents highlights from statistics on health care utilization, prices, expenses, employment, and work hours, as well as on national economic activity, with brief analysis of these economic indicators. These statistics provide an early indication of changes occurring in the health care sector and within the general economy. Although most statistics include data for the second quarter of 1999, American Hospital Association data are through the third quarter of 1998. PMID:11481776

  2. Health Care Indicators: Hospital, Employment, and Price Indicators for the Health Care Industry: First Quarter 1999

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Mary Lee; Heffler, Stephen K.; Donham, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    This feature presents highlights from statistics on health care utilization, prices, expenses, employment, and work hours, as well as on national economic activity, with brief analysis of these economic indicators. These statistics provide an early indication of changes occurring in the health care sector and within the general economy. Although most data are for the first quarter of 1999, American Hospital Association data (Tables 1 and 2) refer to the third quarter of 1998. PMID:11481737

  3. An Operating Environmental Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipana, J. G.; Masters, R. L.; Winter, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some concepts of an operational program for medical and environmental health are outlined. Medical services of this program are primarily concerned with emergency care, laboratory examinations, advice to private physician with patient permission, medical monitoring activities, and suggestions for treatment or control of the malfunction.

  4. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  5. FIFTH NHEERL SYMPOSIUM FLYER -- INDICATORS IN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Announcement for NHEERL Fifth Symposium - Indicators in Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. The purpose of the symposium is to address assessment of risk to public health or environmental resources which requires competent characterization of stressors and corresponding effec...

  6. FIFTH NHEERL SYMPOSIUM POSTER -- INDICATORS IN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Poster for announcing NHEERL Fifth Symposium - Indicators in Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. The purpose of the symposium is to address assessment of risk to public health or environmental resources which requires competent characterization of stressors and corresponding ...

  7. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  8. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants, Health Indicators, and Reproductive Biomarkers in Fish from the Mobile, Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint, Savannah, and Pee Dee River Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; May, Tom W.; Claunch, Rachael; Wieser, Carla; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from 13 sites in 4 river basins in the southeastern United States to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Mercury concentrations in bass samples from all sites exceeded toxicity thresholds for mammals [>0.1 micrograms per gram wet weight (ug/g ww)], fish (>0.2 ug/g ww), and birds (>0.3 ug/g ww) and were greatest (>0.5 ug/g ww) in samples from the Alabama River at Eureka Landing, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks, Alabama; the Apalachicola River at Blountstown, Florida; the Savannah River at Sylvania, Georgia; and the Pee Dee River at Bucksport, South Carolina. Selenium concentrations were relatively high (>0.75 ug/g ww) in fish from the Tombigbee River at Lavaca, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks; and the Chattahoochee River at Omaha, Georgia compared to those from other sites. Concentrations of 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)- 1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were high in fish from the Chattahoochee River at Omaha and the Mobile River near Bucks, which was near a 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-1,1- dichloroethylene (DDT) formulating facility that historically discharged into the lower Mobile River. Toxaphene concentrations in fish from the Flint River near Albany, Georgia (60-100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) ww) may pose a risk to fish. Concentrations of other formerly used (total chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, aldrin, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene) and currently used (pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole

  9. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  10. Biomarkers and pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed

    Lubin, B; Lewis, R

    1995-09-01

    It is now possible to identify biochemical and/or cellular changes in humans due to exposure to an environmental toxin. These changes are called biomarkers and are currently used in research studies to identify individuals exposed to specific toxic substances. Advances in the field of biomarker technology may have important implications for the detection, prevention, and treatment of certain diseases in children. This technology may enable physicians to screen children who have no clinically detectable illness for evidence of exposure to specific toxins. Such information could lead to implementation of preventive measures and development of new therapeutic strategies. However, several important issues, including potential adverse consequences resulting from the widespread use of this technology, must be considered prior to its utilization within a clinical setting. Leaders of the pediatric and public health communities should recognize the paucity of scientific data in the pediatric environmental health area, and new approaches to this important aspect of child health should be developed. This article will address several of the issues involved in pediatric environmental health and consider questions that should be answered as the potential for technology transfer becomes a reality. PMID:8549501

  11. Environmental health and African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B

    1991-01-01

    As environmental health has taken on immensely increased significance in the prevention of disease, dysfunction, and premature death, its boundaries have been anything but stable. This instability, along with a multitude of demographic, social, and economic currents, have brought into stark relief the increasing demand for scientists who have the skills and knowledge to perform environmental risk assessment and implement effective risk management policies and services. Despite this demand far too few African Americans want, or are prepared, to pursue careers in sciences. This paper describes efforts to address this problem and suggests why such initiatives may not yield the desired results. PMID:1951793

  12. [Information systems in health and health indicators: an integrating perspective].

    PubMed

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Elvira-Martínez, David; Labordena-Barceló, María Jesús; Loyola-Elizondo, Enrique

    2010-02-01

    Health Information Systems (HIS) are the core support to decision-making in health organizations. Within HIS, health indicators (HI) reflect, numerically, events measured in the health-illness continuum. The integrated health information system is intended to standardize, integrate and organize all the information available in health information systems through an accessible and secure repository, and to conveniently distribute information for decision-making. To standardize information it is necessary to define standards and semantic information to enable us to identify concepts and relate them uniquely to each other. The definition of a catalog of entities (DEA) with concepts, attributes and domains will enable the configuration of the information system, so there will be a catalog of entities (concepts of information and domains). Based on operational systems, analytical systems enabling management and strategy in the management of organizations will be built. The maximum level of analysis is the Balanced Score Card (BSC), which is established as the strategic tool for managers. It is necessary for the organization an integrated information system to plan, manage, evaluate and therefore provide managers with a decision tool for strategic and tactical decision-making in short and medium term. PMID:20211346

  13. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S.; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%). PMID:19440528

  14. Risk-based indicators of Canadians’ exposures to environmental carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. Methods We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Results Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food

  15. APPLICATION OF GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC INDICATORS TO CHARACTERIZE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in molecular biological methods are continually being brought to bear on human health research, from a basic understanding of systems biology to identification of toxicity pathways for environmental stressors and to correlations of molecular indicators with physiological...

  16. Promoting environmentally responsible health care.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Jacqueline; Skiehar, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Dioxins, polyvinyl chloride and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are the three main toxins interfering with the goal to maintain a healthy environment, according to the international organization Health Care Without Harm (2004). Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to cancer, as well as reproductive, cardiac, hepatic and developmental disorders (Tickner, Schettler, Guidotti, McCally, and Rossi, 2001). Health-care clients are potentially exposed to these toxins every day: polyvinyl chloride equipment, such as i.v. bags and tubing, is widely used in hospitals, and medical incineration practices emit dioxins into the air (Chlorine Chemistry Council, 2006). Nurses are uniquely positioned to play an active role in environmentally responsible health care through education, advocacy and the implementation of measures to reduce medical wastage and exposure to these chemical toxins (Canadian Nurses Association, 2005). PMID:17269580

  17. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. PMID:26641519

  18. Environmental indicators of biofuel sustainability : What about context?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indicators of the environmental sustainability of biofuel production, distribution, and use should be selected, measured, and interpreted with respect to the context in which they are used. These indicators include measures of soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse...

  19. UMTRA Project environmental, health, and safety plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The basic health and safety requirements established in this plan are designed to provide guidelines to be applied at all Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Specific restrictions are given where necessary. However, an attempt has been made to provide guidelines which are generic in nature, and will allow for evaluation of site-specific conditions. Health and safety personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment when interpreting these guidelines to ensure the health and safety of project personnel and the general population. This UMTRA Project Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH S) Plan specifies the basic Federal health and safety standards and special DOE requirements applicable to this program. In addition, responsibilities in carrying out this plan are delineated. Some guidance on program requirements and radiation control and monitoring is also included. An Environmental, Health, and Safety Plan shall be developed as part of the remedial action plan for each mill site and associated disposal site. Special conditions at the site which may present potential health hazards will be described, and special areas that should should be addressed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) will be indicated. Site-specific EH S concerns will be addressed by special contract conditions in RAC subcontracts. 2 tabs.

  20. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Materials for building capacity in the health sector of developing countries on children's environmental health. includes a trainer's guide and harmonized guidance materials on assessing environmental exposure & risk as well as prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Environmental conditions and reproductive health outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures range across multiple domains to affect human health. In an effort to learn how environmental factors combine to contribute to health outcomes we constructed a multiple environmental domain index (MEDI) for use in health research. We used principal compone...

  2. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  3. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  4. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  5. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  6. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  7. Environmental Health Data in Europe: Current Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, A. W., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These papers presented at a World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) Consultation explore current approaches to environmental health data in Europe. Topics discussed include unified environmental health databases, the use of national hospital registers, health statistics in small areas, expert systems, chemical databases,…

  8. Environmental Health Topics from A to Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Environmental ... Occupational Health Ozone Parkinson's Disease Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs) Pesticides Radon Reproductive Health Soy Infant Formula Styrene Toxicology ...

  9. Kennedy Space Center Environmental Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Joanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Topic considered include: environmental health services; health physics; ionizing radiation; pollution control; contamination investigations; natural resources; surface water; health hazard evaluations; combustion gas; launch support; asbestos; hazardous noise; and ventilation.

  10. Indicators of ocean health and human health: developing a research and monitoring framework.

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony; Dewailly, Eric; Furgal, Chris; Galvin, Jennifer; Baden, Dan; Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael; Duguay, Linda; Fleming, Lora E; Ford, Tim; Moser, Fredricka; Owen, Richard; Suk, William A; Unluata, Umit

    2002-01-01

    We need to critically assess the present quality of the marine ecosystem, especially the connection between ecosystem change and threats to human health. In this article we review the current state of indicators to link changes in marine organisms with eventual effects to human health, identify research opportunities in the use of indicators of ocean and human health, and discuss how to establish collaborations between national and international governmental and private sector groups. We present a synthesis of the present state of understanding of the connection between ocean health and human health, a discussion of areas where resources are required, and a discussion of critical research needs and a template for future work in this field. To understand fully the interactions between ocean health and human health, programs should be organized around a "models-based" approach focusing on critical themes and attributes of marine environmental and public health risks. Given the extent and complex nature of ocean and human health issues, a program networking across geographic and disciplinary boundaries is essential. The overall goal of this approach would be the early detection of potential marine-based contaminants, the protection of marine ecosystems, the prevention of associated human illness, and by implication, the development of products to enhance human well-being. The tight connection between research and monitoring is essential to develop such an indicator-based effort. PMID:12204815

  11. Healthful School Living: Environmental Health in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Daryl E.

    1987-01-01

    Environmental health, as it relates to schools, is defined. Site, chemical, biological, and physical health hazards are identified. Recommendations and precautions to help achieve optimal health, safety, and comfort are presented. Resources are noted. (Author/MT)

  12. Healthy People 2020: Leading Health Indicators

    MedlinePlus

    ... County Data Resources Federal Prevention Initiatives Healthy People eLearning Program Planning Content Syndication Tools for Professionals Public Health 3.0 Webinars & Events Webinars & Events Archive About ...

  13. International strategies in children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    van den Hazel, P J

    2007-10-01

    In recent years the fact that children need to be protected against environmental stressors has been widely accepted by decision- and policy-makers. However, there is not yet a good or unified strategy to improve children's health by improving their environment. The Policy Interpretation Network on Children's Health and Environment (PINCHE) network suggested a range of recommendations to support the development of a strategy on children's environmental health on different levels of authority: international, national, regional, and local. There clearly are indicated bottlenecks in the thematic network approach. Three main challenges for success have been identified; first is data comparability. PINCHE identified the need for standardisation of environmental assessments, classification of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms, and a format for defining diagnostic groups and presentation of data. Second, data accessibility must be addressed. Accessibility of the scientific data to the general public, including health professionals and policy makers, is important and requires translation that is often lacking. Third there is a requirement to harmonise definitions and methods to ensure that scientists and authorities speak the same language. Obstacles are the subsidiarity principle, fragmentation of available knowledge or lack of expertise and purpose at various levels, the lack of political commitment or input and economic issues. PMID:17452127

  14. Measuring the accuracy of agro-environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Makowski, David; Tichit, Muriel; Guichard, Laurence; Van Keulen, Herman; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2009-05-01

    Numerous agro-environmental indicators have been developed by agronomists and ecologists during the last 20 years to assess the environmental impact of farmers' practices, and to monitor effects of agro-environmental policies. The objectives of this paper were (i) to measure the accuracy of a wide range of agro-environmental indicators from experimental data and (ii) to discuss the value of different information typically used by these indicators, i.e. information on farmers' practices, and on plant and soil characteristics. Four series of indicators were considered in this paper: indicators of habitat quality for grassland bird species, indicators of risk of disease in oilseed rape crops, indicators of risk of pollution by nitrogen fertilizer, and indicators of weed infestation. Several datasets were used to measure their accuracy in cultivated plots and in grasslands. The sensitivity, specificity, and probability of correctly ranking plots were estimated for each indicator. Our results showed that the indicators had widely varying levels of accuracy. Some show very poor performance and had no discriminatory ability. Other indicators were informative and performed better than random decisions. Among the tested indicators, the best ones were those using information on plant characteristics such as grass height, fraction of diseased flowers, or crop yield. The statistical method applied in this paper could support researchers, farm advisers, and decision makers in comparing various indicators. PMID:19128870

  15. Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Allen; Dale, Virginia H; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Garten Jr, Charles T; Kline, Keith L; Jager, Yetta; Mulholland, Patrick J; Parish, Esther S; Schweizer, Peter E; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

  16. Remote sensing of landscape-level coastal environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Klemas, V V

    2001-01-01

    Advances in technology and decreases in cost are making remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) practical and attractive for use in coastal resource management. They are also allowing researchers and managers to take a broader view of ecological patterns and processes. Landscape-level environmental indicators that can be detected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and other remote sensors are available to provide quantitative estimates of coastal and estuarine habitat conditions and trends. Such indicators include watershed land cover, riparian buffers, shoreline and wetland changes, among others. With the launch of Landsat 7, the cost of TM imagery has dropped by nearly a factor of 10, decreasing the cost of monitoring large coastal areas and estuaries. New satellites, carrying sensors with much finer spatial (1-5 m) and spectral (200 narrow bands) resolutions are being launched, providing a capability to more accurately detect changes in coastal habitat and wetland health. Advances in the application of GIS help incorporate ancillary data layers to improve the accuracy of satellite land-cover classification. When these techniques for generating, organizing, storing, and analyzing spatial information are combined with mathematical models, coastal planners and managers have a means for assessing the impacts of alternative management practices. PMID:11083908

  17. Coal hydrogenation and environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, R A

    1976-01-01

    Planning of coal hydrogenation processes, such as liquifaction and gasification, requires consideration of public health implications. Commercial plants will require coal quantities greater than or equal to 20,000 tons/day and the large size of these plants calls for careful consideration of the potential health hazards from the wastes and products of such processes. Analysis of pollution potential can roughly be divided into three categories: raw material structure and constituents, process design, and mode of plant operation. Identifiable pollutants include hydrogen cyanide, phenols, cresols, carbonyl and hydrogen sulfides, ammonia, mercaptans, thiocyanides, aniline, arsenic, trace metals and various polycyclic hydrocarbons. One study of workers in a hydrogenation process has revealed an incidence of skin cancer 16-37 times that expected in the chemical industry. In addition, a number of high boiling point liquid products were identified as being carcinogenic, and air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene up to 18,000 mug/1000 m3 were reported. Health statistics on occupational groups in other coal conversion industries have shown significantly higher lung cancer rates, relative to groups without such occupational exposures. These data suggest that coal hydrogenation plants must be carefully planned and controlled to avoid harm to environmentally and occupationally exposed populations. PMID:789066

  18. Continental diatoms as indicators of long-term environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt

    1999-01-01

    It is curious that diatoms, whose short lifespans and capacity for rapid regeneration make them especially suitable for short-term paleoenvironmental studies, would also have a significant role as indicators of long-term environmental change. This chapter explores the nature of long diatom records, their relation to global environmental changes, guidelines for their interpretation, and problems common to such records.

  19. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CARBOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for carbofurans was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range...

  20. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for atrazine was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  1. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CYCLOATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for cycloate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  2. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR TEMEPHOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Temephos was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  3. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR TCMTB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for TCMTB was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of wa...

  4. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR AMETRYN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for ametryn was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of ...

  5. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. Objective We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Methods We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Results Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science–environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. Conclusions A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Citation Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social

  6. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  7. Environmental health discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in environmental health. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; animal and human subjects; and research and development. This document summarizes the history and current status of the program elements, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies scientific priorities, and defines critical questions in the three disciplines: (1) Barophysiology, (2) Toxicology, and (3) Microbiology. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Officers and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area. The document is divided into sections addressing these three disciplines.

  8. Social Determinants of Health: Implications for Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Amy; Northridge, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors draw on the disciplines of sociology and environmental and social epidemiology to further understanding of mechanisms through which social factors contribute to disparate environmental exposures and health inequalities. They propose a conceptual framework for environmental health promotion that considers dynamic social…

  9. Application of Health Promotion Theories and Models for Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…

  10. Indicators of Mental Health in Various Iranian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadi, Khosro; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Azad Fallah, Parviz; Ebadi, Abbas; Yahaghi, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Promoting mental health and preventing mental disorders are of the main concerns for every country. Achieving these goals requires effective indexes for evaluating mental health. Therefore, to develop mental health enhancement programs in Iran, there is a need to measure the state of mental health in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to select a set of mental health indicators that can be used to monitor the status of mental health in Iran. Materials and Methods: This research work used Q-methodology which combines both quantitative and qualitative research methods for establishment of mental health indicators in Iran. In this study, 30 participants were chosen by purposive sampling from different types of professionals in the field of mental health. Results: Twenty seven mental health indicators were obtained from the Q-methodology. The most important indicators obtained in this study are as follows: annual prevalence of mental disorders, suicide rates, number of mental health professionals, mental health expenditures and suicide related deaths. Conclusions: This study provides mental health indices for measuring mental health status in Iran. These mental health indices can be used to measure progress in the reform policies and community mental health services. PMID:24719740

  11. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  12. Environmental and Community Health. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. This book is divided into two parts: Part…

  13. Wildlife disease and environmental health in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Pearce, John; Oakley, Karen; Whalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health is defined by connections between the physical environment, ecological health, and human health. Current research within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recognizes the importance of this integrated research philosophy, which includes study of disease and pollutants as they pertain to wildlife and humans. Due to its key geographic location and significant wildlife resources, Alaska is a critical area for future study of environmental health.

  14. Thermal indicating paints for ammunition health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, James L., III; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-04-01

    Thermochromic semiconductive polymers that change color in response to external stimuli, such as heat and radiation, can be utilized to monitor the temperature range and elapsed time profiles of stored and prepositioned munitions. These polymers are being tailored to create paints and coatings that will alert Army logistic staff of dangerous temperature exposures. Irreversible indication via color change in multiple thermal bands, 145 F - 164 F (63o-73°C), 165 F - 184 F (74° - 84° C) and over 185 F (>85°C) are possible with these thermochromic polymers. The resulting active coating can be visually inspected to determine if safe temperatures were exceeded. More detailed information, including cumulative time of exposure in certain temperature bands through changes in optical chromaticity describing the vividness or dullness of a color, can be assessed using a hand-held optical densitometer.

  15. THE ROLE OF INDICATORS IN HEALTH AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of risk to public health or environmental resources requires competent characterization of stressors and the corresponding effects on organisms, populations, and communities. Because of the complexity of most stressor-response relationships, it is impossible to complet...

  16. Prioritizing environmental health risks in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Willis, Henry H; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Shih, Regina A; Geschwind, Sandra; Olmstead, Sarah; Hu, Jianhui; Curtright, Aimee E; Cecchine, Gary; Moore, Melinda

    2010-12-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative environmental risk-ranking exercise that was conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to inform a strategic planning process led by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD). It represents the first national-level application of a deliberative method for comparative risk ranking first published in this journal. The deliberative method involves a five-stage process that includes quantitative risk assessment by experts and deliberations by groups of stakeholders. The project reported in this article considered 14 categories of environmental risks to health identified through discussions with EAD staff: ambient and indoor air pollution; drinking water contamination; coastal water pollution; soil and groundwater contamination; contamination of fruits, vegetables, and seafood; ambient noise; stratospheric ozone depletion; electromagnetic fields from power lines; health impacts from climate change; and exposure to hazardous substances in industrial, construction, and agricultural work environments. Results from workshops involving 73 stakeholders who met in five separate groups to rank these risks individually and collaboratively indicated strong consensus that outdoor and indoor air pollution are the highest priorities in the UAE. Each of the five groups rated these as being among the highest risks. All groups rated soil and groundwater contamination as being among the lowest risks. In surveys administered after the ranking exercises, participants indicated that the results of the process represented their concerns and approved of using the ranking results to inform policy decisions. The results ultimately shaped a strategic plan that is now being implemented. PMID:20723144

  17. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  18. Environmental Exposures and Children's Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the sharp increase in a number of childhood disorders--including asthma, certain cancers, and learning/behavioral disabilities--and the role environmental toxins may play in this increase. He describes the need to train many more health professionals in prenatal and children's environmental health and the national network of…

  19. Opportunities for Web-Based Indicators in Environmental Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Malcevschi, Sergio; Marchini, Agnese; Savini, Dario; Facchinetti, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a set of web-based indicators for quantifying and ranking the relevance of terms related to key-issues in Ecology and Sustainability Science. Search engines that operate in different contexts (e.g. global, social, scientific) are considered as web information carriers (WICs) and are able to analyse; (i) relevance on different levels: global web, individual/personal sphere, on-line news, and culture/science; (ii) time trends of relevance; (iii) relevance of keywords for environmental governance. For the purposes of this study, several indicators and specific indices (relational indices and dynamic indices) were applied to a test-set of 24 keywords. Outputs consistently show that traditional study topics in environmental sciences such as water and air have remained the most quantitatively relevant keywords, while interest in systemic issues (i.e. ecosystem and landscape) has grown over the last 20 years. Nowadays, the relevance of new concepts such as resilience and ecosystem services is increasing, but the actual ability of these concepts to influence environmental governance needs to be further studied and understood. The proposed approach, which is based on intuitive and easily replicable procedures, can support the decision-making processes related to environmental governance. PMID:22905118

  20. Environmental indicators of biofuel sustainability: What about context?

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; McBride, Allen; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Smith, Raymond; Parish, Esther S; Schweizer, Peter E; Shaw, Denice

    2013-01-01

    Indicators of the environmental sustainability of biofuel production, distribution, and use should be selected, measured, and interpreted with respect to the context in which they are used. These indicators include measures of soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse-gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and vegetation productivity. Contextual considerations include the purpose for the sustainability analysis, the particular biofuel production and distribution system (including supply chain, management aspects, and system viability), policy conditions, stakeholder values, location, temporal influences, spatial scale, baselines, and reference scenarios. Recommendations presented in this paper include formulating the problem for particular analyses, selecting appropriate context-specific indicators of environmental sustainability, and developing indicators that can reflect multiple environmental properties at low cost within a defined context. In addition, contextual considerations such as technical objectives, varying values and perspectives of stakeholder groups, and availability and reliability of data need to be understood and considered. Sustainability indicators for biofuels are most useful if adequate historical data are available, information can be collected at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, organizations are committed to use indicator information in the decision-making process, and indicators can effectively guide behavior toward more sustainable practices.

  1. Indicators linking health and sustainability in the post-2015 development agenda.

    PubMed

    Dora, Carlos; Haines, Andy; Balbus, John; Fletcher, Elaine; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Alabaster, Graham; Hossain, Rifat; de Onis, Mercedes; Branca, Francesco; Neira, Maria

    2015-01-24

    The UN-led discussion about the post-2015 sustainable development agenda provides an opportunity to develop indicators and targets that show the importance of health as a precondition for and an outcome of policies to promote sustainable development. Health as a precondition for development has received considerable attention in terms of achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), addressing growing challenges of non-communicable diseases, and ensuring universal health coverage. Much less attention has been devoted to health as an outcome of sustainable development and to indicators that show both changes in exposure to health-related risks and progress towards environmental sustainability. We present a rationale and methods for the selection of health-related indicators to measure progress of post-2015 development goals in non-health sectors. The proposed indicators show the ancillary benefits to health and health equity (co-benefits) of sustainable development policies, particularly those to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase resilience to environmental change. We use illustrative examples from four thematic areas: cities, food and agriculture, energy, and water and sanitation. Embedding of a range of health-related indicators in the post-2015 goals can help to raise awareness of the probable health gains from sustainable development policies, thus making them more attractive to decision makers and more likely to be implemented than before. PMID:24923529

  2. A closer look at the World Health Organization's prescribing indicators

    PubMed Central

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This communication focuses on the World Health Organization's prescribing indicators. It describes the methods for computing the indicators and highlights their applicability as well as limitations in evaluating the patterns of medicines usage. PMID:27127400

  3. Freshwater diatoms as environmental indicators: evaluating the effects of eutrophication using species morphology and biological indices.

    PubMed

    Vilmi, Annika; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Landeiro, Victor L; Heino, Jani

    2015-05-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication is a major form of perturbation in freshwaters, and several approaches aim to recognise its effects on lake ecosystems. We compared the responses of diatom species morphology, diversity indices and diatom indices to total phosphorus, total nitrogen and distance from a point stressor causing eutrophication in a large lake. We specifically examined the degree to which extent nutrients and distance to the stressor affect variation in the values of various biological indices and diatom valve size. In addition, special attention was given to the adequate repetition of diatom valve width measurements in the context of environmental assessment. Our results showed that diatom valve width was a better indicator of nutrient concentrations than any of the diatom and diversity indices examined. However, the results varied between the two study transects, suggesting that the diatom-based variables not only respond to nutrients but also to other environmental factors (e.g. shoreline morphology). We also found that when using the method based on diatom morphology, one should measure more valves than has been originally suggested to provide a more reliable picture of response to eutrophication. We argue that diatom morphology could be considered as an additional environmental assessment tool, because it may complement the information provided by the traditional diatom indices. Diatom valve width may also be more sensitive to early phases of the eutrophication process and its effects on freshwater ecosystems than various diatom indices that were developed in regional contexts with wide ranges in nutrient levels. PMID:25864081

  4. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  5. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmaro, G. M.; Cardinale, M. A.; Summerfield, B. R.; Tipton, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials.

  6. Identifying Value Indicators and Social Capital in Community Health Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Alice J.; Becker, Julie; Brawer, Rickie

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, public health practice is turning to the application of community collaborative models to improve population health status. Despite the growth of these activities, however, evaluations of the national demonstrations have indicated that community health partnerships fail to achieve measurable results and struggle to maintain integrity…

  7. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  8. Ozone (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  9. Plastics (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  10. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  11. Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: New opportunities for health care and public health

    PubMed Central

    Bircher, Johannes; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) mobilized global commitments to promote health, socioeconomic, and sustainable development. Trends indicate that the health MDGs may not be achieved by 2015, in part because of insufficient coordination across related health, socioeconomic, and environmental initiatives. Explicitly acknowledging the need for such collaboration, the Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials – and social and environmental determinants – suffice to respond satisfactorily to the demands of life. Life's demands can be physiological, psychosocial, or environmental, and vary across contexts, but in every case unsatisfactory responses lead to disease. This conceptualization of the integrative nature of health could contribute to ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation across actors and sectors to improve individual and population health – leading up to 2015 and beyond. PMID:24943659

  12. Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: new opportunities for health care and public health.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Johannes; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2014-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) mobilized global commitments to promote health, socioeconomic, and sustainable development. Trends indicate that the health MDGs may not be achieved by 2015, in part because of insufficient coordination across related health, socioeconomic, and environmental initiatives. Explicitly acknowledging the need for such collaboration, the Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials--and social and environmental determinants--suffice to respond satisfactorily to the demands of life. Life's demands can be physiological, psychosocial, or environmental, and vary across contexts, but in every case unsatisfactory responses lead to disease. This conceptualization of the integrative nature of health could contribute to ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation across actors and sectors to improve individual and population health--leading up to 2015 and beyond. PMID:24943659

  13. Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that

  14. Environmental indicators for sustainable production of algal biofuels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2014-10-01

    For analyzing sustainability of algal biofuels, we identify 16 environmental indicators that fall into six categories: soil quality, water quality and quantity, air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and productivity. Indicators are selected to be practical, widely applicable, predictable in response, anticipatory of future changes, independent of scale, and responsive to management. Major differences between algae and terrestrial plant feedstocks, as well as their supply chains for biofuel, are highlighted, for they influence the choice of appropriate sustainability indicators. Algae strain selection characteristics do not generally affect which indicators are selected. The use of water instead of soil as themore » growth medium for algae determines the higher priority of water- over soil-related indicators. The proposed set of environmental indicators provides an initial checklist for measures of biofuel sustainability but may need to be modified for particular contexts depending on data availability, goals of the stakeholders, and financial constraints. Ultimately, use of these indicators entails defining sustainability goals and targets in relation to stakeholder values in a particular context and can lead to improved management practices.« less

  15. Environmental indicators for sustainable production of algal biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2014-10-01

    For analyzing sustainability of algal biofuels, we identify 16 environmental indicators that fall into six categories: soil quality, water quality and quantity, air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and productivity. Indicators are selected to be practical, widely applicable, predictable in response, anticipatory of future changes, independent of scale, and responsive to management. Major differences between algae and terrestrial plant feedstocks, as well as their supply chains for biofuel, are highlighted, for they influence the choice of appropriate sustainability indicators. Algae strain selection characteristics do not generally affect which indicators are selected. The use of water instead of soil as the growth medium for algae determines the higher priority of water- over soil-related indicators. The proposed set of environmental indicators provides an initial checklist for measures of biofuel sustainability but may need to be modified for particular contexts depending on data availability, goals of the stakeholders, and financial constraints. Ultimately, use of these indicators entails defining sustainability goals and targets in relation to stakeholder values in a particular context and can lead to improved management practices.

  16. Environmental Indicators of Biofuel Sustainability: What About Context?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; McBride, Allen C.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Raymond L.; Parish, Esther S.; Schweizer, Peter E.; Shaw, Denice M.

    2013-02-01

    Indicators of the environmental sustainability of biofuel production, distribution, and use should be selected, measured, and interpreted with respect to the context in which they are used. The context of a sustainability assessment includes the purpose, the particular biofuel production and distribution system, policy conditions, stakeholder values, location, temporal influences, spatial scale, baselines, and reference scenarios. We recommend that biofuel sustainability questions be formulated with respect to the context, that appropriate indicators of environmental sustainability be developed or selected from more generic suites, and that decision makers consider context in ascribing meaning to indicators. In addition, considerations such as technical objectives, varying values and perspectives of stakeholder groups, indicator cost, and availability and reliability of data need to be understood and considered. Sustainability indicators for biofuels are most useful if adequate historical data are available, information can be collected at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, organizations are committed to use indicator information in the decision-making process, and indicators can effectively guide behavior toward more sustainable practices.

  17. Health Care Indicators: Hospital, Employment and Price Indicators for the Health Care Industry: Third Quarter 1997

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Mary Lee; Heffler, Stephen K.; Donham, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of recent trends in health care spending, employment, and prices. The statistics presented in this article are valuable in their own right and for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:25372024

  18. Health Care Indicators: Hospital, Employment, and Price Indicators for the Health Care Industry: First Quarter 1996

    PubMed Central

    Sensenig, Arthur L.; Heffler, Stephen K.

    1996-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of recent trends in health care spending, employment, and prices. The statistics presented in this article are valuable in their own right and for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10165035

  19. Efficacy of Environmental Health E-Training for Journalists

    PubMed Central

    Parin, Megan L.; Yancey, Elissa; Beidler, Caroline; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Communities report a low level of trust in environmental health media coverage. In order to support risk communication objectives, the goals of the research study were to identify whether or not there is a gap in environmental reporting training for journalists, to outline journalists’ methods for gathering environmental health news, to observe journalists’ attitudes toward environmental health training and communication, and to determine if electronic training (online/e-training) can effectively train journalists in environmental health topics. The results indicated that environmental journalists have very little to no formal environmental journalism training. In addition, a significant percentage of journalists do not have any formal journalism education. Respondents most preferred to receive continuing environmental journalism training online. Online instruction was also perceived as effective in increasing knowledge and providing necessary reporting tools, even among participants adverse to online instructional methods. Our findings highlight the changing media climate’s need for an increase in electronic journalism education opportunities to support environmental health journalism competencies among working professional journalists. PMID:26998499

  20. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  1. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  2. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs. PMID:17368921

  3. Comparing Environmental Conditions Using Indicators of Pollution Hazard

    PubMed

    Turner; Ruffio; Roberts

    1997-07-01

    / Land use/land cover classifications for 1973 and 1991, derived from the interpretation of satellite imagery, are quantified on the basis of biophysical land units in a study area in southeastern Australia. Nutrient export potentials are estimated for each land unit based on their composition of land use/land cover classes. Spatial and temporal comparisons are made of the land units based on the calculated pollution hazard indicators to provide an insight into changes in the state of the environment and the regional significance of land use changes. For example, one ecosystem, unique to the study, showed a large increase in pollution hazard over the study period as a manifestation of an 11-fold rise in cleared area and an expansion of cropping activities. The benefits to environmental management in general are discussed.KEY WORDS: Land cover change; Nutrient export; Environmental condition; Pollution hazard; Agricultural pollution; Nonpoint source pollution; Diffuse pollution; Environmental degradation PMID:9175549

  4. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions. PMID:27322565

  5. Developing the 18th indicator for interpreting indicators of rangeland health on Northern Great Plains rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Resources Inventory (NRI) resource assessment report shows little to no departure on Rangeland Health for most Northern Great Plains Rangelands. This information is supported by Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) data collected at local to regional scales. There is however a...

  6. Considerations Before Establishing an Environmental Health Registry

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Muravov, Oleg I.; Sapp, James; Larson, Theodore C.; Pallos, L. Laszlo; Sanchez, Marchelle E.; Williamson, G. David; Horton, D. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Public health registries can provide valuable information when health consequences of environmental exposures are uncertain or will likely take long to develop. They can also aid research on diseases that may have environmental causes that are not completely well defined. We discuss factors to consider when deciding whether to create an environmental health registry. Those factors include public health significance, purpose and outcomes, duration and scope of data collection and availability of alternative data sources, timeliness, availability of funding and administrative capabilities, and whether the establishment of a registry can adequately address specific health concerns. We also discuss difficulties, limitations, and benefits of exposure and disease registries, based on the experience of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. PMID:26066912

  7. Environmental health, climate chaos and resilience.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John

    2008-01-01

    The public health movement has a strong tradition of identifying health problems and tackling these through economic, social and environmental improvements and through advocacy for people's rights and entitlements. Since 9/11, and the floods, fuel crisis and foot and mouth disease in 2000-2001, the UK government has introduced the notion of 'resilience' - the requirement for statutory UK bodies to develop their capacity to respond to all major emergency risks from pandemic flu to terrorism. The new threats of environmental and climate change require public health practitioners to acquire new knowledge about ecology and climate change and to become advocates for equality, new economics, and sustainable development. The best efforts to promote health are also likely to be green, promoting and protective of human and environmental health as well. PMID:18771196

  8. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  9. The EPA Children's Environmental Health Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.

    Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that pose a risk to their health. This yearbook provides information to the public on the activities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect children from environmental hazards, including the latest information on the unique threats of environmental…

  10. Disparities in Health Indicators for Latinas in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Portillo, Carmen J.; Garbanati, James Allen

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes health indicators for Latinas in rural and urban California. Discusses Latina demographics; causes of death; life expectancy; and profiles for breast cancer, cervical cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and AIDS. Examines Latina risk factors: poverty, high dropout rates, lack of health insurance, obesity, physical inactivity, low levels of…

  11. Issues in environmental epidemiological research: the example of environmental lead and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1989-01-01

    Modern environmental epidemiology encompasses the "traditional" area of physico-chemical hazards, along with health hazards in the societal environment (e.g. noise, stress, social organisation), and, increasingly, supranational problems (e.g. ozone depletion, global warming). As governments undertake environmental management, improved quantitative estimates of environmental risks to health are needed. Methodological difficulties of environmental epidemiological research include problems of exposure measurement, of estimating exposure at the level of the individual, and of detecting relatively small effects (particularly at low exposure levels). The health hazards of occupational lead exposure are well documented. The health hazards of environmental exposure to lead, within the general population, remain a focus of continuing epidemiological research. Indeed, the reported adverse effects upon the developing central nervous system of young children are now central to public health debate about environmental lead exposure standards. Recent evidence from cohort studies in several countries indicates adverse effects of environmental lead exposure upon early childhood mental development. In South Australia, a cohort study of children born in a lead smelter community, Port Pirie, has revealed evidence of such an effect. After controlling for many potential confounding factors (social, behavioural, family, and medical), cumulative postnatal lead exposure was found to be weakly associated with an adverse effect upon mental development at age two years and, more strongly, at age four years. The relations between environmental epidemiological research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:2803846

  12. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR PYRIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Pyridine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions...

  13. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  14. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR BENZIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Benzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency action...

  15. Health Educators as Environmental Policy Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Kimberly J.; Baker, Judith A.

    1993-01-01

    Health educators must complement individual-level change with communitywide policy and legislative initiatives, focusing on environmental issues such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and toxic waste disposal. Recent increases in discomfort and disease related to the physical environment call for immediate action from health professionals…

  16. The EPA Children's Environmental Health Yearbook Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.

    Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that provide a risk to children's health. This report provides information to the public on the work of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) related to children's health protection, summarizing initiatives undertaken since the publication of "The EPA Children's…

  17. Quality indicators and quality assessment in child health

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Patricia L.; Adams, William G.; Wang, C. Jason

    2009-01-01

    Quality indicators are systematically developed statements that can be used to assess the appropriateness of specific healthcare decisions, services and outcomes. In this review, we highlight the range and type of indicators that have been developed for children in the UK and US by prominent governmental agencies and private organizations. We also classify these indicators in an effort to identify areas of child health that may lack quality measurement activity. We review the current state of health information technology in both countries since these systems are vital to quality efforts. Finally, we propose several recommendations to advance the quality indicator development agenda for children. The convergence of quality measurement and indicator development, a growing scientific evidence base and integrated information systems in healthcare may lead to substantial improvements for child health in the 21st century. PMID:19307196

  18. Factors associated with self-reported health: implications for screening level community-based health and environmental studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Advocates for environmental justice, local, state, and national public health officials, exposure scientists, need broad-based heath indices to identify vulnerable communities. Longitudinal studies show that perception of current health status predicts subsequent mort...

  19. Energy and Environmental Consequences of Transportation: Indicators of Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The rapid motorization of world transportation systems puts growing emphasis on controlling transportation`s direct and indirect impacts on the global environment, in other words, on achieving sustainability in transport. In 1950, the world contained 70 million motor vehicles, of which 70% were in the United States. Today the world`s motor vehicle fleet exceeds 600 million,of which less than one-third are in the U.S. Outside of the U.S., motor vehicle stocks are growing twice as fast (Davis & McFarlin, 1996, tables 1.1 & 1.2). With this explosive growth of motorized transport comes a compelling need to control its concomitant pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and fossil fuel consumption. Large scale indicators of transportation`s performance with respect to sustainability are therefore becoming increasingly important for monitoring trends and evaluating the effectiveness of policies at national and international scales. A recent survey by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (U. S. DOT/BTS, 1 996) of data on transportation`s environmental consequences in the U.S., found that reasonable indicators exist for energy use and for certain of transportation`s environmental impacts. Statistics on air pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy use are adequate for developing rigorous indicators of at least emissions and energy use. Much less is known about noise generation, water and groundwater pollution, solid waste,land-use and habitat impacts.

  20. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  1. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  2. Health-Promoting School Indicators: Schematic Models from Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Sixsmith, Jane; Delaney, Ellen-Nora; Moore, Miriam; Inchley, Jo; O'Higgins, Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a three-stage process for engaging with students to develop school level indicators of health in sequential class groups students first generated, then categorised indicators and finally developed schematic representations of their analyses. There is a political and practical need to develop…

  3. A New Collaborative Tool for Visually Understanding National Health Indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Jewell, Brian C; Steed, Chad A; Schryver, Jack C

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose a new online collaborative tool for visually understanding national health indicators, which facilitates the full spectrum of investigation of indicators, from an overview of all the correlation coefficients between variables, to investigation of subsets of selected variables, and to individual data element analysis. this tool is publicly accessible at http://cda.ornl.gov/heat/heatmap.html. In this paper, they discuss the key issues regarding the interface design and implementation. They also illustrate how to use their interface for analyzing the health indicator dataset by showing some key system views. In the end, they introduce and discuss some ongoing research efforts extending this work.

  4. Indices of environmental temperatures for primates in open habitats.

    PubMed

    Hill, Russell A; Weingrill, Tony; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S Peter; Hill, Russel A; Barrett, Luise

    2004-01-01

    Studies of thermoregulation in primates are under-represented in the literature, although there is sufficient evidence to suggest that temperature represents an important ecological constraint. One of the problems in examining thermoregulation in primates, however, is the difficulty in quantifying the thermal environment, since shade temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed all serve to alter an animal's 'perceived' temperature. Since animals respond to their perceived temperature, we need methods to account for each of these factors, both individually and collectively, if we are to understand the integrated impact of the thermal environment on primates. Here, we present a review of some thermal indices currently available. Black bulb temperatures can account for the effect of solar radiation, with wind chill equivalent temperatures and the heat index providing quantifiable estimates of the relative impact of wind speed and humidity, respectively. We present three potential indices of the 'perceived environmental temperature' (PET) that account for the combined impact of solar radiation, humidity and wind speed on temperature, and perform a preliminary test of all of the climatic indices against behavioural data from a field study of chacma baboons ( Papio cynocephalus ursinus) at De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. One measure of the perceived environmental temperature, PET2, is an effective thermal index, since it enters the models for feeding and resting behaviour, and also accounts for levels of allogrooming. Solar radiation intensity is an important factor underlying these relationships, although the wind chill equivalent temperature and humidity enter the models for other behaviours. Future studies should thus be mindful of the impact of each of these elements of the thermal environment. A detailed understanding of primate thermoregulation will only come with the development of biophysical models of the thermal characteristics of the species

  5. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights. PMID:21733799

  6. Environmental laws in health care.

    PubMed

    Ruff, G G

    1992-11-01

    Federal and state regulations regarding the management and disposal of medical waste are currently quite extensive and will only become more comprehensive in the future. The public's heightened awareness and concerns over infectious diseases and discoveries of medical waste on beaches in New Jersey, Alabama, and other states, as well as medical waste being found in open trash bins and at public landfills, has brought to the public's attention the need for governmental intervention into this growing area of concern. Because regulations originating from the local, state, and federal levels have the potential to significantly affect hospitals, it is important that a specific person or department within the organization have a clearly designated responsibility to stay informed and follow up on these regulations. The designated person or department must work closely with the hospital's attorney to make sure that he or she stays current on environmental laws and keeps the institution adequately advised of its legal responsibilities. PMID:10121995

  7. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  8. Environmental health consequences of land mines.

    PubMed

    Newman, R D; Mercer, M A

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the environmental effects of anti-personnel land mines globally. Land mines represent an immediate environmental health problem. Between 60 and 70 million land mines are currently in place in over 70 countries. Designed to kill or main humans, including civilians, they injure an estimated 1, 200 persons and kill another 800 every week. Land-mine injuries tend to be serious; an estimated 300,000 persons worldwide have been disabled by them. The problem, politically very controversial, can be resolved only by preventing the further placement of mines, by demining of areas already mined, and by coping with the personal and environmental devastation that they have already caused. Environmental health personnel should be involved in promoting awareness of the problem, in improving services for land-mine victims, and in promoting political efforts to ban further use of land mines. PMID:10926729

  9. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  10. Health and environmental effects profile for azobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for azobenzene was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Azobenzene has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (ql*) for azobenzene is .108 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for azobenzene is 100.

  11. Health and environmental effects profile for formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) or a carcinogenic potency factor for formaldehyde. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for formaldehyde is 10.

  12. Health and environmental effects profile for dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Dinitrotoluene was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Dinitrotolene has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factors (q1*) for 2,4-, 2,6- and technical dinitrotoluene was .68, .23, and .23 (mg/kg/day)-1, respectively, for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for 2.4-, 2.6- and technical dinitrotoluene is 100. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value for 2.3-, 2.5- and 3.4-dinitrotoluene.

  13. Health and environmental effects profile for aniline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for aniline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinatti, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Aniline has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for aniline is .026 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for aniline is 1000.

  14. Management for School Environmental Health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Some acts such as the Basic Environment Act are aimed at managing environmental health for a productive living environment in Japan. School is not only a place where lessons for a better future are taught but also an environment in which children spend many hours of their day. Therefore, activities involving regular checks are important to maintain and improve the school environment. Article 5 of the School Health and Safety Act states that schools must make plans and carry out regular checks on school environmental health. Article 6 prescribes that the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establish a "school environmental health standard". This standard involves metrics on the classroom environment (quality of air, illumination, and noise levels), quality of drinking/pool water and so on, and their standard values and evaluation methods. Article 23 prescribes that each school except colleges/universities have a school pharmacist. The school pharmacist plays an important role in maintaining and improving the school's environmental health. However, the current actions taken are not adequate. Therefore, prospects for future activities will be discussed based on the current situations and problems. PMID:27252052

  15. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Hydrazine and Hydrazine Sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constitu...

  16. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACETONE CYANOHYDRIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acetone cyanohydrin was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardo...

  17. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACRYLAMIDE (Final Report 1985)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrylamide was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous consti...

  18. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR VANADIUM PENTOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for vanadium pentoxide was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardou...

  19. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL METHACRYLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl methacrylate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardo...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOME INDICATORS FOR THOSE WITH ASTHMA OR OTHER RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results are expected to provide a comprehensive set of outcome-based health indicators to signal the impact of changes in environmental conditions, management approaches, and policies on asthma and other respiratory problems. Linkages found between the proposed exposure me...

  1. LONGITUDINAL INDICATORS OF POLICY IMPACT ON POLLUTION, EXPOSURE AND HEALTH RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overarching goal of this research is to develop state level indicators of environmental pollution, population exposure, and population health risks. The investigation will include a longitudinal analysis of changes over time that will provide a framework for evaluating th...

  2. What does the public know about environmental health? A qualitative approach to refining an environmental health awareness instrument.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Middleton, Wendi K; Wodika, Alicia B; Brown, Stephen L; Preihs, Kristin

    2015-04-01

    Despite an increased level of interest in environmental health concerns among the American public, awareness of the risks associated with environmental hazards is generally lacking. Assessing population awareness is typically performed through surveys, yet a comprehensive national environmental health questionnaire is currently unavailable. In 2009, a Delphi study using environmental health experts from federal, state, and local government and academia identified 11 core areas of environmental health (air, water, radiation, food safety, emergency preparedness, healthy housing, infectious disease and vector control, toxicology, injury prevention, waste and sanitation, and weather and climate change) and provided content validity for 443 questions covering 25 specific topics for possible inclusion on a national instrument. The authors' study described in this article used the qualitative approach of focus groups to refine the questions. Questions were divided into four sections and randomly assigned to a focus group location; 32 individuals participated. Results indicated that many perceptions are based on misinformation (or lack of information), which may lead to poor environmental health decision making. PMID:25876262

  3. Impact of Medicaid Reimbursement on Mental Health Quality Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bellows, Nicole M; Halpin, Helen A

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the use of the Minimum Data Set (MDS) for determining Medicaid reimbursement to nursing facilities and the MDS Quality Indicators examining nursing facility residents' mental health. Data Sources The 2004 National MDS facility Quality Indicator reports served as the dependent variables. Explanatory variables were based on the 2004 Online Survey Certification and Reporting system (OSCAR) and an examination of existing reports, a review of the State Medicaid Plans, and State Medicaid personnel. Study Design Multilevel regression models were used to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. Data Collection MDS and OSCAR data were linked by facility identifiers and subsequently linked with state-level variables. Principal Findings The use of the MDS for determining Medicaid reimbursement was associated with higher (poorer) quality indicator values for all four mental health quality indicators examined. This effect was not found in four comparison quality indicators. Conclusions The findings indicate that documentation of mental health symptoms may be influenced by economic incentives. Policy makers should be cautioned from using these measures as the basis for decision making, such as with pay-for-performance initiatives. PMID:18370968

  4. Environmental Health Planning Guide. Revised 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This guide to environmental health planning outlines the process and procedures of bringing together certain fundamental data pertaining to various physical aspects of the environment, including data collection, evaluation, usage, and implementation. The components of such planning programs are listed along with study preparation information.…

  5. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides conceptual guidelines for the development, implementation and evaluation of research task quality assurance plans for the staff of the Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL/RTP) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North C...

  6. Career Ladders in Environmental Health (Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erie Community Coll., Buffalo, NY.

    This supplementary document contains career ladders that have been designed to enable post secondary students to prepare for entrance into environmental health occupations at a level commensurate with their abilities where they will be capable of meaningful contributions and can obtain advanced standing in employment. Contents are: (1) Food…

  7. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  8. A Guide for Environmental Health Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gene M.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines objectives and resources to be assessed in a community environmental health plan. Considers: water; liquid waste disposal; housing maintenance; solid waste disposal; air pollution; food and food protection; rodent control; insect control; migrant labor camps; recreation sites; mobile homes - trailer parks; schools, institutions - public…

  9. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  10. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  11. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  12. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  13. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  14. Heavy Metal Phytoremediation: Microbial Indicators of Soil Health for the Assessment of Remediation Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epelde, Lur; Ma Becerril, José; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    Phytoremediation is an effective, non-intrusive, inexpensive, aesthetically pleasing, socially accepted, promising phytotechnology for the remediation of polluted soils. The objective of any soil remediation process must be not only to remove the contaminant(s) from the soil but, most importantly, to restore the continued capacity of the soil to perform or function according to its potential (i.e., to recover soil health). Hence, indicators of soil health are needed to properly assess the efficiency of a phytoremediation process. Biological indicators of soil health, especially those related to the size, activity and diversity of the soil microbial communities, are becoming increasingly used, due to their sensitivity and capacity to provide information that integrates many environmental factors. In particular, microbial indicators of soil health are valid tools to evaluate the success of metal phytoremediation procedures such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization processes.

  15. Lysosomal and autophagic reactions as predictive indicators of environmental impact in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Allen, J Icarus; McVeigh, Allan; Shaw, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    The lysosomal-autophagic system appears to be a common target for many environmental pollutants as lysosomes accumulate many toxic metals and organic xenobiotics, which perturb normal function and damage the lysosomal membrane. In fact, lysosomal membrane integrity or stability appears to be an effective generic indicator of cellular well-being in eukaryotes: in bivalve molluscs and fish, stability is correlated with many toxicological responses and pathological reactions. Prognostic use of adverse lysosomal and autophagic reactions to environmental pollutants has been explored in relation to predicting cellular dysfunction and health in marine mussels, which are extensively used as sensitive bioindicators in monitoring ecosystem health. Derivation of explanatory frameworks for prediction of pollutant impact on health is a major goal; and we have developed a conceptual mechanistic model linking lysosomal damage and autophagic dysfunction with injury to cells and tissues. This model has also complemented the creation of a cell-based computational model for molluscan hepatopancreatic cells that simulates lysosomal, autophagic and other cellular reactions to pollutants. Experimental and simulated results have also indicated that nutritional deprivation-induced autophagy has a protective function against toxic effects mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, coupled measurement of lysosomal-autophagic reactions and modelling is proposed as a practical toolbox for predicting toxic environmental risk. PMID:16874099

  16. Environmental Health Disparities: A Framework Integrating Psychosocial and Environmental Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Payne-Sturges, Devon C.

    2004-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that social and environmental factors interact to produce racial and ethnic environmental health disparities, it is still unclear how this occurs. Despite continued controversy, the environmental justice movement has provided some insight by suggesting that disadvantaged communities face greater likelihood of exposure to ambient hazards. The exposure–disease paradigm has long suggested that differential “vulnerability” may modify the effects of toxicants on biological systems. However, relatively little work has been done to specify whether racial and ethnic minorities may have greater vulnerability than do majority populations and, further, what these vulnerabilities may be. We suggest that psychosocial stress may be the vulnerability factor that links social conditions with environmental hazards. Psychosocial stress can lead to acute and chronic changes in the functioning of body systems (e.g., immune) and also lead directly to illness. In this article we present a multidisciplinary framework integrating these ideas. We also argue that residential segregation leads to differential experiences of community stress, exposure to pollutants, and access to community resources. When not counterbalanced by resources, stressors may lead to heightened vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:15579407

  17. Environmental health physics: 50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2005-06-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  18. Environmental health physics-50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2004-10-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  19. Measuring the Health of Populations: Explaining Composite Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Adnan A.; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Morrow, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Indicators that summarise the health status of a population and that provide comparable measures of a population disease burden are increasingly vital tools for health policy decision making. Decisions concerning health systems across the world are greatly affected by changes in disease profiles and population dynamics, and must develop the capacity to respond to such changes effectively within the resources of each nation. Decisions must be based on evidence of the patterns of diseases, their risk factors and the effectiveness of alternative interventions. This paper focuses on the main approaches used for developing summary measures that include mortality and morbidity occurring in a population. It discusses the rationale for composite measures and reviews the origins of each main approach. The paper also examines methodological differences among these approaches making explicit the value choices that each entails, outlines the advantages and limitations of each measure, and shows how they relate to one another. PMID:25170468

  20. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  1. Constructing a Health and Social Indicator Framework for Indigenous Community Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Elisabeth; Cargo, Margaret D.; Daniel, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Health and social indicators that capture the distinct historical, social, and cultural contexts of Indigenous communities can play an important role in informing the planning and delivery of community interventions. There is currently considerable interest in cataloguing and vetting meaningful community-level health and social indicators that…

  2. Children's environmental health in agricultural settings.

    PubMed

    Karr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Children residing in rural settings may encounter environmental hazards derived from agricultural production activities. Health consequences of organic dusts, farm chemicals including pesticides, machinery noise, excess sun exposure, and zoonotic infectious agents have been clearly described among farm-working adults. The author reviews the related evidence base on child health with a life-stage perspective on their differential exposure and vulnerabilities. Methemoglobinemia among infants consuming nitrate-contaminated well water, neurodevelopmental health impacts associated with early life exposure to organophosphate pesticides, and diarrheal disease due to zoonotic infectious agents are well-described pediatric concerns. There is suggestive but more limited evidence for respiratory health consequences from air contaminants associated with confined animal feeding operations and hearing deficits for children exposed to machinery-related noise. Many contaminants of concern for children in these environments remain largely understudied-diesel exhaust, biomass burning, solvents, veterinary antibiotics, and silica-containing particulate matter. Overall, the state of knowledge and programmatic activities on agriculturally derived environmental contaminants and child health is immature and much less complete than for working adults. This overview provides a context for research, policy, and programmatic needs. PMID:22490026

  3. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Jon; Maier, Werner; Braubach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health. PMID:27472347

  4. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Jon; Maier, Werner; Braubach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health. PMID:27472347

  5. Health and Environmental Research. Summary of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  6. Health and environmental effects profile for chloranil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Chloranil was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Chloranil has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor for chloranil is 0.0403 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for chloranil is 1000.

  7. Health and environmental effects profile for chlorthiophos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Chlorthiophos was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Chlorthiophos has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for chlorthiophos is 0.8 microgram/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 500 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  8. Health and environmental effects profile for Carbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Carbazole was prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Quantitative estimates have been presented provided sufficient data are available. Carbazole has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for carbazole is .028/(mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  9. Health and environmental effects profile for dimethylphenols

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Dimethylphenols was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Dimethylphenols has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. Reference Doses (RfD), for 2,6-dimethylphenol and 3,4-dimethylphenol are 0.042 and 0.098 mg/day, respectively, for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) values for 2,6-dimethylphenol and 3,4-dimethylphenol are 100 and 1000, respectively. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value for 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-dimethylphenol.

  10. Health and environmental research. Summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  11. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  12. Limitations of carbon footprint as indicator of environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model and analyze the life cycle impacts from about 4000 different products, technologies, and services taken from several sectors, including energy generation, transportation, material production, infrastructure, and waste management. By investigating the correlations between the CFP and 13 other impact scores, we show that some environmental impacts, notably those related to emissions of toxic substances, often do not covary with climate change impacts. In such situations, carbon footprint is a poor representative of the environmental burden of products, and environmental management focused exclusively on CFP runs the risk of inadvertently shifting the problem to other environmental impacts when products are optimized to become more "green". These findings call for the use of more broadly encompassing tools to assess and manage environmental sustainability. PMID:22443866

  13. Health and environmental effects profile for phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phenol was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates were presented provided sufficient data are available. Phenol has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. A Reference Dose (RfD), for phenol is 0.04 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for phenol is 10.

  14. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzotrichloride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzotrichloride was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Benzotrichloride has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor for benzotrichloride is 12.63 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for benzotrichloride is 10.

  15. Environmental Health Practice: Statistically Based Performance Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Enander, Richard T.; Gagnon, Ronald N.; Hanumara, R. Choudary; Park, Eugene; Armstrong, Thomas; Gute, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. State environmental and health protection agencies have traditionally relied on a facility-by-facility inspection-enforcement paradigm to achieve compliance with government regulations. We evaluated the effectiveness of a new approach that uses a self-certification random sampling design. Methods. Comprehensive environmental and occupational health data from a 3-year statewide industry self-certification initiative were collected from representative automotive refinishing facilities located in Rhode Island. Statistical comparisons between baseline and postintervention data facilitated a quantitative evaluation of statewide performance. Results. The analysis of field data collected from 82 randomly selected automotive refinishing facilities showed statistically significant improvements (P<.05, Fisher exact test) in 4 major performance categories: occupational health and safety, air pollution control, hazardous waste management, and wastewater discharge. Statistical significance was also shown when a modified Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the new self-certification approach to environmental and worker protection is effective and can be used as an adjunct to further enhance state and federal enforcement programs. PMID:17267709

  16. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  17. Inequalities in health: the value of sex-related indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Benigni, Romualdo

    2003-01-01

    My laboratory has previously shown that the sex differences in tumor incidence in Europe can be related to the female social condition and that the pattern of this relationship varies according to the different historical contexts. In this article, I have extended the study worldwide to all cancer registries, and I present the sex differences in life expectancy at birth. A close link between the health of the populations and socioeconomic and cultural factors was confirmed. The sex-related indicators had a distribution independent from the parent variables cancer incidence and life expectancy; thus, they carry complementary information and provide an additional, sensitive probe for monitoring the health of the populations. PMID:12676593

  18. [Are mortality indicators acceptable indicators for the quality of health care?].

    PubMed

    Ravaud, P; Giraudeau, B; Roux, P M; Durieux, P

    1999-10-01

    IMPORTANCE OF PUBLISHING MORTALITY RATES: Mortality rates for certain interventions or disease states have been used over the last decade as indicators of the quality of care provided by a given hospital, unit or, medical team. If published, these rates would be a useful tool for decision makers in the process of fund allocations, for public information, and for promoting improved care in hospitals or units with a low classification. METHODOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS: It is difficult to adjust an indicator of mortality to disease-related risk factors and any modification of this adjustment can have major consequences on the validity of subsequent comparisons. The differences in mortality observed between hospitals and physicians can reflect not only differences in quality of care but also differences in approaches to disease-related risk factors, therapeutic choices, or coding practices. The lack of statistical power is a major limiting factor in interpreting differences in mortality rates. To evidence a statistically significant difference in mortality between two hospitals whose rates are respectively 0.5% and 1% (for example in total hip replacement patients), it would be necessary to include 4673 patients, a number which would correspond to 20 years data for a hospital performing 230 interventions per year. Consequently, the number of interventions performed in the most active hospitals would not be sufficient to make such comparisons. LIMITATIONS AND COUNTER EFFECTS: Some studies have demonstrated that the publication of mortality rates does not have a major influence on patients' decisions nor on physicians' choice of a referral hospital. It would have no effect on improving health care quality of the institutions cited. One the contrary, certain counter effects have been observed: modification in patient recruitment, higher-risk patients being referred to hospitals with unpublished mortality rates. For many authors, procedure indicators are more pertinent than

  19. Vaccination against Q fever for biodefense and public health indications

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Sara; Wolfe, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever, a disease that is often spread to humans via inhalational exposure to the bacteria from contaminated agricultural sources. Outbreaks have been observed all over the world with larger foci generating interest in vaccination programs, most notably in Australia and the Netherlands. Importantly, exposure rates among military personnel deployed to the Middle East can be relatively high as measured by seroconversion to C. burnetii-specific antibodies. Q fever has been of interest to the biodefense community over the years due to its low infectious dose and environmental stability. Recent advances in cell-free growth and genetics of C. burnetii also make this organism easier to culture and manipulate. While there is a vaccine that is licensed for use in Australia, the combination of biodefense- and public health-related issues associated with Q fever warrant the development of a safer and more effective vaccine against this disease. PMID:25566235

  20. Vegetation Health and Productivity Indicators for Sustained National Climate Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. O.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment process is developing a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public. Implementing a 14 year record of Gross and Net Primary Productivity (GPP/NPP) derived from the NASA EOS MODIS satellite sensor we demonstrate how these products can serve as Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health National Climate Indicators for implementation in sustained National Climate Assessments. The NPP product combines MODIS vegetation data with daily global meteorology to calculate annual growth of all plant material at 1 sq. km resolution. NPP anomalies identify regions with above or below average plant growth that may result from climate fluctuations and can inform carbon source/sink dynamics, agricultural and forestry yield measures, and response to wildfire or drought conditions. The GPP product provides a high temporal resolution (8-day) metric of vegetation growth which can be used to monitor short-term vegetation response to extreme events and implemented to derive vegetation phenology metrics; growing season start, end, and length, which can elucidate land cover and regionally specific vegetation responses to a changing climate. The high spatial resolution GPP and NPP indicators can also inform and clarify responses seen from other proposed Pilot Indicators such as forest growth/productivity, land cover, crop production, and phenology. The GPP and NPP data are in continuous production and will be sustained into the future with the next generation satellite missions. The long-term Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health Indicators are ideal for use in sustained National Climate Assessments, providing regionally specific responses to a changing climate and complete coverage at the national scale.

  1. Taking the pulse of Colorados Front Range: Developing regional indicators of environmental and quality of life condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.

    2005-01-01

    Indicators are routinely used to report the status and trends of human health, economy, educational achievement, and quality of life. Some environmental indicators, such as for water and air quality, are routinely reported and used to inform personal, management, or policy decisions. Other environmental indicators, particularly those that do not relate directly to human well-being, have been harder to define, interpret, or use. These indicators may be just as useful and important in describing the ability to provide ecosystem good and services, or less tangible quality of life measures, but they may be suspect because of the quality of data or even the source of the information.

  2. Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

  3. Helminth communities of fish as ecological indicators of lake health.

    PubMed

    Shah, Humaira Bashir; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals largely with the dynamics and changes in the helminth parasite communities of fish along the trophic gradient of lakes. The use of parasitological community data as a bioindicator of environmental health underlines the need to study parasite communities at comparable localities with known pollution levels. The comparison of the conditions in different habitats might be helpful to differentiate between normal fluctuations in ambient conditions and pollution-mediated effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the community structure of parasites in snow trout (Schizothorax niger Heckel) inhabiting 3 lakes of contrasting trophic status in Kashmir. The idea of selecting the lakes, namely Anchar (strongly hypereutrophic), Dal (eutrophic) and Manasbal (mesotrophic) for this study was intentional as they depict different trophic gradients and exhibit the desirable pattern which was a prerequisite for this study. The findings presented in this article suggest an apparent lake-wise gradient in community structure, as the increase in trematode and cestode infections in Anchar was markedly greater, to levels clearly distinguishable from those in the other two water bodies. We conclude that human-induced eutrophication of lakes modifies the parasite community at component level and community-level studies on parasites may provide information on health status of lakes. PMID:23127258

  4. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:26324808

  5. [Environmental quality: wellfare, confort and health].

    PubMed

    Vargas Marcos, Francisco; Gallego Pulgarín, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Different ways of interpreting environmental conditions have led to the development of concepts such as the sick building, indoor air quality or indoor environment quality, for understanding the complexity of the pollutants in enclosed environments and the implications thereof on the health. The "Indoor Environment Quality" proposal is an advancement, operative and conceptual, surpassing amply prior ones, given that it orients the actions toward healthy environments without limiting the idea of pollution to the air alone. The aim is identifying the competence to preventing hazards related to exposure to pollutants within the confines of indoor environments and know the legislative framework useful for taking the actions. Optimum conditions within indoor environments must redound in health, well-being and comfort with regard to both working life as well as the environments in which everyday activities outside of work, extracurricular, leisure-time and entertainment activities are carried out. Today's society is demanding safe, clean, well-climatized places, for this is necessary to integrate the inhabitant's perceptions and demands and achieve an optimum balance among social standards, energy use and sustainable development. Legislation is being further expanded upon in the direction of occupational health and safety and the regulation of chemical substances. Environmental Health carries out prevention and control tasks, takes part in the enforcement of international pollution and waste reduction agreements and promotes measures for carrying out the European Environment and Health Strategy. It is considered useful the elaboration of protocols for the evaluation and administration gives the risks associated to the interior pollutants. PMID:15913058

  6. Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia) as indicators of ecosystem health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Three State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conferences have been held since 1996 to encourage the development of Great Lakes indicators of ecosystem health for use in reporting on progress in restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Here we report on the development of an indicator based on burrowing mayflies, Hexagenia (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), using production and biomass as the indicator metrics. Burrowing mayflies were selected because they (1) were historically abundant in unpolluted, soft-bottomed mesotrophic habitats throughout the Great Lakes, (2) are intolerant of and were extirpated by pollution in most of those habitats during the 1940s to 1950s, (3) have shown the ability to recover in one of those habitats following pollution abatement, (4) are ecologically important as bioturbators of lakebed sediments and as trophic integrators that link detrital energy resources directly to fishes that feed preferentially on them, and (5) have highly visible mating flights, which carry the message directly to an informed public that the source water body is healthy. In addition, their annual production can be estimated from their mean annual biomass by the size-frequency method. Productivity and biomass can also be estimated with a 'cohort-direct' method, using the biomass of mature nymphs collected in May or early June from the cohort that is about to emerge as subimagos in late June or early July. Although both the size-frequency and cohort-direct methods provide reliable estimates of productivity and biomass, the latter method greatly reduces sample collection and processing effort and thus makes it feasible to use Hexagenia as an indicator of ecosystem health in surveys requiring the collection of large numbers of samples.

  7. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2003-01-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  8. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Benzidine has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for benzidine is 234.13 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for benzidine 100.

  9. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2003-11-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  10. USE OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT NEEDS INDICES FOR ORAL HEALTH SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    Nakas, Enita; Tiro, Alisa; Vrazalica, Lejla Redzepagic; Hadzihasanovic, Dzana; Dzemidzic, Vildana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study is to compare incidence of orthodontic malocclusion based on occlusal indices and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and to evaluate the most commonly used method among the dentists for orthodontic treatment in Sarajevo. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 110 (31 female and 79 male)subjects older than 16 years with complete permanent dentition. Subjects were examined according to Occlusal Index (Angle classification of malocclusion, overjet, overbite, dental arch crowding and tooth rotation) and IOTN index. We conduct survey regarding which indexes are used in deciding on orthodontic treatment need, among primary health care and Orthodontist. Results: The present study show differences between the presence of malocclusion and treatment need as assessed by these two used indices. Based on the survey that we conduct all primary health care doctors use Occlusal Index to decide need for orthodontic treatment, more than 95% of orthodontic specialist use Occlusal Index for treatment need estimation. Conclusion: When measuring and grading treatment needs we should rely on Index of orthodontic treatment need. In such high demand for orthodontic treatment need it is necessary to establish need for the orthodontic treatment as fundamental, so that individuals with greatest treatment need can be assigned priority. PMID:27147922

  11. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDICES FOR GREEN CHEMICAL PRODUCTION AND USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical production, use and disposal cause adverse impacts on the environment. Consequently, much research has been conducted to develop methods for estimating the risk of chemicals and to screen them based on environmental impact. Risk assessment may be subdivide...

  13. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  14. Underground storage tanks: The environmental health role

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, S. )

    1994-04-01

    Petroleum contamination of shallow aquifers resulting from antiquated underground petroleum storage systems has had a significant economical, as well as environmental impact on the nation's urban and rural communities. The cost for assessment and clean-up of a service station petroleum leak in Caliente, Nevada (population: 1,111) may go as high as $3 million. Whereas in a more urban area such as Las Vegas, Nevada, 317 petroleum clean-up operations of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) have been initiated in a three-year period between October 1990 and October 1993. The leaking UST problem, brought to national attention during the late 1970s and early 1980s, has had such an impact that the EPA has enlisted state and local environmental and health agencies to take an important lead role to find, mitigate, and prevent petroleum leaks into the unseen subsurface environment. The 1990s will witness a national amelioration of shallow aquifers.

  15. Nanotechnology and environmental and public health considerations.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology has arrived on the scene much as did predecessor technologies--hailed for its purpose and accepted with enthusiasm amid bursts of research, funding, and news of creative applications. But the early efforts to consider its environmental aspects have been small even though the implications for environmental and public health are broad. A well-crafted policy framework is needed, one linked to a clearer understanding of the direct and indirect effects, benefits, and risk of nanotechnology. A precautious approach would foster policy interventions to prevent harms by slowing developments where the risks are high and focus scientific effort on dispelling ignorance and uncertainty, especially in those areas where the consequences of being wrong are substantial. This kind of approach also would impose the burden of demonstrating the safety of the technology primarily on its proponents. The process of producing guidelines for other technologies is considered. PMID:17208882

  16. Informing environmental health policy in urban areas: the HEADLAMP approach.

    PubMed

    Briggs, D J; Field, K

    2000-01-01

    Urban areas represent complex environments in which to protect health. Accurate and highly resolved information is thus a prerequisite for effective environmental health policy. The HEADLAMP approach is designed to improve decision-making by providing indicators, based on sound science, to all relevant stakeholders, in an appropriate and usable form. The approach comprises three linked stages: categorization of the issues to be addressed, construction of relevant indicators, and policy formulation and implementation. Nevertheless, the application of this approach faces many challenges. The environment-health chain is both lengthy and complex, so that a wide range of indicators is needed from different points in this chain. The DPSEEA framework provides a useful, though limited, structure to help define and organize these indicators. This complexity also means that the indicators have to be linked, so that problems can be tracked from cause to effect and the effectiveness of actions at different points in the DPSEEA chain can be evaluated. Indicators also have to be designed in ways reflecting the spatial and temporal complexity of urban areas--namely, the rapid rates of change in urban environments and the marked spatial variations in environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Effective methods of participation are equally essential if the indicators are to represent the concerns of the stakeholders involved, and if decisions are to be made on a collective basis. Good indicators thus must be designed to fit many different and varying purposes. The challenge is to devise indicators that serve these purposes by representing the intricacies that are inherent in urban areas, rather than by hiding that complexity. PMID:10939091

  17. Public health implications of environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H R; Williams, M; Ademoyero, A A; Chou, C H; Jones, D E

    1998-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a public health agency with responsibility for assessing the public health implications associated with uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The biological effects of low-level exposures are a primary concern in these assessments. One of the tools used by the agency for this purpose is the risk assessment paradigm originally outlined and described by the National Academy of Science in 1983. Because of its design and inherent concepts, risk assessment has been variously employed by a number of environmental and public health agencies and programs as a means to organize information, as a decision support tool, and as a working hypothesis for biologically based inference and extrapolation. Risk assessment has also been the subject of significant critical review. The ATSDR recognizes the utility of both the qualitative and quantitative conclusions provided by traditional risk assessment, but the agency uses such estimates only in the broader context of professional judgment, internal and external peer review, and extensive public review and comment. This multifaceted approach is consistent with the Council on Environmental Quality's description and use of risk analysis as an organizing construct based on sound biomedical and other scientific judgment in concert with risk assessment to define plausible exposure ranges of concern rather than a single numerical estimate that may convey an artificial sense of precision. In this approach biomedical opinion, host factors, mechanistic interpretation, molecular epidemiology, and actual exposure conditions are all critically important in evaluating the significance of environmental exposure to hazardous substances. As such, the ATSDR risk analysis approach is a multidimensional endeavor encompassing not only the components of risk assessment but also the principles of biomedical judgment, risk management, and risk communication

  18. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  19. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria P.; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hohmann, Cynthia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koppen, Gudrun; Krämer, Ursula; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Patelarou, Evridiki; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Pierik, Frank H.; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santos, Ana Cristina; Slama, Rémy; Sram, Radim J.; Thijs, Carel; Tischer, Christina; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomáš; Vandentorren, Stephanie; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother–child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother–child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12–19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health. PMID

  20. Using Modules in an Environmental Health Training Program. Module 20. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, is on using modules in an environmental health training program. This informational document describes the prospective student, content and objectives of the modules, and how to select modules for use in an environmental health training…

  1. The Environmental Health of Latino Children

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Poppell, Carolyn F.; Logie, Laura A.; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Representing 1 in 6 children in the United States, Latino children incur disproportionate exposures to air pollutants, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals, as well as lead and mercury from candy, traditional folk remedies, religious practices, and other sources. Latino children also have higher rates of asthma, lead and mercury poisoning, behavioral and developmental disorders, and certain cancers. Concurrent exposure to multiple pollutants, pre-existing disease, poor nutrition, substandard housing, limited access to health care, and other factors related to their lower socioeconomic status increase Latino children's susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Targeted research, education, prevention and intervention efforts, and economic development initiatives are needed. PMID:17825728

  2. The readability and audience acceptance of printed health promotion materials used by environmental health departments.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Harold D; Fleming, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A significant part of the work of an environmental health professional is the communication of information to clients, customers, and the public in the context of safety and health promotion or as an adjunct to enforcement activities. While a wide range of communication methods are available today, printed material still forms an important aspect of the communications methodology of environmental health departments. This paper raises a number of questions about the effectiveness of environmental health promotion brochures in common use in the United Kingdom and the problems that could arise from simply assuming that the brochures are conveying the intended message to the target audience. Through a series of case studies conducted in environmental health departments, evaluative data on a range of brochures were gathered in two interlinked stages: a readability test and a target-audience questionnaire survey. The sources of the brochures included the central government, charities, trade unions, and commercial enterprises; some brochures were produced "in house." Results indicated a common mismatch between the estimated reading age of the target audience and the reading age determined by the readability test; concern about the efficacy of using commercially sourced brochures carrying advertising that may conflict with advice on other environmental health issues; "in-house" brochures that appeared to optimize self-promotion rather than the conveyance of topic information; ineffective brochures used as an adjunct to enforcement activity; and the possibility that the latter could be introduced as defense evidence in related legal proceedings. Overall, the study showed that a well-structured method for brochure choice and ongoing evaluation are essential tools for environmental health departments seeking to maximize their resources and effectiveness. PMID:12575638

  3. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  4. Towards a Unified Taxonomy of Health Indicators: Academic Health Centers and Communities Working Together to Improve Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J.; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton “Mickey”; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public’s health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium’s Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators. The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy’s application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  5. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  6. [Health and environmental governance for sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Gallo, Edmundo; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2012-06-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, will address the challenges for sustainable development (SD), 'green economy and poverty eradication' and the 'institutional structure of sustainable development'. Therefore it will address the governance needed to achieve such goals. This paper discusses the structure of global, regional and national governance of and for health and environment in the context of SD. Among other global actions, the Millenium Development Goals were a significant recent political effort, but despite its advances, it fails when ignores the structural causes of production and consumption patterns and the unequal distribution of power, which are responsible for inequities and impede true development. To achieve SD, proposals must avoid reductionism, advancing conceptually and methodologically to face the challenges of the socio-environmental determinants of health through intersectoral action, including social participation and all levels of government. It is paramount to continue the implementation of Agenda 21, to meet the MDGs and to create 'Sustainable Development Goals'. Regarding the health field, Rio+20 Summit must reassure the connection between health and sustainability - as a part of the Social pillar of sustainable development - inspiring politics and actions in multiple levels. PMID:22699639

  7. Rangeland health attributes and indicators for qualitative assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.; Herrick, J.E.; Pellant, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Panels of experts from the Society for Range Management and the National Research Council proposed that status of rangeland ecosystems could be ascertained by evaluating an ecological site's potential to conserve soil resources and by a series of indicators for ecosystem processes and site stability. Using these recommendations as a starting point, we developed a rapid, qualitative method for assessing a moment-in-time status of rangelands. Evaluators rate 17 indicators to assess 3 ecosystem attributes (soil and site stability, hydrologic function, and biotic integrity) for a given location. Indicators include rills, water flow patterns, pedestals and terracettes, bare ground, gullies, wind scour and depositional areas, litter movement, soil resistance to erosion, soil surface loss or degradation, plant composition relative to infiltration, soil compaction, plant functional/structural groups, plant mortality, litter amount, annual production, invasive plants, and reproductive capability. In this paper, we detail the development and evolution of the technique and introduce a modified ecological reference worksheet that documents the expected presence and amount of each indicator on the ecological site. In addition, we review the intended applications for this technique and clarify the differences between assessment and monitoring that lead us to recommend this technique be used for moment-in-time assessments and not be used for temporal monitoring of rangeland status. Lastly, we propose a mechanism for adapting and modifying this technique to reflect improvements in understanding of ecosystem processes. We support the need for quantitative measures for monitoring rangeland health and propose some measures that we believe may address some of the 17 indicators.

  8. Development of Health Equity Indicators in Primary Health Care Organizations Using a Modified Delphi

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sabrina T.; Browne, Annette J.; Varcoe, Colleen; Lavoie, Josée; Fridkin, Alycia; Smye, Victoria; Godwin, Olive; Tu, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a core set of indicators that could be used for measuring and monitoring the performance of primary health care organizations' capacity and strategies for enhancing equity-oriented care. Methods Indicators were constructed based on a review of the literature and a thematic analysis of interview data with patients and staff (n = 114) using procedures for qualitatively derived data. We used a modified Delphi process where the indicators were circulated to staff at the Health Centers who served as participants (n = 63) over two rounds. Indicators were considered part of a priority set of health equity indicators if they received an overall importance rating of>8.0, on a scale of 1–9, where a higher score meant more importance. Results Seventeen indicators make up the priority set. Items were eliminated because they were rated as low importance (<8.0) in both rounds and were either redundant or more than one participant commented that taking action on the indicator was highly unlikely. In order to achieve health care equity, performance at the organizational level is as important as assessing the performance of staff. Two of the highest rated “treatment” or processes of care indicators reflects the need for culturally safe and trauma and violence-informed care. There are four indicators that can be used to measure outcomes which can be directly attributable to equity responsive primary health care. Discussion These indicators and subsequent development of items can be used to measure equity in the domains of treatment and outcomes. These areas represent targets for higher performance in relation to equity for organizations (e.g., funding allocations to ongoing training in equity-oriented care provision) and providers (e.g., reflexive practice, skill in working with the health effects of trauma). PMID:25478914

  9. Assessment of environmental health children's population living in environmental injustice scenarios.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cortinas, Gabriela; Cifuentes, Enrique; Escobar, Edna Rico; Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study, involving 145 children randomly selected from three different socioeconomic locations. We selected social, environment and health indicators and measured the prevalence and prevalence odds ratios. Children from the brick producing site (segregation index 5), are exposed to high levels of multiple toxic agents, and showed the highest morbidity rates and malnutrition, anemia, dental fluorosis, and the lowest IQ, followed by children from municipal garbage dump (segregation index 4), where we detected the highest prevalence of dermatological and enteric diseases. Children from the Central Zone (segregation index 2) showed the lowest rates of malnutrition and higher IQ than the other two groups. A unified vision of social, health and environmental indicators opens the possibility of novel intervention programs and a legal framework that specifically protect children against environmental exposures. PMID:22418761

  10. Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D.

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

  11. Is Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) a valid indicator for health systems evaluation?

    PubMed

    Romero, Martin; Vivas-Consuelo, David; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to do a discussion about the use of the HRQoL as a health measure of the populations that enable to analyze its potential use as a measure of development and efficiency of health systems. The principal use of the HRQoL is in health technologies economics evaluation; however this measure can be use in public health when need to know the health state of population. The WHO recognizes its potential use but its necessary to do a discussion about your difficulties for its application and restrictions for its use as a performance indicator for the health systems. The review show the different aspects about the use of HRQoL how a measure of efficiency ot the health system, each aspect identified in the literature is analyzed and discussed, developing the pros and cons of their possible use, especially when it comes as a cardinal measure. The analysis allows recognize that measuring HRQoL in countries could serve as a useful indicator, especially when it seeks to measure the level of health and disease, as do most of the indicators of current use. However, the methodological constraints that do not allow comparability between countries especially when you have large socioeconomic differences have yet to be resolved to allow comparison between different regions. PMID:24353981

  12. Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Environmental Observations: Validation of Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of recreational waters by fecal material is often assessed using indicator bacteria such as enterococci. Enumeration based on culturing methods can take up to 48 hours to complete, limiting the accuracy of water quality evaluations. Molecular microbial techniques em...

  13. Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

  14. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  15. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  16. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for dinitrocresols

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Dinitrocresols was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Dinitrocresols has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for 4,6-dinitrocresol is 0.001 mg/kg/day for inhalation exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol is 100. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value for 2,6-dinitro-p-cresol.

  17. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for chloroacetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Chloroacetaldehyde was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Chloroacetaldehyde has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for chloroacetaldehyde is 0.007 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  18. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    PubMed

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented. PMID:18790671

  19. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  20. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Causal Thinking in Global Environmental Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sly, Peter D; Carpenter, David O; Van den Berg, Martin; Stein, Renato T; Landrigan, Philip J; Brune-Drisse, Marie-Noel; Suk, William

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates indicate a trend toward increasing years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factors examined included smoking, diet, alcohol, drug abuse, and physical inactivity. By contrast, little consideration was given to accumulating evidence that exposures to environmental chemicals, psychosocial stress, and malnutrition during fetal development and across the life span also increase risk of NCDs. To address this gap, we undertook a narrative review of early-life environmental contributions to disease. We documented numerous etiologic associations. We propose that future GBD estimates use an expanded approach for assessing etiologic contributions of environmental exposures to recognized disease risk factors. We argue that broadening the definition of environmental disease, together with improved methods of assessing early life exposures and their health outcomes across the life span, will allow better understanding of causal associations and provide the incentives required to support strategies to control avoidable exposures and reduce disease risk. PMID:27325063

  1. Health indicators: eliminating bias from convenience sampling estimators.

    PubMed

    Hedt, Bethany L; Pagano, Marcello

    2011-02-28

    Public health practitioners are often called upon to make inference about a health indicator for a population at large when the sole available information are data gathered from a convenience sample, such as data gathered on visitors to a clinic. These data may be of the highest quality and quite extensive, but the biases inherent in a convenience sample preclude the legitimate use of powerful inferential tools that are usually associated with a random sample. In general, we know nothing about those who do not visit the clinic beyond the fact that they do not visit the clinic. An alternative is to take a random sample of the population. However, we show that this solution would be wasteful if it excluded the use of available information. Hence, we present a simple annealing methodology that combines a relatively small, and presumably far less expensive, random sample with the convenience sample. This allows us to not only take advantage of powerful inferential tools, but also provides more accurate information than that available from just using data from the random sample alone. PMID:21290401

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Crewmembers' Cardiovascular Health Indicated by Dietary Lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Marcelle A.

    1999-01-01

    This summer's project examined the relationships between dietary and physiological factors on serum lipoproteins using data from past United States astronauts. Nutritional assessment was required to determine whether a relationship existed between dietary intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in crewmembers. Risk for CVD was assessed by the measurement of preflight, inflight, and postflight serum lipoproteins. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the dietary practices of past crewmembers before and during flight, and to examine their relationship with blood indicators of lipid status. Because of mortality and morbidity associated with CVD, such assessments are critical for the maintenance of astronaut health before, during, and after space flight. It was anticipated that the results from this project would assess the effects space flight and diet have on cardiovascular health, thus, defining the adequacy of the current dietary recommendations during space travel. It was hypothesized that the mean preflight serum lipoproteins compared to mean postflight serum lipoproteins would not be statistically different and that the current inflight diet is adequate in nutrient content, having little or no effect on lipoprotein levels.

  3. Construction of an environmental quality index for public health research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A more comprehensive estimate of environmental quality would improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and human health. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the U.S. was developed. Methods The EQI was developed in four parts: domain identification; data source acquisition; variable construction; and data reduction. Five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) were recognized. Within each domain, data sources were identified; each was temporally (years 2000–2005) and geographically (county) restricted. Variables were constructed for each domain and assessed for missingness, collinearity, and normality. Domain-specific data reduction was accomplished using principal components analysis (PCA), resulting in domain-specific indices. Domain-specific indices were then combined into an overall EQI using PCA. In each PCA procedure, the first principal component was retained. Both domain-specific indices and overall EQI were stratified by four rural–urban continuum codes (RUCC). Higher values for each index were set to correspond to areas with poorer environmental quality. Results Concentrations of included variables differed across rural–urban strata, as did within-domain variable loadings, and domain index loadings for the EQI. In general, higher values of the air and sociodemographic indices were found in the more metropolitan areas and the most thinly populated areas have the lowest values of each of the domain indices. The less-urbanized counties (RUCC 3) demonstrated the greatest heterogeneity and range of EQI scores (−4.76, 3.57) while the thinly populated strata (RUCC 4) contained counties with the most positive scores (EQI score ranges from −5.86, 2.52). Conclusion The EQI holds promise for improving our characterization of the overall environment for public health. The EQI describes the non-residential ambient county-level conditions to which residents are

  4. Operationalizing environmental indicators for physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Strath, Scott; Isaacs, Raymond; Greenwald, Michael J

    2007-10-01

    This qualitative study describes environmental supports and barriers to physical activity in an older adult sample drawn from low- and high-walkable neighborhoods. Thirty-seven individuals age 55 and over were recruited and answered open-ended survey questions, with a subsample invited back to partake in a semistructured interview. Content analysis identified categories and themes linking perceptions of neighborhood-environment characteristics to activity. Emerging categories and themes did not differ across neighborhood walkability, so results are presented for both groups combined. Infrastructure was the most common category identified to encourage activity, specifically, well-maintained sidewalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic control. Other categories of land use, landscape, and aesthetics were reported. Poorly maintained or missing sidewalks, crosswalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic safety were categories that discouraged activity. In conclusion, the information obtained is helpful in solidifying which environmental characteristics are important to measure as they relate to activity behavior in an older adult population. PMID:18048945

  5. Environmental Density vs. Colour Indices of the Low Redshifts Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrycheva, D. V.; Melnyk, O. V.; Vavilova, I. B.; Elyiv, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    We have used 3D Voronoi tessellation to determine the environmental density of galaxies from a sample of the SDSS DR9 survey (0.02 < z < 0.1 and mr < 17.7). The sample was divided into two groups: bright central galaxies with Mr < -20.7 (N ~ 120000) and faint satellite galaxies with Mr > -20.7 (N~140000). We characterized the environmental density of the galaxies by the inverse volume of a Voronoi cell. We confirmed a tendency for an evolutionary decrease in the relative number of early galaxy types (with quenched star formation) with increasing redshift. It was also shown that the higher the density of environment near a central galaxy, it is more likely that the central galaxy has an early morphological type. The fraction of early types among the central galaxies is higher (78%) that among the sample of satellite galaxies (26%). In addition, the higher fraction of the central early-type galaxies in the sample, the higher their share in the denser environments.

  6. Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, Environmental and Public Health, Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    An awareness of the environment and its relationship to human health and efficiency are the focal points of this prototype curriculum for grades K-3. Assuming responsibility for creating and maintaining safe and healthy surroundings is urged. Specific curriculum content studies: (1) environmental factors (existing environment and effects, control,…

  7. Fate of sucralose through environmental and water treatment processes and impact on plant indicator species.

    PubMed

    Soh, Lindsay; Connors, Kristin A; Brooks, Bryan W; Zimmerman, Julie

    2011-02-15

    The degradation and partitioning of sucralose during exposure to a variety of environmental and advanced treatment processes (ATP) and the effect of sucralose on indicator plant species were systematically assessed. Bench scale experiments were used to reproduce conditions from environmental processes (microbial degradation, hydrolysis, soil sorption) and ATPs (chlorination, ozonation, sorption to activated carbon, and UV radiation). Degradation only occurred to a limited extent during hydrolysis, ozonation, and microbial processes indicating that breakdown of sucralose will likely be slow and incomplete leading to accumulation in surface waters. Further, the persistence of sucralose was compared to suggested human tracer compounds, caffeine and acesulfame-K. In comparison sucralose exhibits similar or enhanced characteristics pertaining to persistence, prevalence, and facile detection and can therefore be considered an ideal tracer for anthropogenic activity. Ecological effects of sucralose were assessed by measuring sucrose uptake inhibition in plant cotelydons and aquatic plant growth impairment. Sucralose did not inhibit plant cotelydon sucrose uptake, nor did it effect frond number, wet weight, or growth rate in aquatic plant, Lemna gibba. Though sucralose does not appear toxic to plant growth, the peristent qualities of sucralose may lead to chronic low-dose exposure with largely unknown consequences for human and environmental health. PMID:21235203

  8. Incorporating Environmental Health into Pediatric Medical and Nursing Education

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Roberts, James; Rogers, Bonnie; Love, Rebecca; Etzel, Ruth; Paulson, Jerome; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric medical and nursing education currently lacks the environmental health content necessary to appropriately prepare pediatric health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental-exposure–related disease. Leading health institutions have recognized the need for improvements in health professionals’ environmental health education. Parents are seeking answers about the impact of environmental toxicants on their children. Given the biologic, psychological, and social differences between children and adults, there is a need for environmental health education specific to children. The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, in partnership with the Children’s Environmental Health Network, created two working groups, one with expertise in medical education and one with expertise in nursing education. The working groups reviewed the transition from undergraduate student to professional to assess where in those processes pediatric environmental health could be emphasized. The medical education working group recommended increasing education about children’s environmental health in the medical school curricula, in residency training, and in continuing medical education. The group also recommended the expansion of fellowship training in children’s environmental health. Similarly, the nursing working group recommended increasing children’s environmental health content at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing nursing education levels. Working groups also identified the key medical and nursing organizations that would be important in leveraging these changes. A concerted effort to prioritize pediatric environmental health by governmental organizations and foundations is essential in providing the resources and expertise to set policy and provide the tools for teaching pediatric environmental health to health care providers. PMID:15579423

  9. Environmental health: an opportunity for health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Chalupka, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Variance in personal susceptibility to environmental hazards may be attributable to age, gender, previous or concomitant exposure, economic status, race, or genetic endowment. Water pollution sources can be either point sources (a well-defined source, e.g., factory waste water discharge) or non-point sources (more diffuse sources including agricultural, industrial, and urban runoff, domestic lawn care, and air pollution). Pollutants can migrate from disposal sites, underground injection wells, or underground storage systems and contaminate ground and surface drinking water sources. The annual cost of human exposure to outdoor air pollutants from all sources is estimated to be between $40 to $50 billion. The death toll from exposure to particulate air pollution generated by motor vehicles, burning coal, fuel oil, and wood is estimated to be responsible for as many as 100,000 fatalities annually in the United States. Through the identification of individuals and groups at greater risk, occupational and environmental health nurses can use primary and secondary prevention activities to protect susceptible individuals and communities from adverse exposures and environmentally related disease. PMID:15675154

  10. Lessons in environmental health in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M; Goldstein, B D

    1999-01-01

    Environmental health has evolved rapidly in recent decades, drawing largely on new analytic technologies, advanced data acquisition and modeling, mechanistic studies in toxicology, and the conceptual framework of risk assessment. The latter combines toxicologic and epidemiologic data with improved techniques for quantifying exposure, producing estimates of risks from environmental hazards or conditions to selected target populations. The public and governments have become increasingly concerned with environmental health and quality. The major lessons have been (a) environmental-health scientists must participate in policy debates; (b) environmental health problems are exceedingly complex and require interdisciplinary research; and (c) environmental health is a global issue. The globalization of commerce, the untested impact of international trade agreements, increased migration, and especially increased population, have profound impact on the quality as well as availability of air, water, land, and food. Global atmospheric transport of pollutants and the effect on atmosphere and climate are two examples of globalization of environmental health. PMID:10352848

  11. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR LEAD ALKYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for lead alkyls was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous const...

  12. Plastics and Environmental Health: The Road Ahead

    PubMed Central

    North, Emily J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including endocrine-disrupting properties and long-term pollution. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials – such as metal or glass – and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications, such as disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol-A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of ever increasing mass-production of plastic consumer articles. By example of the healthcare sector, this review concentrates on benefits and downsides of plastics and identities opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the healthcare and food industry, and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  13. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S CHILDREN'S HEALTH PROGRAMS: REVIEW OF PROGRESS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE DIRECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    While trend data indicate aggregate levels of environmental pollution in the United States is decreasing, the health effects associated with such pollution in children appear to be increasing. The rising recognition that behavioral, developmental, and metabolic differences in chi...

  14. What Causes Environmental Inequalities and Related Health Effects? An Analysis of Evolving Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kruize, Hanneke; Droomers, Mariël; van Kamp, Irene; Ruijsbroek, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    Early environmental justice studies were exposure-oriented, lacked an integrated approach, and did not address the health impact of environmental inequalities. A coherent conceptual framework, needed to understand and tackle environmental inequalities and the related health effects, was lacking. We analyzed the more recent environmental justice literature to find out how conceptual insights have evolved. The conceptual framework of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) was analyzed for additional explanations for environmental inequalities and the related health effects. This paper points out that recent environmental justice studies have broadened their scope by incorporating a broader set of physical and social environmental indicators, and by focusing on different geographic levels and on health impacts of environmental inequalities. The CSDH framework provided additional elements such as the role of structural determinants, the role of health-related behavior in relation to the physical and social environment, access to health care, as well as the life course perspective. Incorporating elements of the CSDH framework into existing environmental justice concepts, and performing more empirical research on the interactions between the different determinants at different geographical levels would further improve our understanding of environmental inequalities and their health effects and offer new opportunities for policy action. PMID:24886752

  15. Integrating Environmental and Human Health Databases in the Great Lakes Basin: Themes, Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Kate L.; Sanborn, Margaret; Lopez, Russ; Orris, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many government, academic and research institutions collect environmental data that are relevant to understanding the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Integrating these data with health outcome data presents new challenges that are important to consider to improve our effective use of environmental health information. Our objective was to identify the common themes related to the integration of environmental and health data, and suggest ways to address the challenges and make progress toward more effective use of data already collected, to further our understanding of environmental health associations in the Great Lakes region. Environmental and human health databases were identified and reviewed using literature searches and a series of one-on-one and group expert consultations. Databases identified were predominantly environmental stressors databases, with fewer found for health outcomes and human exposure. Nine themes or factors that impact integration were identified: data availability, accessibility, harmonization, stakeholder collaboration, policy and strategic alignment, resource adequacy, environmental health indicators, and data exchange networks. The use and cost effectiveness of data currently collected could be improved by strategic changes to data collection and access systems to provide better opportunities to identify and study environmental exposures that may impact human health. PMID:25837202

  16. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS ON MACROINVERTEBRATE INDICATORS IN OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroinvertebrate indicators are used as assessment endpoints for surface water quality monitoring in Ohio. The purpose of this study is to explain and predict the impact of environmental stressors on macroinvertebrate communities as measured by the Ohio Environmental Protection...

  17. Integration of Health Protection and Health Promotion: Rationale, Indicators, and Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Glorian; McLellan, Deborah; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Boden, Leslie I.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Hashimoto, Dean; Stoddard, Anne; Wagner, Gregory R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To offer a definition of an “integrated” approach to worker health and operationalize this definition using indicators of the extent to which integrated efforts are implemented in an organization. Methods Guided by the question, “How will we know it when we see it?” we reviewed relevant literature to identify available definitions and metrics, and used a modified-Delphi process to review and refine indicators and measures of integrated approaches. Results A definition of integrated approaches to worker health is proposed and accompanied by indicators and measures that may be used by researchers, employers and workers. Conclusions A shared understanding of what is meant by integrated approaches to protect and promote worker health has the potential to improve dialogue among researchers and facilitate the research-to-practice process. PMID:24284762

  18. Propolis as an indicator of environmental contamination by metals.

    PubMed

    Finger, Daiane; Filho, Irineo Kelte; Torres, Yohandra Reyes; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

    2014-03-01

    Concentrations of eleven representative metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn) in forty-two propolis samples were measured by electrothermal atomization and flame atomic absorption spectrometry after calcination in a muffle furnace. Samples were collected from different regions from Paraná State - Brazil where apiculture is an important economic activity. Results showed that the average content of Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn in propolis was 0.68, 1.66, 7.59, 1.27, 0.08, 0.58 and 0.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Levels of Al, Ca, and Mg were statistically different in some regions of Paraná and could be used to assign the geographical origin of the propolis. The average concentration of the Cd, Cr, and Pb in raw propolis was 0.13, 5.53 and 9.85 μg g(-1), respectively, and allowed for identification of specific areas with environmental contamination. PMID:24414164

  19. Relative foraminiferan abundance as an indicator of seagrass sediment health:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajandig, P.; Quiros, A.; Nolan, H.; Tallman, R.; Cooper, N.; Ayala, J.; Courtier, C.

    2013-12-01

    Authors: Patrick Cajandig*, Jose Ayala**, Nathaniel Cooper**, Catherine Courtier**, Hannah Nolan**, Rachelle Tallman**, T.E. Angela L. Quiros** * Davis High-School CA, **University of California Santa Cruz, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department Seagrasses are a key component in coastal ecosystems. Found in shallow marine environments, they make a large contribution to coastal ecosystem health by sustaining water quality, stabilizing the sea bottom, and providing habitat as well as food for other organisms. Seagrasses accumulate tiny grains of sediment, increasing water clarity. Just like barren hills are prone to erosion compared to vegetated, rooted down hills, we find a similar situation in the ocean. Seagrasses have broad roots that extend vertically and horizontally to help stabilize the seabed. Seagrasses support a whole ecosystem, because some organisms feed off of the seagrass alone, while others feed off the inhabitants of the seagrass. The quality of sediment is a vital part of seagrass health, just like nutrient rich soils are important to land plants. But what in seagrass sediment is a good indication of health? We hypothesize that seagrass health measures such as percent cover and seagrass species diversity are related to the abundance of foraminiferans relative to other seagrass sediment components. My mentor, T. E. Angela L. Quiros, from the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), collected the sediment samples from seagrass beds in the Philippines. Samples were dried and brought to UCSC for sediment sieving. We used different sized sieves to sort the sediment. These sieves ranged from coarse to very fine sieves (Phi -2.0 (coarse) through +3.0 (fine) going in 0.5 intervals on a log scale). We weighed the sediment that was caught in each tray and separated them into bags of different size classes. To analyze each sample, we subsampled four size classes (Phi's -2.0, -1.5,-1.0, 0.0), and used a dissecting scope to identify and then weigh the

  20. Subnational benchmarking of health systems performance in Africa using health outcome and coverage indicators.

    PubMed

    Noor, Abdisalan Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    National health systems performance (HSP) assessments and benchmarking are critical to understanding how well the delivery of healthcare meets the needs of citizens. Benchmarking HSP has often been done between countries to inform the global public health space. However, its impact is likely to be far greater when implemented sub-nationally to inform actual decisions on resource allocations and performance improvements, especially in high disease burden, low-income countries, where the resource envelope available for health is inadequate. In their study, Roberts and colleagues assemble, analyse and map a minimum set of health intervention and outcome indicators from 1990-2011 to assess and benchmark HSP across the 11 regions of Uganda. This is the first empirical sub-national HSP benchmarking study in the country and the results have potentially important health system policy implications. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/285. PMID:26654445

  1. [Brazilian men's integral health attention: using indicators for monitoring health's promotion and attention].

    PubMed

    Moura, Erly Catarina de; Lima, Aline Maria Peixoto; Urdaneta, Margarita

    2012-10-01

    This article presents and discusses the initial actions of Brazilian National Men's Health Policy (PNAISH) concerning indicators used for monitoring promotion and assistance actions of men's health. This multiple case study was developed among five Brazilian cities which had implanted the PNAISH: (Goiânia (GO), Joinville (SC), Petrolina (PE), Rio Branco (AC) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ). A questionnaire was applied to verify the use of data and information required to calculate the indicators recommended by the PNAISH, concerning health's promotion, implementation and expansion of the men's health assistance system, according to the planned goals contained in the cities' local action plans. The results revealed a critical situation concerning monitoring of the activities through the proposed indicators taking into account the lack of standardized procedures to calculate them. Another specific limitation encountered was the limited access to or availability of data by age and sex in the health information systems. These results point out a lack of necessary indicators to define a base line situation, which weakens the systematic monitoring and future evaluation of the actions. PMID:23099747

  2. HUMAN HEALTH METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: LESSONS FROM HEALTH ECONOMICS AND DECISION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision makers using environmental decision support tools are often confronted with information that predicts a multitude of different human health effects due to environmental stressors. If these health effects need to be contrasted with costs or compared with alternative scena...

  3. Zeolites on Mars: Possible environmental indicators in soils and sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Gooding, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Weathering products should serve as indicators of weathering environments and may provide the best evidence of the nature of climate change on Mars. No direct mineralogical measurements of Martian regolith were performed by the Viking missions, but the biology and X-ray fluorescence experiments provided some information on the physiochemical properties of Martian regolith. Most post-Viking studies of candidate weathering products have emphasized phyllosilicates and Fe-oxides; zeolites are potentially important, but overlooked, candidate Martian minerals. Zeolites would be important on Mars for three different reasons. First, they are major sinks of atmospheric gases and, per unit mass, are stronger and more efficient sorbents than are phyllosilicates. Secondly, they can be virtually unique sorbents and shelters for organic compounds and possible catalysts for organic-based reactions. Finally, their exchangeable ions are good indicators of the chemical properties of solutions with which they have communicated. Accordingly, the search for information on past compositions of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere should find zeolites to be rich repositories.

  4. Building sustainability indicators in the health dimension for solid waste management 1

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Coutinho, Silvano da Silva; Andre, Silvia Carla Silva; Mendes, Adriana Aparecida; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to prepare a list of sustainability indicators in the health dimension, for urban solid waste management. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory study performed jointly with 52 solid waste specialists, using a three-steps Delphi technique, and a scale measuring the degree of importance for agreement among the researchers in this area. Results: the subjects under study were 92,3% PhD's concentrated in the age group from 30 to 40 years old (32,7%) and 51% were men. At the end of the 3rd step of the Delphi process, the average and standard deviation of all the proposed indicators varied from 4,22 (±0,79) to 4,72 (±0,64), in a scale of scores for each indicator from 1 to 5 (from "dispensable" to "very important"). Results showed the level of correspondence among the participants ranging from 82% to 94% related to those indicators. Conclusion: the proposed indicators may be helpful not only for the identification of data that is updated in this area, but also to enlarge the field of debates of the environmental health policies, directed not only for urban solid waste but for the achievement of better health conditions for the Brazilian context. PMID:27508905

  5. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyse...

  6. Creating an Overall Environmental Quality Index to Examine Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between environmental conditions and human health transpire from complex processes. Environmental exposures tend to cluster and disamenities such as landfills or industrial plants are often located in areas with high a percentage of minority and poor residents. Wh...

  7. Health, safety and environmental requirements for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazer, Kathleen A.

    1994-01-01

    The health, safety and environmental requirements for the production of composite materials are discussed. The areas covered include: (1) chemical identification for each chemical; (2) toxicology; (3) industrial hygiene; (4) fire and safety; (5) environmental aspects; and (6) medical concerns.

  8. Trends in reproductive health in Israel: implications for environmental health policy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, researchers first reported that endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment were affecting reproductive health in the general population. The purpose of this article is to examine the evidence of adverse reproductive health trends in Israel and to explore implications for environmental health policy in Israel. We reviewed studies and data in Israel regarding trends in reproductive health indices, specifically: breast and testis cancer, hypospadias, sperm quality, male factor infertility, and age at menarche. The data provide some evidence of adverse reproductive trends in the Israeli population: an increase in testicular cancer from 1990 to 2007, a decrease in age at menarche from 1986 to 2000, an increase in the prevalence of male factor infertility, and some evidence of decreasing sperm counts. However, we note that much of the evidence is limited. The policy implications of reported adverse reproductive health trends possibly related to environmental exposure have been radically different in Europe and the United States. In Europe, such reports led the Parliament of the European Community to adopt a resolution on endocrine disruptors, which emphasizes the application of the Precautionary Principle. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy is focused on screening chemicals for endocrine disrupting properties and does not specifically refer to the Precautionary Principle. To date, there has been no formal governmental policy or strategy in Israel regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals. Environmental health policy on endocrine disruptors requires integrating evidence on human reproductive health trends, evidence on adverse reproductive outcomes in wildlife and experimental systems, and data from biomonitoring studies. Despite gaps in evidence and current data, we support a precautionary approach to regulating potential endocrine disrupting chemicals and reducing public exposures, especially in sensitive groups such as children and

  9. Children's Environmental Health: 2007 Highlights. Environment, Health, and a Focus on Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 to protect human health and the environment. The year 2007 marks 10 years of concerted Federal effort to address children's environmental health risks as mandated by Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. Much of the agency's…

  10. An overview of the Space Station Freedom environmental health system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1989-01-01

    The proposed environmental health system (EHS) designed for the closed environment of the Space Station is examined. The internal contamination control and environmental health considerations for the Space Station are discussed. The microbiology, toxicology, water quality, radiological health, vibroacoustics, and barothermal physiology subsystems of the EHS are described. Proposed capabilities of the EHS are: the environmental sample collection, processing, and analysis of the breathing atmosphere, potable and hygiene water, and internal surfaces.

  11. Universal Health Coverage and the Right to Health: From Legal Principle to Post-2015 Indicators.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations. PMID:26077857

  12. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  13. Collaborative Learning Experiences for Nursing Students in Environmental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dolores J.

    2003-01-01

    An environmental health learning experience involved collaborative activities of graduate public health and undergraduate nursing students. Pre/postcourse measures (n=31) showed increased awareness of issues and competence in interdisciplinary teamwork. (Contains 13 references.) (SK)

  14. DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papers describes epidemiologic designs and methods in studies of health effects of air pollution, whose implications, however, can be extended to the detection of health effects of other environmental exposures. Recent advances in measurement technology for the assessment of ...

  15. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  16. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  17. Adherence indicators predict changes in health outcomes: HUB City Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participant adherence is a major threat to intervention effectiveness. Most researchers have reported effects of a single adherence measure on health outcomes. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate two adherence measures, separately and in combination, for predicting changes in health out...

  18. The battle of health with environmental evils of Asian countries: promises to keep.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Noor Ullah; Rasli, Amran Md; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental indicators and health expenditures in the panel of five selected Asian countries, over the period of 2000-2013. The study used panel cointegration technique for evaluating the nexus between environment and health in the region. The results show that energy demand, forest area, and GDP per unit use of energy have a significant and positive impact on increasing health expenditures in the region. These results have been confirmed by single equation panel cointegration estimators, i.e., fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic OLS (DOLS), and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) estimators. In addition, the study used robust least squares regression to confirm the generalizability of the results in Asian context. All these estimators indicate that environmental indicators escalate the health expenditures per capita in a region; therefore, Asian countries should have to upsurge health expenditures for safeguard from environmental evils in a region. PMID:25854212

  19. Environmental health science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Bright, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    USGS environmental health science focuses on the environment-health interface. Research characterizes the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, as well as the factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents and the resulting toxicologic or infectious disease. The mission of USGS in environmental health science is to contribute scientific information to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers, who use that information to support sound decisionmaking. Coordination with partners and stakeholders will enable USGS to focus on the highest priority environmental health issues, to make relevant, timely, and useable contributions, and to become a “partner of first choice” for environmental health science.

  20. Environmental Health Promotion: Progress and Future Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…

  1. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  2. Evolution of post-deployment indicators of oral health on the Family Health Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Danielle da Costa; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Ramos, Danielle Viana Ribeiro; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the evolution of indicators after the implementation of 21 Oral Healthcare Teams in the Family Health Strategy. Methods We used data from outpatient services of Oral Healthcare Teams to evaluate efficiency, access, percentage of absences and emergencies of oral healthcare professionals who worked in the partnership between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, during the period 2009-2011. Results Percentages of emergencies, income, and access showed a significant difference during the period analyzed, but no difference for percentage of absences was found. When monthly analysis was made, it is noteworthy that at the beginning of service implementation a fluctuation occurred, which may indicate that the work was consolidated over the months, becoming capable of receiving new professionals and increasing the population served. Comparison of the indicators in that period with the goals agreed upon between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo made it possible to notice that the Oral Health Teams had a good performance. Conclusion The results showed that the goals were achieved reflecting the increasing number of professionals, the maturing of work processes in the Oral Health Teams, and optimization of the manpower available to perform the activities. Understanding these results will be important to guide the actions of Oral Health Teams for the following years and to assess the achievement of goals. PMID:25295445

  3. Environmental management on the basis of Complex Regional Indicators Concept: case of the Murmansk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A.; Gutman, S.; Zaychenko, I.; Rytova, E.; Nijinskaya, P.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents an approach to sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region of the Russian Federation based on the complex regional indicators as a transformation of a balance scorecard method. The peculiarities of Murmansk region connected with sustainable environmental development are described. The complex regional indicators approach allows to elaborate the general concept of complex regional development taking into consideration economic and non-economic factors with the focus on environmental aspects, accumulated environmental damage in particular. General strategic chart of sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region worked out on the basis of complex regional indicators concept is composed. The key target indicators of sustainable ecological development of the Murmansk region are presented for the following strategic chart components: regional finance; society and market; industry and entrepreneurship; training, development and innovations. These charts are to be integrated with international environmental monitoring systems.

  4. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    PubMed

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. PMID:23583444

  5. Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental populations of faecal indicator bacteria, and the processes by which these populations become nonpoint sources and influence nearshore water quality. The different possible sources of these indicator bacteria are presented. These include groundwater, springs and seeps, aquatic sediments, beach sand, birds, Cladophora and plant wrack. Also discussed are the environmental factors (moisture, sunlight, temperature and salinity) influencing their survival.

  6. Environmental Indicators. A Preliminary Set = Indicateurs d'environnement. Une etude pilote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document provides a preliminary set of environmental indicators by which to measure environmental performance. The indicators are patterned on the outline of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) "Report on the State of the Environment," a companion volume published in the same year. This volume is comprised of 18…

  7. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained. PMID:16580128

  8. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, S.; von Schirnding, Y. E.; Prapamontol, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions. PMID:11019456

  9. Environmental pediatrics and its impact on government health policy.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Lynn; Falk, Henry; Landrigan, Philip J; Balk, Sophie J; Reigart, J Routt; Etzel, Ruth A

    2004-04-01

    Recent public recognition that children are different from adults in their exposures and susceptibilities to environmental contaminants has its roots in work that began >46 years ago, when the American Academy of Pediatrics (APA) established a standing committee to focus on children's radiation exposures. We summarize the history of that important committee, now the AAP Committee on Environmental Health, including its statements and the 1999 publication of the AAP Handbook of Pediatric Environmental Health, and describe the recent emergence of federal and state legislative and executive actions to evaluate explicitly environmental health risks to children. As a result in large part of these efforts, numerous knowledge gaps about children's health and the environment are currently being addressed. Government efforts began in the 1970s to reduce childhood lead poisoning and to monitor birth defects and cancer. In the 1990s, federal efforts accelerated with the Food Quality Protection Act, an executive order on children's environmental health, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry/Environmental Protection Agency Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/Environmental Protection Agency Centers of Excellence in Research in Children's Environmental Health. In this decade, the Children's Environmental Health Act authorized the National Children's Study, which has the potential to address a number of critical questions about children's exposure and health. The federal government has expanded efforts in control and prevention of childhood asthma and in tracking of asthma, birth defects, and other diseases that are linked to the environment. Efforts continue on familiar problems such as the eradication of lead poisoning, but new issues, such as prevention of childhood exposure to carcinogens and neurotoxins other than lead, and emerging issues, such as endocrine disruptors and pediatric drug

  10. Environmental risks and children's health: what can PRAMS tell us?

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Suter, Barbara J; Cai, Xueya; Brownson, Susan A; Dozier, Ann M

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy have a lasting impact on children's health. We combined environmental and maternal risk factor survey data to inform efforts to protect children's health. We made recommendations for future use of such data. A modified version of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) mail survey was conducted based on weighted sampling design with low-income and non-low income women in Monroe County, NY (1,022 respondents). A series of environmental questions were included in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi square tests and Poisson loglinear regression model to identify patterns in environmental health risk and sociodemographic characteristics. We identified women who rented their homes, had lower incomes, and lived in inner city zip codes as "high environmental health risk" (HEHR). HEHR respondents were more likely to report that a health care provider talked with them about lead and on average reported more behaviors to protect their children from lead poisoning. Combining environmental and perinatal risk factor data could yield important recommendations for medical practice, health education, and policy development. However, at present PRAMS gathers only limited and inconsistent environmental data. We found that existing PRAMS environmental questions are insufficient. Further work is needed to develop updated and more comprehensive environmental health survey questions and implement them consistently across the country. PMID:23955384

  11. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  12. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  13. RELATING AIR QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiated in February 2004, the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and three Environmental Public Health Track...

  14. European Metadatabase on Environmental and Health Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Services and Use, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue presents selected papers from a World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) consultation (Munich, West Germany, May 8-10, 1989) which explored the creation of a metadatabase for European environmental health information systems (EEHIS). Topics discussed include environmental monitoring programs, environmental…

  15. Development of an Environmental Quality Index to assess environmental public health disparities - What data are available?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing exposure to environmental insults and human health outcomes is complex. Environmental exposures tend to cluster spatially, with disamenities (e.g., landfills, industrial plants) often located in high-minority and largely poor neighborhoods, while wealthier neighborhoods...

  16. Exploring data availability for the Environmental Quality Index to assess environmental health disparities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between environmental insults and human health is complex. Environmental exposures tend to cluster, with disamenities (e.g., landfills, industrial plants) often located in high-minority and largely poor neighborhoods, while wealthier neighborhoods contain amenitie...

  17. Development of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Health System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.

  18. 78 FR 32672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Division of Extramural Research... Division. Organizing Institute: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Dates and Times:...

  19. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  20. Construction of an environmental quality index for public health research

    EPA Science Inventory

    A more comprehensive estimate of environmental quality would improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and human health. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the U.S. was developed. The EQI was developed in four parts: doma...

  1. Converging paradigms for environmental health theory and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Margot; Panelli, Ruth; Weinstein, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Converging themes from the fields of environmental health, ecology and health, and human ecology highlight opportunities for innovation and advancement in environmental health theory and practice. In this commentary we outline the role of research and applied programs that integrate biophysical and social sciences with environmental health practice in order to address deficiencies in each field when taken on its own. New opportunities for environmental health protection and promotion are outlined based on the three converging themes: integrated approaches to research and policy, methodological acknowledgment of the synergies between the social and biophysical environments, and incorporation of core ecosystem principles into research and practice. These converging themes are discussed in relation to their implications for new types of intervention to achieve health gains across different spatial and temporal scales at the interface between biophysical and social environments. PMID:12727592

  2. The bottom quartile for health indices in America vs Europe.

    PubMed

    Shandera, Wayne Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The inequities in health outcomes in different parts of the developed world merit further analysis. An index comprising mortality and morbidity factors was composed for American states and European nations. Multiple factors and bottom quartile status were analyzed by regression methodology. The 51 American states (and District of Columbia) showed a "Health Index" value based on life expectancy at birth and morbidity determined by rates of cardiac disease and cancer that ranged from 63 (Mississippi and West Virginia) to 94 (Utah). The 48 of 51 European states with assessable data showed a Health Index based on life expectancy at birth and quality adjusted life years that ranged from 53 (Russia) to 98 (San Marino). American states with the lowest quartile values were clustered in the American South and Appalachian areas. European states ranking in the bottom quartile were typically from Eastern Europe and showed a history of a Communism and recognized governmental corruption. Because American poor health rankings are the result of controllable factors (smoking, adult onset diabetes, obesity), Americans can improve their bottom quartile status more readily than Europeans whose ranking status is a function of history (Communism, civil conflicts) and poverty (Southeastern and Eastern nations). PMID:25037885

  3. Indicators of Partnership Success among MICHIANA Coordinated School Health Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Priscilla A.; Lohrmann, David; Shipley, Meagan; O'Neill, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated school health (CSH) is an increasingly popular approach used by school and community stakeholders for implementing policy and programmatic changes. Because funding is limited, examination of factors that maximize the potential for schools to build sustainable partnerships is crucially important. This study assessed the extent to which…

  4. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI. PMID:25227181

  5. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  6. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2011-05-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  7. Environmental health promotion interventions: considerations for preparation and practice.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen

    2004-08-01

    Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model used in health education illustrates some similarities and differences in terminology, assessment procedures, intervention design, and types of evidence used by the two disciplines. Promising intervention strategies draw on the expertise of both fields and include social action, policy and media advocacy, coalition building, organizational change, lay health advisers, risk communication, and tailored educational messages. Appropriate targets of change can range from the equitable distribution of resources to individual behavior change. Significant interdisciplinary evaluation research is necessary to accelerate the identification of successful models for reducing the burden of environmental health problems in communities. PMID:15296632

  8. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Kovach, Shannon; Lupfer, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reactions to general anesthesia. Results showed that the most common barriers to receiving care were the inability to find a provider who understands environmental sensitivities and a lack of accessibility due to chemical and electromagnetic exposures in health care environments. Lower income and poorer health (longer illness, a worsening or fluctuating course of illness, and a higher level of disability) were significantly correlated with the total number of reported unmet health care needs. Some people with environmental sensitivities reported having negative reactions to anesthesia of long duration; most common were nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and reduced cognitive ability. PMID:25670904

  9. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Kovach, Shannon; Lupfer, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reactions to general anesthesia. Results showed that the most common barriers to receiving care were the inability to find a provider who understands environmental sensitivities and a lack of accessibility due to chemical and electromagnetic exposures in health care environments. Lower income and poorer health (longer illness, a worsening or fluctuating course of illness, and a higher level of disability) were significantly correlated with the total number of reported unmet health care needs. Some people with environmental sensitivities reported having negative reactions to anesthesia of long duration; most common were nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and reduced cognitive ability. PMID:25670904

  10. Volatile Organic Compunds (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  11. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  12. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  13. 75 FR 65365 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  14. Environmental Health Promotion Interventions: Considerations for Preparation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community…

  15. MTBE: THE CURRENT STATUS OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an update on recent evaluations of the environmental and health issues surrounding the use of MTBE in gasoline in the United States and elsewhere. Several public health bodies around the world have recently evaluated aspects of the health risks of ...

  16. Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.C.

    1983-10-15

    Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  17. Functions of environmental epidemiology and surveillance in state health departments.

    PubMed

    Stanbury, Martha; Anderson, Henry; Blackmore, Carina; Fagliano, Jerald; Heumann, Michael; Kass, Daniel; McGeehin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance and epidemiology are the foundations for disease prevention because they provide the factual basis from which agencies can set priorities, plan programs, and take actions to protect the public's health. Surveillance for noninfectious diseases associated with exposure to agents in the environment like lead and pesticides has been a function of state health departments for more than 3 decades, but many state programs do not have adequate funding or staff for this function. Following the efforts to identify core public health epidemiology functions in chronic diseases, injury, and occupational health and safety, a workgroup of public health environmental epidemiologists operating within the organizational structure of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists has defined the essential core functions of noninfectious disease environmental epidemiology that should be present in every state health department and additional functions of a comprehensive program. These functions are described in terms of the "10 Essential Environmental Public Health Services" and their associated performance standards. Application of these consensus core and expanded functions should help state and large metropolitan health departments allocate resources and prioritize activities of their environmental epidemiologists, thus improving the delivery of environmental health services to the public. PMID:22836537

  18. Unusual but sound minds: mental health indicators in spiritual individuals.

    PubMed

    Farias, Miguel; Underwood, Raphael; Claridge, Gordon

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has linked certain types of modern spirituality, including New Age and Pagan, with either benign schizotypy or insecure attachment. While the first view emphasizes a positive aspect of spiritual believers' mental health (benign schizotypy), the second view emphasizes a negative aspect, namely the unhealthy emotional compensation associated with an insecure attachment style. This study addresses these two conflicting views by comparing a sample of modern spiritual individuals (N = 114) with a contrast group of traditional religious believers (N = 86). Measures of schizotypy and attachment style were combined with mental health scales of anxiety and depression. We further assessed death anxiety to determine whether modern spiritual beliefs fulfilled a similar function as traditional religious beliefs in the reduction of existential threat. Our results support a psychological contiguity between traditional and modern spiritual believers and reinforce the need to de-stigmatize spiritual ideas and experiences. Using hierarchical regression, we showed that unusual experiences and ideas are the major predictor of engagement in modern spiritual practices. Anxiety, depression variables, and insecure attachment were not significant predictors of spirituality or correlated with them; on the other hand, the results show that spiritual believers report high social support satisfaction and this variable predicts involvement in modern spirituality. Further, spiritual practices were negatively correlated with and negatively predicted by death anxiety scores. Overall, the results strengthen the association between modern spirituality, good mental health, and general well-being. PMID:23848387

  19. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Maleic anhydride has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for maleic anhydride is 0.10 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for maleic anhydride is 100.

  20. Relationships among fisheries exploitation, environmental conditions, and ecological indicators across a series of marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Caihong; Large, Scott; Knight, Ben; Richardson, Anthony J.; Bundy, Alida; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Boldt, Jennifer; van der Meeren, Gro I.; Torres, Maria A.; Sobrino, Ignacio; Auber, Arnaud; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Piroddi, Chiara; Diallo, Ibrahima; Jouffre, Didier; Mendes, Hugo; Borges, Maria Fatima; Lynam, Christopher P.; Coll, Marta; Shannon, Lynne J.; Shin, Yunne-Jai

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how external pressures impact ecosystem structure and functioning is essential for ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. We quantified the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions on ecological indicators derived from two different data sources, fisheries catch data (catch-based) and fisheries independent survey data (survey-based) for 12 marine ecosystems using a partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM). We linked these ecological indicators to the total biomass of the ecosystem. Although the effects of exploitation and environmental conditions differed across the ecosystems, some general results can be drawn from the comparative approach. Interestingly, the PLS-PM analyses showed that survey-based indicators were less tightly associated with each other than the catch-based ones. The analyses also showed that the effects of environmental conditions on the ecological indicators were predominantly significant, and tended to be negative, suggesting that in the recent period, indicators accounted for changes in environmental conditions and the changes were more likely to be adverse. Total biomass was associated with fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions; however its association with the ecological indicators was weak across the ecosystems. Knowledge of the relative influence of exploitation and environmental pressures on the dynamics within exploited ecosystems will help us to move towards ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. PLS-PM proved to be a useful approach to quantify the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions and suggest it could be used more widely in fisheries oceanography.

  1. Secondary Education Through Health -- environmental health curriculum: A Superfund science literacy outreach project

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    Inner-city high school students are disproportionately affected by health problems that stem from environmental conditions. Also, they are not adequately prepared in Science -- especially in the concepts, methods, and procedures of environmental-health science research -- and are generally unaware of the career opportunities in this field. A Superfund program was developed to increase Science literacy and expand career knowledge in environmental health among a cohort of minority high school students from New York City. The year-round program features lectures, laboratory tours, seminars, investigations, and research taught by faculty and Superfund investigators at Mount Sinai`s Environmental Health Sciences Center. The students made remarkable progress in terms of gaining environmental health knowledge, laboratory and scientific research skills, and awareness of environmental health careers.

  2. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  3. Scientific advances provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Reddy, Carol F.

    2004-01-01

    The health consequences of contaminants in the environment, with respect to the health of children and infants, recently have been dramatically brought to public attention by the motion pictures Erin Brockovich and A Civil Action. These productions focused public attention on the potential link between water contaminants and pediatric health, a continuing subject of public concern. As a consequence of the increasing production of new commercial chemicals, many chemicals have appeared in the scientific and public awareness as potential threats to health. These new or novel compounds eventually distribute in the environment and often are termed emerging contaminants. Gitterman and Bearer stated, "Children may serve as unwitting sentinels for society; they are often the youngest exposed to many environmental toxicants and may become the youngest in age to manifest adverse responses." The discipline of pediatric environmental health is still in its adolescence, but it will be increasingly important as new chemicals are generated and as more is learned about the health effects of chemicals already in commerce. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in biomonitoring and environmental monitoring of environmental contaminants including emerging contaminants. Our purpose in writing this commentary is to make pediatricians aware of the current resources available for learning about pediatric environmental health and of ongoing research initiatives that provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health.

  4. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION PLAN, NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD), is responsible for conducting research to improve the risk assessment of chemicals for potential effects ...

  5. Environmental Health and Safety Hazards Experienced by Home Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Polivka, Barbara J.; Wills, Celia E.; Darragh, Amy; Lavender, Steven; Sommerich, Carolyn; Stredney, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The number of personnel providing in-home health care services is increasing substantially. The unique configuration of environmental hazards in individual client homes has a significant impact on the safety and health of home health care providers (HHPs). This mixed-methods study used data from a standardized questionnaire, focus groups, and individual interviews to explore environmental health and safety hazards encountered by HHPs in client homes. The participant sample (N = 68) included nurses, aides, therapists, and owners/managers from a variety of geographic locations. The most often-reported hazards were trip/slip/lift hazards, biohazards, and hazards from poor air quality, allergens, pests and rodents, and fire and burns. Frequency of identified key hazards varied by room, that is, kitchen (e.g., throw rugs, water on floor), bathroom (e.g., tight spaces for client handling), bedroom (e.g., bed too low), living room (e.g., animal waste), and hallway (e.g., clutter). Findings indicate the need for broader training to enable HHPs to identify and address hazards they encounter in client homes. PMID:26268486

  6. Innovative Approaches to Environmental Health Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Bruce H.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a NSF-supported student project to determine certain environmental problems in Indiana are reported. The project sought to relate the quality of the local environment to human life and concentrated on problems of air pollution, water pollution, solid waste disposal, and environmental attitudes. (LS)

  7. Status report on maternal and child health indicators.

    PubMed

    Givens, S R; Moore, M L

    1995-06-01

    The health of pregnant women and children has improved substantially since the 1960s. In the past decade, however, progress in preventing infant deaths, reducing the incidence of low-birth-weight infants, and ensuring first trimester prenatal care has slowed. African-American infants suffer a significantly higher risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Immunization rates for preschoolers remain low. Changing social conditions including a rising child poverty rate, a high teenage birth rate, an increased rate of births to unmarried women, and higher levels of unintended pregnancy may be contributing to stalled progress. PMID:7745540

  8. Derivation of indices of socioeconomic status for health services research in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Arul; Ong, Marcus E.H.; Shahidah, Nur; Chan, Angelique; Wah, Win; Thumboo, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental contexts have been shown to predict health behaviours and outcomes either directly or via interaction with individual risk factors. In this paper, we created indexes of socioeconomic disadvantage (SEDI) and socioeconomic advantage (SAI) in Singapore to test the applicability of these concepts in an Asian context. These indices can be used for health service resource allocation, research and advocacy. Methods We used principal component analysis (PCA) to create SEDI and SAI using a structured and iterative process to identify and include influential variables in the final index. Data at the master plan geographical level was obtained from the most recent Singapore census 2010. Results The 3 areas with highest SEDI scores were Outram (120.1), followed by Rochor (111.0) and Downtown Core (110.4). The areas with highest SAI scores were Tanglin, River Valley and Newton. The SAI had 89.6% of variation explained by the final model, as compared to 67.1% for SEDI, and we recommend using both indices in any analysis. Conclusion These indices may prove useful for policy-makers to identify spatially varying risk factors, and in turn help identify geographically targeted intervention programs, which can be more cost effective to conduct. PMID:26844087

  9. Environmental victims: environmental injustice issues that threaten the health of children living in poverty.

    PubMed

    Cureton, Shava

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty are disproportionately at risk from and affected by environmental hazards. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, 13 million children in America live in poverty. Thus, not only are millions of children living in poverty but are also living in environments that are hazardous to their health. Impoverished children are more likely to live in environments with heavily polluting industries, hazardous waste sites, contaminated water and soil, in old housing with deteriorating lead-based paint, in areas with limited access to healthy food, and more. Poor children residing in these toxic environments are either at risk or suffer from a myriad of health disparities, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, obesity, and hyperactivity. This unfortunate reality is better known as environmental injustice. Environmental injustice recognizes that economically disadvantaged groups are adversely affected by environmental hazards more than other groups. To remedy this dilemma, environmental justice seeks to address these unfair burdens of environmental health hazards on poor communities. The purpose of this article is to (a) examine the environmental living conditions of children living in poverty, (b) examine the environmental health disparities of children living in poverty, (c) discuss environmental justice legislation, (d) describe government initiatives to improve environmental health, and (e) propose recommendations that executes measures to protect the health of children. PMID:22206190

  10. PROCESS OF SELECTING INDICATORS FOR MONITORING CONDITIONS OF RANGELAND HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on a process for selecting a suite of indicators that, in combination, can be useful in assessing the ecological conditions of rangelands. onceptual models that depict the structural and functional properties of ecological processes were used to show the linkag...

  11. Environmental Indicators of Metal Pollution and Emission: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, John A.; Nocito, Brian A.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.; Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment enlightens students on the use of environmental indicators and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and demonstrates the ability of these monitoring tools to measure metal deposition in environmental samples (both as a result of lab-simulated and real events). In this two-part study, the initial…

  12. VITELLOGENIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION: A RELATIVE QUANTITATIVE EXPOSURE INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the development of a quantifiable exposure indicator for measuring the presence of environmental estrogens in aquatic systems. Synthetic oligonucleotides, designed specifically for the vitellogenin gene (Vg) transcription product, were used in a Reverse Transcription Po...

  13. Environmental Indicators for the Coastal Region of North American Great Lakes: Introduction and Prospectus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental indicators are benchmarks for the current conditions of the Great Lakes coastal region and provide measurable endpoints to assess the success of future management, conservation, protection, and restoration of this important resource.

  14. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Economou, Sigrid A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Hemmings, Sarah N.; Kent, Shia T.; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Wade, Gina M.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  15. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Crosson, William L; Economou, Sigrid A; Estes, Maurice G; Estes, Sue M; Hemmings, Sarah N; Kent, Shia T; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A; Rickman, Douglas L; Wade, Gina M; McClure, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  16. Core state preconception health indicators: a voluntary, multi-state selection process.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Danielle L; Sappenfield, William B; Fussman, Chris; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the consensus-based selection process undertaken by a voluntary committee of policy/program leaders and epidemiologists from seven states to identify core state indicators to monitor the health of reproductive age women (aged 18-44 years). Domains of preconception health were established based on priority areas within maternal and child health and women's health. Measures (i.e., potential indicators) addressing the domains were identified from population-based, state level data systems. Each indicator was evaluated on five criteria: public health importance, policy/program importance, data availability, data quality, and the complexity of calculating the indicator. Evaluations served as the basis for iterative voting, which was continued until unanimous consent or a super majority to retain or exclude each indicator was achieved. Eleven domains of preconception health were identified: general health status and life satisfaction; social determinants of health; health care; reproductive health and family planning; tobacco, alcohol and substance use; nutrition and physical activity; mental health; emotional and social support; chronic conditions; infections; and genetics/epigenetics. Ninety-six possible indicators were identified from which 45 core indicators were selected. The scope of preconception care and the public health components to address preconception health are still under development. Despite this challenge and other measurement limitations, preconception health and health care indicators are urgently needed. The proposed core indicators are a set of measures that all states can use to evaluate their preconception health efforts. Furthermore, the indicators serve as a basis for improving the surveillance of the health of reproductive age women. PMID:20225127

  17. Integrating medical and environmental sociology with environmental health: crossing boundaries and building connections through advocacy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine multiple forms of interdisciplinarity, I examine pathways of integrating medical and environmental sociology via three challenges to the boundaries of traditional research: (1) crossing the boundaries of medical and environmental sociology, (2) linking social science and environmental health science, and (3) crossing the boundary of research and advocacy. These boundary crossings are discussed in light of conceptual and theoretical developments of popular epidemiology, contested illnesses, and health social movements. This interdisciplinary work offers a more comprehensive sociological lens for understanding complex problems and a practical ability to join with scientists, activists, and officials to meet public health needs for amelioration and prevention of environmental health threats. PMID:23598897

  18. Development of agroenvironmental indicators to evaluate the hygienic pressure of livestock production on human health.

    PubMed

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Infections by enteropathogenic microorganisms linked to agroenvironmental contamination represent a significant threat to urban and rural communities. To better characterize and manage this risk, it is necessary, not only to accurately describe enteric illnesses occurring over time or across regions, but also to correctly assess exposure attributable to this environmental pollution. New agroenvironmental hygienic pressure indicators (AHPIs) were developed to synthesise relevant data expressing this exposure. They were derived from a conceptual framework for developing sustainable agriculture indicators and specifically adapted for describing the microbial risk of water contamination by livestock operations. The proposed indicators include two components, and five attributes whose values are calculated at the livestock operation level from a set of available data related to the fields of microbiology, animal production, agronomy, hydrology, and meteorology. They are then aggregated at a higher geographical level to better express exposure of human populations to potential of water contamination by zoonotic enteropathogens. The indicators are calculated separately by zoonotic enteropathogens, and by water source (surface or groundwater). They take into account the various animal species within each livestock operation. When validated, the proposed indicators will allow decision-makers and public health officials to better manage crucial issues in the area of water safety and agriculture. PMID:15330396

  19. Human development index adjusted for environmental indicators: case study in one Egyptian village.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Din, M M

    2005-01-01

    The Egypt Human Development Report 2003 does not take account of the impact of the environment on human development indicators. A case study was made in one village in El-Montaza district, Alexandria governorate, Egypt. The environmental indicators used for calculating the human development index were access to safe water, access to sanitation and environment surrounding the house. The human development index for this village decreased from 0.622 to 0.595 after adjustment for environmental factors. PMID:16761685

  20. Forest health monitoring: 1991 Georgia indicator evaluation and field study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, S.A.; Baldwin, M.; Bechtold, W.A.; Cassell, D.L.; Cline, S.

    1994-03-01

    The pilot study was designed to test methods for quantifying vegetation structure, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dendrochronology, and selected root fungi. Testing the methods included comparing different data collection procedures for individual indicators, estimating sampling efficiency (both of the sampling design and the sampling unit design), and evaluating spatial variability. In addition, the accuracy and precision of tree height instruments were determined as part of the pilot study.

  1. ENVIRONMENTALLY STRATIFIED SAMPLING DESIGN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological indicators must be shown to be responsive to stress. For large-scale observational studies the best way to demonstrate responsiveness is by evaluating indicators along a gradient of stress, but such gradients are often unknown for a population of sites prior to site se...

  2. [Environmental health in Mexico: current situation and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Finkelman, Jacobo

    2013-12-01

    Environmental health has been established in Mexico as a discipline since the early nineties resuming the sanitarian tradition developed over the past century and incorporating new knowledge generated by environmental toxicology and epidemiology. During the last decade there has been some progress in reviewing and updating the regulations, designing programs and policies to reduce exposure to pollutants and consolidating research groups and teaching in the area. However, the most prevalent problems previously diagnosed still remain and new risks have emerged due to environmental degradation (air pollution, toxics exposure and climate change among others) have been incorporated. If this trend persists, the environmental risks will continue to increase and multiply. The environmental health governance in Mexico has to be redesigned involving a transectoral approach. Future proposals might include: establishment of a National Environmental Health Program, update the situational diagnosis at national and regional level, strengthening teaching and graduate programs in environmental health as well as increase support for research in the area and development of an integrated environmental health surveillance system. PMID:24715017

  3. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  4. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  5. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  6. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF AGGREGATED ENVIRONMENTAL INDICES WITH A CASE-STUDY OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental indicators are often aggregated into a single index for various purposes in environmental studies. Aggregated indices derived from the same data set can differ, usually because the aggregated indices' sensitivities are not thoroughly analyzed. Furthermore, if a sens...

  7. Environmental indicators for sustainability: a strategic analysis for the sugarcane ethanol context in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Priscila; Malheiros, Tadeu; Fernandes, Valdir; Sobral, Maria do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane ethanol is considered a renewable energy source and has emerged as a potential alternative to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, particularly in Brazil. However, there are some questions about how sustainable this energy source is, given the impacts from its production and use on a larger scale. To understand and achieve sustainability, it is essential to build tools that can assess an integrated conception and help decision-makers to establish public policies for a sustainable development. The indicators appear as such tools by capturing the complexity without reducing the significance of each system's component. The environmental indicators such as water quality indicator represent the level of water pollution, considering several parameters. The importance of the development, selection and validation of environmental indicators through a structured and cohesive process becomes essential. In the State of São Paulo, in Brazil, the environmental indicators, as well as policies based on them, are defined by the Environmental Secretariat (SMA/SP). This article presents an environmental indicator's evaluation method and reports based on the discussions about sustainability for the ethanol sugarcane context in the State of São Paulo. The method consists of interviews and an expert's workshop which pointed out a set of benchmarks for the evaluation of environmental indicators. The procedures were applied to an indicator used by the SMA/SP to illustrate the method's effectiveness. The results show that a strategic analysis framework can improve the environmental indicators required for the discussion on sustainability, providing a better guide to decision-makers. PMID:26153435

  8. Medical laboratory investigation of children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Harold E; Buka, Irena; Phillips, Scott

    2007-04-01

    Medical laboratory testing is vital for investigating and managing children who have environmentally related disorders and children with environmental chemical exposures. Few of these compounds can be measured in a routine clinical service laboratory. An understanding of the exposure circumstances and toxicology of the agent is required for the ordering and interpretation of tests. Test interpretation requires understanding of the capabilities and limitations of these tests. Adequate investigation, management, and follow-up of exposed children are mandatory. PMID:17448366

  9. The need for global environmental health policy.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2003-01-01

    The world economy has been growing by an average of 3.5% a year. Continued global development is sustainable if overall social assets remain constant or rise over time, including manufactured, human, and environmental capital. Sustainable development requires that society not decrease its overall assets. But unregulated global trade may result in long-term loss of environmental capital. Multilateral governance is needed. Classical business models tend to view environmental damage as an externality--an impact on a third party's welfare that is neither compensated nor appropriated. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development clearly states that economic development must err on the side of environmental integrity. Whereas UN Environmental Program policy requires precaution in the face of scientific uncertainty, World Trade Organization policy requires scientific certainty before precaution can be used. The conflict is obvious. In fact, there is gross lack of policy coordination across institutions. This article looks at some environmental strains and concludes that trade policy must address all aspects of human welfare, not merely the economic. PMID:17208718

  10. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  11. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  12. Selected Health Status Indicators and Behaviors of Young Adults, United States-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…

  13. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  14. Environmental and Health Consideration for Mass Gatherings at Football Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fodero, Severio D.

    1976-01-01

    University health services along with local and state agencies have the responsibility through a coordinated effort to insure that acceptable environmental sanitation standards are maintained during mass gatherings at athletic events. (MB)

  15. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on accumulating evidence linking health effects to ambient airborne particulate matter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1997 promulgated revised, stricter air quality standards for particulate matter air pollution. While many epidemiological studies hav...

  16. Randomized Controlled Trials in Environmental Health Research: Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many different ethical issues, ranging from obtaining informed consent, to minimizing risks, to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research. PMID:18236934

  17. Understanding sex differences in environmental health: a thought leaders' roundtable.

    PubMed Central

    Keitt, Sarah K; Fagan, Thomas F; Marts, Sherry A

    2004-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Society for Women's Health Research, a thought leaders' roundtable was convened at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in October 2002 to discuss recent advances in environmental health research, particularly those findings that explain sex differences in response to environmental exposures. Researchers discussed the latest findings on the interaction between sex and environmental exposures on health. Participants concluded that a greater focus on interdisciplinary, hypothesis-driven research is essential to advancing the field. To understand fully the potential effect of chronic exposures, researchers need to develop models to explore not only physiologic sex differences but also behavioral responses to low-dose and multiple chemical exposures. Future research should examine sex differences from the cell line to behaviors and should track these differences across multiple generations. Federal agencies should support such research in their awards of investigator-initiated grants. PMID:15064168

  18. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  19. How Many Environmental Impact Indicators Are Needed in the Evaluation of Product Life Cycles?

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Zoran J N; Schipper, Aafke M; Hauck, Mara; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous indicators are currently available for environmental impact assessments, especially in the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Because decision-making on the basis of hundreds of indicators simultaneously is unfeasible, a nonredundant key set of indicators representative of the overall environmental impact is needed. We aimed to find such a nonredundant set of indicators based on their mutual correlations. We have used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in combination with an optimization algorithm to find an optimal set of indicators out of 135 impact indicators calculated for 976 products from the ecoinvent database. The first four principal components covered 92% of the variance in product rankings, showing the potential for indicator reduction. The same amount of variance (92%) could be covered by a minimal set of six indicators, related to climate change, ozone depletion, the combined effects of acidification and eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and land use. In comparison, four commonly used resource footprints (energy, water, land, materials) together accounted for 84% of the variance in product rankings. We conclude that the plethora of environmental indicators can be reduced to a small key set, representing the major part of the variation in environmental impacts between product life cycles. PMID:26963880

  20. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  1. The federal environmental health workforce in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K; Perlin, S A

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes existing data on the size and composition of the federal environmental health workforce, delineates the major categories of activities carried out by its members, identifies current and emerging issues that are likely to affect workforce activities, and makes qualitative inferences about future trends and directions. Findings suggest that there is a current and future need for more and better qualified professionals in the federal environmental health workforce. PMID:2368849

  2. Promoting global population health while constraining the environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Butler, C D

    2011-01-01

    Populations today face increasing health risks from human-induced regional and global environmental changes and resultant ecological nonsustainability. Localized environmental degradation that has long accompanied population growth, industrialization, and rising consumerism has now acquired a global and often systemic dimension (e.g., climate change, disrupted nitrogen cycling, biodiversity loss). Thus, the economic intensification and technological advances that previously contributed to health gains have now expanded such that humanity's environmental (and ecological) footprint jeopardizes global population health. International data show, in general, a positive correlation of a population's health with level of affluence and size of per-person footprint. Yet, beyond a modest threshold, larger footprints afford negligible health gain and may impair health (e.g., via the rise of obesity). Furthermore, some lower-income countries have attained high levels of health. Many changes now needed to promote ecological (and social) sustainability will benefit local health. Continued improvement of global health could thus coexist with an equitably shared global environmental footprint. PMID:21219161

  3. Hospital food waste and environmental and economic indicators--A Portuguese case study.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, C; Santos, T; Oliveira, V

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a comprehensive characterization of plate waste (food served but not eaten) at an acute care hospital in Portugal and elaborates on possible waste reduction measures. Even though waste prevention is a priority in Europe, large amounts of food are still being wasted every day, with hospitals giving rise to two to three times more food waste than other foodservice sectors. For this work the plate waste arising at the ward level was audited during 8 weeks, covering almost 8000 meals, using a general hospital as case study. Weighing the food served to patients and that returned after the meal allowed calculating plate waste for the average meal, as well as for individual meal items. Comparison of food waste arising showed that differences exist among wards, with some generating more waste than others. On average each patient throws away 953 g of food each day, representing 35% of the food served. This equates to 8.7 thousand tonnes of food waste being thrown away each year at hospitals across Portugal. These tonnes of food transformed into waste represent economic losses and environmental impacts, being estimated that 16.4 thousand tonnes of CO2 (equivalent) and 35.3 million euros are the annual national indicators in Portugal. This means that 0.5% of the Portuguese National Health budget gets thrown away as food waste. Given the magnitude of the food problem five measures were suggested to reduce food waste, and their potential impact and ease of implementation were discussed. Even though food waste is unavoidable the results obtained in this work highlight the potential financial and environmental savings for Portuguese hospitals, providing a basis to establish future strategies to tackle food waste. PMID:26427934

  4. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Natural Disasters Print this Page Air Pollution Air ...

  5. Environmental health citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research seeks to understand the publication types and ages cited most often in environmental health literature and the most commonly cited journal titles. Methods: From the 43,896 items cited in Environmental Health Perspectives and the Journal of Environmental Health during 2008–2010, 2 random samples were drawn: First, 1,042 items representing all citations were analyzed with respect to publication type, age, and Internet link. Second, the cited journal name and citation age were recorded for 1,038 items culled from only citations to journal articles. All journal titles were classified into Bradford zones and assigned subject disciplines. Results: Journal articles (n = 891, 85.5%) were the most heavily cited publication type. Cited items' publication years ranged from 1951 to 2010. Close to half (49.1%) of all cited items were published 5 or fewer years previous. Sixteen journal titles (3.9%) accounted for 32.5% of all cited journal articles. The 3 most common subject disciplines—“Public, Environmental & Occupational Health,” “Environmental Sciences,” and “Toxicology”—accounted for 21.6% of all unique journal titles and 45.3% of all citations. Conclusions: Environmental health citation patterns differ from other public health disciplines in terms of cited publication types, cited journals, and age of citations. PMID:23405046

  6. Environmental indicators of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblage integrity in urbanizing watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization compromises the biotic integrity and health of streams, and indicators of integrity loss are needed to improve assessment programs and identify mechanisms of urban effects. We investigated linkages between landscapes and assemblages in 31 wadeable Piedmont streams i...

  7. Global health indicators and maternal health futures: The case of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Public health indicators generally operate in the world as credible, apolitical and authoritative. But indicators are less stable than they appear. Clinical critiques of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) criteria have been forthcoming for decades. This article, though, takes up the measuring and calculation gradients of IUGR in the ultrasound machine itself, including the software algorithms that identify IUGR. One hospital where research was conducted incorrectly predicted pathological birth outcomes 14 of 14 times. We are at a historical moment when the global use of prenatal diagnostic ultrasound for the express purpose of assessing IUGR is set to escalate. Medical imaging device corporations like Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric and Phillips are quite literally banking on it, and new forms of ultrasound technology and diagnostic software are increasingly available on smartphones, tablets and laptops. Clinical guidelines for IUGR--assumed to be authoritative and evidence-based--are evolving right along with the installation throughout the world of the technology capable of diagnosing it. Maternal malnutrition remains the single strongest predictive factor for IUGR, regardless of the technological investments currently amassing to identify the indicator, which is cause for a reassessment of priority spending and investment. PMID:26172620

  8. Minnows as a Classroom Model for Human Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hesselbach, Renee; Kane, Andrew S.; Petering, David H.; Petering, Louise; Berg, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding human environmental health is difficult for high school students, as is the process of scientific investigation. This module provides a framework to address both concerns through an inquiry-based approach using a hypothesis-driven set of experiments that draws upon a real-life concern, environmental exposures to lead (Pb2+). Students…

  9. The Picture of Health. Environmental Sources of Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckholm, Erik P.

    This book deals comprehensively with many of the environmental factors that endanger the attainment and maintenance of health, a condition defined as being a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. The author, taking a qlobal view of community life and culture, environmental factors and economic realities, examines the…

  10. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies. PMID:26130261

  11. Environmental public health tracking: piloting methods for surveillance of environmentally related diseases in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Patrick; Mohammed, Mohammed A

    2009-04-01

    An effective environmental public health tracking system integrates data and intelligence on environmental hazards, exposures, and health outcomes to focus interventions on reducing the impact of environmental contamination on public health. Most work in this area in the UK has focused on assessing data on hazards that are relatively easy to obtain. However, most hazards will present no actual risk and information on exposure is required to make an effective risk assessment. Obtaining exposure data is technically challenging, expensive, and potentially raises ethical concerns. Consequently, the Health Protection Agency is exploring methods for targeting geographical zones for efficient detailed environmental assessment (including exposure assessment). This paper describes and assesses three methods (indirect standardization, statistical process control (SPC) and kernel density contouring) for the surveillance of potentially environmentally related diseases for this purpose. While the evaluation demonstrates the utility of the three methods, particularly SPC, the comparison was limited due to ethical approval issues. PMID:18982414

  12. Environmental degradation and health risks in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jun; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi

    2007-01-01

    As China's capital city, Beijing is experiencing unprecedented environmental degradation accompanied by complex interactions between urbanization and global environmental change, which places human health at risk on a large spatial and temporal scale. For sustainable development that supports environmental and human health in Beijing and during the upcoming "green" Olympic games in 2008, experts and political leaders must acknowledge the urgent health risks from environmental changes related to urbanization. A range of urban health hazards and associated health risks in Beijing result from a variety of factors including heat islands, air pollution, water crisis, soil pollution, infectious diseases, and urban consumerism; in addition, some hazardous health conditions are associated with inequality in living and working conditions. The authors suggest 2 main areas for policy action and research direction: (1) the need to get full-scale information related to environmental monitoring data and health data (and then to provide new methodological approaches and techniques to implement interventions) and (2) the need for effective cooperation among different sectors. PMID:18171645

  13. Children's Environmental Health: Beyond National Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark D; Marty, Melanie A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution, a major cause of disease, death, and disability in countries at every level of development. This article reviews threats to children, including air and water pollution, toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and hazardous wastes. Global climate change is expected to exacerbate many of these issues. Examples of innovative nongovernmental organizations and governmental programs that address the impacts of environmental hazards on children are included. International travel, adoption, migration, and movement of goods and pollutants worldwide make these conditions concerns for all pediatricians. PMID:26613694

  14. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children’s health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  15. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children's health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  16. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  17. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  18. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  19. The consideration of health in strategic environmental assessment (SEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Thomas B; Matuzzi, Marco; Nowacki, Julia

    2010-04-15

    Following the requirements of the European Directive 2001/42/EC on strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev, 2003) to the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991), health is one of the aspects to be considered in SEA. In this paper, results of an evaluation of eight SEAs from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales) regarding the consideration of health are presented. This includes SEAs for five spatial plans, as well as one SEA for each, a transport, a waste management and an economic development plan. It is found that while all SEAs cover important physical and natural aspects that are related to health, social and behavioural aspects are considered to a much smaller extent. Based on the results, facilitating factors and barriers for health inclusive SEA are identified. Overall, good baseline data can be seen as an important starting point for effective health inclusive SEA, while an effective monitoring system is crucial for effective implementation of the measures and recommendations brought forward in health inclusive SEA. Crucially, health authorities/health experts need to engage more with SEA, as this provides a key platform for cross sectoral dialogue on a range of issues. SEA presents the health sector with an opportunity to influence the policy and decision-making process to improve people's health and well-being.

  20. Making the Case for Using Financial Indicators in Local Public Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Virginia; Denison, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the public health infrastructure determines the ability of local public health agencies to respond to emergencies and provide essential services. Organizational and systems capacity measures and assessments are important components of the public health infrastructure. Hospitals and governments have a long tradition of using financial indicators to assess fiscal and operational activities. We reviewed the literature on how hospitals use financial indicators to monitor financial risk, promote organizational sustainability, and improve organizational capacity. Given that financial indicators have not generally been employed by public health practitioners, we discuss how these measures can be applied to local public health agencies to improve their organizational capacity. PMID:21233438

  1. Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A.J. Huijbregts; Linda J.A. Rombouts; Stefanie Hellweg; Rolf Frischknecht; A. Jan Hendriks; Dik van de Meent; Ad M.J. Ragas; Lucas Reijnders; Jaap Struijs

    2006-02-01

    The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories 'energy production' (including heat and electricity production), 'material production', 'transport', and 'waste treatment'. Results show that, for all product groups but waste treatment, the fossil CED correlates well with most impact categories, such as global warming, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation, ozone depletion, and human toxicity (explained variance between 46% and 100%). It is concluded that the use of fossil fuels is an important driver of several environmental impacts and thereby indicative for many environmental problems. It may therefore serve as a screening indicator for environmental performance. However, the usefulness of fossil CED as a stand-alone indicator for environmental impact is limited by the large uncertainty in the product-specific fossil CED-based impact scores (larger than a factor of 10 for the majority of the impact categories; 95% confidence interval). A major reason for this high uncertainty is nonfossil energy related emissions and land use, such as landfill leachates, radionuclide emissions, and land use in agriculture and forestry. 38 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  3. Environmentally Related Health Hazards in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James B.; Neuroth, Richard

    The quality of air inside the schoolhouses of America may have a profound effect on students' ability to concentrate on their lessons. The environmental hazards that influence the quality of the indoor air (IAQ) of our schools have not been well understood. Research evidence suggests that school age children and youth (especially those under the…

  4. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  5. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  6. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Xylenes (o-, m-, p-)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Xylenes (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emerg...

  7. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Nitrotoluenes (o-, m-, p-)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Nitrotoluenes (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for...

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CARBON DISULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Carbon Disulfide was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency...

  9. Health and Environmental Effects Document for L-Butanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits a...

  10. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR 3,3'-DIMETHYLBENZIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under section 3301 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for eme...

  11. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT FOR BENZOIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). his document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits an...

  12. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT FOR BORON AND BORON COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). his document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits an...

  13. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Naphthalene (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Naphthalene was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency acti...

  14. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL BROMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Methyl Bromide was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency a...

  15. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health. PMID:26650394

  16. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  17. ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the CDC's efforts to develop a National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Tracking Network) with particular focus on air related issues and collaboration with EPA. A Tracking Network is needed in the United States to improve the health of communit...

  18. Chattanooga Creek: case study of the public health nursing role in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L

    1995-10-01

    Public health nurses have two primary roles in protecting their communities from hazardous substances: community assessment and health education. Developing assessment skills in environmental health enables public health nurses to collaborate with other federal, state, and county agencies in identifying public health hazards and making health-based recommendations at hazardous waste sites needing remedial or removal interventions. Community health education empowers communities to minimize their exposure to hazardous wastes in their environment. Methods for community environmental health assessment and interventions are demonstrated in this article by activities conducted at the Chattanooga Creek site in Chattanooga, Tennessee. A thorough assessment and collaborative approach between government agencies, local health professionals, and community members resulted in a successful community health education program and this site's placement on the National Priorities List. PMID:7479542

  19. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  20. Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations. PMID:17185267

  1. 78 FR 26793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special...

  2. 75 FR 48979 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  3. 75 FR 82033 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  4. 75 FR 68367 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  5. 77 FR 66853 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied, Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  6. 78 FR 42968 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  7. 75 FR 55807 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  8. 76 FR 58521 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  9. 77 FR 30019 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  10. 77 FR 61771 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  11. 76 FR 21387 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  12. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  13. 75 FR 41506 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  14. 77 FR 43849 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  15. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  16. 75 FR 20371 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  17. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  18. Strategies for assessing the implications of malformed frogs for environmental health.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, J G; Ankley, G; Bell, H; Carpenter, H; Fort, D; Gardiner, D; Gardner, H; Hale, R; Helgen, J C; Jepson, P; Johnson, D; Lannoo, M; Lee, D; Lary, J; Levey, R; Magner, J; Meteyer, C; Shelby, M D; Lucier, G

    2000-01-01

    The recent increase in the incidence of deformities among natural frog populations has raised concern about the state of the environment and the possible impact of unidentified causative agents on the health of wildlife and human populations. An open workshop on Strategies for Assessing the Implications of Malformed Frogs for Environmental Health was convened on 4-5 December 1997 at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of the workshop was to share information among a multidisciplinary group with scientific interest and responsibility for human and environmental health at the federal and state level. Discussions highlighted possible causes and recent findings directly related to frog deformities and provided insight into problems and strategies applicable to continuing investigation in several areas. Possible causes of the deformities were evaluated in terms of diagnostics performed on field amphibians, biologic mechanisms that can lead to the types of malformations observed, and parallel laboratory and field studies. Hydrogeochemistry must be more integrated into environmental toxicology because of the pivotal role of the aquatic environment and the importance of fates and transport relative to any potential exposure. There is no indication of whether there may be a human health factor associated with the deformities. However, the possibility that causal agents may be waterborne indicates a need to identify the relevant factors and establish the relationship between environmental and human health in terms of hazard assessment. PMID:10620528

  19. Health and Environmental Hazards of Electronic Waste in India.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Anwesha

    2016-04-01

    Technological waste in the form of electronic waste (e-waste) is a threat to all countries. E-waste impacts health and the environment by entering the food chain in the form of chemical toxicants and exposing the population to deleterious chemicals, mainly in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. This special report tries to trace the environmental and health implications of e-waste in India. The author concludes that detrimental health and environmental consequences are associated with e-waste and the challenge lies in producing affordable electronics with minimum chemical toxicants. PMID:27188068

  20. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR PYRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions. Published literature and information obtained from EPA program office files were evaluated as they pertained to poten...

  1. [Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. PMID:24864001

  2. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 2/, and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO/sub 2/. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10/sup -9/ average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10/sup -4/ for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables.

  3. Environmental Equity and Health: Understanding Complexity and Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Stover, Gabriel N.; Rosenthal, Joyce E.; Sherard, Donna

    2003-01-01

    The authors invoke a population health perspective to assess the distribution of environmental hazards according to race/ethnicity, social class, age, gender, and sexuality and the implications of these hazards for health. The unequal burden of environmental hazards borne by African American, Native American, Latino, and Asian American/Pacific Islander communities and their relationship to welldocumented racial/ethnic disparities in health have not been critically examined across all population groups, regions of the United States, and ages. The determinants of existing environmental inequities also require critical research attention. To ensure inclusiveness and fill important gaps, scientific evidence is needed on the health effects of the built environment as well as the natural environment, cities and suburbs as well as rural areas, and indoor as well as outdoor pollutants. PMID:12554571

  4. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrializing with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. While economic growth resulting from industrialization has improved health and quality of life indicators in China, it has also increased the incidence of environmental disasters and the release of chemical toxins into the environment, with severe impacts on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health problems, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental problems, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. China has the opportunity to both address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  5. Effectiveness of a Household Environmental Health Intervention Delivered by Rural Public Health Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Wade; Postma, Julie; Butterfield, Phillip W.; Odom-Maryon, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Parents need meaningful and actionable information if they are to reduce household environmental health risks to their children. To address this issue, we tested the effectiveness of a multi-risk social/cognitive intervention on rural low-income parents' (1) environmental health self-efficacy and (2) stage of environmental health precautionary adoption. Methods. Biomarker (lead, cotinine) and household samples (carbon monoxide, radon, mold/mildew, and drinking water contaminants) were collected from 235 families (399 adults, 441 children) in Montana and Washington states. Families were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups; intervention families received 4 visits from public health nurses who provided tailored information and guidance to parents; controls received usual and customary public health services. Results. At 3 months, the intervention group had significantly higher scores on (1) all 6 risk-specific self-efficacy subscales (P < .01), (2) general environmental health self-efficacy (P < .001), (3) 5 of 6 risk-specific precaution adoption subscales (P < .05), and (4) general environmental health precaution adoption (P < .001). Conclusions. The intervention yielded significant improvements in both outcomes. This evidence supported the need for a policy discussion addressing the added value that broadbased public health nurse interventions might bring to children's environmental health. PMID:21836117

  6. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.

  7. Statement of National Environmental Health Assocation on Future National Health Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlit, Nicholas; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This article concerns the need for more preventative health legislation to cutback increasing curative medical costs. Preventative action would provide better nutrition, better housing, and more effective controls on food, water, and solid wastes. Environmental health specialists would play a major role in the staffing of the new health systems.…

  8. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  9. Developing a Set of Health Indicators for People with Intellectual Disabilities: "Pomona" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Linehan, Christine; Kerr, M. P.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.; Buono, Serafino; Azema, Bernard; Aussilloux, Charles; Maatta, Tuomo; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Garrido-Cumbrera, Marco; van Hove, Geert; Bjorkman, Monica; Ceccotto, Raymond; Kamper, Marion; Weber, Germain; Heiss, Cecilia; Haveman, Meindert; Jorgensen, Frank Ulmer; O'Farrell, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The European Commission's Health Monitoring Programme culminated in the development of a set of European Community Health Indicators (ECHI) for the general population. Despite evidence of marked disparities between the health of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their peers in the general population, the ECHI contain no significant…

  10. Relationships between sitting time and health indicators, costs, and utilization in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori; Cook, Andrea; Gell, Nancy; Lozano, Paula; Grothaus, Lou; Arterburn, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether self-reported sitting time is related to various health indicators, health costs, and utilization in adults over age 65. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted using the electronic health record (EHR) from an integrated health system in Washington State. Members who completed an online health risk assessment (HRA) between 2009 and 2011 (N = 3538) were eligible. The HRA assessed sitting time, physical activity, and health status. Diagnosis codes for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculations, health care utilization and health costs were extracted from the EHR. Linear regression models with robust standard errors tested differences in sitting time by health status, BMI category, diabetes and CVD, health costs, and utilization adjusting for demographic variables, BMI, physical activity, and health conditions. Results People classified as overweight and obese, that had diabetes or CVD, and with poorer self-rated health had significantly higher sitting time (p < .05). Total annual adjusted health care costs were $126 higher for each additional hour of sitting (p < .05; not significant in final models including health conditions). Conclusion Sitting time may be an important independent health indicator among older adults. PMID:26844078

  11. The Exposome: Embracing the Complexity for Discovery in Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuxia; Balshaw, David M.; Kwok, Richard K.; Thompson, Claudia L.; Collman, Gwen W.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Environmental exposures are ubiquitous and play a fundamental role in the development of complex human diseases. The exposome, which is defined as the totality of environmental exposures over the life course, allows for systematic evaluation of the relationship between exposures and associated biological consequences, and represents a powerful approach for discovery in environmental health research. However, implementing the exposome concept is challenged by the ability to accurately assess multiple exposures and the ability to integrate information across the exposure–disease continuum. On 14–15 January 2015, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held the Exposome Workshop where a group of international and U.S. scientists from different disciplines gathered to review the state of the science in research areas related to the exposome and to provide recommendations for incorporating the exposome concept into each research area. To move the field forward, the NIEHS is establishing a Children’s Health Exposure Analysis Resource (CHEAR) to provide infrastructure support for access to laboratory and statistical analyses to children’s health studies. It is recognized that incorporating the exposome concept into exposure and environmental health research will be a long journey and will require significant collaborative efforts from different scientific disciplines, nations, and stakeholders. PMID:27479988

  12. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  13. The green choices project: integrating environmental health education into reproductive health care settings.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Sandra; Armstrong, Kay; Debevec, Elie

    2010-01-01

    A national reproductive health organization developed the Green Choices project to educate staff and clients about how to live in healthier environments by reducing potentially harmful environmental exposures to toxicants. An advisory group, comprised of experts in environmental and reproductive health and literacy, defined the project's scope and common environmental exposures to address. The following educational materials were developed: an online staff environmental health 101 curriculum, an environmental health assessment tool for clients to identify their potential risks, and information sheets for each environmental exposure that described potential risks and ways to reduce risks. Beta-testing methods included baseline and follow-up surveys, one-on-one interviews, focus groups, and recommendations from experts. Staff and client feedback on the educational materials resulted in increased clarity, sensitivity, relevancy, and appeal. Environmental health experts ensured accuracy of information, and reading experts lowered the reading level from 12th to 6th grade. A campaign to disseminate environmental health information and educational materials nationally is under way. PMID:20838173

  14. Comparison of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Procedures: Effects on Health Indicators in Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Goldschmeding, Judith E. J.; de Wilde, Erik Jan

    2006-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are frequently used in youth research, but doubt remains whether total anonymity affects the results. This study compared the responses of 704 mainly 16-17-year-old adolescents to self-report measures of various health indicators in 2 groups: anonymous and confidential collection. For most health indicators no…

  15. Chiral xenobiotics bioaccumulations and environmental health prospectives.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Iqbal; ALOthman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Ali, Imran

    2015-08-01

    The chiral xenobiotics are very dangerous for all of us due to the different enantioselective toxicities of the enantiomers. Besides, these have different enantioselective bioaccumulations and behaviors in our body and other organisms. It is of urgent need to understand the enantioselective bioaccumulations, toxicities, and the health hazards of the chiral xenobiotics. The present article describes the classification, sources of contamination, distribution, enantioselective bioaccumulation, and the toxicities of the chiral xenobiotics. Besides, the efforts are also made to discuss the prevention and remedial measures of the havoc of the chiral xenobiotics. The challenges of the chiral xenobiotics have also been highlighted. Finally, future prospectives are also discussed. PMID:26148690

  16. Veterinarians in Environmental Health: Opportunities for Veterinarians at the Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 partially in response to widespread public concern about environmental degradation. The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment and the Agency is tasked with enforcing our nation's envi...

  17. Personalized Exposure Assessment: Promising Approaches for Human Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Brenda K.; Balshaw, David; Barr, John R.; Brown, David; Ellisman, Mark; Lioy, Paul; Omenn, Gilbert; Potter, John D.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sohn, Lydia; Suk, William A.; Sumner, Susan; Swenberg, James; Walt, David R.; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Claudia; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    New technologies and methods for assessing human exposure to chemicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, infectious agents, and other stressors provide an opportunity to extend the range of human health investigations and advance our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease. An ad hoc Committee on Environmental Exposure Technology Development was convened to identify new technologies and methods for deriving personalized exposure measurements for application to environmental health studies. The committee identified a “toolbox” of methods for measuring external (environmental) and internal (biologic) exposure and assessing human behaviors that influence the likelihood of exposure to environmental agents. The methods use environmental sensors, geographic information systems, biologic sensors, toxicogenomics, and body burden (biologic) measurements. We discuss each of the methods in relation to current use in human health research; specific gaps in the development, validation, and application of the methods are highlighted. We also present a conceptual framework for moving these technologies into use and acceptance by the scientific community. The framework focuses on understanding complex human diseases using an integrated approach to exposure assessment to define particular exposure–disease relationships and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in disease occurrence. Improved methods for exposure assessment will result in better means of monitoring and targeting intervention and prevention programs. PMID:16002370

  18. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O'Banion, K.D.

    1981-12-04

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate could result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.

  19. Identification and selection of Environmental Performance Indicators for sustainable port development.

    PubMed

    Puig, Martí; Wooldridge, Chris; Darbra, Rosa Mari

    2014-04-15

    In this paper an identification and selection of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs) in port areas has been conducted. A comprehensive inventory of existing EPIs in use in the seaport sector has been identified for monitoring performance of operational (e.g. dust, noise, dredging, and waste), managerial (e.g. certification, compliance, and complaints) and environmental condition (e.g. air, water, sediment and ecosystems). These indicators have been filtered against specific criteria and have been assessed and evaluated by port stakeholders in order to obtain a final set of indicators suitable to be implemented at EU level. A user friendly tool has been developed specifically to assist port authorities in calculating and reporting the proposed indicators. This study has drawn on major research projects to blend academic research with input from marine professionals in order to identify, select, evaluate and validate EPIs that are acceptable and feasible to the sector, and practicable in their application and implementation. PMID:24629381

  20. Identification of relevant ICF categories for indication, intervention planning and evaluation of health resort programs: a Delphi exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, E.; Weigl, M.; Schuh, A.; Stucki, G.

    2006-01-01

    Health resort programs have a long tradition, mainly in European countries and Japan. They rely on local resources and the physical environment, physical medicine interventions and traditional medicine to optimise functioning and health. Arguably because of the long tradition, there is only a limited number of high-quality studies that examine the effectiveness of health resort programs. Specific challenges to the evaluation of health resort programs are to randomise the holistic approach with a varying number of specific interventions but also the reliance on the effect of the physical environment. Reference standards for the planning and reporting of health resort studies would be highly beneficial. With the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF), we now have such a standard that allows us to describe body functions and structures, activities and participation and interaction with environmental factors. A major challenge when applying the ICF in practice is its length. Therefore, the objective of this project was to identify the ICF categories most relevant for health resort programs. We conducted a consensus-building, three-round, e-mail survey using the Delphi technique. Based on the consensus of the experts, it was possible to come up with an ICF Core Set that can serve as reference standards for the indication, intervention planning and evaluation of health resort programs. This preliminary ICF Core Set should be tested in different regions and in subsets of health resort visitors with varying conditions.