Science.gov

Sample records for environmental interaction studies

  1. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. PMID:22218183

  2. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit neighborhood health study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene–environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10−7) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ∼3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene–environment interaction, for

  3. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study.

    PubMed

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene-environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10(-7)) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ~3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene-environment interaction, for smoking

  4. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2011-09-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements—including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc—during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB–water interaction.

  5. Relevance of Bt toxin interaction studies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; de Maagd, Ruud A; van Frankenhuyzen, Kees

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-encoding genes have been combined or 'stacked' in genetically modified (GM) crops. Synergism between Bt proteins may occur and thereby increase the impact of the stacked GM event on nontarget invertebrates compared to plants expressing a single Bt gene. On the basis of bioassay data available for Bt toxins alone or in combination, we argue that the current knowledge of Bt protein interactions is of limited relevance in environmental risk assessment (ERA). PMID:26032006

  6. Inter-Action's Environmental Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knights, John

    1984-01-01

    Describes the work of Inter-Action, a voluntary organization funded to explore ways in which creative arts can be applied to the resolution of social and environmental problems of the inner-city. Environmental projects for neighborhood residents focus on city farms, community architecture, family food production, concrete sculptures, and…

  7. Functional logistic regression approach to detecting gene by longitudinal environmental exposure interaction in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2014-11-01

    Most complex human diseases are likely the consequence of the joint actions of genetic and environmental factors. Identification of gene-environment (G × E) interactions not only contributes to a better understanding of the disease mechanisms, but also improves disease risk prediction and targeted intervention. In contrast to the large number of genetic susceptibility loci discovered by genome-wide association studies, there have been very few successes in identifying G × E interactions, which may be partly due to limited statistical power and inaccurately measured exposures. Although existing statistical methods only consider interactions between genes and static environmental exposures, many environmental/lifestyle factors, such as air pollution and diet, change over time, and cannot be accurately captured at one measurement time point or by simply categorizing into static exposure categories. There is a dearth of statistical methods for detecting gene by time-varying environmental exposure interactions. Here, we propose a powerful functional logistic regression (FLR) approach to model the time-varying effect of longitudinal environmental exposure and its interaction with genetic factors on disease risk. Capitalizing on the powerful functional data analysis framework, our proposed FLR model is capable of accommodating longitudinal exposures measured at irregular time points and contaminated by measurement errors, commonly encountered in observational studies. We use extensive simulations to show that the proposed method can control the Type I error and is more powerful than alternative ad hoc methods. We demonstrate the utility of this new method using data from a case-control study of pancreatic cancer to identify the windows of vulnerability of lifetime body mass index on the risk of pancreatic cancer as well as genes that may modify this association. PMID:25219575

  8. Environmental interactions in space exploration: Environmental interactions working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1992-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales heretofore unattempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group was established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The working group is described, and its current activities are updated.

  9. Interaction of water with different cellulose ethers: a Raman spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Fechner, P M; Wartewig, S; Kiesow, A; Heilmann, A; Kleinebudde, P; Neubert, R H H

    2005-06-01

    Different non-ionic cellulose ethers like methyl cellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) were investigated. The characterization of the cellulose ethers was carried out by thermogravimetry and sorption/desorption isotherms. Differences in the properties of the cellulose ether films were described by time-dependent contact angle measurements. Changes in molecular structure of the raw materials, gels and films caused by water contact were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Differences between the substitution types and changes due to the gel or film formation were observed. An environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technique was used to distinguish the morphological behaviour of the cellulose ether films in contact with water. Based on in-situ ESEM experiments, the swelling and drying behaviour of the various stages of cellulose ether films (film-hydrated film-dried film) were quantified by using image analysis. PMID:15969923

  10. The interaction of human activities and geological processes: a geo-environmental study in Southeastern Nigeria (Owerri urban area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowa, A. H. O.; Ibe, K. M.

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanisms of interaction between the factors human activity, water, vegetation and related geological processes, like gully erosion or filling up of river beds. A surface water and land pollution survey of Owerri urban area, Nigeria, has been carried out in order to establish the current levels of pollution. An attempt has been made to show the relationships between population density, industrial and agricultural activities, environmental contamination, and soil erodibility. The spatial distribution of pollutants due to poor land use system and human activities were investigated, thus emphasizing the need for integrated planning development as a preventive measure for reducing environmental impacts in fast-growing urban centres of developing countries.

  11. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2011-08-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4,886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of considerable heritability for both reading achievement and reading disability. A simple biometric model adequately described parent and offspring data (combined N = 9,430 parents and offspring) across differing types of families present in the sample Analyses yielded a high heritability estimate (around 0.70) and a negligible shared-environmentality estimate for both reading achievement and reading disability. No evidence of gene × environment interaction was found for parental reading ability and parental educational attainment, the two moderators analyzed. PMID:21743785

  12. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4,886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of considerable heritability for both reading achievement and reading disability. A simple biometric model adequately described parent and offspring data (combined N = 9,430 parents and offspring) across differing types of families present in the sample Analyses yielded a high heritability estimate (around 0.70) and a negligible shared-environmentality estimate for both reading achievement and reading disability. No evidence of gene × environment interaction was found for parental reading ability and parental educational attainment, the two moderators analyzed. PMID:21743785

  13. Quantitative EPR study on free radicals in the natural polyphenols interacting with metal ions and other environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezierski, Adam; Czechowski, Franciszek; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Golonka, Iwona; Drozd, Jerzy; Bylinska, Ewa; Chen, Yona; Seaward, Mark R. D.

    2002-04-01

    Quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method was applied to characterise radicals stabilised in polyphenolic matrices of various biogenic materials: lichens, mosses, composts, soils, peats, brown coals and sewage sludge sediments. The investigations were carried out on raw materials and extracted fractions of humic acids (HA). General trends of g value and spin concentration changes were found. These parameters in lichens strongly depend on lichen species and air pollution. Determination of the g value and semiquinone spin concentration allows to assess degree of transformation of organic matter in compost, soil, peat and lignite. Application of gaseous ammonia as a base penetrating the organic matrices extends the possibilities and usefulness of the method. Interaction of metal ions with humic materials is illustrated by interaction of VO 2+ ion with peat and lignite HA as well as demineralised (raw and carbonised) brown coal. Our investigations demonstrate that quantitative EPR is a rapid and effective monitoring method to study the influence of various environmental factors on substances containing polyphenolic matrices.

  14. Interactions of socioeconomic position with psychosocial and environmental correlates of children's physical activity: an observational study of South Australian families

    PubMed Central

    Dollman, James; Lewis, Nicole R

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence for psychosocial and environmental correlates on children's physical activity is scattered and somewhat unconvincing. Further, the moderating influences of socioeconomic position (SEP) on these influences are largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of SEP, operationalised by mother education, and predictors of children's physical activity based on the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Methods In 2005, a sample of South Australians (10–15 y) was surveyed on psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity using the Children's Physical Activity Correlates Questionnaire (n = 3300) and a parent survey (n = 1720). The following constructs were derived: 'is it worth it?' (perceived outcomes); 'am I able?' (perceived competency); 'reinforcing' (parental support); and 'enabling' (parent-perceived barriers). Self-reported physical activity was represented by a global score derived from the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Associations among physical activity and hypothesised correlates were tested among children with mothers of high (university educated) and low (left school at or before 15 y) SEP. Results Among high SEP children, 'is it worth it?' emerged as a significant predictor of physical activity for boys and girls. Among low SEP children, 'is it worth it?' predicted boys' physical activity, while among girls, 'reinforcing' was the only significant predictor, explaining ~35% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Conclusion While perceived outcomes emerged as a consistent predictor of physical activity in this sample, parental support was a powerful limiting factor among low SEP girls. Interventions among this high risk group should focus on supporting parents to provide both emotional and instrumental support for their daughters to engage in physical activity. PMID:19678960

  15. Developing Students' Environmental Knowledge through Interactive Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Witney, Eve; Tulip, David

    1998-01-01

    Environmental education is often characterized by a concern with developing attitudes and behavior rather than developing environmental knowledge and concepts. Students may thus unknowingly hold and later teach environmental misconceptions. Discusses the use of interactive worksheets to provide a time-effective means of developing students'…

  16. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  17. Genotype environmental interaction: A case study for douglas-fir in Western Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.

    1992-12-01

    Unrecognized genotype x environment interactions can bias genetic-gain predictions and models for predicting growth dynamics or species perturbations by global climate change. The study tested six sets of families in 10 plantation sites in a 78-thousand-hectare breeding zone. Plantation differences accounted for 71 percent of sums of squares (15-year heights), replications an additional 4.4 percent, families 1.9 percent, the first principal component of interaction effects 3.5 percent, and the second principal component 1.2 percent. Results in the study in a larger survey (87 sets in 10 breeding zones) were similar: 51 percent of sets indicated significant g star e.

  18. The Interaction of Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum, Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge, and Environmental Action Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Angelita P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main goals of Environmental Education (EE) is to develop people's environmental stewardship, which includes people's capacity to take environmental action--their action competence (AC). The purposes of my study were to characterize the interactions found in an EE curriculum, science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and…

  19. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  20. Plant-plant interactions and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rob W

    2006-01-01

    Natural systems are being subjected to unprecedented rates of change and unique pressures from a combination of anthropogenic environmental change drivers. Plant-plant interactions are an important part of the mechanisms governing the response of plant species and communities to these drivers. For example, competition plays a central role in mediating the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, climate change and invasive nonnative species. Other plant-plant interaction processes are also being recognized as important factors in determining the impacts of environmental change, including facilitation and evolutionary processes associated with plant-plant interactions. However, plant-plant interactions are not the only factors determining the response of species and communities to environmental change drivers - their activity must be placed within the context of the wide range of factors that regulate species, communities and ecosystems. A major research challenge is to understand when plant-plant interactions play a key role in regulating the impact of environmental change drivers, and the type of role that plant-plant interactions play. Although this is a considerable challenge, some areas of current research may provide the starting point to achieving these goals, and should be pursued through large-scale, integrated, multisite experiments. PMID:16866935

  1. Everglades Environmental Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Environment Education.

    These environmental study units consist of four modules and a tape-slide presentation on the Everglades National Park. Although not required for completion of the modules, the slide-tape presentation provides a resource for orientation of teachers and parents to camping experience for school children in an environmental education program. The four…

  2. Environmental Modification: A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Richard M., Jr.; Kyte, Nancy S.

    1975-01-01

    This study shows that environmental modification is a surprisingly intricate technique. This may account for its relatively low use and also for its more frequent use by MSW than non-MSW caseworkers. The findings indicate the need for further research on environmental modification. (Author)

  3. Space environmental interactions with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental interactions are defined as the response of spacecraft surfaces to the charged-particle environment. These interactions are divided into two broad categories: spacecraft passive, in which the environment acts on the surfaces and spacecraft active, in which the spacecraft or a system on the spacecraft causes the interaction. The principal spacecraft passive interaction of concern is the spacecraft charging phenomenon. The spacecraft active category introduces the concept of interactions with the thermal plasma environment and Earth's magnetic fields, which are important at all altitudes and must be considered the designs of proposed large space structures and space power systems. The status of the spacecraft charging investigations is reviewed along with the spacecraft active interactions.

  4. Re-Structuring of Marine Communities Exposed to Environmental Change: A Global Study on the Interactive Effects of Species and Functional Richness

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Martin; Link, Heike; Alexandridis, Nicolaos; Thomason, Jeremy C.; Cifuentes, Mauricio; Costello, Mark J.; da Gama, Bernardo A. P.; Hillock, Kristina; Hobday, Alistair J.; Kaufmann, Manfred J.; Keller, Stefanie; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Krüger, Ina; Lauterbach, Lars; Antunes, Bruno L.; Molis, Markus; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Nyström, Julia; bin Radzi, Zulkamal; Stockhausen, Björn; Thiel, Martin; Vance, Thomas; Weseloh, Annika; Whittle, Mark; Wiesmann, Lisa; Wunderer, Laura; Yamakita, Takehisa; Lenz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Species richness is the most commonly used but controversial biodiversity metric in studies on aspects of community stability such as structural composition or productivity. The apparent ambiguity of theoretical and experimental findings may in part be due to experimental shortcomings and/or heterogeneity of scales and methods in earlier studies. This has led to an urgent call for improved and more realistic experiments. In a series of experiments replicated at a global scale we translocated several hundred marine hard bottom communities to new environments simulating a rapid but moderate environmental change. Subsequently, we measured their rate of compositional change (re-structuring) which in the great majority of cases represented a compositional convergence towards local communities. Re-structuring is driven by mortality of community components (original species) and establishment of new species in the changed environmental context. The rate of this re-structuring was then related to various system properties. We show that availability of free substratum relates negatively while taxon richness relates positively to structural persistence (i.e., no or slow re-structuring). Thus, when faced with environmental change, taxon-rich communities retain their original composition longer than taxon-poor communities. The effect of taxon richness, however, interacts with another aspect of diversity, functional richness. Indeed, taxon richness relates positively to persistence in functionally depauperate communities, but not in functionally diverse communities. The interaction between taxonomic and functional diversity with regard to the behaviour of communities exposed to environmental stress may help understand some of the seemingly contrasting findings of past research. PMID:21611170

  5. Rats' Novel Object Interaction as a Measure of Environmental Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Herrman, Laura; Palmatier, Matthew I.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental familiarization is a learning phenomenon embedded within most tasks used to study learning and motivation. Given its prevalence there is surprisingly little systematic behavioral research on factors affecting familiarization. The six experiments reported in the present report used rats' tendency to interact more with a novel object…

  6. The Generation R Study: A Review of Design, Findings to Date, and a Study of the 5-HTTLPR by Environmental Interaction from Fetal Life Onward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemeier, Henning; Velders, Fleur P.; Szekely, Eszter; Roza, Sabine J.; Dieleman, Gwen; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; White, Tonya J. H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Hofman, Albert; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Hudziak, James J.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: First, we give an overview of child psychiatric research in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life forward. Second, we examine within Generation R whether the functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene interacts with prenatal maternal chronic difficulties, prenatal…

  7. Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

  8. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  9. AENV: Studying Environmental Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Larry W.

    1975-01-01

    The Division of Advanced Environmental Research and Technology (AENV) examines those environmental problems outside the responsibilities of other federal agencies. Present areas of concern include: organic threats to the environment, energy, land-use decisions, weather modification, earthquakes, and the development of a data base for understanding…

  10. Music and Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…

  11. Bacterial interactions with uranium: An environmental perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merroun, Mohamed L.; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2008-12-01

    The presence of actinides in radioactive wastes is of major concern because of their potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contamination of the environment. Studies have been and are being made on inorganic processes affecting the migration of radionuclides from these repositories to the environment but it is becoming increasingly evident that microbial processes are of importance as well. Bacteria interact with uranium through different mechanisms including, biosorption at the cell surface, intracellular accumulation, precipitation, and redox transformations (oxidation/reduction). The present study is intended to give a brief overview of the key processes responsible for the interaction of actinides e.g. uranium with bacterial strains isolated from different extreme environments relevant to radioactive repositories. Fundamental understanding of the interaction of these bacteria with U will be useful for developing appropriate radioactive waste treatments, remediation and long-term management strategies as well as for predicting the microbial impacts on the performance of the radioactive waste repositories.

  12. Why study gene-environment interactions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We examine the reasons for investigating gene-environment interactions and address recent reports evaluating interactions between genes and environmental modulators in relation to cardiovascular disease and its common risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies focusing on smoking, phy...

  13. Interactive Learning in an Urban Environmental Education Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yue; Krasny, Marianne; Russ, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Online courses play an increasing role in professional development of environmental educators, yet little information is available on the interactive processes involved in online learning. We examined the relationship of three types of interactions in an urban environmental education online course--participant-participant, participant-instructor,…

  14. MAESPA: a model to study interactions between water limitation, environmental drivers and vegetation function at tree and stand levels, with an example application to [CO2] × drought interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duursma, R. A.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2012-07-01

    Process-based models (PBMs) of vegetation function can be used to interpret and integrate experimental results. Water limitation to plant carbon uptake is a highly uncertain process in the context of environmental change, and many experiments have been carried out that study drought limitations to vegetation function at spatial scales from seedlings to entire canopies. What is lacking in the synthesis of these experiments is a quantitative tool incorporating a detailed mechanistic representation of the water balance that can be used to integrate and analyse experimental results at scales of both the whole-plant and the forest canopy. To fill this gap, we developed an individual tree-based model (MAESPA), largely based on combining the well-known MAESTRA and SPA ecosystem models. The model includes a hydraulically-based model of stomatal conductance, root water uptake routines, drainage, infiltration, runoff and canopy interception, as well as detailed radiation interception and leaf physiology routines from the MAESTRA model. The model can be applied both to single plants of arbitrary size and shape, as well as stands of trees. The utility of this model is demonstrated by studying the interaction between elevated [CO2] (eCa) and drought. Based on theory, this interaction is generally expected to be positive, so that plants growing in eCa should be less susceptible to drought. Experimental results, however, are varied. We apply the model to a previously published experiment on droughted cherry, and show that changes in plant parameters due to long-term growth at eCa (acclimation) may strongly affect the outcome of Ca × drought experiments. We discuss potential applications of MAESPA and some of the key uncertainties in process representation.

  15. MAESPA: a model to study interactions between water limitation, environmental drivers and vegetation function at tree and stand levels, with an example application to [CO2] × drought interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duursma, R. A.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2012-02-01

    Process-based models (PBMs) of vegetation function can be used to interpret and integrate experimental results. Water limitation to plant carbon uptake is a highly uncertain process in the context of environmental change, and many experiments have been carried out that study drought limitations to vegetation function at spatial scales from seedlings to entire canopies. What is lacking in the synthesis of these experiments is a quantitative tool that can be used to integrate and analyse experimental results at scales of both the whole-plant and the forest canopy, and that includes a detailed mechanistic representation of the water balance. To fill this gap, we developed an individual tree-based model (MAESPA), largely based on combining the well-known MAESTRA and SPA ecosystem models. The model includes a hydraulically-based model of stomatal conductance, root water uptake routines, drainage, infiltration, runoff and canopy interception, as well as detailed radiation interception and leaf physiology routines from the MAESTRA model. The model can be applied both to single plants of arbitrary size and shape, as well as stands of trees. The utility of this model is demonstrated by studying the interaction between elevated [CO2] (eCa) and drought. Based on theory, this interaction is generally expected to be positive, so that plants growing in eCa should be less susceptible to drought. Experimental results, however, are varied. We apply the model to a previously published experiment on droughted cherry, and show that changes in plant parameters due to long-term growth at eCa (acclimation) may strongly affect the outcome of Ca × drought experiments. We discuss potential applications of MAESPA and some of the key uncertainties in process representation.

  16. University Reorganization Through Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, John C.

    1972-01-01

    A sound program in Environmental Studies may show the way to attack other multidisciplinary problems. Some of these are population problems, urban renewal, black studies, resource utilization, and in-depth regional studies. (Author)

  17. Critical Density Interaction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P; Baldis, H A; Cheung, P; Rozmus, W; Kruer, W; Wilks, S; Crowley, S; Mori, W; Hansen, C

    2001-02-14

    Experiments have been performed to study the propagation of intense laser pulses to high plasma densities. The issue of self-focusing and filamentation of the laser pulse as well as developing predictive capability of absorption processes and x-ray conversion efficiencies is important for numerous programs at the Laboratory, particularly Laser Program (Fast Ignitor and direct-drive ICF) and D&NT (radiography, high energy backlighters and laser cutting). Processes such as resonance absorption, profile modification, linear mode conversion, filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur near the critical density and can have important effects on the coupling of laser light to solid targets. A combination of experiments have been used to study the propagation of laser light to high plasma densities and the interaction physics of intense laser pulses with solid targets. Nonparaxial fluid codes to study nonstationary behavior of filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering at high densities have also been developed as part of this project.

  18. Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, H; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of study design and related methodologic issues in environmental epidemiology. Emphasis is given to studies aimed at evaluating causal hypotheses regarding exposures to suspected health hazards. Following background sections on the quantitative objectives and methods of population-based research, we present the major types of observational designs used in environmental epidemiology: first, the three basic designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis (i.e., cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies) and a brief discussion of genetic studies for assessing gene-environment interactions; second, various ecologic designs involving the group or region as the unit of analysis. Ecologic designs are given special emphasis in this paper because of our lack of resources or inability to accurately measure environmental exposures in large numbers of individuals. The paper concludes with a section highlighting current design issues in environmental epidemiology and several recommendations for future work. PMID:8206038

  19. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  20. Polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, interaction with environmental exposures, and bladder cancer risk in a case-control study in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Hung, Rayjean J; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Donato, Francesco; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Hautefeuille, Agnes; Boffetta, Paolo; Porru, Stefano

    2003-11-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupational exposures are the main known risk factors for bladder cancer, causing direct and indirect damage to DNA. Repair of DNA damage is under genetic control, and DNA repair genes may play a key role in maintaining genome integrity and preventing cancer development. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes resulting in variation of DNA repair efficiency may therefore be associated with bladder cancer risk. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Brescia, Italy, to assess the relationship between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 (Arg(399)Gln), XRCC3 (Thr(241)Met), and XPD (Lys(751)Gln) and bladder cancer risk. A total of 201 male incident bladder cancer cases and 214 male controls with urological nonneoplastic diseases were recruited and frequency-matched on age, period, and hospital of recruitment. Detailed information was collected using a semistructured questionnaire on demographic, dietary, environmental, and occupational factors. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis. The XRCC3 codon 241 variant genotype exhibited a protective effect against bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR), 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.93], which was prominent among heavy smokers (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.88) but not among never and light smokers. No overall impact of the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism was found (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.59-1.28), but a protective influence of the homozygous variant was suggested among heavy smokers (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.14-1.02). XPD polymorphisms did not show an association with bladder cancer (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.62-1.37). There was no statistical evidence of an interaction between these three genetic polymorphisms and either tobacco smoking or occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines. The XRCC3 codon 241 polymorphism had an overall protective effect against bladder cancer that was most apparent among heavy smokers. Similarly, the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism also had

  1. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  2. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  3. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1- June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-09-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources on terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  4. Environmental and radiological safety studies: Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, September 26-December 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effect of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  5. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-12-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  6. Environmental interactions of polar orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Addressed are questions concerning how large, and/or high-power, polar-orbiting spacecraft will interact with auroral environments. This paper discusses some experiences of spacecraft charging, vehicle shadowing, and current leakage encountered by AFGL measuring systems on small, polar-orbiting satellites. Because spacecraft charging at ionospheric altitudes does not seriously threaten the operation of present systems this subject has not received the widespread attention given to it at geostationary altitudes. As a matter of economics it is desirable to transfer as much as possible of what we have learned about spacecraft interactions at geostationary orbit to the auroral oval. Economics must not however blind us to the real differences between the two problems.

  7. Prion Protein Interaction with Soil Humic Substances: Environmental Implications

    PubMed Central

    Giachin, Gabriele; Narkiewicz, Joanna; Scaini, Denis; Ngoc, Ai Tran; Margon, Alja; Sequi, Paolo; Leita, Liviana; Legname, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by prions. Animal TSE include scrapie in sheep and goats, and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Effective management of scrapie in many parts of the world, and of CWD in North American deer population is complicated by the persistence of prions in the environment. After shedding from diseased animals, prions persist in soil, withstanding biotic and abiotic degradation. As soil is a complex, multi-component system of both mineral and organic components, it is important to understand which soil compounds may interact with prions and thus contribute to disease transmission. Several studies have investigated the role of different soil minerals in prion adsorption and infectivity; we focused our attention on the interaction of soil organic components, the humic substances (HS), with recombinant prion protein (recPrP) material. We evaluated the kinetics of recPrP adsorption, providing a structural and biochemical characterization of chemical adducts using different experimental approaches. Here we show that HS act as potent anti-prion agents in prion infected neuronal cells and in the amyloid seeding assays: HS adsorb both recPrP and prions, thus sequestering them from the prion replication process. We interpreted our findings as highly relevant from an environmental point of view, as the adsorption of prions in HS may affect their availability and consequently hinder the environmental transmission of prion diseases in ruminants. PMID:24937266

  8. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom operates in a low earth orbit (LEO) environment. Such operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power System (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are briefly described and the results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in LEO environment.

  9. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom will be operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. LEO environment operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power Systems (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation effects, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are described. The results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve the environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in the LEO environment are discussed.

  10. Interaction of Mycobacterium avium with environmental amoebae enhances virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, J D; Falkow, S; Tompkins, L S; Bermudez, L E

    1997-01-01

    Environmental mycobacteria are a common cause of human infections. Recently, contaminated domestic water supplies have been suggested as a potential environmental source of several mycobacterial diseases. Since many of these mycobacterial species replicate best intracellularly, environmental hosts have been sought. In the present study, we examined the interaction of Mycobacterium avium with a potential protozoan host, the water-borne amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. We found that M. avium enters and replicates in A. castellanii. In addition, similar to that shown for mycobacteria within macrophages, M. avium inhibits lysosomal fusion and replicates in vacuoles that are tightly juxtaposed to the bacterial surfaces within amoebae. In order to determine whether growth of M. avium in amoebae plays a role in human infections, we tested the effects of this growth condition on virulence. We found that growth of M. avium in amoebae enhances both entry and intracellular replication compared to growth of bacteria in broth. Furthermore, amoeba-grown M. avium was also more virulent in the beige mouse model of infection. These data suggest a role for protozoa present in water environments as hosts for pathogenic mycobacteria, particularly M. avium. PMID:9284149

  11. Environmental Interactions and Epistasis Are Revealed in the Proteomic Responses to Complex Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Samir, Parimal; Rahul; Slaughter, James C.; Link, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultimately, the genotype of a cell and its interaction with the environment determine the cell’s biochemical state. While the cell’s response to a single stimulus has been studied extensively, a conceptual framework to model the effect of multiple environmental stimuli applied concurrently is not as well developed. In this study, we developed the concepts of environmental interactions and epistasis to explain the responses of the S. cerevisiae proteome to simultaneous environmental stimuli. We hypothesize that, as an abstraction, environmental stimuli can be treated as analogous to genetic elements. This would allow modeling of the effects of multiple stimuli using the concepts and tools developed for studying gene interactions. Mirroring gene interactions, our results show that environmental interactions play a critical role in determining the state of the proteome. We show that individual and complex environmental stimuli behave similarly to genetic elements in regulating the cellular responses to stimuli, including the phenomena of dominance and suppression. Interestingly, we observed that the effect of a stimulus on a protein is dominant over other stimuli if the response to the stimulus involves the protein. Using publicly available transcriptomic data, we find that environmental interactions and epistasis regulate transcriptomic responses as well. PMID:26247773

  12. AN INTEGRATED NETWORK APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INTERACTIONS IN COMPLEX DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    DARABOS, CHRISTIAN; QIU, JINGYA; MOORE, JASON H.

    2015-01-01

    Complex diseases are the result of intricate interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. In previous studies, we used epidemiological and genetic data linking environmental exposure or genetic variants to phenotypic disease to construct Human Phenotype Networks and separately analyze the effects of both environment and genetic factors on disease interactions. To better capture the intricacies of the interactions between environmental exposure and the biological pathways in complex disorders, we integrate both aspects into a single “tripartite” network. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms by which chemical agents disrupt biological pathways are still poorly understood. In this study, we use our integrated network model to identify specific biological pathway candidates possibly disrupted by environmental agents. We conjecture that a higher number of co-occurrences between an environmental substance and biological pathway pair can be associated with a higher likelihood that the substance is involved in disrupting that pathway. We validate our model by demonstrating its ability to detect known arsenic and signal transduction pathway interactions and speculate on candidate cell-cell junction organization pathways disrupted by cadmium. The validation was supported by distinct publications of cell biology and genetic studies that associated environmental exposure to pathway disruption. The integrated network approach is a novel method for detecting the biological effects of environmental exposures. A better understanding of the molecular processes associated with specific environmental exposures will help in developing targeted molecular therapies for patients who have been exposed to the toxicity of environmental chemicals. PMID:26776169

  13. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  14. Lunar and Martian environmental interactions with nuclear power system radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.; Katzan, Cynthia M.

    1992-01-01

    Future NASA space missions include a permanent manned presence on the moon and an expedition to the planet Mars. Such steps will require careful consideration of environmental interactions in the selection and design of required power systems. Several environmental constituents may be hazardous to performance integrity. Potential threats common to both the moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings, solar flux, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars provides the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. In this review, the anticipated environmental interactions with surface power system radiators are described, as well as the impacts of these interactions on radiator durability, which were identified at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  15. Lunar and Martian environmental interactions with nuclear power system radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Gaier, J.R.; Katzan, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    In the foreseeable future, NASA space milestones include a permanent manned presence on the Moon and an expedition to the planet Mars. Such steps will require careful consideration of environmental interactions in the selection and design of required power systems. Several environmental constituents may be hazardous to performance integrity. Potential threats common to both the Moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings, solar flux, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars provides the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. In this review, the anticipated environmental interactions with surface power system radiators are described, as well as the impacts of these interactions on radiator durability, which have been identified at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  16. Using a Three-Dimensional Interactive Model To Teach Environmental Concepts to Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Julia M.; LaGrow, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of using the Buddy Road Kit, an interactive, wooden model, to teach environmental concepts to 4 children with visual impairments ages 7 to 11 years old. Results indicate the model was effective in teaching environmental concepts and traffic safety to the children involved. (Contains references.) (CR)

  17. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1981-09-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. This report includes data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates, soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  18. Arsenic and dichlorvos: Possible interaction between two environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Flora, Swaran J S

    2016-05-01

    Metals are ubiquitously present in the environment and pesticides are widely used throughout the world. Environmental and occupational exposure to metal along with pesticide is an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. Our major concern is that combination of these toxicant present in environment may elicit toxicity either due to additive or synergistic interactions or 'joint toxic actions' among these toxicants. It poses a rising threat to human health. Water contamination particularly ground water contamination with arsenic is a serious problem in today's scenario since arsenic is associated with several kinds of health problems, such arsenic associated health anomalies are commonly called as 'Arsenism'. Uncontrolled use and spillage of pesticides into the environment has resulted in alarming situation. Moreover serious concerns are being addressed due to their persistence in the environmental matrices such as air, soil and surface water runoff resulting in continuous exposure of these harmful chemicals to human beings and animals. Bio-availability of these environmental toxicants has been enhanced much due to anthropological activities. Dreadfully very few studies are available on combined exposures to these toxicants on the animal or human system. Studies on the acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and DDVP are well reported and well defined. Arsenic is a common global ground water contaminant while dichlorvos is one of the most commonly and widely employed organophosphate based insecticide used in agriculture, horticulture etc. There is thus a real situation where a human may get exposed to these toxicants while working in a field. This review highlights the individual and combined exposure to arsenic and dichlorvos on health. PMID:27049126

  19. Bulletin Boards for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford; Seim, Stuart S.

    The bulletin board and activity ideas presented in this handbook offer some attractive ways of exploring and studying various environmental issues. They stress the concept that man is but one element in the whole chain of being. Each chapter, devoted to one element apiece, begins with an overview of the natural resource situation and/or problem…

  20. An Interactive Environmental Science Course for Education Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Slattery, William

    2006-01-01

    An interactive environmental science course was designed to provide a set of learning experiences that connect chemistry, geology, biology, physics, and math with the future careers as teachers. The environment deals with many factors contributing with the quality of life, such as the air, the water and the protective shelter of the atmosphere.

  1. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Arthur B., Ed.

    The first section of this document contains definitional papers prepared by three sections of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE). They are: (1) "The Challenges of K-12 Environmental Education" (Harold Hungerford and Trudi Volk); (2) "'Environmental Studies': Towards a Definition" (Royal Harde); and (3) "Nonformal…

  2. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. The data obtained in several ongoing experiments are presented; these data tables will be updated quarterly. Discussions of experimental details are minimized and largely repetitive in succeeding reports. Compilations of usable data generated in each experiment are emphasized. These compilations include data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates, soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  3. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1981-09-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat souces in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. The data obtained in several ongoing experiments are presented; these data tables will be updated quarterly. Discussions of experimental details are minimized and largely repetitive in succeeding reports. Compilations of usable data generated in each experiment are emphasized. These compilations include data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  4. Spacecraft-environment interaction: The environmental plasma aspect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samir, U.

    1985-01-01

    The effects involved in the interaction between an obstacle and a space plasma can be divided into: (1) effects on the obstacle itselt (i.e., its charging); and (2) effects on the environmental plasma due to the motion of the obstacle (i.e., the creation of shocks ahead of the obstacle and complicated wakes behind the obstacle). In the wake (or antisolar direction), plasma oscillations are excited and instabilities, wave-particle interactions, turbulence, etc., are believed to take place. The effects on the obstacle and on the environmental space plasma are coupled. Hence, simultaneous solutions to the Vlasov (or Boltzmann) and Poisson equations are sought. To obtain realistic solutions of practical use, three-dimensional and time-dependent models of the interaction are needed. Achieving the latter is indeed not simple.

  5. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  6. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  7. Radon, CO2 and CH4 as environmental tracers in groundwater/surface water interaction studies - comparative theoretical evaluation of the gas specific water/air phase transfer kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.; Paschke, A.

    2015-05-01

    The applicability of radon as environmental tracer in groundwater/surface water interaction studies has been documented in a considerable number of publications. In some of these reports it has also been suggested to validate the radon based results by using CO2 and CH4 as supplementary tracers. The on-site measurement of the three gaseous parameters relies on their extraction from the water followed by the measurement of their concentration by means of mobile gas-in-air detectors. Since most related practical applications require the recording of time series, a continuous extraction of the gases from (e.g.) a permanently pumped water stream is necessary. A precondition for the sound combined interpretation of the resulting time series is that the individual temporal responses of the extracted gas-in-air concentrations to instantaneously changing gas-in-water concentrations are either identical or in reproducible relation to each other. The aim of our theoretical study was the comparison of the extraction behavior of the three gaseous solutes with focus on the individual temporal responses to changing gas-in-water concentrations considering in particular the gas specific water/air phase transfer kinetics. We could show that the overall mass transfer coefficients of radon, CO2 and CH4 result in a virtually similar temporal response to aqueous concentration changes, thus confirming the straightforward combined measurement/utilization of the dissolved gases as environmental tracers in groundwater/surface water interaction studies.

  8. Interaction Forces Drive the Environmental Transmission of Pathogenic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Dominique; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Hohweyer, Jeanne; Azas, Nadine; Villena, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are pathogens that are resistant to a number of environmental factors and pose significant risks to public health worldwide. Their environmental transmission is closely governed by the physicochemical properties of their cysts (Giardia) and oocysts (Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma), allowing their transport, retention, and survival for months in water, soil, vegetables, and mollusks, which are the main reservoirs for human infection. Importantly, the cyst/oocyst wall plays a key role in that regard by exhibiting a complex polymeric coverage that determines the charge and hydrophobic characteristics of parasites' surfaces. Interaction forces between parasites and other environmental particles may be, in a first approximation, evaluated following the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal stability. However, due to the molecular topography and nano- to microstructure of the cyst/oocyst surface, non-DVLO hydrophobic forces together with additional steric attractive and/or repulsive forces may play a pivotal role in controlling the parasite behavior when the organism is subjected to various external conditions. Here, we review several parameters that enhance or hinder the adhesion of parasites to other particles and surfaces and address the role of fast-emerging techniques for mapping the cyst/oocyst surface, e.g., by measuring its topology and the generated interaction forces at the nano- to microscale. We discuss why characterizing these interactions could be a crucial step for managing the environmental matrices at risk of microbial pollution. PMID:22156429

  9. The Contribution of Environmental Studies Curricula to Environmental Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Jean

    Current studies indicate that college environmental-science curriculums are often inadequate and not meaningful to college students. Yet climate change, depletion of natural resources, and loss of habitat due to human activities are among critical environmental issues. It is important that college students are prepared to address these issues after graduation. This case study attempted to discover the ways that college students perceived how participation in environmental science courses contributed to their environmental decision making and ecological intelligence. The population consisted of 15 sophomore, junior, and senior students randomly selected from a list of science students provided by the registrar. The conceptual framework that guided this study includes 5 components of ecological intelligence: biodiversity, ecological literacy, decision making skills, understanding sustainability, and systems thinking. The data collected over a period of 3 months from focus groups, individual interviews, and student discussions were transcribed and coded using typological analysis to identify students' perspectives on environmental science courses. Findings showed that college science curriculums need to incorporate students' prior environmental experiences into science courses. They should also focus on providing hands on experiences that promote application of knowledge to address environmental problems. This study may promote the implementation of integrated college science curriculums that encourage environmental, interdisciplinary, and personalized learning experiences. Implications for positive social change include college environmental studies and curricula that motivate students and engage their interest in participating in environmental activities.

  10. Environmental Identity Development through Social Interactions, Action, and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs

    2015-01-01

    This article uses sociocultural identity theory to explore how practice, action, and recognition can facilitate environmental identity development. Recognition, a construct not previously explored in environmental identity literature, is particularly examined. The study is based on a group of diverse teens who traveled to South Asia to participate…

  11. Metaphor and curriculum theorizing in environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Bathsheba Yvette

    The purpose of this study was to examine Kliebard's premise that curriculum theory can be described through metaphor. The aim of this study was to derive implications for metaphor as a basis for program development in environmental studies. Examination revealed that the status of environmental studies is characterized by competing proposals. There is neither agreement as to the characterization of the domain nor a basis for identification and selection of accurate and appropriate subject matter of environmental studies. It was proposed that if observation of the environment is integral to environmental studies, and if the source of metaphor is description drawn from observation of the environment, then the shared requirement of observation of the environment supports the potential applicability of metaphor to curriculum theorizing toward program development in environmental studies. Kliebard's premise that curriculum theory could be described through metaphor was examined. Examination revealed that Kliebard's proposed metaphors are incomplete and not applicable to curriculum theorizing as formulated. If by curriculum theory is meant the development of a basis for selection of "what we teach," then, by implication, curriculum theory informs teaching and learning and, by implication, the theoretic informs the practical. Kliebard's growth, travel, and production metaphors do not provide a link between the theoretic and practical. Kliebard's claimed grounding in Black's analysis of interaction metaphor and Hesse's application of metaphor to scientific explanation was examined. It was found that Kliebard's metaphoric representations are not consistent with the application of Black and Hesse. If metaphor is to inform curriculum theory toward program development in environmental studies, then the domain of environmental studies must be constrained to permit development and accurate transmission of visual imagery appropriate to the domain. Kliebard's proposition must be

  12. Ontogenetic shifts in plant interactions vary with environmental severity and affect population structure.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Peter C; Shaw, Justine D; Chown, Steven L

    2013-10-01

    Environmental conditions and plant size may both alter the outcome of inter-specific plant-plant interactions, with seedlings generally facilitated more strongly than larger individuals in stressful habitats. However, the combined impact of plant size and environmental severity on interactions is poorly understood. Here, we tested explicitly for the first time the hypothesis that ontogenetic shifts in interactions are delayed under increasingly severe conditions by examining the interaction between a grass, Agrostis magellanica, and a cushion plant, Azorella selago, along two severity gradients. The impact of A. selago on A. magellanica abundance, but not reproductive effort, was related to A. magellanica size, with a trend for delayed shifts towards more negative interactions under greater environmental severity. Intermediate-sized individuals were most strongly facilitated, leading to differences in the size-class distribution of A. magellanica on the soil and on A. selago. The A. magellanica size-class distribution was more strongly affected by A. selago than by environmental severity, demonstrating that the plant-plant interaction impacts A. magellanica population structure more strongly than habitat conditions. As ontogenetic shifts in plant-plant interactions cannot be assumed to be constant across severity gradients and may impact species population structure, studies examining the outcome of interactions need to consider the potential for size- or age-related variation in competition and facilitation. PMID:23738758

  13. Estimating interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors efficiency of sampling designs within a cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large prospective cohorts originally assembled to study environmental risk factors are increasingly exploited to study gene-environment interactions. Given the cost of genetic studies in large numbers of subjects, being able to select a sub-sample for genotyping that contains most of the information...

  14. Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2014-11-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  15. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  16. EnviroNET: An online environmental interactions resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1991-01-01

    EnviroNET is a centralized depository for technical information on environmentally induced interactions likely to be encountered by spacecraft in both low-altitude and high-altitude orbits. It provides a user-friendly, menu-driven format on networks that are connected globally and is available 24 hours a day - every day. The service pools space data collected over the years by NASA, USAF, other government research facilities, industry, universities, and the European Space Agency. This information contains text, tables and over one hundred high resolution figures and graphs based on empirical data. These graphics can be accessed while still in the chapters, making it easy to flip from text to graphics and back. Interactive graphics programs are also available on space debris, the neutral atmosphere, magnetic field, and ionosphere. EnviroNET can help designers meet tough environmental flight criteria before committing to flight hardware built for experiments, instrumentation, or payloads.

  17. The interaction of Michigan Environmental Education curriculum, science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, and environmental action competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Angelita P.

    One of the main goals of Environmental Education (EE) is to develop people's environmental stewardship, which includes people's capacity to take environmental action -- their action competence (AC). The purposes of my study were to characterize the interactions found in an EE curriculum, science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and their use of AC, and to identify factors that appear to be associated with the use of AC in curriculum and instruction. My study was divided into three parts: (1) content analysis of the Water Quality Unit of the Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum Support (MEECS, nine lessons); (2) a survey of MEECS training participants (N=131 [28.4% response rate]); and (3) an in-depth examination of pedagogical content strategies and use of AC of four science teachers using class observations (December 2007 -- April 2008: N=38), semi-structured interviews (October 2007 -- April 2008: N=20), Content Representations (CoRes: N=6), and surveys (N=4). The extent that individual elements of AC occurred in each data source was variable; that is, some elements were more prevalent in one data source than another. Of the five elements of AC, knowledge/insight, planning and action experiences, and critical thinking and reflection were more prevalent than commitment and visions in two of the three data sources, namely, the Water Quality Unit (EE curriculum) and the four teachers. Visions was consistently the least prevalent element of AC in each of the three data sources. In general, the types of and/or extent that goals and beliefs, pedagogical approaches, instructional methods, student skills foci, and manifestations of PCK occurred helped explain the prevalence of individual elements of AC across the data sources. For example, use of activity-driven, project-based, and process-oriented pedagogical approaches appeared important for engaging students in real world planning and action experiences. Other factors that appeared to be

  18. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental studies. 256.82 Section 256.82... Environmental studies. (a) The Director shall conduct a study of any area or region included in any lease sale... region. Any study shall, to the extent practicable, be designed to predict environmental impacts...

  19. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  20. Studies of food drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Aman, Syed Faisal; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqar S; Hasan, Syed Muhammmad Farid

    2010-07-01

    Medicines can treat and alleviate many diseases provided that they must be taken properly to ensure that they are safe and useful. One issue related with the medicines is that whether to take on empty stomach or with food. The present work gives information regarding food-drug interactions that were studied by collecting seventy five prescriptions from various hospitals. In most of the collected prescriptions, food-drug interactions were detected using the literature available. It was also found that only few studies have been carried out so far on the effect of food on drug disposition in the Asian population. Thus more studies on food-drug interactions particularly in the local population is recommended in order to determine the effect of food and food components on drug disposition and to the kinetics of the drugs which has not yet well highlighted in this part of the world. PMID:20566446

  1. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by...

  2. Environmental variability uncovers disruptive effects of species' interactions on population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gudmundson, Sara; Eklöf, Anna; Wennergren, Uno

    2015-08-01

    How species respond to changes in environmental variability has been shown for single species, but the question remains whether these results are transferable to species when incorporated in ecological communities. Here, we address this issue by analysing the same species exposed to a range of environmental variabilities when (i) isolated or (ii) embedded in a food web. We find that all species in food webs exposed to temporally uncorrelated environments (white noise) show the same type of dynamics as isolated species, whereas species in food webs exposed to positively autocorrelated environments (red noise) can respond completely differently compared with isolated species. This is owing to species following their equilibrium densities in a positively autocorrelated environment that in turn enables species-species interactions to come into play. Our results give new insights into species' response to environmental variation. They especially highlight the importance of considering both species' interactions and environmental autocorrelation when studying population dynamics in a fluctuating environment. PMID:26224705

  3. Environmental variability uncovers disruptive effects of species' interactions on population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundson, Sara; Eklöf, Anna; Wennergren, Uno

    2015-01-01

    How species respond to changes in environmental variability has been shown for single species, but the question remains whether these results are transferable to species when incorporated in ecological communities. Here, we address this issue by analysing the same species exposed to a range of environmental variabilities when (i) isolated or (ii) embedded in a food web. We find that all species in food webs exposed to temporally uncorrelated environments (white noise) show the same type of dynamics as isolated species, whereas species in food webs exposed to positively autocorrelated environments (red noise) can respond completely differently compared with isolated species. This is owing to species following their equilibrium densities in a positively autocorrelated environment that in turn enables species–species interactions to come into play. Our results give new insights into species' response to environmental variation. They especially highlight the importance of considering both species' interactions and environmental autocorrelation when studying population dynamics in a fluctuating environment. PMID:26224705

  4. CEREAS: an interactive computer-mapping system for environmental assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J.B.; Snider, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    CEREAS (Categorical Exclusion Review/Environmental Assessment System) provides the environmental scientist with the tools needed to quickly process an application for permit to drill (APD). It provides an interactive referencing system for producing maps of potential constraint areas surrounding oil and gas activity sites. The design of the system makes it highly flexible. CEREAS was specifically developed to support the CER procedure in processing APDs for oil and gas in the western overthrust belt. It should be emphasized, however, that the system is not limited by geographic boundaries, CER criteria, or oil and gas activities. Of the three system components, only the mapping program remains constant. The command processor and data bases are necessarily project-specific, contributing to the overall system flexibility. Any geographic data potentially defined by longitude/latitude coordinates can be designated as a data base. CEREAS, as described here, is basically a graphic data retrieval system.

  5. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions between agrochemicals and organo-mineral surfaces were studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), 2,4-D (1, 2-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and DD...

  6. Interaction of palmatine with DNA: an environmentally controlled phototherapy drug.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Élise; Monari, Antonio

    2015-01-15

    Palmatine is one of the four main protoberberine alkaloids and is largely employed in pharmacy and medicine as a versatile drug with considerable biological activities. More recently, palmatine has been proposed as a promising DNA phototherapy drug, notably due to its ability to produce in situ singlet oxygen only when interacting with DNA. The fine mechanisms of palmatine-DNA interactions as well as its complicated photophysics are not yet fully understood. In this paper, we identify via molecular dynamic techniques two stable interaction modes between palmatine and B-DNA, namely insertion and minor groove binding, whose structural and electronic bases are analyzed and rationalized. These two competitive modes share the same UV-vis signature and estimated binding free energies, and thus they may indeed coexist. By using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics protocols coupled to molecular dynamics, we analyze palmatine excited state properties in water solution and in interaction with DNA. The environmentally controlled production of singlet oxygen is thus rationalized in terms of the competition between local and charge-transfer excited states. PMID:25526561

  7. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  8. Extraterrestrial Studies Using Nuclear Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides were used to study the recent histories of the aubrite Norton County and the pallasite Brenham using calculated production rates. Calculations were done of the rates for making cosmogenic noble-gas isotopes in the Jovian satellite Europa by the interactions of galactic cosmic rays and especially trapped Jovian protons. Cross sections for the production of cosmogenic nuclides were reported and plans made to measure additional cross sections. A new code, MCNPX, was used to numerically simulate the interactions of cosmic rays with matter and the subsequent production of cosmogenic nuclides. A review was written about studies of extraterrestrial matter using cosmogenic radionuclides. Several other projects were done. Results are reviewed here with references to my recent publications for details.

  9. Environmental Education Study Projects for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication concerns three environmental education study projects designed to help the college instructor, student, or group of students in identifying environmental problems at the community level and helping to find solutions to them. It discusses the need for and use of environmental problem solving and includes some factors involved with…

  10. Biological and environmental interactions of emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongying; Zhu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Yang; Yi, Xin; von dem Bussche, Annette; Kane, Agnes; Gao, Huajian; Koski, Kristie; Hurt, Robert

    2016-03-21

    Two-dimensional materials have become a major focus in materials chemistry research worldwide with substantial efforts centered on synthesis, property characterization, and technological application. These high-aspect ratio sheet-like solids come in a wide array of chemical compositions, crystal phases, and physical forms, and are anticipated to enable a host of future technologies in areas that include electronics, sensors, coatings, barriers, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine. A parallel effort has begun to understand the biological and environmental interactions of synthetic nanosheets, both to enable the biomedical developments and to ensure human health and safety for all application fields. This review covers the most recent literature on the biological responses to 2D materials and also draws from older literature on natural lamellar minerals to provide additional insight into the essential chemical behaviors. The article proposes a framework for more systematic investigation of biological behavior in the future, rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics. That framework considers three fundamental interaction modes: (i) chemical interactions and phase transformations, (ii) electronic and surface redox interactions, and (iii) physical and mechanical interactions that are unique to near-atomically-thin, high-aspect-ratio solids. Two-dimensional materials are shown to exhibit a wide range of behaviors, which reflect the diversity in their chemical compositions, and many are expected to undergo reactive dissolution processes that will be key to understanding their behaviors and interpreting biological response data. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for high-priority research subtopics at the "bio-nanosheet" interface that we hope will enable safe and successful development of technologies related to two-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:26923057

  11. An age–size reaction norm yields insight into environmental interactions affecting life-history traits: a factorial study of larval development in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Conan; Rotiberg, Bernard D

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors frequently act nonindependently to determine growth and development of insects. Because age and size at maturity strongly influence population dynamics, interaction effects among environmental variables complicate the task of predicting dynamics of insect populations under novel conditions. We reared larvae of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) under three factors relevant to changes in climate and land use: food level, water depth, and temperature. Each factor was held at two levels in a fully crossed design, for eight experimental treatments. Larval survival, larval development time, and adult size (wing length) were measured to indicate the importance of interaction effects upon population-level processes. For age and size at emergence, but not survival, significant interaction effects were detected for all three factors, in addition to sex. Some of these interaction effects can be understood as consequences of how the different factors influence energy usage in the context of a nonindependent relationship between age and size. Experimentally assessing interaction effects for all potential future sets of conditions is intractable. However, considering how different factors affect energy usage within the context of an insect's evolved developmental program can provide insight into the causes of complex environmental effects on populations. PMID:23919132

  12. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental studies. 556.82 Section 556.82 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Studies § 556.82 Environmental studies. (a) The Director shall conduct a study of any area...

  13. Interactions of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism with Environmental Factors on Hypertension Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shujun; Yang, Boyi; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered to be the result of genes, environment, and their interactions. Among them age, sex, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and being overweight/obesity are well documented environmental determinants, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is nominated as a potential genetic candidate. However, the synergistic effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with these environmental factors on the risk of hypertension has received little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, environmental factors, and their interactions with hypertension predisposition in a Northern Chinese Han population. A total of 708 participants were enrolled in the study. The genotypes of the MTHFR C677T were determined by a TaqMan assay. We found that participants of an older age, being overweight/obesity, with a smoking habit, drinking habit, or carrying the 677T allele were at an increased risk of hypertension. Additionally, there existed marginally significant interactions of the polymorphism with age and overweight/obesity. However, future large, well-designed studies in Chinese and other populations, as well as mechanistic studies, are still needed to validate our findings, especially considering that the interactions observed in our study were only marginally significant. PMID:27322299

  14. Interactions of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism with Environmental Factors on Hypertension Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shujun; Yang, Boyi; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered to be the result of genes, environment, and their interactions. Among them age, sex, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and being overweight/obesity are well documented environmental determinants, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is nominated as a potential genetic candidate. However, the synergistic effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with these environmental factors on the risk of hypertension has received little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, environmental factors, and their interactions with hypertension predisposition in a Northern Chinese Han population. A total of 708 participants were enrolled in the study. The genotypes of the MTHFR C677T were determined by a TaqMan assay. We found that participants of an older age, being overweight/obesity, with a smoking habit, drinking habit, or carrying the 677T allele were at an increased risk of hypertension. Additionally, there existed marginally significant interactions of the polymorphism with age and overweight/obesity. However, future large, well-designed studies in Chinese and other populations, as well as mechanistic studies, are still needed to validate our findings, especially considering that the interactions observed in our study were only marginally significant. PMID:27322299

  15. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental studies. 256.82 Section 256.82 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Studies § 256.82 Environmental studies. (a) The...

  16. Water-module interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  17. Water-module interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  18. Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

  19. Interactions between zinc deficiency and environmental enteropathy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, Greta W; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency affects one-fifth of the world's population and leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. Environmental enteropathy (EE), a subclinical pathology of altered intestinal morphology and function, is almost universal among people living in developing countries and affects long-term growth and health. This review explores the overlapping nature of these 2 conditions and presents evidence for their interaction. EE leads to impaired zinc homeostasis, predominantly due to reduced absorptive capacity arising from disturbed intestinal architecture, and zinc deficiency exacerbates several of the proposed pathways that underlie EE, including intestinal permeability, enteric infection, and chronic inflammation. Ongoing zinc deficiency likely perpetuates the adverse outcomes of EE by worsening malabsorption, reducing intestinal mucosal immune responses, and exacerbating systemic inflammation. Although the etiology of EE is predominantly environmental, zinc deficiency may also have a role in its pathogenesis. Given the impact of both EE and zinc deficiency on morbidity and mortality in developing countries, better understanding the relation between these 2 conditions may be critical for developing combined interventions to improve child health. PMID:24425714

  20. Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Laurence; Henri, Hélène; Charif, Delphine; Boulétreau, Michel; Vavre, Fabrice

    2007-04-22

    Regulation of microbial population density is a necessity in stable symbiotic interactions. In Wolbachia symbiosis, both bacterial and host genotypes are involved in density regulation, but environmental factors may also affect bacterial population density. Here, we studied the interaction between three strains of Wolbachia in two divergent homozygous lines of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma at two different temperatures. Wolbachia density varied between the two host genotypes at only one temperature. Moreover, at this temperature, reciprocal-cross F1 insects displayed identical Wolbachia densities, which were intermediate between the densities in the two parental lines. While these findings confirm that the host genotype plays an important role in Wolbachia density, they also highlight its interaction with environmental conditions, making possible the evolution of local adaptations for the regulation of Wolbachia density. PMID:17251124

  1. Environmental Enrichment Modulates Cortico-Cortical Interactions in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chillemi, Santi; Maffei, Lamberto; Caleo, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental protocol based on a complex sensorimotor stimulation that dramatically affects brain development. While it is widely believed that the effects of EE result from the unique combination of different sensory and motor stimuli, it is not known whether and how cortico-cortical interactions are shaped by EE. Since the primary visual cortex (V1) is one of the best characterized targets of EE, we looked for direct cortico-cortical projections impinging on V1, and we identified a direct monosynaptic connection between motor cortex and V1 in the mouse brain. To measure the interactions between these areas under standard and EE rearing conditions, we used simultaneous recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, freely moving animals. LFP signals were analyzed by using different methods of linear and nonlinear analysis of time series (cross-correlation, mutual information, phase synchronization). We found that EE decreases the level of coupling between the electrical activities of the two cortical regions with respect to the control group. From a functional point of view, our results indicate, for the first time, that an enhanced sensorimotor experience impacts on the brain by affecting the functional crosstalk between different cortical areas. PMID:21966482

  2. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  3. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  4. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  5. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  6. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  7. How to Think about Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    It is not possible to date when environmental studies became "Environmental Studies." Nevertheless it has had a turbulent history marked by inconsistency, conflict and change. It is not surprising that at present it lacks disciplinary coherence and is subject to various definitions, often contradictory. There is ongoing speculation as to the cause…

  8. The Environmental Action and Philosophy Matrix: An Exploratory Study of the Environmental Attitudes of Recreation Management and Environmental Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jeremy R.; Simpson, Steven; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the environmental philosophies of college undergraduates enrolled in a Midwestern university. Two courses were used for the research, one from a recreation management curriculum and the other from environmental studies. The study utilized a survey instrument called the Environmental Action and Philosophy…

  9. Arc-cathode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Heberlein, J.

    1992-01-01

    Insufficient electrode life and uncertainties in that life are major problems hampering the development in many plasma application areas which make use of plasma torches, arc heaters, and arc jet thrusters. In spite of a considerable amount of work published dealing with arc-cathode phenomena, our present understanding is still incomplete because different physical phenomena dominate for different combinations of experimental parameters. The objective of our present research project is to gain a better understanding of the behavior of arc-cathode surface interaction over a wide range of parameters, and furthermore to develop guidelines for better thermal design of the electrode and the selection of materials. This report will present the research results and progress obtained on the arc-cathode interaction studies at the University of Minnesota. It includes results which have been obtained under programs other than the NASA funded program. Some of the results have been submitted in an informal interim progress report, and all of the results have been presented in a seminar during a visit to the NASA Lewis Research Center on October 16, 1992.

  10. Indigenous Studies Speaks to Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

  11. Genetic Profile, Environmental Exposure, and Their Interaction in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Polito, Letizia; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of causative mutations for Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as their functional characterization in cellular and animal models has provided crucial insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder. Today, we know that PD pathogenesis involves multiple related processes including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and nitrative stress, microglial activation and inflammation, and aggregation of α-synuclein and impaired autophagy. However, with the exception of a few families with Mendelian inheritance, the cause of PD in most individuals is yet unknown and the identified genetic susceptibility factors have only small effect size. Epidemiologic studies have found increased risk of PD associated with exposure to environmental toxicants such as pesticides, organic solvents, metals, and air pollutants, while reduced risk of PD associated with smoking cigarettes and coffee consumption. The role of environmental exposure, as well as the contribution of single genetic risk factors, is still controversial. In most of PD cases, disease onset is probably triggered by a complex interplay of many genetic and nongenetic factors, each of which conveys a minor increase in the risk of disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge on causal mutation for PD, susceptibility factors increasing disease risk, and the genetic factors that modify the impact of environmental exposure. PMID:26942037

  12. Genetic Profile, Environmental Exposure, and Their Interaction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Letizia; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of causative mutations for Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as their functional characterization in cellular and animal models has provided crucial insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder. Today, we know that PD pathogenesis involves multiple related processes including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and nitrative stress, microglial activation and inflammation, and aggregation of α-synuclein and impaired autophagy. However, with the exception of a few families with Mendelian inheritance, the cause of PD in most individuals is yet unknown and the identified genetic susceptibility factors have only small effect size. Epidemiologic studies have found increased risk of PD associated with exposure to environmental toxicants such as pesticides, organic solvents, metals, and air pollutants, while reduced risk of PD associated with smoking cigarettes and coffee consumption. The role of environmental exposure, as well as the contribution of single genetic risk factors, is still controversial. In most of PD cases, disease onset is probably triggered by a complex interplay of many genetic and nongenetic factors, each of which conveys a minor increase in the risk of disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge on causal mutation for PD, susceptibility factors increasing disease risk, and the genetic factors that modify the impact of environmental exposure. PMID:26942037

  13. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered. PMID:27135378

  14. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  15. All Around You. An Environmental Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This study guide for environmental education focuses on development of knowledge and attitudes concerning environmental factors and inter-relationships. The activities designed for use in elementary and intermediate grades begin in the classroom and move outside to the schoolyard, the town, and natural or rural areas. Three units dealing with…

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Career-Related Goal Appraisals: Genetic and Environmental Correlations and Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Dick, Danielle M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard. J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand why depressive symptoms are associated with negative goal appraisals, the present study examined the genetic and environmental correlations and interactions between depressive symptoms and career-related goal appraisals. A total of 1,240 Finnish twins aged 21℃26 years completed a questionnaire containing items on the appraisal of their career goals along five dimensions: importance, progress, effort, strain, and self-efficacy. In the same questionnaire, the 10-item General Behavior Inventory assessed depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the genetic and environmental correlations and gene-environment interactions between the career-goal appraisals and depressive symptoms. Associations were identified, and were attributed to environmental factors. Of the career-related goal appraisals, the shared environmental component was of a higher magnitude for the dimension of strain among the depressed compared with non-depressed subjects. The results indicate that the interplay between depressive symptoms and negative career-related goal appraisals is significantly affected by environmental factors, and thus possibly susceptible to targeted interventions. PMID:24932581

  17. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, W.A. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  18. Chromatographic method for quick estimation of DNA interaction potency of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-Lai; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Liao, Xiang-Jun; Zhu, Ji-Ping

    2009-10-01

    The DNA interaction potency of a chemical has been defined in the present study as the degree of a chemical's ability to interact with DNA. An estimation method of such a potency has been established based on the peak reduction of an oligonucleotide probe resulting from its interaction with chemicals based on high-performance liquid chromatography. A DNA interaction potency equivalency (PEQ) also has been proposed to evaluate the relative interaction potency of test chemicals against benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE). Five known direct DNA interaction chemicals were employed to demonstrate the method. Two known inactive chemicals were used as negative controls. Both the potency and PEQ(50) values (PEQ of testing chemical at 50% of the probe peak reduction) of these five chemicals were determined as BPDE > phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) > tetrachlorohydroquinone (Cl4HQ) > methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) > styrene-7,8-oxide (SO). Among the reactive chemicals, MMS was found to break the oligonucleotide into smaller fragments, whereas BPDE, PGE, and SO form covalent adducts with the oligonucleotide. In the latter case, the formation of multi-chemical-oligonucleotide adducts also was observed by mass spectrometry. The method was employed to estimate the DNA interaction potency equivalency of diesel vehicle exhaust gas to demonstrate the applicability of this approach in evaluating the interaction potency of environmental pollutants in both gas and liquid phases. PMID:19432508

  19. AIDE, A SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPING INTERACTIVE USER INTERFACES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent progress in environmental science and engineering has seen increasing use of interactive interfaces for computer models. nitial applications centered on the use of interactive software to assist in building complicated input sequences required by batch programs. rom these ...

  20. Interactions between environmental changes and brain plasticity in birds.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Anat

    2009-09-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment occur in many vertebrates, including humans. Most of the new neurons die before reaching their destination. Those which survive migrate to various brain regions, replace older ones and connect to existing circuits. Evidence suggests that this replacement is related to acquisition of new information. Therefore, neuronal replacement can be seen as a form of brain plasticity that enables organisms to adjust to environmental changes. However, direct evidence of a causal link between replacement and learning remains elusive. Our hypothesis is that increased neuronal recruitment is associated with increase in memory load. Moreover, since neuronal recruitment is part of a turnover process, we assume that the same conditions that favor survival of some neurons induce the death of others. I present studies that investigated the effect of various behaviors and environmental conditions (food-hoarding, social change, reproductive cycle) on neuronal recruitment and survival in adult avian brains, and discuss how these phenomena relate to the life of animals. I offer a frame and rationale for comparing neuronal replacement in the adult brain, in order to uncover the pressures, rules, and mechanisms that govern its constant rejuvenation. The review emphasizes the importance of using various approaches (behavioral, anatomical, cellular and hormonal) in neuroethological research, and the need to study natural populations, in order to fully understand how neurogenesis and neuronal replacement contribute to life of animals. Finally, the review indicates to future directions and ends with the hope that a better understanding of adult neuronal replacement will lead to medical applications. PMID:19361509

  1. Do Interactions Between Gut Ecology and Environmental Chemicals Contribute to Obesity and Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gut microbiota are important factors in obesity and diabetes, yet little is known about their role in the toxicodynamics of environmental chemicals, including those recently found to be obesogenic and diabetogenic. Objectives: We integrated evidence that independently links gut ecology and environmental chemicals to obesity and diabetes, providing a framework for suggesting how these environmental factors may interact with these diseases, and identified future research needs. Methods: We examined studies with germ-free or antibiotic-treated laboratory animals, and human studies that evaluated how dietary influences and microbial changes affected obesity and diabetes. Strengths and weaknesses of studies evaluating how environmental chemical exposures may affect obesity and diabetes were summarized, and research gaps on how gut ecology may affect the disposition of environmental chemicals were identified. Results: Mounting evidence indicates that gut microbiota composition affects obesity and diabetes, as does exposure to environmental chemicals. The toxicology and pharmacology literature also suggests that interindividual variations in gut microbiota may affect chemical metabolism via direct activation of chemicals, depletion of metabolites needed for biotransformation, alteration of host biotransformation enzyme activities, changes in enterohepatic circulation, altered bioavailability of environmental chemicals and/or antioxidants from food, and alterations in gut motility and barrier function. Conclusions: Variations in gut microbiota are likely to affect human toxicodynamics and increase individual exposure to obesogenic and diabetogenic chemicals. Combating the global obesity and diabetes epidemics requires a multifaceted approach that should include greater emphasis on understanding and controlling the impact of interindividual gut microbe variability on the disposition of environmental chemicals in humans. PMID:22042266

  2. Environmental and gene-environment interactions and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Deane, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors including hormones, dietary factors, infections and exposure to tobacco smoke as well as gene-environment interactions have been associated with increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Importantly, the growing understanding of the prolonged period prior to the first onset of symptoms of RA suggests that these environmental and genetic factors are likely acting to drive the development of RA-related autoimmunity long before the appearance of the first joint symptoms and clinical findings that are characteristic of RA. Herein we will review these factors and interactions, especially those that have been investigated in a prospective fashion prior to the symptomatic onset of RA. We will also discuss how these factors may be explored in future study to further the understanding of the pathogenesis of RA, and ultimately perhaps develop preventive measures for this disease. PMID:22819092

  3. Association studies including genotype by environment interactions: prospects and limits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Association mapping studies offer great promise to identify polymorphisms associated with phenotypes and for understanding the genetic basis of quantitative trait variation. To date, almost all association mapping studies based on structured plant populations examined the main effects of genetic factors on the trait but did not deal with interactions between genetic factors and environment. In this paper, we propose a methodological prospect of mixed linear models to analyze genotype by environment interaction effects using association mapping designs. First, we simulated datasets to assess the power of linear mixed models to detect interaction effects. This simulation was based on two association panels composed of 90 inbreds (pearl millet) and 277 inbreds (maize). Results Based on the simulation approach, we reported the impact of effect size, environmental variation, allele frequency, trait heritability, and sample size on the power to detect the main effects of genetic loci and diverse effect of interactions implying these loci. Interaction effects specified in the model included SNP by environment interaction, ancestry by environment interaction, SNP by ancestry interaction and three way interactions. The method was finally used on real datasets from field experiments conducted on the two considered panels. We showed two types of interactions effects contributing to genotype by environment interactions in maize: SNP by environment interaction and ancestry by environment interaction. This last interaction suggests differential response at the population level in function of the environment. Conclusions Our results suggested the suitability of mixed models for the detection of diverse interaction effects. The need of samples larger than that commonly used in current plant association studies is strongly emphasized to ensure rigorous model selection and powerful interaction assessment. The use of ancestry interaction component brought valuable

  4. Court-agency interaction in environmental policymaking: the cases of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the increasingly active participation of courts in the administrative process as well as agency responses to court-imposed policy shifts. More specifically, it is an investigation of the interaction between the federal courts, primarily the Supreme Court and the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, and two federal regulatory agencies, the Nuclar Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency. There are five objectives to the study. The first is to examine the natura of court-agency interaction and to determine the extent to which patterns of judicial review of administrative actions can be discerned. The second is to examine the effect of court orders on agency programs and policies. The third is to assess the anticipatory dimension of court-agency relations. The fourth is to inquire into the recurring dimension of court-agency interaction and to determine its effect on subsequent court decisions. The last is to assess the institutional capacity of courts to deal with scientific and technological issues. This study indicates that judicial review has a substantial effect on the NRC's and the EPA's decision-making activities. Few, if any, recent major policy decisions of the two agencies have not been scrutinized closely by federal appellate courts. During the past decade, the courts have blocked policy initiative on numerous occasions and have been the primary source of change in others. In addition, the mere anticipation of judicial review was found to be a factor motivating the two agencies to make reasoned decisions.

  5. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1991-01-01

    Data analyses of the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) data and computer modeling were conducted to investigate spacecraft environmental effects associated with injection of electron beams, plasma clouds, and neutral gas clouds from the Shuttle orbiter. The data analysis indicates that Extremely Low Frequency oscillations from 150 to 200 Hz were seen in the Langmuir probe current when the beam was fired in a continuous mode. The strongest oscillations occurred when the ambient pressure was augmented by neutral gas releases from the SEPAC plasma accelerator magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) arcjet. To understand the dependence of spacecraft charging potential on beam density and other plasma parameters, a two-dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to simulate the injection of electron beams from an infinite conductor into a plasma. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential depends critically on the reflection coefficient of the conductor surface, which is defined as the percentage of incident particles reflected by the conductor. The ionization effects on spacecraft charging were examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. The simulations also indicate that the beam radius is generally proportional to the beam electron gyroradius when the conductor is charged to a large potential. It appears that the charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam radial expansion. A survey of the simulation results suggests that the ratio of the beam radius to the beam electron gyroradius increases with the square root of beam density and decreases inversely with beam injection velocity. These results are useful for explaining the spacecraft charging phenomena observed during SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1.

  6. Space station propulsion-ECLSS interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Scott M.

    1986-01-01

    The benefits of the utilization of effluents of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system are examined. Various ECLSS-propulsion system interaction options are evaluated and compared on the basis of weight, volume, and power requirements. Annual propulsive impulse to maintain station altitude during a complete solar cycle of eleven years and the effect on station resupply are considered.

  7. Spatial analysis for environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Thiebaux, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    The cartoon shown below appeared in a local newspaper on the day I gave my talk at UMN. It is meant, here, to catch your attention and focus it on the importance of using available data in the best possible way to define the current state of the system under study, in order to update the model - whatever model we have in the works.

  8. The Effect of Positive Interactions on Temporal Turnover of Community Composition along an Environmental Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youshi; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Shurong; Soininen, Janne; Ai, Dexiecuo; Li, Yali; Chu, Chengjin

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the interplay between negative and positive interactions simultaneously shapes community structure and composition. However, few studies have attempted to examine the effect of facilitation on compositional changes in communities through time. Additionally, due to the difficulties in collecting the long-term data, it would be useful to indicate the rate of temporal turnover using a readily obtainable metric. Using an individual-based model incorporating plant strategies, we examined the role of facilitation on the temporal turnover of communities located at different positions along an environmental gradient for three model scenarios: CM without facilitation; CFM-U, a unimodal relationship between facilitation and environmental severity; and CFM-L, a positively linear relationship between facilitation and environmental severity. Our results demonstrated that facilitation could increase, decrease or have no remarkable effect on temporal turnover. The specific outcome depended on the location of the focal community across the environmental gradient and the model employed. Compared with CM, the inclusion of positive interactions (i.e. CFM-U and CFM-L), at intermediate environmental stress levels (such as S = 0.7 and 0.8) resulted in lower Bray-Curtis similarity values; at other severity levels, facilitation slowed down (such as S = 0.3 and 0.4 at low to medium stress levels, and S = 0.9 at high stress levels) or had only a subtle effect (such as at S = 0.1) on temporal turnover. We also found that the coefficient of variation (CV) in species abundances and the rate of temporal variability showed a significant quadratic relationship. Our theoretical analysis contributes to the understanding of factors driving temporal turnover in biotic communities, and presents a potential metric (i.e. CV in species abundances) assessing the consequences of ongoing environmental change on community structure. PMID:24265708

  9. Genetic and environmental control of host-gut microbiota interactions

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Parks, Brian W.; Joo, Jong Wha J.; Emert, Benjamin; Schwartzman, William; Kang, Eun Yong; Mehrabian, Margarete; Pan, Calvin; Knight, Rob; Gunsalus, Robert; Drake, Thomas A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics provides a potentially powerful approach to dissect host-gut microbiota interactions. Toward this end, we profiled gut microbiota using 16s rRNA gene sequencing in a panel of 110 diverse inbred strains of mice. This panel has previously been studied for a wide range of metabolic traits and can be used for high-resolution association mapping. Using a SNP-based approach with a linear mixed model, we estimated the heritability of microbiota composition. We conclude that, in a controlled environment, the genetic background accounts for a substantial fraction of abundance of most common microbiota. The mice were previously studied for response to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, and we hypothesized that the dietary response was determined in part by gut microbiota composition. We tested this using a cross-fostering strategy in which a strain showing a modest response, SWR, was seeded with microbiota from a strain showing a strong response, A×B19. Consistent with a role of microbiota in dietary response, the cross-fostered SWR pups exhibited a significantly increased response in weight gain. To examine specific microbiota contributing to the response, we identified various genera whose abundance correlated with dietary response. Among these, we chose Akkermansia muciniphila, a common anaerobe previously associated with metabolic effects. When administered to strain A×B19 by gavage, the dietary response was significantly blunted for obesity, plasma lipids, and insulin resistance. In an effort to further understand host-microbiota interactions, we mapped loci controlling microbiota composition and prioritized candidate genes. Our publicly available data provide a resource for future studies. PMID:26260972

  10. Genetic and environmental control of host-gut microbiota interactions.

    PubMed

    Org, Elin; Parks, Brian W; Joo, Jong Wha J; Emert, Benjamin; Schwartzman, William; Kang, Eun Yong; Mehrabian, Margarete; Pan, Calvin; Knight, Rob; Gunsalus, Robert; Drake, Thomas A; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-10-01

    Genetics provides a potentially powerful approach to dissect host-gut microbiota interactions. Toward this end, we profiled gut microbiota using 16s rRNA gene sequencing in a panel of 110 diverse inbred strains of mice. This panel has previously been studied for a wide range of metabolic traits and can be used for high-resolution association mapping. Using a SNP-based approach with a linear mixed model, we estimated the heritability of microbiota composition. We conclude that, in a controlled environment, the genetic background accounts for a substantial fraction of abundance of most common microbiota. The mice were previously studied for response to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, and we hypothesized that the dietary response was determined in part by gut microbiota composition. We tested this using a cross-fostering strategy in which a strain showing a modest response, SWR, was seeded with microbiota from a strain showing a strong response, A×B19. Consistent with a role of microbiota in dietary response, the cross-fostered SWR pups exhibited a significantly increased response in weight gain. To examine specific microbiota contributing to the response, we identified various genera whose abundance correlated with dietary response. Among these, we chose Akkermansia muciniphila, a common anaerobe previously associated with metabolic effects. When administered to strain A×B19 by gavage, the dietary response was significantly blunted for obesity, plasma lipids, and insulin resistance. In an effort to further understand host-microbiota interactions, we mapped loci controlling microbiota composition and prioritized candidate genes. Our publicly available data provide a resource for future studies. PMID:26260972

  11. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  12. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. PMID:26402649

  13. Airframe noise component interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic wind tunnel tests were conducted to examine the noise-generating processes of an airframe during approach flight. The airframe model was a two-dimensional wing section, to which highlift leading and trailing edge devices and landing gear could be added. Far field conventional microphones were utilized to determine component spectrum levels. An acoustic mirror directional microphone was utilized to examine noise source distributions on airframe components extended separately and in combination. Measured quantities are compared with predictions inferred from aircraft flyover data. Aeroacoustic mechanisms for each airframe component are identified. Component interaction effects on total radiated noise generally were small (within about 2 dB). However, some interactions significantly redistributed the local noise source strengths by changing local flow velocities and turbulence levels. Possibilities for noise reduction exist if trailing edge flaps could be modified to decrease their noise radiation caused by incident turbulent flow.

  14. Environmental Connections: A Teacher's Guide to Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBettencourt, Kathleen B.; Feeney, Matthew; Barone, A. Nicole; White, Keith

    This guide assists teachers who teach an environmental science course or include environmental topics in their curriculum. The guide is intended to help educators and students find resources that enable them to examine issues in greater depth. A brief summary of a number of environmental issues that are often mentioned in textbooks, in the media,…

  15. Environmental influences on virus-host interactions in an Australian subtropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Säwström, Christin; Pollard, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Viral and prokaryotic interactions in freshwaters have been investigated worldwide but there are few temporal studies in the tropics and none in the sub-tropics. In this 10-month study, we examined temporal changes in virus-host interactions and viral life cycles (lytic versus lysogenic) in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in a subtropical water reservoir (Wivenhoe) in southeast Queensland, Australia. Heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria were positively correlated with concentrations of viruses throughout the study, indicating the presence of both bacteriophages and cyanophages in the reservoir. The percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria containing intracellular viruses (FVIC) ranged between 0.2% and 2.4% and did not vary significantly over the 10-month study, whereas lysogenic heterotrophic prokaryotes were only detected in the drier months of June and July. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the oxidative-reduction potential (ORP) of the water reservoir influenced the concentrations of viruses, heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria significantly, with low ORP offering a favourable environment for these components. There was a negative relationship between FVIC and rainfall suggesting the associated run-off altered virus-host interactions. Overall, our study provides novel information and inferences on how virus-host interactions in subtropical freshwaters might respond to changes in precipitation predicted to occur with global climate change. PMID:23757232

  16. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom. PMID:26375393

  17. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom. PMID:26375393

  18. Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Domenici, P; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J

    2007-11-29

    Environmental constraints in aquatic habitats have become topics of concern to both the scientific community and the public at large. In particular, coastal and freshwater habitats are subject to dramatic variability in various environmental factors, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. The protection and sustainable management of all aquatic habitats requires greater understanding of how environmental constraints influence aquatic organisms. Locomotion and predator-prey interactions are intimately linked and fundamental to the survival of mobile aquatic organisms. This paper summarizes the main points from the review and research articles which comprise the theme issue 'Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms'. The articles explore how natural and anthropogenic factors can constrain these two fundamental activities in a diverse range of organisms from phytoplankton to marine mammals. Some major environmental constraints derive from the intrinsic properties of the fluid and are mechanical in nature, such as viscosity and flow regime. Other constraints derive from direct effects of factors, such as temperature, oxygen content of the water or turbidity, upon the mechanisms underlying the performance of locomotion and predator-prey interactions. The effect of these factors on performance at the tissue and organ level is reflected in constraints upon performance of the whole organism. All these constraints can influence behaviour. Ultimately, they can have an impact on ecological performance. One issue that requires particular attention is how factors such as temperature and oxygen can exert different constraints on the physiology and behaviour of different taxa and the ecological implications of this. Given the multiplicity of constraints, the complexity of their interactions, and the variety of biological levels at which they can act, there is a clear need for integration between the fields of

  19. Synergistic interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Ianina; McLeod, Anne M; Colbourne, John K; Yan, Norman D; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the response of organisms to multiple stressors is critical for predicting if populations can adapt to rapid environmental change. Natural and anthropogenic stressors often interact, complicating general predictions. In this study, we examined the interactive and cumulative effects of two common environmental stressors, lowered calcium concentration, an anthropogenic stressor, and predator presence, a natural stressor, on the water flea Daphnia pulex. We analyzed expression changes of five genes involved in calcium homeostasis - cuticle proteins (Cutie, Icp2), calbindin (Calb), and calcium pump and channel (Serca and Ip3R) - using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a full factorial experiment. We observed strong synergistic interactions between low calcium concentration and predator presence. While the Ip3R gene was not affected by the stressors, the other four genes were affected in their transcriptional levels by the combination of the stressors. Transcriptional patterns of genes that code for cuticle proteins (Cutie and Icp2) and a sarcoplasmic calcium pump (Serca) only responded to the combination of stressors, changing their relative expression levels in a synergistic response, while a calcium-binding protein (Calb) responded to low calcium stress and the combination of both stressors. The expression pattern of these genes (Cutie, Icp2, and Serca) were nonlinear, yet they were dose dependent across the calcium gradient. Multiple stressors can have complex, often unexpected effects on ecosystems. This study demonstrates that the dominant interaction for the set of tested genes appears to be synergism. We argue that gene expression patterns can be used to understand and predict the type of interaction expected when organisms are exposed simultaneously to natural and anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26158383

  20. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  1. Environmental and radiological-safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  2. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD. PMID:26071662

  3. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments are defined. SP-100 payloads will float 100 V negative of the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. Choice of proper geometries and materials will prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in LEO. Care in selecting surface coatings will prevent dielectric breakdown. Sputtering is a concern for long-duration LEO missions. Atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials will be tested in ground and flight tests. Evaluation of SP-100 in lunar and planetary environments has begun. The report of a recent workshop on Chemical and Electrical Interactions on Mars identified many of the primary interactions.

  4. Habitat Study. Transect Study. [Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    These three documents outline teaching activities intended to involve children with their environment. Suggested preliminary studies to motivate and familiarize elementary school students with some characteristics of organisms and their physical environment are followed by descriptions of class activities that may be undertaken in the field.…

  5. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  6. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors. PMID:25904467

  7. Human interaction as environmental enrichment for pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Verdi, Nicolle T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-01-01

    Private nonhuman animal sanctuaries are often financially limited in their ability to implement traditional environmental enrichment strategies. One possible solution may be to provide socialized animals with human interaction sessions. However, the merit of human interaction as enrichment has received little empirical attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate whether human interaction could be enriching for socialized, pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses at a private sanctuary. Observations of each subject were conducted in a reversal design to measure species-typical affiliation, activity levels, and aberrant behaviors when caretakers were both present and absent. The results demonstrate significantly higher levels of conspecific-directed affiliation and activity levels and reduced aberrant behavior when human interaction was available. Social play also increased when caregivers were present, supporting the hypothesis that play among conspecifics may be maintained by positive changes in an animal's environment. The potential for human interaction to be established as a scientifically validated, cost-effective enrichment strategy is supported by these findings. PMID:24484310

  8. Environmental influences on maize-Aspergillus flavus interactions and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jake C; Scully, Brian T; Ni, Xinzhi; Kemerait, Robert C; Lee, Robert D; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Guo, Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus (Link ex Fr.) has been the focus of intensive research due to the production of carcinogenic and highly toxic secondary metabolites collectively known as aflatoxins following pre-harvest colonization of crops. Given this recurrent problem and the occurrence of a severe aflatoxin outbreak in maize (Zea mays L.), particularly in the Southeast U.S. in the 1977 growing season, a significant research effort has been put forth to determine the nature of the interaction occurring between aflatoxin production, A. flavus, environment and its various hosts before harvest. Many studies have investigated this interaction at the genetic, transcript, and protein levels, and in terms of fungal biology at either pre- or post-harvest time points. Later experiments have indicated that the interaction and overall resistance phenotype of the host is a quantitative trait with a relatively low heritability. In addition, a high degree of environmental interaction has been noted, particularly with sources of abiotic stress for either the host or the fungus such as drought or heat stresses. Here, we review the history of research into this complex interaction and propose future directions for elucidating the relationship between resistance and susceptibility to A. flavus colonization, abiotic stress, and its relationship to oxidative stress in which aflatoxin production may function as a form of antioxidant protection to the producing fungus. PMID:24550905

  9. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  10. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  11. A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  12. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  13. Heart and ventilatory measures in crayfish during environmental disturbances and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Schapker, Heidi; Breithaupt, Thomas; Shuranova, Zhanna; Burmistrov, Yuri; Cooper, Robin L

    2002-02-01

    Most animals assess the environment in which they live and alter their behavior according to various stimuli. When the animal does not make significant behavioral changes, as measured by bodily movements, the animal may be characterized as unresponsive to a given stimulus. This study demonstrates that when behavioral movements of crayfish cannot be observed, physiological measures of heart rate (HR) and ventilatory rate (VR) show dramatic changes in response to defined sensory stimuli. In the majority of cases, upon anticipation of a social interaction with another crayfish both HR and VR will increase. During an agonistic encounter between two crayfish, the level of HR and VR correlate with the intensity of the interaction. Such rapid responses in cardiac and respiratory systems to environmental disturbances and anticipation of a social interaction suggest an autonomic-like regulation associated with fear, flight or fight. Since behavioral observations do not allow an internal status to be readily assessed, we suggest that HR and VR may serve as a useful bioindex in crustaceans to their internal drive or possibly an awareness level to environmental cues. PMID:11818228

  14. Environmental Radiation Studies Utilizing RadNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Steven

    2010-03-01

    RadNet is an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) managed environmental radiation and air quality monitoring station that has been recently installed on the Angelo State University campus. RadNet cycles air through a filter which collects particulate matter for an examination of alpha and beta activities of contained material. This project includes defining dominant alpha and beta emitters in the local environment, conducting a correlation study involving the effect of weather and wind direction on filter activity, physical interpretation of air quality index (AQI), and the use of X-ray fluorescence to verify radon decay progeny in the local environment.

  15. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1990-01-01

    Injections of nonrelativistic electron beams from an isolated equipotential conductor into a uniform background of plasma and neutral gas were simulated using a two dimensional electrostatic particle code. The ionization effects of spacecraft charging are examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. In the spacecraft wake, the background electrons accelerated towards the charged space craft produced an enhancement of secondary electrons and ions. Simulations run for longer times indicate that the spacecraft potential is further reduced and short wavelength beam-plasma oscillations appear. The results are applied to explain the space craft charging potential measured during the SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1. A second paper is presented in which a two dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to study the beam radial expansion of a nonrelativistic electron beam injected from an isolated equipotential conductor into a background plasma. The simulations indicate that the beam radius is generally proportional to the beam electron gyroradius when the conductor is charged to a large potential. The simulations also suggest that the charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam radial expansion. From a survey of the simulation results, it is found that the ratio of the beam radius to the beam electron gyroradius increases with the square root of beam density and decreases inversely with beam injection velocity. This dependence is explained in terms of the ratio of the beam electron Debye length to the ambient electron Debye length. These results are most applicable to the SEPAC electron beam injection experiments from Spacelab 1, where high charging potential was observed.

  16. The critical properties of the agent-based model with environmental-economic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuscsik, Z.; Horváth, D.

    2008-05-01

    The steady-state and nonequilibrium properties of the model of environmental-economic interactions are studied. The interacting heterogeneous agents are simulated on the platform of the emission dynamics of cellular automaton. The diffusive emissions are produced by the factory agents, and the local pollution is monitored by the randomly walking (mobile) sensors. When the threshold concentration is exceeded, a feedback signal is transmitted from the sensor to the nearest factory that affects its actual production rate. The model predicts the discontinuous phase transition between safe and catastrophic ecology. Right at the critical line, the broad-scale power-law distributions of emission rates have been identified. The power-law fluctuations are triggered by the screening effect of factories and by the time delay between the environment contamination and its detection. The system shows the typical signs of the self-organized critical systems, such as power-law distributions and scaling laws.

  17. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  18. Specific Roles of MicroRNAs in Their Interactions with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Cui, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression by modulating numerous target mRNAs expression at posttranscriptional level. Extensive studies have shown that miRNAs are critical in various important biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, development, and apoptosis. In terms of their importance, miRNA dysfunction has been associated with a broad range of diseases. Increased number of studies have shown that miRNAs can functionally interact with a wide spectrum of environmental factors (EFs) including drugs, industrial materials, virus and bacterial pathogens, cigarette smoking, alcohol, nutrition, sleep, exercise, stress, and radiation. More importantly, the interactions between miRNAs and EFs have been shown to play critical roles in determining abnormal phenotypes and diseases. In this paper, we propose an outline of the current knowledge about specific roles of miRNAs in their interactions with various EFs and analyze the literatures detailing miRNAs-EFs interactions in the context of various of diseases. PMID:23209884

  19. UNEP REPORT, "ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION AND ITS INTERACTIONS WITH CLIMATE CHANGE: 2002 ASSESSMENT."

    EPA Science Inventory

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Report on "Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: 2002 assessment." The chapters were published in the first issue (No. 1) of the 2003 volume of journal "Photochemical & Photobiological Scien...

  20. Study of Compton vs. Photoelectric Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J B; Johnson, S C; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-07-09

    We have studied how often incoming photons interact via a Compton interaction and/or a photoelectric interaction as a function of energy and detector material Results are using a 1m{sup 3} detector, and discrete energy photons from 0.1 MeV up to 10 MeV. Essentially all of the lower energy photons interact at least once in a detector of this size. This is not the case at higher energies. Each detector, photon energy combination was simulated with 2000 photons.

  1. Interactive Videodisc Case Studies for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Harless, William G.; Zier, Marcia A.; Duncan, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The TIME Project of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications is using interactive videodisc, microprocessor and voice recognition technology to create patient simulations for use in the training of medical students. These interactive case studies embody dramatic, lifelike portrayals of the social and medical conditions of a patient and allow uncued, verbal intervention by the student for independent clinical decisions.

  2. Genotype x environment interaction, environmental heterogeneity, and the lek paradox

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial additive genetic variance (VA) often exists for male signaling traits in spite of the directional selection that female choice imposes. One solution to this problem, generally termed the ‘lek paradox’, is that genotype x environment interaction (GEI) occurs and generates a ‘crossover’ of...

  3. Mucociliary Interaction in the Tracheobronchial Tree and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Richard B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of the various factors involved in the normal functioning of the mucociliary system of the human respiratory tract. The mucociliary system constitutes a major mammalian defense against dangerous inhaled particles by acting to collect, transport, and eventually eliminate such materials from the tracheobronchial tree. (JR)

  4. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-10-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  5. Environmental dependency of amphibian-ranavirus genotypic interactions: evolutionary perspectives on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Echaubard, Pierre; Leduc, Joel; Pauli, Bruce; Chinchar, V Gregory; Robert, Jacques; Lesbarrères, David

    2014-08-01

    The context-dependent investigations of host-pathogen genotypic interactions, where environmental factors are explicitly incorporated, allow the assessment of both coevolutionary history and contemporary ecological influences. Such a functional explanatory framework is particularly valuable for describing mortality trends and identifying drivers of disease risk more accurately. Using two common North American frog species (Lithobates pipiens and Lithobates sylvaticus) and three strains of frog virus 3 (FV3) at different temperatures, we conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the influence of host species/genotype, ranavirus strains, temperature, and their interactions, in determining mortality and infection patterns. Our results revealed variability in host susceptibility and strain infectivity along with significant host-strain interactions, indicating that the outcome of an infection is dependent on the specific combination of host and virus genotypes. Moreover, we observed a strong influence of temperature on infection and mortality probabilities, revealing the potential for genotype-genotype-environment interactions to be responsible for unexpected mortality in this system. Our study thus suggests that amphibian hosts and ranavirus strains genetic characteristics should be considered in order to understand infection outcomes and that the investigation of coevolutionary mechanisms within a context-dependent framework provides a tool for the comprehensive understanding of disease dynamics. PMID:25469155

  6. Environmental Studies on Titanium Aluminide Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Smialek, James L.; Brady, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Titanium aluminides are attractive alternatives to superalloys in moderate temperature applications (600 to 850 C) by virtue of their high strength-to-density ratio (high specific strength). These alloys are also more ductile than competing intermetallic systems. However, most Ti-based alloys tend to degrade through interstitial embrittlement and rapid oxidation during exposure to elevated temperatures. Therefore, their environmental behavior must be thoroughly investigated before they can be developed further. The goals of titanium aluminide environmental studies at the NASA Lewis Research Center are twofold: characterize the degradation mechanisms for advanced structural alloys and determine what means are available to minimize degradation. The studies to date have covered the alpha 2 (Ti3Al), orthorhombic (Ti2AlNb), and gamma (TiAl) classes of alloys.

  7. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Frid, Chris; Andonegi, Eider; Judd, Adrian; Rihan, Dominic; Rogers, Stuart I.; Kenchington, Ellen

    2012-01-15

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  8. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  9. Parameter uncertainty and interaction in complex environmental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Robert C.; Grieb, Thomas M.; Shang, Nong

    1994-11-01

    Recently developed models for the estimation of risks arising from the release of toxic chemicals from hazardous waste sites are inherently complex both structurally and parametrically. To better understand the impact of uncertainty and interaction in the high-dimensional parameter spaces of these models, the set of procedures termed regional sensitivity analysis has been extended and applied to the groundwater pathway of the MMSOILS model. The extension consists of a tree-structured density estimation technique which allows the characterization of complex interaction in that portion of the parameter space which gives rise to successful simulation. Results show that the parameter space can be partitioned into small, densely populated regions and relatively large, sparsely populated regions. From the high-density regions one can identify the important or controlling parameters as well as the interaction between parameters in different local areas of the space. This new tool can provide guidance in the analysis and interpretation of site-specific application of these complex models.

  10. ANNIE-IDE, A SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPING INTERACTIVE USER INTERFACES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS (PROGRAMMERS GUIDE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a guide to the newly developed computer software called ANNIE-IDE, the ANNIE Interaction Development Environment. ANNIE-IDE provides a consistent methodology for building interactive interfaces for environmental software. ANNIE-IDE combines a toolkit of utility s...

  11. Environmental awareness -- An interactive multimedia CD-ROM

    SciTech Connect

    Huntelmann, A.; Petruk, M.W.

    1998-07-01

    As corporations move to new and innovative ways of structuring high-performance work teams, effective training is being recognized as a key to insuring success. Time and scheduling constraints tend to limit the effectiveness of traditional approaches to training. This has led Edmonton Power Inc. to explore the use of CD-ROM based multimedia as a means of delivering individualized instruction in an effective and timely manner. This session will demonstrate a multimedia CD-ROM based course on Environmental Awareness designed for workers in the electrical utilities industry. The objective of the course is to make workers aware of their roles and responsibilities with respect to their impact on the environment. This session will also describe the instructional design strategy underlying this approach to training and will present some preliminary findings with respect to the effectiveness of this approach. Individuals who are interested in improving the effectiveness of their environmental training program as well as individuals who are interested in understanding the strengths of multimedia CD-ROM based training will find this session useful and informative.

  12. An interactive environmental model for economic growth: evidence from a panel of countries.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Suresh; Hishan, Sanil S; Nabi, Agha Amad; Arshad, Zeeshan; Kanjanapathy, Malini; Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine an interactive environmental model for economic growth that would be supported by the "sustainability principles" across the globe. The study examines the relationship between environmental pollutants (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, sulfur dioxide emission, mono-nitrogen oxide, and nitrous oxide emission); population growth; energy use; trade openness; per capita food production; and it's resulting impact on the real per capita GDP and sectoral growth (i.e., share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP) in a panel of 34 high-income OECD, high-income non-OECD, and Europe and Central Asian countries, for the period of 1995-2014. The results of the panel fixed effect regression show that per capita GDP are influenced by sulfur dioxide emission, population growth, and per capita food production variability, while energy and trade openness significantly increases per capita income of the region. The results of the panel Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) show that carbon dioxide emission significantly decreases the share of agriculture and industry in GDP, while it further supports the share of services sector to GDP. Both the sulfur dioxide and mono-nitrogen oxide emission decreases the share of services in GDP; nitrous oxide decreases the share of industry in GDP; while mono-nitrogen oxide supports the industrial activities. The following key growth-specific results has been obtained from the panel SUR estimation, i.e., (i) Both the food production per capita and trade openness significantly associated with the increasing share of agriculture, (ii) food production and energy use significantly increases the service sectors' productivity; (iii) food production decreases the industrial activities; (iv) trade openness decreases the share of services to GDP while it supports the industrial share to GDP; and finally, (v) energy demand decreases along with the increase agricultural share in the region. The results emphasize the need for

  13. Studies on the Environmental Improvement in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaki, Mitsuharu; Yoshizumi, Koji; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki; Nakamoto, Yumi; Stanescu, Rodica; Plesca, Marinela

    In Romania, the communist planned economy system was in place for 42 years but ended due to a revolution in 1989. An environmental administration was started 1990. In order to assist with environment related activities, one of the authors worked in Bucharest for two years from March 2002 to March 2004 as a JICA (Japan International Cooperation Activity) member. One of the most important problems regarding environmental protection in Romania is waste management. In Japan, the regulations and penalties system of waste management have been used for a long time. However, there are many serious problems with the system, such as a decrease in waste disposal facilities and illegally disposed waste. The authors studied a new plan that uses a certification system in order to promote recycling industries. This system is both efficient and inexpensive so it is possible that this method of waste management could be transmitted to Romania.

  14. Enthalpic studies of xyloglucan-cellulose interactions.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marie; Bizot, Hervé; Chambat, Gérard; Marais, Marie-France; Zykwinska, Agata; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Driguez, Hugues; Buléon, Alain

    2010-06-14

    We report a study of xyloglucan (XG)-cellulose interactions made possible by the preparation of various well-defined cellulosic and xyloglucosidic substrates. Bacterial microcrystalline cellulose (BMCC) as well as cellulose whiskers (CellWhisk) were used as cellulosic substrates. Xyloglucosidic substrates were obtained from Rubus cells and Tamarindus indica seeds. Different primary structure characteristics of XGs such as the backbone length and the nature of the side chains, as well as their repartition, were considered in order to examine the influence of the primary structure on their interaction capacity. Two complementary approaches were carried out: first, the determination of adsorption isotherms and its associated models, and second, an enthalpic study using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). This study highlighted that an increase of XG interaction capacity occurred with increasing XG molecular weight. Furthermore, we determined that a minimum of 12 glucosyl residues on the backbone is required to observe significant interactions. Moreover, both the presence of trisaccharidic side chains with fucosyl residues and an increase of unsubstituted glucosyl residues enhanced XG-cellulose interactions. The evolution of adsorption isotherms with temperature and ITC measurements showed that two different processes were occurring, one exothermic and one endothermic, respectively. Although the presence of an exothermic interaction mechanism has long been established, the presence of an endothermic interaction mechanism has never been reported. PMID:20433133

  15. Midpoint attractors and species richness: Modelling the interaction between environmental drivers and geometric constraints.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Robert K; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ashton, Louise A; Beck, Jan; Brehm, Gunnar; Fayle, Tom M; Fiedler, Konrad; Forister, Matthew L; Kessler, Michael; Kitching, Roger L; Klimes, Petr; Kluge, Jürgen; Longino, John T; Maunsell, Sarah C; McCain, Christy M; Moses, Jimmy; Noben, Sarah; Sam, Katerina; Sam, Legi; Shapiro, Arthur M; Wang, Xiangping; Novotny, Vojtech

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a novel framework for conceptualising, quantifying and unifying discordant patterns of species richness along geographical gradients. While not itself explicitly mechanistic, this approach offers a path towards understanding mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the diverse patterns of species richness on mountainsides. We conjectured that elevational range midpoints of species may be drawn towards a single midpoint attractor - a unimodal gradient of environmental favourability. The midpoint attractor interacts with geometric constraints imposed by sea level and the mountaintop to produce taxon-specific patterns of species richness. We developed a Bayesian simulation model to estimate the location and strength of the midpoint attractor from species occurrence data sampled along mountainsides. We also constructed midpoint predictor models to test whether environmental variables could directly account for the observed patterns of species range midpoints. We challenged these models with 16 elevational data sets, comprising 4500 species of insects, vertebrates and plants. The midpoint predictor models generally failed to predict the pattern of species midpoints. In contrast, the midpoint attractor model closely reproduced empirical spatial patterns of species richness and range midpoints. Gradients of environmental favourability, subject to geometric constraints, may parsimoniously account for elevational and other patterns of species richness. PMID:27358193

  16. Environmental Studies Continuum K-12. Interdisciplinary Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, William; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist curriculum developers, subject area specialists, and teachers in identifying environmental activities and learning aids appropriate for various grade levels. The guide attempts to integrate all grade levels by using the same conceptual scheme throughout the primary, intermediate, middle, and secondary levels. This…

  17. Study of physical interaction mefenamic acid - isonicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuyun, Yonelian; Nugrahani, Ilma

    2015-09-01

    Solid-solid interaction in the form of physics and chemistry can occur in a combination of active ingredients with the active ingredient or active ingredients with excipients in a pharmaceutical preparation. Physical interactions can be classified into physical interaction system eutectic, peritectic, and molecular compounds based on the phase diagram of a mixture of two-component systems. The physical interaction between mefenamic acid and isonicotinamide not been reported previously. This study aims to examine the type of interaction of mefenamic acid (MA) with isonicotinamide (INA) and its interaction with the isolation methods by solvent drop grinding as the simplest method and easy to do. PXRD data showed the interaction of MA:INA mixture contained no new peaks, so the indicated MA:INA only form of eutectic interaction. There was founded new endothermic peak for DTA data at 149.5°C (SDG-Ethanol) and 148.4°C (SDG-EtAct). The results of infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated a shift in the NH stretch 3367 cm-1 to 3359 cm-1; and 3185 cm-1 to 3178 cm-1.

  18. Synchrotron Radiation Studies of Environmental Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Daniel; Terry, Jeff

    2009-11-01

    In the case of environmental contaminants, the mobility of elements changes depending on oxidation state. Remediation techniques often focus on changing the oxidation state in order to immobilize, by forming an insoluble species, or removing by binding a soluble species to an insoluble material. In order to accomplish this immobilization one has to understand all the possible reactions that can change the oxidation state. One of the techniques that can be used to determine the oxidation state and local atomic structure of environmental contaminants under aqueous conditions is x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Synchrotron radiation was used to excite the absorption edges of As, Tc, and Pu, in order to characterize their oxidation states and structures under environmentally relevant conditions. Granular activated carbon treated with iron has shown promise for the removal of arsenic from contaminated ground water, where XAS measurements have determined that the arsenic bound to iron oxide as AsO4^3-. Pertechnetate (TcO4^-) was found to be reduced to TcO2 in a reaction with amorphous iron sulfide (FeS). Bio-reduction of plutonium has also been studied using bacteria that may be found in nuclear waste repositories resulting in an end product of Pu(III).

  19. Environmental studies: Mathematical, computational, and statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Summer Program on Mathematical, Computational, and Statistical Analyses in Environmental Studies held 6--31 July 1992 was designed to provide a much needed interdisciplinary forum for joint exploration of recent advances in the formulation and application of (A) environmental models, (B) environmental data and data assimilation, (C) stochastic modeling and optimization, and (D) global climate modeling. These four conceptual frameworks provided common themes among a broad spectrum of specific technical topics at this workshop. The program brought forth a mix of physical concepts and processes such as chemical kinetics, atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics and dynamics, flow in porous media, remote sensing, climate statistical, stochastic processes, parameter identification, model performance evaluation, aerosol physics and chemistry, and data sampling together with mathematical concepts in stiff differential systems, advective-diffusive-reactive PDEs, inverse scattering theory, time series analysis, particle dynamics, stochastic equations, optimal control, and others. Nineteen papers are presented in this volume. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Exploratory analysis of environmental interactions in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Cola, Lee; Falcone, Neil L.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its global change research program, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has produced raster data that describe the land cover of the United States using a consistent format. The data consist of elevations, satellite measurements, computed vegetation indices, land cover classes, and ancillary political, topographic and hydrographic information. This open-file report uses some of these data to explore the environment of a (256-km)? region of central California. We present various visualizations of the data, multiscale correlations between topography and vegetation, a path analysis of more complex statistical interactions, and a map that portrays the influence of agriculture on the region's vegetation. An appendix contains C and Mathematica code used to generate the graphics and some of the analysis.

  1. Protein-Inhibitor Interaction Studies Using NMR

    PubMed Central

    Ishima, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    Solution-state NMR has been widely applied to determine the three-dimensional structure, dynamics, and molecular interactions of proteins. The designs of experiments used in protein NMR differ from those used for small-molecule NMR, primarily because the information available prior to an experiment, such as molecular mass and knowledge of the primary structure, is unique for proteins compared to small molecules. In this review article, protein NMR for structural biology is introduced with comparisons to small-molecule NMR, such as descriptions of labeling strategies and the effects of molecular dynamics on relaxation. Next, applications for protein NMR are reviewed, especially practical aspects for protein-observed ligand-protein interaction studies. Overall, the following topics are described: (1) characteristics of protein NMR, (2) methods to detect protein-ligand interactions by NMR, and (3) practical aspects of carrying out protein-observed inhibitor-protein interaction studies. PMID:26361636

  2. Interaction of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) Polymorphisms and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Che-Chen; Tai, Chien-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is particularly common in children. The association between polymorphisms of the gene encoding intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and gene-environment interactions with childhood asthma has not been fully investigated. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate these associations among children in Taiwan. The effects of two functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ICAM1, rs5491 (K56M) and rs5498 (K469E), and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were studied. Two hundred and eighteen asthmatic and 877 nonasthmatic children were recruited from elementary schools. It was found that the genetic effect of each SNP was modified by the other SNP and by exposure to ETS. The risk of asthma was higher for children carrying the rs5491 AT or TT genotypes and the rs5498 GG genotype (odds ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.09–2.59) than for those with the rs5491 AA and rs5498 AA or AG genotypes (the reference group). The risk for the other two combinations of genotypes did not differ significantly from that of the reference group (p of interaction = 0.0063). The two studied ICAM1 SNPs were associated with childhood asthma among children exposed to ETS, but not among those without ETS exposure (p of interaction = 0.05 and 0.01 for rs5491 and rs5498, respectively). Both ICAM1 and ETS, and interactions between these two factors are likely to be involved in the development of asthma in childhood. PMID:25003170

  3. Space Operations Center: Shuttle interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the Space Operation Center (SOC), including constraints that the Shuttle will place upon the SOC design. The study identifies the considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and also identifies the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions.

  4. When nanoparticles meet biofilms—interactions guiding the environmental fate and accumulation of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ikuma, Kaoru; Decho, Alan W.; Lau, Boris L. T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are essential components of all natural and many engineered systems. The most active fractions of bacteria are now recognized to occur as biofilms, where cells are attached and surrounded by a secreted matrix of “sticky” extracellular polymeric substances. Recent investigations have established that significant accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) occurs in aquatic biofilms. These studies point to the emerging roles of biofilms for influencing partitioning and possibly transformations of NPs in both natural and engineered systems. While attached biofilms are efficient “sponges” for NPs, efforts to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms guiding interactions between NPs and biofilms have just begun. In this mini review, special attention is focused on NP–biofilm interactions within the aquatic environment. We highlight key physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect interactions and accumulation of NPs by bacterial biofilms. We posit that these biofilm processes present the likely possibility for unique biological and chemical transformations of NPs. Ultimately, the environmental fate of NPs is influenced by biofilms, and therefore requires a more in-depth understanding of their fundamental properties. PMID:26136732

  5. Lung tumorigenic interactions in strain A/J mice of five environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Nesnow, S; Mass, M J; Ross, J A; Galati, A J; Lambert, G R; Gennings, C; Carter, W H; Stoner, G D

    1998-01-01

    The binary, ternary, quaternary, and quintary interactions of a five-component mixture of carcinogenic environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using response surface analyses are described. Initially, lung tumor dose-response curves in strain A/J mice for each of the individual PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), 5-methylchrysene (5MC), and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) were obtained. From these data, doses were selected for the quintary mixture study based on toxicity, survival, range of response, and predicted tumor yields. The ratios of doses among PAHs were designed to simulate PAH ratios found in environmental air and combustion samples. Quintary mixtures of B[a]P, B[b]F, DBA, 5MC, and CPP were administered to male strain A/J mice in a 2(5) factorial 32-dose group dosing scheme (combinations of five PAHs each at either high or low doses) and lung adenomas were scored. Comparison of observed lung adenoma formation with that expected from additivity identified both greater than additive and less than additive interactions that were dose related i.e., greater than additive at lower doses and less than additive at higher doses. To identify specific interactions, a response surface analysis using response addition was applied to the tumor data. This response surface model contained five dose, ten binary, ten ternary, five quaternary, and one quintary parameter. This analysis produced statistically significant values of 16 parameters. The model and model parameters were evaluated by estimating the dose-response relationships for each of the five PAHs. The predicted dose-response curves for all five PAHs indicated a good estimation. The binary interaction functions were dominated for the most part by DBA and were inhibitory. The response surface model predicted, to a significant degree, the observed lung tumorigenic responses of the quintary mixtures. These data suggest that although interactions between

  6. Summary of Research in Environmental Education, 1971-1982. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A., Ed.

    Summaries of environmental education (EE) research studies conducted during the 12-year period 1971-1982 are presented in this seven-chapter publication. These chapters are: (1) "Environmental Education Research, 1971-1982--Overview" (by Louis Iozzi); (2) "Environmental Education Research Related to Ecological Foundations" (by Thomas…

  7. SPIV study of two interactive fire whirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Katherine; Smits, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Fire whirls are buoyancy-driven standing vortex structures that often form in forest fires. Capable of lifting and ejecting flaming debris, fire whirls can hasten the spread of fire lines and start fires in new places. Here we study the interaction of two jets in an externally applied circulation as an introduction to the study of two interacting fire whirls. To study this interaction we use two burner flames supplied with DME and induce swirl by entraining air through a split cylinder that surrounds both burners. Three components of velocity are measured using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry both inside and outside the fire whirl core, at the base, midsection, and above the top of the fire whirls. The effects on the height and circulation on the distance between the burners, the rate of fuel supplied to the burners, and the gap size, are examined.

  8. Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    Particulates, like sand and volcanic ash, threaten the development of robust environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) that protect next-generation silicon-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine engine components from harsh combustion environments during service. The siliceous particulates transform into molten glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) when ingested by an aircraft engine operating at temperatures above 1200C. In this study, a sample of desert sand was melted into CMAS glass to evaluate high-temperature interactions between the sand glass and an advanced EBC material. Desert sand glass was added to the surface of hot-pressed EBC substrates, which were then heated in air at temperatures ranging from 1200C to 1500C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate microstructure and phase compositions of specimens and the CMASEBC interface after heat treatments.

  9. Interaction between intention and environmental constraints on the fractal dynamics of human performance.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Auriel; Coey, Charles A; Romero, Veronica; Malone, MaryLauren; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether the influence of available task constraints on power-law scaling might be moderated by a participant's task intention. Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement task with the intention of controlling either movement period or amplitude, either with or without an experimental stimulus designed to constrain period. In the absence of the stimulus, differences in intention did not produce any changes in power-law scaling. When the stimulus was present, however, a shift toward more random fluctuations occurred in the corresponding task dimension, regardless of participants' intentions. More importantly, participants' intentions interacted with available task constraints to produce an even greater shift toward random variation when the task dimension constrained by the stimulus was also the dimension the participant intended to control. Together, the results suggest that intentions serve to more tightly constrain behavior to existing environmental constraints, evidenced by changes in the fractal scaling of task performance. PMID:25900114

  10. GOAT GROWTH MODEL: GENOTYPE X NUTRITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted using three goat populations: the Boer (BR), the Spanish (SP), and the Tennessee Stiff-legged (TS) breeds, maintained at the International Goat Research Center. The goats were fed three levels: 100%, or (ad libitum) 85% and 70% of ad lib, of the same ration containing 18% CP ...

  11. The relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure: an empirical study in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, X H; Zeng, S X; Shi, Jonathan J; Qi, G Y; Zhang, Z B

    2014-12-01

    Based on a content analysis of 533 Chinese listed companies, this study examines how corporate environmental performance affects not only the level of detail of a company's environmental disclosures, but also what information is disclosed. The results show that (1) both poor and good performers have more disclosure than the median (i.e., "mixed") performers, which provides empirical evidence to support a nonlinear relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure; (2) poor performers disclose more soft information on environmental performance than good performers, and good performers disclose more solid information; and (3) although poor performers increase disclosure after being exposed as environmental violators, they avoid disclosing negative environmental information, such as the violation and the associated penalties. This study provides additional evidence for a nonlinear relationship between environmental performance and disclosure in emerging markets, and suggests environmental disclosure may not be a valid signal to differentiate good performers from poor performers in contemporary China. PMID:25113230

  12. Genetic Epidemiology and Insights into Interactive Genetic and Environmental Effects in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) has proven to be challenging. Using Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as a paradigmatic NDD, this paper reviews the existing literature on the etiologic substrates of ASD and explores how genetic epidemiology approaches including gene-environment interactions (GxE) can play roles in identifying factors associated with ASD etiology. New genetic and bioinformatics strategies have yielded important clues to ASD genetic substrates. Next steps for understanding ASD pathogenesis require significant effort to focus on how genes and environment interact with one another in typical development and its perturbations. Along with larger sample sizes, future study designs should include sample ascertainment that is epidemiologic and population-based to capture the entire ASD spectrum with both categorical and dimensional phenotypic characterization, environmental measurement with accuracy, validity and biomarkers, statistical methods to address population stratification, multiple comparisons and GxE of rare variants, animal models to test hypotheses and, new methods to broaden the capacity to search for GxE, including genome-wide and environment-wide association studies, precise estimation of heritability using dense genetic markers and consideration of GxE both as the disease cause and a disease course modifier. While examination of GxE appears to be a daunting task, tremendous recent progress in gene discovery opens new horizons for advancing our understanding the role of GxE in the pathogenesis of, and ultimately identifying the causes, treatments and even prevention for ASD and other NDDs. PMID:25483344

  13. A model of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and its implications for targeting environmental interventions by genotype

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Helen M

    2006-01-01

    Background The potential public health benefits of targeting environmental interventions by genotype depend on the environmental and genetic contributions to the variance of common diseases, and the magnitude of any gene-environment interaction. In the absence of prior knowledge of all risk factors, twin, family and environmental data may help to define the potential limits of these benefits in a given population. However, a general methodology to analyze twin data is required because of the potential importance of gene-gene interactions (epistasis), gene-environment interactions, and conditions that break the 'equal environments' assumption for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Method A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918) assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction. Conclusion The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis, a largely environmental

  14. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer: epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Moysich, Kirsten B; Humblet, Olivier; Attfield, Kathleen R; Beehler, Gregory P; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2007-06-15

    Laboratory research has shown that numerous environmental pollutants cause mammary gland tumors in animals; are hormonally active, specifically mimicking estrogen, which is a breast cancer risk factor; or affect susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. An assessment of epidemiologic research on these pollutants identified in toxicologic studies can guide future research and exposure reduction aimed at prevention. The PubMed database was searched for relevant literature and systematic critical reviews were entered in a database available at URL: www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and URL: www.komen.org/environment (accessed April 10, 2007). Based on a relatively small number of studies, the evidence to date generally supports an association between breast cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in conjunction with certain genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen activation and steroid hormone metabolism. Evidence regarding dioxins and organic solvents is sparse and methodologically limited but suggestive of an association. Methodologic problems include inadequate exposure assessment, a lack of access to highly exposed and unexposed populations, and a lack of preclinical markers to identify associations that may be obscured by disease latency. Among chemicals identified in toxicologic research as relevant to breast cancer, many have not been investigated in humans. The development of better exposure assessment methods is needed to fill this gap. In the interim, weaknesses in the epidemiologic literature argue for greater reliance on toxicologic studies to develop national policies to reduce chemical exposures that may be associated with breast cancer. Substantial research progress in the last 5 years suggests that the investigation of environmental pollutants will lead to strategies to reduce breast cancer risk. PMID:17503436

  15. A Study of Leadership as Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Jo Ann

    The study examined leadership in schools as interaction between principals and teachers. The leadership process was conceptualized as the exercise of influence. The concept of ascriptive status was utilized to describe women as atypical and men as typical principals. Teachers responded to protocols depicting leader influence and cultural status.…

  16. NACASETAC BAY: AN INTERACTIVE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive case study or "game" was created to provide a "hands on" experience in the application of a weight of evidence approach to sediment assessment. The game proceeds in two phases. In each phase the players work together as a group. A scenario is presented, and the g...

  17. Hadronic Weak Interaction Studies at the SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Nadia

    2016-03-01

    Neutrons have been a useful probe in many fields of science, as well as an important physical system for study in themselves. Modern neutron sources provide extraordinary opportunities to study a wide variety of physics topics. Among them is a detailed study of the weak interaction. An overview of studies of the hadronic weak (quark-quark) as well as semi-leptonic (quark-lepton) interactions at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is presented. These measurements, done in few-nucleon systems, are finally letting us gain knowledge of the hadronic weak interaction without the contributions from nuclear effects. Forthcoming results from the NPDGamma experiment will, due to the simplicity of the neutron, provide an unambiguous measurement of the long range pion-nucleon weak coupling (often referred to as hπ), which will finally test the theoretical predictions. Results from NPDGamma and future results from the n +3 He experiment will need to be complemented by additional measurements to completely describe the hadronic weak interaction.

  18. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  19. Plant species distributions along environmental gradients: do belowground interactions with fungi matter?

    PubMed Central

    Pellissier, Loïc; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Moora, Mari; Villard, Lucas; Goudet, Jérome; Guex, Nicolas; Pagni, Marco; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sanders, Ian; Guisan, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of plants along environmental gradients is constrained by abiotic and biotic factors. Cumulative evidence attests of the impact of biotic factors on plant distributions, but only few studies discuss the role of belowground communities. Soil fungi, in particular, are thought to play an important role in how plant species assemble locally into communities. We first review existing evidence, and then test the effect of the number of soil fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) on plant species distributions using a recently collected dataset of plant and metagenomic information on soil fungi in the Western Swiss Alps. Using species distribution models (SDMs), we investigated whether the distribution of individual plant species is correlated to the number of OTUs of two important soil fungal classes known to interact with plants: the Glomeromycetes, that are obligatory symbionts of plants, and the Agaricomycetes, that may be facultative plant symbionts, pathogens, or wood decayers. We show that including the fungal richness information in the models of plant species distributions improves predictive accuracy. Number of fungal OTUs is especially correlated to the distribution of high elevation plant species. We suggest that high elevation soil show greater variation in fungal assemblages that may in turn impact plant turnover among communities. We finally discuss how to move beyond correlative analyses, through the design of field experiments manipulating plant and fungal communities along environmental gradients. PMID:24339830

  20. Interactions of Gaseous Nitric Acid with Surfaces of Environmental Interest

    SciTech Connect

    Dubowski, Y; Sumner, Ann Louise; Menke, E J.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Newberg, J T.; Hoffman, Rachel C.; Penner, R M.; Hemminger, J C.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2004-07-21

    Gaseous nitric acid removal by surfaces in experimental systems and in the atmospheric boundary layer is rapid. However, neither the form of HNO? on surfaces nor its impact on the properties of the thin surface film are known. We report here studies of surfaces that have been exposed at room temperature (295 ? 2 K) to gaseous mixtures of water vapor with HNO? at concentrations from 46 ppb to 4 x 10? ppm. The surfaces were probed using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Exposure of borosilicate glass, quartz, and thin Teflon films to mixtures of gaseous HNO? and water vapor leads to the subsequent uptake of much larger amounts of water than occurs on the corresponding unexposed surfaces. Infrared spectra show evidence for the formation of nitric acid?water complexes on the surface that leads to this enhanced water uptake. On borosilicate glass, exposure to the nitric acid?water vapor mixture results in surface segregation of the trace metal oxides and their nitrates formed from reaction with HNO?. The majority of these oxides can be removed by rinsing with water; however, smaller, segregated regions of ZnO remain on the surface. The implications for heterogeneous reactions in thin films on surfaces in laboratory systems and in the atmosphere are discussed.

  1. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  2. Love Canal: environmental and toxicological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health has been involved at the Love Canal since 1978. The State has carried out numerous environmental and toxicological studies. The major purposes for these studies were to define how Love Canal contaminants might be escaping into the environment at large, what paths contaminant migration might take, and what toxicological effects Love Canal chemicals might have individually and together. Although underground contaminant migration was hypothesized along swales and underground utility bedding, these mechanisms have been proven not to be operative except for some migration along the utility bedding under Frontier Avenue. In general no underground migration has occurred outside the confines of the three city blocks that contain the Love Canal referred to as the ''first ring''. Studies have been confused by apparent burial of waste materials in areas proximate but not directly connected to the Love Canal. Migration of Love Canal leachate has occurred through storm sewers. Love Canal contaminants have reached creeks to the north and the Niagara River to the south through storm sewer transport. In spite of finding 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), toxicological studies in situ and through exposure to volatile components in Love Canal soils do not indicate unusual toxicity. Animal studies continue in an attempt to determine the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of Love Canal chemicals under different routes of exposure.

  3. A Numerical Study of Nonlinear Wave Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, A.; Tissier, M.; Ruessink, G.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear triad interactions redistribute energy among a wave field, which transforms the shape of the incident short waves (f = 0.05 - 2 Hz) and generates energy at infragravity frequencies (f = 0.005-0.05 Hz). Recently, it has been suggested that infragravity energy may dissipate by energy transfers from infragravity frequencies to either the (former) short-wave spectral peak, or through infragravity-infragravity self-interactions that cause the infragravity waves to steepen and to eventually break. To investigate these infragravity dissipation mechanisms, we use the non-hydrostatic SWASH model. In this study, we first validate the model with the high-resolution GLOBEX laboratory data set and then explore the dependence of the energy transfers, with a focus on infragravity frequencies, on beach slope. Consistent with previous studies we find that SWASH is able to reproduce the transformation and corresponding nonlinear energy transfers of shoreward propagating waves to great detail. Bispectral analysis is used to study the coupling between wave frequencies; nonlinear energy transfers are then quantified using the Boussinesq coupling coefficient. To obtain more detailed insight we divide the nonlinear interactions in four categories based on triads including 1) infragravity frequencies only, 2) two infragravity frequencies and one short-wave frequency, 3) one infragravity frequency and two short-wave frequencies and 4) short-wave frequencies only. Preliminary results suggest that interactions are rather weak on gently beach slopes (1:80) and, in the innermost part of the surf zone, are dominated by infragravity-infragravity interactions. On steeper slopes (1:20), interactions are stronger, but entirely dominated by those involving short-wave frequencies only. The dependence of the transfers on offshore wave conditions and beach shape will be explored too. Funded by NWO.

  4. Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-β oligomers in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble Aβ oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain Aβ oligomers and increased synthesis of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

  5. Confirmation of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Variants, ARID5B and IKZF1, and Interaction with Parental Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Tiffany-Jane; Milne, Elizabeth; Anderson, Denise; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A.; Bowden, Nikola A.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Rudant, Jérémie; Orsi, Laurent; Richardson, Ebony; Lavis, Laura; Catchpoole, Daniel; Attia, John R.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Scott, Rodney J.

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have established association of ARID5B and IKZF1 variants with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors alone appear to make a relatively minor contribution to disease risk. The polygenic nature of childhood ALL predisposition together with the timing of environmental triggers may hold vital clues for disease etiology. This study presents results from an Australian GWAS of childhood ALL cases (n = 358) and population controls (n = 1192). Furthermore, we utilised family trio (n = 204) genotypes to extend our investigation to gene-environment interaction of significant loci with parental exposures before conception, and child’s sex and age. Thirteen SNPs achieved genome wide significance in the population based case/control analysis; ten annotated to ARID5B and three to IKZF1. The most significant SNPs in these regions were ARID5B rs4245595 (OR 1.63, CI 1.38–1.93, P = 2.13×10−9), and IKZF1 rs1110701 (OR 1.69, CI 1.42–2.02, p = 7.26×10−9). There was evidence of gene-environment interaction for risk genotype at IKZF1, whereby an apparently stronger genetic effect was observed if the mother took folic acid or if the father did not smoke prior to pregnancy (respective interaction P-values: 0.04, 0.05). There were no interactions of risk genotypes with age or sex (P-values >0.2). Our results evidence that interaction of genetic variants and environmental exposures may further alter risk of childhood ALL however, investigation in a larger population is required. If interaction of folic acid supplementation and IKZF1 variants holds, it may be useful to quantify folate levels prior to initiating use of folic acid supplements. PMID:25310577

  6. A Study of Multiplicities in Hadronic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada Tristan, Nora Patricia; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2006-02-01

    Using data from the SELEX (Fermilab E781) experiment obtained with a minimum-bias trigger, we study multiplicity and angular distributions of secondary particles produced in interactions in the experimental targets. We observe interactions of {Sigma}{sup -}, proton, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}, at beam momenta between 250 GeV/c and 650 GeV/c, in copper, polyethylene, graphite, and beryllium targets. We show that the multiplicity and angular distributions for meson and baryon beams at the same momentum are identical. We also show that the mean multiplicity increases with beam momentum, and presents only small variations with the target material.

  7. Systems interaction study of a Westinghouse PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hanan, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Xue, D.; Bozoki, G.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents methods and findings of a systems interaction study of Indian Point 3. The study was carried out in support of the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-17 on Systems Interactions. Fault tree methods were employed. Among the study's findings is a single active failure in the low pressure injection function; this discovery led to a plant modification. In addition to providing support to the staff in resolving USI A-17, the project discovered an important new class of failure modes which led the utility to implement a hardware modification. The scope of the project is indicated, key features of the method are highlighted findings are discussed, and comments are offered on the usefulness of this type of, principal study. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. The Sex Differentiated Interaction of Environmental and Hereditary Determinants of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaver, Judith W.

    This paper examines evidence supporting the hypothesis that environment differentially affects intelligence in a sex-specific manner. The current position that environment and heredity contribute interactively to intelligence obscures the greater vulnerability and exposure of males to environmental influences and the reciprocal lack of equivalent…

  9. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  10. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES: PESTICIDES ON RUTILE AND ORGANO-RUTILE SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-bonded interactions between model pesticides and organo-mineral surfaces have been studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The minimum energy conformations and relative binding energies for the interaction of atrazine...

  11. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    PubMed Central

    Piculell, Bridget J; Hoeksema, Jason D; Thompson, John N

    2008-01-01

    Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families), fungal lineage (two spore collections), soil type (lab mix or field soil), and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without) on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species. PMID:18507825

  12. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihsu

    Around the world, the electric sector is evolving from a system of regulated vertically-integrated monopolies to a complex system of competing generation companies, unregulated traders, and regulated transmission and distribution. One emerging challenge faced by environmental policymakers and electricity industry is the interaction between electricity markets and environmental policies. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these interactions using large-scale computational models of electricity markets based on noncooperative game theory. In particular, this dissertation is comprised of four essays. The first essay studies the interaction of the United States Environmental Protection Agency NOx Budget Program and the mid-Atlantic electricity market. This research quantifies emissions, economic inefficiencies, price distortions, and overall social welfare under various market assumptions using engineering-economic models. The models calculate equilibria for imperfectly competitive markets---Cournot oligopoly---considering the actual landscape of power plants and transmission lines, and including the possibility of market power in the NOx allowances market. The second essay extends the results from first essay and models imperfectly competitive markets using a Stackelberg or leader-follower formulation. A leader in the power and NO x markets is assumed to have perfect foresight of its rivals' responses. The rivals' best response functions are explicitly embedded in the leader's constraints. The solutions quantify the extent to which a leader in the markets can extract economic rents on the expense of its followers. The third essay investigates the effect of implementing the European Union (EU) CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on wholesale power prices in the Western European electricity market. This research uses theoretical and computational modeling approaches to quantify the degree to which CO2 costs were passed on to power prices, and quantifies the

  13. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  14. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  15. All Around You, An Environmental Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    An understanding of the basic environmental interrelationships and problems, the development of investigative and problem solving skills, and individual motivation to help solve environmental problems are the objectives of these learning activities, designed for upper elementary and junior high grades. Nature and ecological relationships are…

  16. Interacting environmental mosaics drive geographic variation in mussel performance and predation vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Sanford, Eric; Rose, Jeremy M; Blanchette, Carol A; Chan, Francis; Chavez, Francisco P; Gaylord, Brian; Helmuth, Brian; Hill, Tessa M; Hofmann, Gretchen E; McManus, Margaret A; Menge, Bruce A; Nielsen, Karina J; Raimondi, Peter T; Russell, Ann D; Washburn, Libe

    2016-07-01

    Although theory suggests geographic variation in species' performance is determined by multiple niche parameters, little consideration has been given to the spatial structure of interacting stressors that may shape local and regional vulnerability to global change. Here, we use spatially explicit mosaics of carbonate chemistry, food availability and temperature spanning 1280 km of coastline to test whether persistent, overlapping environmental mosaics mediate the growth and predation vulnerability of a critical foundation species, the mussel Mytilus californianus. We find growth was highest and predation vulnerability was lowest in dynamic environments with frequent exposure to low pH seawater and consistent food. In contrast, growth was lowest and predation vulnerability highest when exposure to low pH seawater was decoupled from high food availability, or in exceptionally warm locations. These results illustrate how interactions among multiple drivers can cause unexpected, yet persistent geographic mosaics of species performance, interactions and vulnerability to environmental change. PMID:27151381

  17. New Systems for Studying Intercellular Interactions in Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M; Pyles, Richard B; Ratner, Adam J; Sycuro, Laura K; Mitchell, Caroline

    2016-08-15

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) affects almost a quarter of US women, making it a condition of major public health relevance. Key questions remain regarding the etiology of BV, mechanisms for its association with poor reproductive health outcomes, and reasons for high rates of treatment failure. New model systems are required to answer these remaining questions, elucidate the complex host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions, and develop new, effective interventions. In this review, we cover the strengths and limitations of in vitro and in vivo model systems to study these complex intercellular interactions. Furthermore, we discuss advancements needed to maximize the translational utility of the model systems. As no single model can recapitulate all of the complex physiological and environmental conditions of the human vaginal microenvironment, we conclude that combinatorial approaches using in vitro and in vivo model systems will be required to address the remaining fundamental questions surrounding the enigma that is BV. PMID:27449872

  18. Polymers' surface interactions with molten iron: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, M. Hussein N.; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2014-10-01

    Environmental concerns are the chief drive for more innovative recycling techniques for end-of-life polymeric products. One attractive option is taking advantage of C and H content of polymeric waste in steelmaking industry. In this work, we examined the interaction of two high production polymers i.e. polyurethane and polysulfide with molten iron using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that both polymers can be used as carburizers for molten iron. Additionally, we found that light weight H2 and CHx molecules were released as by-products of the polymer-molten iron interaction. The outcomes of this study will have applications in the carburization of molten iron during ladle metallurgy and waste plastic injection in electric arc furnace.

  19. Studying protein-protein interactions: progress, pitfalls and solutions.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sheri; Malacrida, Beatrice; Kiely, Maeve; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-08-15

    Signalling proteins are intrinsic to all biological processes and interact with each other in tightly regulated and orchestrated signalling complexes and pathways. Characterization of protein binding can help to elucidate protein function within signalling pathways. This information is vital for researchers to gain a more comprehensive knowledge of cellular networks which can then be used to develop new therapeutic strategies for disease. However, studying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) can be challenging as the interactions can be extremely transient downstream of specific environmental cues. There are many powerful techniques currently available to identify and confirm PPIs. Choosing the most appropriate range of techniques merits serious consideration. The aim of this review is to provide a starting point for researchers embarking on a PPI study. We provide an overview and point of reference for some of the many methods available to identify interactions from in silico analysis and large scale screening tools through to the methods used to validate potential PPIs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and we also provide a workflow chart to highlight the main experimental questions to consider when planning cell lysis to maximize experimental success. PMID:27528744

  20. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed (‘lagged’) associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  1. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-08-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed ('lagged') associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  2. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  3. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: ENVIRONMENTAL CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook discusses a variety of data visualization and data interpretation tools that municipal, state and federal government agencies and others hve successfully used in environmental risk communication programs. The handbook presents a variety of tools used by several diff...

  4. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  5. Two Superfund environmental justice case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    One of the environmental contributions of the Clinton Administration was Executive Order No. 12898 on Environmental Justice issued in 1994. Environmental justice has received considerable attention in EPA`s Superfund program. Many Superfund sites are located in or close by residential areas composed populated by ethnic minorities and people of the lowest economic status. Over the years, minority communities have often asserted that they have been treated more unfairly than predominantly white, middle class communities, with respect to the quality of environmental cleanups and the relocation of residents. The environmental justice claim is also that these communities have been intentionally placed in harm`s way because of historical racial prejudice and injustice, meaning that either polluting industrial facilities were intentionally placed in minority neighborhoods or that residential areas for minority workers were built close to industrial facilities. This paper presents discussions of two Superfund sites where environmental justice issues have been very important, and it analyzes how specific parts of the Executive Order have been complied with in EPA`s Superfund program.

  6. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  7. Identifying environmental sounds: a multimodal mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Tomasino, Barbara; Canderan, Cinzia; Marin, Dario; Maieron, Marta; Gremese, Michele; D'Agostini, Serena; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Our environment is full of auditory events such as warnings or hazards, and their correct recognition is essential. We explored environmental sounds (ES) recognition in a series of studies. In study 1 we performed an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of neuroimaging experiments addressing ES processing to delineate the network of areas consistently involved in ES processing. Areas consistently activated in the ALE meta-analysis were the STG/MTG, insula/rolandic operculum, parahippocampal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally. Some of these areas truly reflect ES processing, whereas others are related to design choices, e.g., type of task, type of control condition, type of stimulus. In study 2 we report on 7 neurosurgical patients with lesions involving the areas which were found to be activated by the ALE meta-analysis. We tested their ES recognition abilities and found an impairment of ES recognition. These results indicate that deficits of ES recognition do not exclusively reflect lesions to the right or to the left hemisphere but both hemispheres are involved. The most frequently lesioned area is the hippocampus/insula/STG. We made sure that any impairment in ES recognition would not be related to language problems, but reflect impaired ES processing. In study 3 we carried out an fMRI study on patients (vs. healthy controls) to investigate how the areas involved in ES might be functionally deregulated because of a lesion. The fMRI evidenced that controls activated the right IFG, the STG bilaterally and the left insula. We applied a multimodal mapping approach and found that, although the meta-analysis showed that part of the left and right STG/MTG activation during ES processing might in part be related to design choices, this area was one of the most frequently lesioned areas in our patients, thus highlighting its causal role in ES processing. We found that the ROIs we drew on the two clusters of activation found in the left and in

  8. Genetic epidemiology and insights into interactive genetic and environmental effects in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders has proven to be challenging. Using autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a paradigmatic neurodevelopmental disorder, this article reviews the existing literature on the etiological substrates of ASD and explores how genetic epidemiology approaches including gene-environment interactions (G×E) can play a role in identifying factors associated with ASD etiology. New genetic and bioinformatics strategies have yielded important clues to ASD genetic substrates. The next steps for understanding ASD pathogenesis require significant effort to focus on how genes and environment interact with one another in typical development and its perturbations. Along with larger sample sizes, future study designs should include sample ascertainment that is epidemiologic and population-based to capture the entire ASD spectrum with both categorical and dimensional phenotypic characterization; environmental measurements with accuracy, validity, and biomarkers; statistical methods to address population stratification, multiple comparisons, and G×E of rare variants; animal models to test hypotheses; and new methods to broaden the capacity to search for G×E, including genome-wide and environment-wide association studies, precise estimation of heritability using dense genetic markers, and consideration of G×E both as the disease cause and a disease course modifier. Although examination of G×E appears to be a daunting task, tremendous recent progress in gene discovery has opened new horizons for advancing our understanding of the role of G×E in the pathogenesis of ASD and ultimately identifying the causes, treatments, and even preventive measures for ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25483344

  9. Wave-Turbulence Interactions: a DPIV Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Amy; Lalinde, David

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies on wave-turbulence interactions, such as the one by Olmez & Milgram (JFM, 1992), supported the hypothesis that the dominant mechanism for the dissipation of non-breaking waves by turbulence is vertical mixing, rather than wave-to-turbulence energy transfer in the wave layer. In this study, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used to study the increase in turbulence levels due to the presence of surface waves. Two types of turbulent fields were studied. A grid of cylindrical rods was placed in a water tunnel with smaller scale turbulence resulting in the wake of the grid. The second case used a flat plate grid, with the plates aligned parallel to the free-stream flow. This allowed for a range of scales to be generated within the turbulent flow-field in the test section. Next, a wave-generator was placed in the tunnel allowing waves to propagate into the area studied and interact with the grid-generated turbulence. Variation in wavelength and frequency of the surface waves was performed. Results will be presented.

  10. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-01-01

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway. PMID:26180529

  11. Interactive Higher Education Instruction to Advance STEM Instruction in the Environmental Sciences - the Brownfield Action Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Bower, P.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that presently there are over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly in the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part or entirely online for more than 15 years in environmental science, engineering, and hydrology courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011, 2014; Liddicoat and Bower, 2015). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies with a peer chosen at random to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants and professionals, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue, and to acquire STEM knowledge that can be used constructively when confronted with such an issue.

  12. Interactions with lectins and agglutination profiles of clinical, food, and environmental isolates of Listeria.

    PubMed Central

    Facinelli, B; Giovanetti, E; Casolari, C; Varaldo, P E

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of preliminary trials with 14 collection strains of Listeria, five lectins (Canavalia ensiformis, concanavalin A; Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I; Helix pomatia agglutinin; Ricinus communis agglutinin; and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin) were selected to set up a microtiter agglutination assay. The lectin agglutination profiles of 174 clinical, food, and environmental strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were investigated. Data on the standard determination of the antigenic structure were available for clinical strains; nonclinical isolates were assigned to serogroup 1 or 4 with commercial antisera. The listeria-lectin interaction was related to serological type rather than species; in particular, the strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, and 7 were never agglutinated by G. simplicifolia lectin I. The five-lectin set proved to be capable of detecting differences between serologically identical isolates of L. monocytogenes. Of the 150 isolates of this species, 144 were distributed over 15 different lectin agglutination profiles and 6 autoagglutinated, the overall typeability being 96%. However, the profiles encountered among L. monocytogenes isolates were not randomly distributed. With strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 3b, the clinical isolates fell into only two of the eight patterns recorded overall; with strains of serogroup 4 and serovar 4b, food and environmental isolates were distributed over eight of the nine patterns found in total, while clinical isolates were distributed over five patterns. In a comparative study of 15 epidemiologically relevant isolates of L. monocytogenes from five distinct outbreaks, strains with identical phage types and/or DNA fingerprints displayed identical lectin profiles. The heterogeneity of agglutination profiles may form the basis of a new approach to L. monocytogenes typing

  13. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants.

    PubMed

    D'Ulivo, Lucia; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene) to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES). The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05-0.69% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants. PMID:27055261

  14. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    D’Ulivo, Lucia; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene) to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES). The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05–0.69% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants. PMID:27055261

  15. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, J.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bosnar, D.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Levi Sandri, P.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Quaglia, R.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-03-01

    The strong interaction of antikaons (K-) with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K-pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K-p atom leading to a hadronic shift ɛ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2). Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  16. Methods for detecting interactions between imprinted genes and environmental exposures using birth cohort designs with mother-offspring pairs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Yu, Zhaoxia; Miller, Rachel L; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P

    2011-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a form of epigenetic regulation in mammals in which the same allele of a gene is expressed differently depending on the parental origin of the allele. Traditionally, the detection of imprinted genes that affect complex diseases has been focused on linkage designs with pedigrees or case-parent designs with case-parent trios. In the past two decades, the birth cohort design with mother-offspring pairs has been applied to understand better the effect of environmental influences during pregnancy and beginning of life on the growth and development of children. No work has been done on the detection of imprinted genes using birth cohort designs. Moreover, although the importance of imprinting has been well recognized, no study has looked at how environmental exposures modify the effects of imprinted genes. In this study, we show that the proposed imprinting test using the birth cohort design with mother-offspring pairs is an efficient test for testing the interactions between imprinted genes and environmental exposures. Through extensive simulation studies and a real data application, the proposed imprinting test has demonstrated much improved power in detecting gene-environment interactions than that of a test assuming the Mendelian dominant model when the true underlying genetic model is imprinting. PMID:21778739

  17. Study of Laser Interaction with Thin Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Cutter, K P; Fochs, S N; Pax, P H; Rotter, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-03-06

    For many targets of interest, the thickness is small compared to the conduction length during the engagement. In addition, the laser-material interaction region can be treated as flat. We have studied this regime with our 25 kW solid-state laser. We have demonstrated that airflow can reduce by approximately 40% the energy required to break through a thin target. This reduction is caused by the bulging of the softened material and the tearing and removal of the material by aerodynamic forces. We present elastic modeling which explains these results.

  18. Spacelab data analysis and interactive control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Drake, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The study consisted of two main tasks, a series of interviews of Spacelab users and a survey of data processing and display equipment. Findings from the user interviews on questions of interactive control, downlink data formats, and Spacelab computer software development are presented. Equipment for quick look processing and display of scientific data in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) was surveyed. Results of this survey effort are discussed in detail, along with recommendations for NASA development of several specific display systems which meet common requirements of many Spacelab experiments.

  19. Risk Factors for Colon Cancer in Northeastern Thailand: Interaction of MTHFR Codon 677 and 1298 Genotypes with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Promthet, Supannee Sriamporn; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Wiangnon, Surapon; Poomphakwaen, Kirati; Songserm, Nopparat; Chopjitt, Peechanika; Moore, Malcolm A; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), such as MTHFR C677T and A1298C, are associated with several cancers. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on colon cancer risk and possible interactions with environmental factors in a population from northeastern Thailand. Methods This hospital-based case–control study was conducted during 2002–2006; 130 colon cancer cases and 130 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Information was collected and blood samples were obtained for assay of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Associations between variables of interest and colon cancer were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results Increased risk of colon cancer was associated with alcohol consumption and bowel habits. Alcohol drinkers who consumed ≤0.50 or >0.50 units of alcohol per day had elevated risks (ORadj = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.19–10.25 and ORadj = 1.71; 95% CI: 0.74–3.96, respectively). The risk was also higher in subjects with frequent constipation (11.69; 2.18–62.79) and occasional constipation (3.43; 1.72–6.82). An interaction was observed between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and freshwater fish consumption on colon cancer risk (P value for interaction = 0.031). Interactions were observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and bowel habits, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and beef consumption on colon cancer risk (P-value for interaction = 0.0005, 0.007, 0.067, 0.003, respectively). Conclusions In a Thai population, colon cancer risk was associated with alcohol and beef consumption, bowel habits, and family history of cancer. Interactions between MTHFR polymorphisms and environmental factors were also observed. PMID:20551579

  20. Environmental conditions and biotic interactions influence ecosystem structure and function in a drying stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlam, J.P.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    Benthic consumers influence stream ecosystem structure and function, but these interactions depend on environmental context. We experimentally quantified the effects of central stoneroller minnows (Campostoma anomalum (Rafinesque) and Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki meeki (Faxon)) on benthic communities using electric exclusion quadrats in Little Mulberry Creek before (June) and during (August) seasonal stream drying. Unglazed ceramic tiles were deployed in June and August to measure periphyton and invertebrate abundance, and leafpack decomposition and primary production were also measured in August. Relationships between stoneroller and crayfish density and the size of consumer effects were evaluated with multiple linear regression models. Average chlorophyll a abundance was greater on exposed than exclusion tiles in August, but not in June. Sediment dry mass, periphyton ash-free dry mass (AFDM), and chironomid densities on tiles did not differ among treatments in either period. Leaf packs decayed faster in exposed than exclusion treatments (kexposed = 0.038 ?? 0.013, kexclusion = 0.007 ?? 0.002), but consumer effects were stronger in some pools than others. Leafpack invertebrate biomass and abundance and tile primary productivity did not differ among treatments. Consumer effects on chlorophyll a were related to crayfish and stoneroller density, and effects on chironomid density were related to stoneroller density. These results contrast with a previous exclusion experiment in Little Mulberry Creek that demonstrated strong consumer effects. The influence of stream drying on consumer effects appears to have been reduced by strong spates, underscoring the importance of conducting multi-year studies to determine the magnitude of variability in ecological interactions. ?? US Government: USGS 2010.

  1. Interactions between limb and environmental mechanics influence stretch reflex sensitivity in the human arm.

    PubMed

    Krutky, Matthew A; Ravichandran, Vengateswaran J; Trumbower, Randy D; Perreault, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    Stretch reflexes contribute to arm impedance and longer-latency stretch reflexes exhibit increased sensitivity during interactions with compliant or unstable environments. This increased sensitivity is consistent with a regulation of arm impedance to compensate for decreased stability of the environment, but the specificity of this modulation has yet to be investigated. Many tasks, such as tool use, compromise arm stability along specific directions, and stretch reflexes tuned to those directions could present an efficient mechanism for regulating arm impedance in a task-appropriate manner. To be effective, such tuning should adapt not only to the mechanical properties of the environment but to those properties in relation to the arm, which also has directionally specific mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the specificity of stretch reflex modulation during interactions with mechanical environments that challenge arm stability. The tested environments were unstable, having the characteristics of a negative stiffness spring. These were either aligned or orthogonal to the direction of maximal endpoint stiffness for each subject. Our results demonstrate preferential increases in reflexes, elicited within 50-100 ms of perturbation onset, to perturbations applied specifically along the direction of the destabilizing environments. This increase occurred only when the magnitude of the environmental instability exceeded endpoint stiffness along the same direction. These results are consistent with task-specific reflex modulation tuned to the mechanical properties of the environment relative to those of the human arm. They demonstrate a highly adaptable, involuntary mechanism that may be used to modulate limb impedance along specific directions. PMID:19906880

  2. Studying Haloanisoles Interaction with Olfactory Receptors.

    PubMed

    Silva Teixeira, Carla S; Silva Ferreira, António C; Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A

    2016-07-20

    the theoretical and experimental results also lead us to study the potential interaction of the haloanisoles, TCA, TBA, and TCP with these ORs. The results have shown that these compounds can compete with other known agonists/antagonists for the access to the binding regions of ORs. These results may partially explain the capability of these compounds to give a musty odor to food and beverages at very low concentrations. PMID:27092849

  3. Case-only designs for exploring the interaction between FCRL4 gene and suspected environmental factors in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ning; Hu, Yanting; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Si; Liu, Li; Yang, Ting; Wu, Shanshan; Fan, Dazhi; Xu, Shengqian; Xu, Jianhua; Wang, Jing; Pan, Faming

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the interaction between FCRL4 gene and environmental factors in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Two hundred ninety-seven ankylosing spondylitis (AS) Han Chinese patients were selected who were diagnosed at the Department of Rheumatology, First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, in accordance with the modified New York criteria. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped by multiplex SNaPshot technique. The interaction between FCRL4 gene and ten environmental factors in AS patients was assessed by using a case-only study. The interaction between FCRL4 gene (rs2777963) and environmental factors was analyzed by chi-square test and logistic models. p values, odds ratio, and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used for estimating the effects of interaction. Odds ratio (OR) for the interaction of gene × environment (G × E) between drinking group and non-drinking group was 2.61 [95 % CI (1.30, 5.23), p=0.007], with statistical significance. Within the cooking oil group, there also may be an interaction of G × E between main animal oil and main plant oil [OR=10.55, 95 % CI (5.55, 20.04), p<0.001]. However, there was no interaction between FCRL4 gene and the other eight environmental factors in patients with AS. The observed significant gene-environment interaction suggests that drinking and cooking oil with FCRL4 gene has a significant interaction. Drinking and cooking oil may be risk exposure factors to take a combined action with predisposing genes in patients with AS. A larger sample case-control study is needed to illustrate the interaction mechanism in the further study. PMID:25012527

  4. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  5. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Enhancement of the Cultural Environment (3 CFR, 1971 through 1975 Comp., p. 559). If these surveys indicate... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508... accordance with 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 800 and with the requirements of the Archaeological and...

  6. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Enhancement of the Cultural Environment (3 CFR, 1971 through 1975 Comp., p. 559). If these surveys indicate... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508... accordance with 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 800 and with the requirements of the Archaeological and...

  7. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Enhancement of the Cultural Environment (3 CFR, 1971 through 1975 Comp., p. 559). If these surveys indicate... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508... accordance with 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 800 and with the requirements of the Archaeological and...

  8. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Enhancement of the Cultural Environment (3 CFR, 1971 through 1975 Comp., p. 559). If these surveys indicate... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508... accordance with 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 800 and with the requirements of the Archaeological and...

  9. Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Suzanne

    In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

  10. An Environmental Unit for the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Claudia J.

    Based on the inquiry method of learning, this instructional unit attempts to encourage students to discover for themselves the facts, problems, values, conflicts, and potential solutions of an environmental issue. Specifically, it deals with surface mining in the United States, with special focus on surface mining in Illinois. Materials and…

  11. Environmental Learning and the Study of Extinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Anne C.; Russell, Constance L.; Plotkin, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    Describes an environmental workshop with three goals: (1) to develop a more grounded and personal understanding in students of extinction; (2) to draw attention to their specific life contexts while making connections between local and global phenomena; and (3) to critically examine anthropocentrism. Highlights efforts to disrupt strictly…

  12. Social niche specialization under constraints: personality, social interactions and environmental heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Ferrari, Caterina; Réale, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Several personality traits are mainly expressed in a social context, and others, which are not restricted to a social context, can be affected by the social interactions with conspecifics. In this paper, we focus on the recently proposed hypothesis that social niche specialization (i.e. individuals in a population occupy different social roles) can explain the maintenance of individual differences in personality. We first present ecological and social niche specialization hypotheses. In particular, we show how niche specialization can be quantified and highlight the link between personality differences and social niche specialization. We then review some ecological factors (e.g. competition and environmental heterogeneity) and the social mechanisms (e.g. frequency-dependent, state-dependent and social awareness) that may be associated with the evolution of social niche specialization and personality differences. Finally, we present a conceptual model and methods to quantify the contribution of ecological factors and social mechanisms to the dynamics between personality and social roles. In doing so, we suggest a series of research objectives to help empirical advances in this research area. Throughout this paper, we highlight empirical studies of social niche specialization in mammals, where available. PMID:23569291

  13. Assessing Environmental Controls and Biogeochemical Consequences of Virus-Host Interactions in Marine Eukaryotic Picophytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Worden, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in marine systems and propagate through lysis of their prokaryotic or eukaryotic hosts. Viruses infecting marine phytoplankton can be significant agents of mortality and disrupt the canonical flow of carbon and nutrients through the microbial loop via the "viral shunt." A large proportion of the ocean's primary production is contributed by photosynthetic eukaryotes, which are important members of the picophytoplankton size class. The smallest picoeukaryote Ostreococcus represents a diverse and widely distributed genus. While the genomes of several viruses infecting the coastal species Ostreococcus lucimarinus have been sequenced, the dependence of viral infection dynamics on environmental parameters such as light and nutrient availability has not been characterized. Therefore, the goal of this study is to determine how light synchronization and nutrient availability modulate the infection of three O. lucimarinus viruses. Viruses were introduced to mid-exponentially-growing O. lucimarinus cultures at different points during a 14:10h light:dark cycle and the infections were followed through a lysis event. Additionally, viral infection dynamics were quantified for cultures of O. lucimarinus under either nutrient-replete or nutrient-deplete conditions. Preliminary results suggest that both light and nutrient availability influence viral infection dynamics, and that low nutrient availability may dampen the severity of infection. This work provides insight to the role of light and nutrient availability in controlling viral replication in an ecologically important picophytoplankton. Considering virus-host interactions is therefore critical for understanding marine plankton-driven biogeochemical processes.

  14. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’) and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’) or applied by the management (‘From’). Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may

  15. California Education in Environmental Design and Urban Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lawrence B.

    The purpose of the study was to examine California's needs in the broad field of environmental design and urban studies. Chapter 1 discusses the purposes, methods, and sources of the study. Chapter 2 deals with the Environmental Design Professions which include: architecture, landscape architecture, city planning, and their educational systems.…

  16. Graduate Students, Study of Environmental Literacy and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgurler, Safa; Cansaran, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of environmental literacy of the graduate students in Amasya University; their approach to environment and environmental issues; and to investigate their beliefs about the sustainable development. The sample of the study is 5 graduate students studying at Amasya University, 3 female and 2 male, in…

  17. Rhodopsin-lipid interactions studied by NMR.

    PubMed

    Soubias, Olivier; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the lipid matrix are known to influence function of integral membrane proteins. We report on a sample preparation method for reconstitution of membrane proteins which uses porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters with 200-nm-wide pores of high density. The substrate permits formation of tubular, single membranes that line the inner surface of pores. One square centimeter of filter with a thickness of 60μm yields on the order of 500cm(2) of solid-supported single bilayer surface, sufficient for NMR studies. The tubular bilayers are free of detergent, fully hydrated, and accessible for ligands from one side of the membrane. The use of AAO filters greatly improves reproducibility of the reconstitution process such that the influence of protein on lipid order parameters can be studied with high resolution. As an example, results for the G protein-coupled receptor of class A, bovine rhodopsin, are shown. By (2)H NMR order parameter measurements, it is detected that rhodopsin insertion elastically deforms membranes near the protein. Furthermore, by (1)H saturation-transfer NMR under conditions of magic angle spinning, we demonstrate detection of preferences in interactions of rhodopsin with particular lipid species. It is assumed that function of integral membrane proteins depends on both protein-induced elastic deformations of the lipid matrix and preferences for interaction of the protein with particular lipid species in the first layer of lipids surrounding the protein. PMID:23374188

  18. Turn Your Schoolgrounds into an Environmental Study Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buetler, Larry, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities that utilize the school grounds as a context to study environmental problems. Activities include surveying the grounds, map making, tree identification, study of plant and animal life, soil studies, and conservation and beautification projects. (MDH)

  19. Epidemiology of Down syndrome: new insight into the multidimensional interactions among genetic and environmental risk factors in the oocyte.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Hong, Chang-Sook; Feingold, Eleanor; Ghosh, Papiya; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhaumik, Pranami; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Down syndrome birth is attributable to multiple maternal risk factors that include both genetic and environmental challenges, but there is limited understanding of the complicated interactions among these factors. In the present study, a case-control analysis of approximately 400 infants with or without suspected Down syndrome reported between 2003 and 2009 and their parents in and around Kolkata, India, was conducted. Maternal exposure to 2 environmental risk factors (smokeless chewing tobacco and oral contraceptive pills) was recorded, and families were genotyped with microsatellite markers to establish the origin of nondisjunction errors as well as recombination patterns of nondisjoined chromosome 21. With logistic regression models, the possible interactions among all of these risk factors, as well as with maternal age, were explored. Smokeless chewing tobacco was associated with significant risk for meiosis II nondisjunction and achiasmate (nonexchange) meiosis I error among young mothers. By contrast, the risk due to oral contraceptive pills was associated with older mothers. Study results suggest that the chewing tobacco risk factor operates independently of the maternal age effect, whereas contraceptive pill-related risk may interact with or exacerbate age-related risk. Moreover, both risk factors, when present together, exhibited a strong age-dependent effect. PMID:21957181

  20. Studying Environmental Influence on Motor Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Krebs, Ruy

    2012-01-01

    There is a good argument that in order to truly understand the influences that shape child motor development, one must consider environmental influences that reflect the multilevel ecological contexts that interact with the changing biological characteristics of the child. Although there are theories typically associated with motor development…

  1. Simplified environmental study on innovative bridge structure.

    PubMed

    Bouhaya, Lina; Le Roy, Robert; Feraille-Fresnet, Adélaïde

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a simplified life cycle assessment on an innovative bridge structure, made of wood and ultra high performance concrete, which combines mechanical performance with minimum environmental impact. The environmental analysis was conducted from cradle to grave using the Life Cycle Assessment method. It was restricted to energy release and greenhouse gas emissions. Assumptions are detailed for each step of the analysis. For the wood end-of-life, three scenarios were proposed: dumping, burning, and recycling. Results show that the most energy needed is in the production phase, which represents 73.4% of the total amount. Analysis shows that the renewable energy is about 70% of the production energy. Wood, through its biomass CO2, contributes positively to the environmental impact. It was concluded that no scenario can be the winner on both impacts. Indeed, the end-of-life wood recycling gives the best impact on CO2 release, whereas burning wood, despite its remarkable energy impact is the worst. According to the emphasis given to each impact, designers will be able to choose one or the other. PMID:19368215

  2. Environmental Education Study Projects for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This paper has been designed as a general guide to the teacher, student, group, or club interested in identifying environmental or resource problems at the community level and helping to find solutions to them. The paper discusses the independent studies program as a method of studying environmental problems as well as a source of academic credit.…

  3. Interaction Between Flames and Electric Fields Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between flames and electric fields has long been an interesting research subject that has theoretical importance as well as practical significance. Many of the reactions in a flame follow an ionic pathway: that is, positive and negative ions are formed during the intermediate steps of the reaction. When an external electric field is applied, the ions move according to the electric force (the Coulomb force) exerted on them. The motion of the ions modifies the chemistry because the reacting species are altered, it changes the velocity field of the flame, and it alters the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame will change its shape and location to meet all thermal, chemical, and electrical constraints. In normal gravity, the strong buoyant effect often makes the flame multidimensional and, thus, hinders the detailed study of the problem.

  4. Study of electron-positron interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Philonen, L.

    1990-09-15

    For the past seven years, this group has been interested in the study of tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. The program has centered about the AMY experiment which examines the nature of the final state products in electron-positron collisions in the center of mass energy range near 60 GeV. Results of these measurements have shown a remarkable consistency with the predictions of the minimal model of 3 quark and lepton generations and single charged and neutral intermediate bosons. No new particles or excited states have been observed nor has any evidence for departures in cross sections or angular asymmetries from expectations been observed. These conclusions have been even more firmly established by the higher energy results from the LEP and SLC colliders at center of mass energies of about 90 GeV. Our focus is shifting to the neutrino as a probe to electroweak interactions. The relative merit of attempting to observe neutrinos from point sources versus observing neutrinos generally is not easy to predict. The improved ability to interpret is offset by the probably episodic nature of the emission and irreproducibility of the results. In this phase of development, it is best to be sensitive to both sources of neutrinos. As a second phase of our program at Virginia Tech, we are studying the feasibility of detecting cosmic ray neutrinos in a proposed experiment which we have called NOVA. the results of the test setup will be instrumental in developing an optimum design. A third program we are involved in is the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, an experiment to place a limit on the rate of muon decay to electron plus photon which is forbidden by the Standard Model.

  5. Biofied room integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Fumi; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Current smart buildings are based on scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events. We focus our attention on high adaptability of living matters to environmental changes. "Biofication of Living Spaces" is the concept of creating pleasant living environments using this high adaptability. Biofied room is integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information. In this research, we propose a highly adaptive algorithm to control the devices automatically. Based on physiological adaption, we can make the algorithm very flexible. As the first step in this research, a prototype of the sensor agent robot is built. Camera, microphone, proximity sensor, laser range-finder are mounted on the robot. As a sensor agent robot follows the residents, it acquires environmental information, and records the interaction between the robot and human. In a suggested control model, a resident is built in the control loop and his/her uncomfortable feeling plays a role of control signal. Following its signal, devices are controlled. Results obtained from the computer simulation show that models are able to maintain the human comfort feeling adaptively. This research suggests an adaptive, fault-tolerant, and energy-saving control models for building spaces, using simple algorithms based on physiological adaption.

  6. Toxic interactions among environmental pollutants: corroborating laboratory observations with human experience.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, K; Brodeur, J

    1994-01-01

    Combined exposures to multiple chemicals may result in interactions leading to a significant increase or decrease in the overall toxicity of the mixture compared to the summation of the toxicity of the components. A large number of chemical interactions have been described in animal studies by administering high doses of chemicals by routes and scenarios often different from anticipated human exposures. Though limited, there is some evidence for the occurrence of several supra-additive (the combined effects are greater than the simple summation of the individual effects) and infra-additive (the combined effects are smaller than the simple summation of the individual effects) chemical interactions in humans. For example, toxicokinetic interactions between several solvents have been found to occur in the workplace, whereas those involving pesticides have been reported less frequently, especially during accidental exposures. Toxic interactions involving nutritionally important metals and metalloids appear to occur more frequently, since several of them have an important role in a variety of physiological and biochemical processes. On the contrary, there is not much evidence to confirm the occurrence of toxic interactions among the commonly encountered inorganic gaseous pollutants in humans. Overall, the majority of chemical interactions observed in animal studies have neither been investigated in humans nor been extrapolated to humans based on appropriate mechanistic considerations. Future research efforts in the chemical interactions arena should address these issues by focusing on the development of mechanistically and biologically based models that allow predictions of the extent of interactions likely to be observed in humans. PMID:7698071

  7. Environmental effects consideration: A case study - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance for serious consideration of environmental effects and associated risks by management early in the development cycle of a facility. A case study on the Space Shuttle provides information with regard to some of the environmental effects issues encountered and the lesson learned. The importance of early management action to enable the acceptance of known environmental risks, or to make program adjustments to avoid their potential consequences, is emphasized.

  8. Bacterial-Fungal Interactions: Hyphens between Agricultural, Clinical, Environmental, and Food Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    Frey-Klett, P.; Burlinson, P.; Deveau, A.; Barret, M.; Tarkka, M.; Sarniguet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Bacteria and fungi can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. These bacterial-fungal interactions often result in changes to the pathogenicity or the nutritional influence of one or both partners toward plants or animals (including humans). They can also result in unique contributions to biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological processes. Thus, the interactions between bacteria and fungi are of central importance to numerous biological questions in agriculture, forestry, environmental science, food production, and medicine. Here we present a structured review of bacterial-fungal interactions, illustrated by examples sourced from many diverse scientific fields. We consider the general and specific properties of these interactions, providing a global perspective across this emerging multidisciplinary research area. We show that in many cases, parallels can be drawn between different scenarios in which bacterial-fungal interactions are important. Finally, we discuss how new avenues of investigation may enhance our ability to combat, manipulate, or exploit bacterial-fungal complexes for the economic and practical benefit of humanity as well as reshape our current understanding of bacterial and fungal ecology. PMID:22126995

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN THE NEMUNAS RIVER BASIN, LITHUANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected research results from a joint environmental studies project that began in 1988 between Lithuania and the United States of America are presented. hemical and hydrological studies address hazardous chemicals, including trace metals, n surface waters of Lithuania; methods f...

  10. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  11. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  12. Environmental control system transducer development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    A failure evaluation of the transducers used in the environmental control systems of the Apollo command service module, lunar module, and portable life support system is presented in matrix form for several generic categories of transducers to enable identification of chronic failure modes. Transducer vendors were contacted and asked to supply detailed information. The evaluation data generated for each category of transducer were compiled and published in failure design evaluation reports. The evaluation reports also present a review of the failure and design data for the transducers and suggest both design criteria to improve reliability of the transducers and, where necessary, design concepts for required redesign of the transducers. Remedial designs were implemented on a family of pressure transducers and on the oxygen flow transducer. The design concepts were subjected to analysis, breadboard fabrication, and verification testing.

  13. Three decades of environmental specimen banking at the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin-Ichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Akinori; Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takagi, Mai; Kinoshita, Ayako; Seyama, Haruhiko; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2015-02-01

    After two decades operation of the initial environmental specimen banking, a new program, Environmental Time Capsule Program, started in 2002 as a government-supported long-term program to construct a firm scientific basis for various environmental research studies. The program consists of long-term environmental specimen banking activity and specimen collection of endangered wildlife and is based on cryogenic sample preservation facility called Environmental Time Capsule building, which completed construction in 2004. After 9 years of extensive research, research focuses have been selected and the program was reorganized to the environmental sample collection part and endangered wildlife collection part in 2011. Due to huge environmental disaster caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and the tsunami as well as subsequent nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, a new sampling and monitoring program started at affected areas in collaboration with the reorganized environmental sample collection and archiving program. Outlines of the quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities in the program and future perspective under related international activities, particularly Stockholm Convention, are reported. PMID:24865503

  14. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Robert F.; Leonard, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  15. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Robert F; Leonard, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  16. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Ågren, Åsa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics. PMID:25396097

  17. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies.

    PubMed

    Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Agren, Asa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W

    2014-12-01

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics. PMID:25396097

  18. Assemblage organization in stream fishes: effects of environmental variation and interspecific interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, G.D.; Ratajczak, R.E., Jr.; Crawford, M. M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the relative importance of environmental variation, interspecific competition for space, and predator abundance on assemblage structure and microhabitat use in a stream fish assemblage inhabiting Coweeta Creek, North Carolina, USA. Our study encompassed a ten year time span (1983-1992) and included some of the highest and lowest flows in the last 58 years. We collected 16 seasonal samples which included data on: 1) habitat availability (total and microhabitat) and microhabitat diversity, 2) assemblage structure (i.e., the number and abundances of species comprising a subset of the community), and 3) microhabitat use and overlap. We classified habitat availability data on the basis of year, season, and hydrologic period. Hydrologic period (i.e., pre-drought [PR], drought [D], and post-drought [PO]) represented the temporal location of a sample with respect to a four-year drought that occurred during the study. Hydrologic period explained a greater amount of variance in habitat availability data than either season or year. Total habitat availability was significantly greater during PO than in PR or D, although microhabitat diversity did not differ among either seasons or hydrologic periods. There were significantly fewer high-flow events (i.e., > 2.1 m3/s) during D than in either PR or PO periods. We observed a total of 16 species during our investigation, and the total number of species was significantly higher in D than in PR samples. Correlation analyses between the number of species present (total and abundant species) and environmental data yielded limited results, although the total number of species was inversely correlated with total habitat availability. A cluster analysis grouped assemblage structure samples by hydrologic period rather than season or year, supporting the contention that variation in annual flow had a strong impact on this assemblage. The drought had little effect on the numerical abundance of benthic species in this assemblage

  19. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 6th Grade - River Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade six prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  20. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 8th Grade - Beach Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary children in grade eight prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  1. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  2. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  3. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  5. Multilevel complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of anomalies of dental development.

    PubMed

    Brook, A H

    2009-12-01

    Dental anomalies are caused by complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors during the long process of dental development. This process is multifactorial, multilevel, multidimensional and progressive over time. In this paper the evidence from animal models and from human studies is integrated to outline the current position and to construct and evaluate models, as a basis for future work. Dental development is multilevel entailing molecular and cellular interactions which have macroscopic outcomes. It is multidimensional, requiring developments in the three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time. It is progressive, occurring over a long period, yet with critical stages. The series of interactions involving multiple genetic signalling pathways are also influenced by extracellular factors. Interactions, gradients and spatial field effects of multiple genes, epigenetic and environmental factors all influence the development of individual teeth, groups of teeth and the dentition as a whole. The macroscopic, clinically visible result in humans is a complex unit of four different tooth types formed in morphogenetic fields, in which teeth within each field form directionally and erupt at different times, reflecting the spatio-temporal control of development. Even when a specific mutation of a single gene or one major environmental insult has been identified in a patient with a dental anomaly, detailed investigation of the phenotype often reveals variation between affected individuals in the same family, between dentitions in the same individual and even between different teeth in the same dentition. The same, or closely similar phenotypes, whether anomalies of tooth number or structure, may arise from different aetiologies: not only mutations in different genes but also environmental factors may result in similar phenotypes. Related to the action of a number of the developmental regulatory genes active in odontogenesis, in

  6. SAS applications for Tai's stability analysis and AMMI model in genotype x environmental interaction (GEI) effects.

    PubMed

    Thillainathan, M; Fernandez, G C

    2001-01-01

    A user-friendly graphical data analysis to perform stability analysis of genotype x environmental interactions, using Tai's stability model and additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) biplots, are presented here. This practical approach integrates statistical and graphical analysis tools available in SAS systems and provides user-friendly applications to perform complete stability analyses without writing SAS program statements or using pull-down menu interfaces by running the SAS macros in the background. By using this macro approach, the agronomists and plant breeders can effectively perform stability analysis and spend more time in data exploration, interpretation of graphs, and output, rather than debugging their program errors. The necessary MACRO-CALL files can be downloaded from the author's home page at http://www.ag.unr.edu/gf. The nature and the distinctive features of the graphics produced by these applications are illustrated by using published data. PMID:11535655

  7. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The Panels provide a detailed assessment report every four years. The most recent 2014 Quadrennial Assessment by the EEAP was published as a special issue of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). The next Quadrennial Assessment will be published in 2018/2019. In the interim, the EEAP generally produces an annual update or progress report of the relevant scientific findings. The present progress report for 2015 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. PMID:26822392

  8. Children's environmental knowing: A case study of children's experiences during an environmental education programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sandra Anne

    This study explores children's experiences during WaterWorlds (pseudonym) a field-based environmental education programme at a marine science centre. The study objectives were to investigate how children understand and interpret their experiences, and how these experiences foster their environmental knowing. To address these objectives, I carried out a case study at a marine science centre in British Columbia. I examined children's WaterWorlds experiences and explored their environmental understandings and commitment to environmental action. I analysed the experiences of children in four separate classes and carried out an in-depth examination of four individual children. Data were collected using informal semi-structured interviews, observations, conversations, researcher journal logs, and student documents including their writing and illustrations. My findings indicate that the WaterWorlds programme experience fosters children's environmental knowing. Participation in WaterWorlds activities led to connection, caring, and concern for other species and in some cases, for the marine environment as a whole. During the programme, children chose the ways they interpreted and expressed their environmental knowledge, ethic of care, advocacy, and commitment to action. This development of each child's self-expression resulted in motivational and powerful learning experiences that inspired and nurtured their connections to the earth. This research provides evidence and examples of how educators can foster children's environmental knowing through multi-disciplinary environmental education experiences. It illustrates that activities such as observing and documenting the lives of other animal species, collecting data and conducting research on those species, and working and learning alongside experts in the field of environmental education are powerful experiences that motivate concern and care for the earth among children.

  9. Studies of host graft interactions in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljekvist-Larsson, Ingela; Johansson, Kjell

    2007-09-01

    Progenitor and stem cell transplantation represent therapeutic strategies for retinal disorders that are accompanied by photoreceptor degeneration. The transplanted cells may either replace degenerating photoreceptors or secrete beneficial factors that halt the processes of photoreceptor degeneration. The present study analyzes whether rat retinal progenitor cells differentiated into photoreceptor phenotypic cells in neurospheres have a potential to interact with rat retinal explants. Immunocytochemistry for rhodopsin and synaptophysin indicated photoreceptor cell-like differentiation in neurospheres that were stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor. Differentiation into neural phenotypes including photoreceptor cells was effectively blocked by an addition of leukemia inhibitory factor. Grafting of neurospheres onto retinal explants demonstrated a consistent penetration of glial cell processes into the explanted tissue. On the other hand, the incorporation of donor cells into explants was very low. A general finding was that neurospheres grafting was associated with local decrease in Müller cell activation in the explants. Further characterization of these effect(s) could provide further insight into progenitor cell-based therapies of retinal degenerative disorders.

  10. Multiple parton interaction studies at DØ

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lincoln, D.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present the results of studies of multiparton interactions done by the DØ collaboration using the Fermilab Tevatron at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. We also present three analyses, involving three distinct final signatures: (a) a photon with at least 3 jets ( γ + 3jets), (b) a photon with a bottom or charm quark tagged jet and at least 2 other jets ( γ + b/c + 2jets), and (c) two J/ ψ mesons. The fraction of photon + jet events initiated by double parton scattering is about 20%, while the fraction for events inmore » which two J/ ψ mesons were produced is 30 ± 10. While the two measurements are statistically compatible, the difference might indicate differences in the quark and gluon distribution within a nucleon. Finally, this speculation originates from the fact that photon + jet events are created by collisions with quarks in the initial states, while J/ ψ events are produced preferentially by a gluonic initial state.« less

  11. Studies of DNA-carbon nanotube interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Mary Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Recently a new biomaterial consisting of a DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotube, and known as a DNA/SWNT, has been discovered. The possible applications of this hybrid are varied and range from genomic sequencing to nanoscale electronics to molecular delivery. The realization of these potential applications requires more knowledge about the microscopic properties of this material. In this thesis, I present studies of: the orientation of nucleobases on the nanotube sidewall; the sequence and length dependence of the DNA-nanotube interaction; and solution conditions to manipulate the DNA/SWNT hybrid. The measurement of the UV optical absorbance of DNA/SWNT and the nucleotide absorbance from DNA/SWNT provide the first experimental confirmation that DNA binds to nanotubes through pi-stacking. Because the hypochromic absorbance typical of pi-stacked structures are expected to occur primarily for DNA dipole transitions that lie along the axis of the optically anisotropic SWNTs, the absorbance changes following binding of DNA to the nanotubes reveals the preferred orientation assumed by each of the four bound nucleotides with respect to the nanotube's long axis. The first observations of pronounced sequence- and length-dependent variations in the binding between ssDNA and SWNTs in aqueous solution are presented. These observations rely on the discovery that there exists a range of DNA lengths able to hybridize with SWNTs that can nevertheless be dissociated at temperatures below the boiling point of water. Quantitative results comparing the isochronal dissociation temperatures and binding energies of DNA/SWNT composed of differing DNA sequences and lengths are given. These results indicate variability and complexity in the binding mechanism responsible for the stability of the hybrid system that transcends simple models based on the sum of independent base-nanotube interactions. Binding energies between a DNA base and nanotube (0.05 to 0.09 eV per base) are similar

  12. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system. PMID:26639316

  13. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R.; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C.; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system. PMID:26639316

  14. Protein interaction mapping: A Drosophila case study

    PubMed Central

    Formstecher, Etienne; Aresta, Sandra; Collura, Vincent; Hamburger, Alexandre; Meil, Alain; Trehin, Alexandra; Reverdy, Céline; Betin, Virginie; Maire, Sophie; Brun, Christine; Jacq, Bernard; Arpin, Monique; Bellaiche, Yohanns; Bellusci, Saverio; Benaroch, Philippe; Bornens, Michel; Chanet, Roland; Chavrier, Philippe; Delattre, Olivier; Doye, Valérie; Fehon, Richard; Faye, Gérard; Galli, Thierry; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Goud, Bruno; de Gunzburg, Jean; Johannes, Ludger; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Mirouse, Vincent; Mukherjee, Ashim; Papadopoulo, Dora; Perez, Franck; Plessis, Anne; Rossé, Carine; Saule, Simon; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Vincent, Alain; White, Michael; Legrain, Pierre; Wojcik, Jérôme; Camonis, Jacques; Daviet, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The Drosophila (fruit fly) model system has been instrumental in our current understanding of human biology, development, and diseases. Here, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H)-based technology to screen 102 bait proteins from Drosophila melanogaster, most of them orthologous to human cancer-related and/or signaling proteins, against high-complexity fly cDNA libraries. More than 2300 protein-protein interactions (PPI) were identified, of which 710 are of high confidence. The computation of a reliability score for each protein-protein interaction and the systematic identification of the interacting domain combined with a prediction of structural/functional motifs allow the elaboration of known complexes and the identification of new ones. The full data set can be visualized using a graphical Web interface, the PIMRider (http://pim.hybrigenics.com), and is also accessible in the PSI standard Molecular Interaction data format. Our fly Protein Interaction Map (PIM) is surprisingly different from the one recently proposed by Giot et al. with little overlap between the two data sets. Analysis of the differences in data sets and methods suggests alternative strategies to enhance the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the post-genomic generation of broad-scale protein interaction maps. PMID:15710747

  15. Simple kinematic models for the environmental interaction of tropical cyclones in vertical wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemer, M.; Montgomery, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A major impediment to the intensity forecast of tropical cyclones (TCs) is believed to be associated with the interaction of TCs with dry environmental air. However, the conditions under which pronounced TC-environment interaction takes place are not well understood. As a step towards improving our understanding of this problem, we analyze here the flow topology of a TC immersed in an environment of vertical wind shear in an idealized, three-dimensional, convection-permitting numerical experiment. A set of distinct streamlines, the so-called manifolds, can be identified under the assumptions of steady and layer-wise horizontal flow. The manifolds are shown to divide the flow around the TC into distinct regions. The manifold structure in our numerical experiment is more complex than the well-known manifold structure of a non-divergent point vortex in uniform background flow. In particular, one manifold spirals inwards and ends in a limit cycle, a meso-scale dividing streamline encompassing the eyewall above the layer of strong inflow associated with surface friction and below the outflow layer in the upper troposphere. From the perspective of a steady and layer-wise horizontal flow model, the eyewall is well protected from the intrusion of environmental air. In order for the environmental air to intrude into the inner-core convection, time-dependent and/or vertical motions, which are prevalent in the TC inner-core, are necessary. Air with the highest values of moist-entropy resides within the limit cycle. This "moist envelope" is distorted considerably by the imposed vertical wind shear, and the shape of the moist envelope is closely related to the shape of the limit cycle. In a first approximation, the distribution of high- and low-θe air around the TC at low to mid-levels is governed by the stirring of convectively modified air by the steady, horizontal flow. Motivated by the results from the idealized numerical experiment, an analogue model based on a weakly

  16. Interactions between a pollinating seed predator and its host plant: the role of environmental context within a population

    PubMed Central

    Kula, Abigail A R; Castillo, Dean M; Dudash, Michele R; Fenster, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    Plant–insect interactions often are important for plant reproduction, but the outcome of these interactions may vary with environmental context. Pollinating seed predators have positive and negative effects on host plant reproduction, and the interaction outcome is predicted to vary with density or abundance of the partners. We studied the interaction between Silene stellata, an herbaceous perennial, and Hadena ectypa, its specialized pollinating seed predator. Silene stellata is only facultatively dependent upon H. ectypa for pollination because other nocturnal moth co-pollinators are equally effective at pollen transfer. We hypothesized that for plants without conspecific neighbors, H. ectypa would have higher visitation rates compared to co-pollinators, and the plants would experience lower levels of H. ectypa pollen deposition. We predicted similar oviposition throughout the study site but greater H. ectypa predation in the area without conspecific neighbors compared to plants embedded in a naturally high density area. We found that H. ectypa had consistently higher visitation than moth co-pollinators in all host plant contexts. However, H. ectypa pollinator importance declined in areas with low conspecific density because of reduced pollen deposition, resulting in lower seed set. Conversely, oviposition was similar across the study site independent of host plant density. Greater likelihood of very high fruit predation combined with lower pollination by H. ectypa resulted in reduced S. stellata female reproductive success in areas with low conspecific density. Our results demonstrate local context dependency of the outcomes of pollinating seed predator interactions with conspecific host plant density within a population. PMID:25165527

  17. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E.; Beck, Stephan; Hoen, Peter A.C.'t; Pool, René; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Sasha; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Beekman, Marian; Deelen, Joris; van Heemst, Diana; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hofman, Bert A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jhamai, P. Mila; Verbiest, Michael; Verkerk, Marijn; van der Breggen, Ruud; van Rooij, Jeroen; Lakenberg, Nico; Mei, Hailiang; Bot, Jan; Zhernakova, Dasha V.; van't Hof, Peter; Deelen, Patrick; Nooren, Irene; Moed, Matthijs; Vermaat, Martijn; Luijk, René; Bonder, Marc Jan; van Dijk, Freerk; van Galen, Michiel; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Isaacs, Aaron; Franke, Lude; Suchiman, H. Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  18. Interactions of environmental factors influencing pupal coloration in swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Sota

    2006-08-01

    The swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus Linné [Lepidoptera: Papilionidae] exhibits pupal protective color polyphenism. Interactions of various environmental factors on pupal coloration were analyzed in non-diapausing individuals. Under sufficient light (200lux), most pupating larvae became green pupae when the surface of the pupation site was smooth, while they became brown when the surface was rough. Tactile signals are the positive environmental factors causing induction of the brown pupal coloration. In dark boxes, the induction of the brown pupal coloration was easily induced even on a smooth surface, suggesting that light suppresses induction of brown coloration. Different colors of pupation sites did not affect pupal coloration under sufficient light. Environmental factors received during a critical period both before girdling and after girdling affected pupal coloration. When tactile signals received from rough surfaces reach threshold levels during pupation, brown pupal coloration is determined. Larvae reared under a daily periodicity of natural light formed a girdle at midnight, subsequently, the prepupae received strong daylight the following day. Under natural light most larvae produced brown pupae on rough surfaces and green pupae on smooth surfaces. PMID:16781726

  19. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E; Beck, Stephan; Suchiman, H Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  20. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  1. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  2. DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papers describes epidemiologic designs and methods in studies of health effects of air pollution, whose implications, however, can be extended to the detection of health effects of other environmental exposures. Recent advances in measurement technology for the assessment of ...

  3. STUDY: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT COMPARISONS, IGCC VS. PC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares the environmental performance of two power generation technologies: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pulverized Coal-Fired Rankine Cycle. In addition, the capital and operating costs for power plants using these two technologies have been com...

  4. Fostering Environmental Literacy For A Changing Earth: Interactive and Participatory Outreach Programs at Biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Huxman, T.; Morehouse, B.

    2008-12-01

    Earth system and ecological sustainability problems are complex outcomes of biological, physical, social, and economic interactions. A common goal of outreach and education programs is to foster a scientifically literate community that possesses the knowledge to contribute to environmental policies and decision making. Uncertainty and variability that is both inherent in Earth system and ecological sciences can confound such goals of improved ecological literacy. Public programs provide an opportunity to engage lay-persons in the scientific method, allowing them to experience science in action and confront these uncertainties face-on. We begin with a definition of scientific literacy that expands its conceptualization of science beyond just a collection of facts and concepts to one that views science as a process to aid understanding of natural phenomena. A process-based scientific literacy allows the public, teachers, and students to assimilate new information, evaluate climate research, and to ultimately make decisions that are informed by science. The Biosphere 2 facility (B2) is uniquely suited for such outreach programs because it allows linking Earth system and ecological science research activities in a large scale controlled environment setting with outreach and education opportunities. A primary outreach goal is to demonstrate science in action to an audience that ranges from K-12 groups to retired citizens. Here we discuss approaches to outreach programs that focus on soil-water-atmosphere-plant interactions and their roles in the impacts and causes of global environmental change. We describe a suite of programs designed to vary the amount of participation a visitor has with the science process (from passive learning to data collection to helping design experiments) to test the hypothesis that active learning fosters increased scientific literacy and the creation of science advocates. We argue that a revised framing of the scientific method with a more

  5. Evidence of Gene–Environment Interactions between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Established Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John L.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; The GENICA Network; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; kConFab; Group, AOCS Management; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene–environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4×10−6) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1×10−4). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01–1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96–1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16–1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85–0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14–1.85) in those who drank ≥20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3×10−5), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11–1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92–1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors

  6. Progress in computational studies of host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hufeng; Jin, Jingjing; Wong, Limsoon

    2013-04-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are important for understanding infection mechanism and developing better treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Many computational studies on host-pathogen interactions have been published. Here, we review recent progress and results in this field and provide a systematic summary, comparison and discussion of computational studies on host-pathogen interactions, including prediction and analysis of host-pathogen protein-protein interactions; basic principles revealed from host-pathogen interactions; and database and software tools for host-pathogen interaction data collection, integration and analysis. PMID:23600809

  7. Microwave Studies of Environmental Friendly Ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Mathad, S. N.; Puri, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    The structural and microwave studies of lead-free barium niobates ceramics prepared by the high temperatures solid state reaction technique are reported. The structural parameters such as the lattice constants, average crystallite size (D), texture coefficients (TC), dislocation density, and microstrain have been determined using X-ray diffraction data. Surface morphological studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The strong absorption bands at ~816 cm−1, 641 cm−1, and 482 cm−1 are associated with the coupling mode between Nb–O stretching modes observed in FTIR studies. The electromagnetic transmittance, absorption, studies of barium niobates in the X band frequency range frequencies using waveguide reflectometer technique are reported. PMID:27433498

  8. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winham, Stacey J.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized…

  9. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E; Easton, Doug F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-03-15

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  10. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Perez, José Ignacio Arias; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Investigators, kConFab; Group, AOCS; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint) <1.1×10−3. None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170cm (OR=1.22, p=0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160cm (OR=0.83, p=0.039, pint=1.9×10−4). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR=0.85, p=2.0×10−4), and absent in women who had had just one (OR=0.96, p=0.19, pint = 6.1×10−4). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR=0.93, p=2.8×10−5), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR=1.07, p=0.14, pint = 3.4×10−4). In conclusion, recently identified breast cancer susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  11. Environmental ethics and professional practice: A case study of an environmental challenge for century 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, C.

    1995-12-01

    Objective resolution of environmental issues involves questions of facts and values, and, for environmental issues to be resolved ethically, a proper synthesis of environmental facts with questions of ethics must occur. In this case study, the proposal by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to use the Yucca Mountain site in southwest Nevada as a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of the nation`s high-level nuclear waste is examined in part in the context of the {open_quotes}Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals{close_quotes} adopted by the National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP). Current plans are that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site would begin functioning in 2010 and would be sealed after about 150 years. The requirement that a geologic repository must isolate nuclear waste from the environment for at least 10,000 years poses unique challenges to environmental professionals. This case study also analyzes the challenges in terms of the implications of a new federal Executive Order on Ecosystem Management and corresponding internal orders within all federal agencies to conform to the Executive Order. The imposition of the principles and practices of ecosystem-based resource management on federal agencies provides an opportunity to also address, in the context of the DOE Yucca Mountain Project, (1) the ecosystem approach to environmental management, (2) concepts of holistic resource management planning, and (3) the concepts of sustainability and biodiversity. Within this framework there are important implications for environmental ethics and professional practice that must remain at the forefront of concerns of the NAEP over the next two decades.

  12. The identification of complex interactions in epidemiology and toxicology: a simulation study of boosted regression trees

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to evaluate complex interaction effects on human health, such as those induced by mixtures of environmental contaminants. The usual approach is to formulate an additive statistical model and check for departures using product terms between the variables of interest. In this paper, we present an approach to search for interaction effects among several variables using boosted regression trees. Methods We simulate a continuous outcome from real data on 27 environmental contaminants, some of which are correlated, and test the method’s ability to uncover the simulated interactions. The simulated outcome contains one four-way interaction, one non-linear effect and one interaction between a continuous variable and a binary variable. Four scenarios reflecting different strengths of association are simulated. We illustrate the method using real data. Results The method succeeded in identifying the true interactions in all scenarios except where the association was weakest. Some spurious interactions were also found, however. The method was also capable to identify interactions in the real data set. Conclusions We conclude that boosted regression trees can be used to uncover complex interaction effects in epidemiological studies. PMID:24993424

  13. Environmental assessments in the US: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    The 1990's is the decade of international environmental activism. The concerns and issues that are the basis of this activism are now extremely important to business. Numerous environmental issue will affect business decisions, and a keen awareness of the implications of those issues may make the difference financial success or ruin. Environmental assessments have become the tool to help business cope with an important environmental concern. This talk is focused on environmental assessments as they are practiced in the United States. Environmental activism has been a factor in business decisions since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. This paper will discuss the current standards of practice in the US, the needs for assessments at industrial facilities, and a case study from a US industrial facility. More than 750,000 commercial real estate transactions take place in the US each year. Each of these transactions has a potential liability for the buyer and lender as a result of environmental impairment caused by hazardous materials located in buildings on sites, in the soil, or in the groundwater. Persons who knowingly or unknowingly acquire environmentally impaired property or who lend the money to purchase that property are liable for the cost of cleanup.

  14. Environmental Education in Finland--A Case Study of Environmental Education in Nature Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeronen, Eila; Jeronen, Juha; Raustia, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to introduce Environmental Education (EE) in Finland and to discuss how it has been taken into account in Finnish nature schools. Firstly, we present EE models used in Finland. Thereafter we describe a qualitative case study on EE in nature schools (NS). The aim of the study was to get information for the development of EE. The…

  15. Environmental Studies in the Florida Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Students and teachers had the opportunity to study informally the unique and threatened environment comprising the reefs off the Florida Keys. While they all were learning about the ocean life, they were also learning something about the process of learning. (Author/RK)

  16. Environmental study of miniature slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnik, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    Investigation studied the long term operation of miniature slip ring assembles in high vacuum of space and included the influence of ring, brush, and insulator materials on electrical noise and mechanical wear. Results show that soft metal vapor plating and niobium diselenide miniature slip rings are beneficial.

  17. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  18. Marine and Environmental Studies Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    This laboratory manual was developed for a field-oriented high school oceanology program. The organization of the units includes a selection of supplementary activities to allow students to explore ocean studies in more depth. Included are 19 units. The units include biological oceanography, physical oceanography, and some social science topics. A…

  19. Hypotension and environmental noise: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich; Thudium, Jürg

    2014-09-01

    Up to now, traffic noise effect studies focused on hypertension as health outcome. Hypotension has not been considered as a potential health outcome although in experiments some people also responded to noise with decreases of blood pressure. Currently, the characteristics of these persons are not known and whether this down regulation of blood pressure is an experimental artifact, selection, or can also be observed in population studies is unanswered. In a cross-sectional replication study, we randomly sampled participants (age 20-75, N = 807) from circular areas (radius = 500 m) around 31 noise measurement sites from four noise exposure strata (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, >64 Leq, dBA). Repeated blood pressure measurements were available for a smaller sample (N = 570). Standardized information on socio-demographics, housing, life style and health was obtained by door to door visits including anthropometric measurements. Noise and air pollution exposure was assigned by GIS based on both calculation and measurements. Reported hypotension or hypotension medication past year was the main outcome studied. Exposure-effect relationships were modeled with multiple non-linear logistic regression techniques using separate noise estimations for total, highway and rail exposure. Reported hypotension was significantly associated with rail and total noise exposure and strongly modified by weather sensitivity. Reported hypotension medication showed associations of similar size with rail and total noise exposure without effect modification by weather sensitivity. The size of the associations in the smaller sample with BMI as additional covariate was similar. Other important cofactors (sex, age, BMI, health) and moderators (weather sensitivity, adjacent main roads and associated annoyance) need to be considered as indispensible part of the observed relationship. This study confirms a potential new noise effect pathway and discusses potential patho-physiological routes of actions. PMID

  20. Hypotension and Environmental Noise: A Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich; Thudium, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, traffic noise effect studies focused on hypertension as health outcome. Hypotension has not been considered as a potential health outcome although in experiments some people also responded to noise with decreases of blood pressure. Currently, the characteristics of these persons are not known and whether this down regulation of blood pressure is an experimental artifact, selection, or can also be observed in population studies is unanswered. In a cross-sectional replication study, we randomly sampled participants (age 20–75, N = 807) from circular areas (radius = 500 m) around 31 noise measurement sites from four noise exposure strata (35–44, 45–54, 55–64, >64 Leq, dBA). Repeated blood pressure measurements were available for a smaller sample (N = 570). Standardized information on socio-demographics, housing, life style and health was obtained by door to door visits including anthropometric measurements. Noise and air pollution exposure was assigned by GIS based on both calculation and measurements. Reported hypotension or hypotension medication past year was the main outcome studied. Exposure-effect relationships were modeled with multiple non-linear logistic regression techniques using separate noise estimations for total, highway and rail exposure. Reported hypotension was significantly associated with rail and total noise exposure and strongly modified by weather sensitivity. Reported hypotension medication showed associations of similar size with rail and total noise exposure without effect modification by weather sensitivity. The size of the associations in the smaller sample with BMI as additional covariate was similar. Other important cofactors (sex, age, BMI, health) and moderators (weather sensitivity, adjacent main roads and associated annoyance) need to be considered as indispensible part of the observed relationship. This study confirms a potential new noise effect pathway and discusses potential patho-physiological routes of actions

  1. The interaction of actinide and lanthanide ions with hemoglobin and its relevance to human and environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Ali, Manjoor; Ningthoujam, Raghumani S; Gaikwad, Pallavi; Kumar, Mukesh; Nath, Bimalendu B; Pandey, Badri N

    2016-04-15

    Due to increasing use of lanthanides/actinides in nuclear and civil applications, understanding the impact of these metal ions on human health and environment is a growing concern. Hemoglobin (Hb), which occurs in all the kingdom of living organism, is the most abundant protein in human blood. In present study, effect of lanthanides and actinides [thorium: Th(IV), uranium: U(VI), lanthanum: La(III), cerium: Ce(III) and (IV)] on the structure and function of Hb has been investigated. Results showed that these metal ions, except Ce(IV) interacted with carbonyl and amide groups of Hb, which resulted in the loss of its alpha-helix conformation. However, beyond 75μM, these ions affected heme moiety. Metal-heme interaction was found to affect oxygen-binding of Hb, which seems to be governed by their closeness with the charge-to-ionic-radius ratio of iron(III). Consistently, Ce(IV) being closest to iron(III), exhibited a greater effect on heme. Binding constant and binding stoichiometry of Th(IV) were higher than that of U(VI). Experiments using aquatic midge Chironomus (possessing human homologous Hb) and human blood, further validated metal-Hb interaction and associated toxicity. Thus, present study provides a biochemical basis to understand the actinide/lanthanide-induced interference in heme, which may have significant implications for the medical and environmental management of lanthanides/actinides toxicity. PMID:26799219

  2. Interactive Social Neuroscience to Study Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rolison, Max J.; Naples, Adam J.; McPartland, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative “interactive social neuroscience” methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD. PMID:25745371

  3. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD. PMID:25745371

  4. Cytokines and other immunological biomarkers in children's environmental health studies

    PubMed Central

    Duramad, Paurene; Tager, Ira B.; Holland, Nina T.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental exposures (e.g. pesticides, air pollution, and environmental tobacco smoke) during prenatal and early postnatal development have been linked to a growing number of childhood diseases including allergic disorders and leukemia. Because the immune response plays a critical role in each of these diseases, it is important to study the effects of toxicants on the developing immune system. Children's unique susceptibility to environmental toxicants has become an important focus of the field of immunotoxicology and the use of immune biomarkers in molecular epidemiology of children's environmental health is a rapidly expanding field of research. In this review, we discuss how markers of immune status and immunotoxicity are being applied to pediatric studies, with a specific focus on the various methods used to analyze T-helper-1/2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine profiles. Furthermore, we review recent data on the effects of children's environmental exposures to volatile organic compounds, metals, and pesticides on Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and the associations of Th1/Th2 profiles with adverse health outcomes such as pediatric respiratory diseases, allergies, cancer and diabetes. Although cytokine profiles are increasingly used in children's studies, there is still a need to acquire distribution data for different ages and ethnic groups of healthy children. These data will contribute to the validation and standardization of cytokine biomarkers for future studies. Application of immunological markers in epidemiological studies will improve the understanding of mechanisms that underlie associations between environmental exposures and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:17624696

  5. Using mouse models of autism spectrum disorders to study the neurotoxicology of gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzer, Jared J.; Koenig, Claire M.; Berman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    To better study the role of genetics in autism, mouse models have been developed which mimic the genetics of specific autism spectrum and related disorders. These models have facilitated research on the role genetic susceptibility factors in the pathogenesis of autism in the absence of environmental factors. Inbred mouse strains have been similarly studied to assess the role of environmental agents on neurodevelopment, typically without the complications of genetic heterogeneity of the human population. What has not been as actively pursued, however, is the methodical study of the interaction between these factors (e.g., gene and environmental interactions in neurodevelopment). This review suggests that a genetic predisposition paired with exposure to environmental toxicants play an important role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, and may contribute to the largely unexplained rise in the number of children diagnosed with autism worldwide. Specifically, descriptions of the major mouse models of autism and toxic mechanisms of prevalent environmental chemicals are provided followed by a discussion of current and future research strategies to evaluate the role of gene and environment interactions in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23010509

  6. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  7. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  8. The Taiwan Birth Panel Study: a prospective cohort study for environmentally- related child health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases." PMID:21838884

  9. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  10. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae: Evidence linking development and environmental responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liping; Yin, Yue; You, Chenjiang; Pan, Qianli; Xu, Duo; Jin, Taijie; Zhang, Bailong; Ma, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcription factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study. PMID:26472270

  11. Investigation on the interaction behavior between bisphenol A and pepsin by spectral and docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Jian; Fei, Zhenghao; Wang, Yanqing

    2012-08-01

    In this report, the binding interaction of BPA with pepsin has been explored by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. Quenching of fluorescence of pepsin with increasing BPA concentration is a useful tool in the analysis of thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the hydrophobic, steric contacts and hydrogen bonds interactions played major roles in stabilizing the complex. The binding of BPA to pepsin induced some micro-environmental and conformational changes in pepsin. The docking studies results showed that BPA entered into the hydrophobic cavity of pepsin. The interaction of pepsin with BPA occurs in the area between domain I and domain III.

  12. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.

  13. QCM-D study of nanoparticle interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xu, Shengming; Liu, Qingxia; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-07-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) has been proven to be a powerful research tool to investigate in situ interactions between nanoparticles and different functionalized surfaces in liquids. QCM-D can also be used to quantitatively determine adsorption kinetics of polymers, DNA and proteins from solutions on various substrate surfaces while providing insights into conformations of adsorbed molecules. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on various important applications of QCM-D, focusing on deposition of nanoparticles and attachment-detachment of nanoparticles on model membranes in complex fluid systems. We will first describe the working principle of QCM-D and DLVO theory pertinent to understanding nanoparticle deposition phenomena. The interactions between different nanoparticles and functionalized surfaces for different application areas are then critically reviewed. Finally, the potential applications of QCM-D in other important fields are proposed and knowledge gaps are identified. PMID:26546115

  14. Ionosphere/microwave beam interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. E.; Duncan, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    The microwave beam of the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is predicted to interact with the ionosphere producing thermal runaway up to an altitude of about 100 kilometers at a power density threshold of 12 mW/cm sq (within a factor of two). The operation of the SPS at two frequencies, 2450 and 5800 MHz, is compared. The ionosphere interaction is less at the higher frequency, but the tropospheric problem scattering from heavy rain and hail is worse at the higher frequency. Microwave signals from communication satellites were observed to scintillate, but there is some concern that the uplink pilot signal may be distorted by the SPS heated ionosphere. The microwave scintillations are only observed in the tropics in the early evenings near the equinoxes. Results indicate that large phase errors in the uplink pilot signal can be reduced.

  15. CyberIntegrator: A Highly Interactive Problem Solving Environment to Support Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, L.; Minsker, B.; Kooper, R.; Myers, J.; Bajcsy, P.

    2006-12-01

    This work presents CyberIntegrator, a component of the Environmental Cyber-Infrastructure Demonstration (ECID) project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which is exploring cyberinfrastructure for environmental observatories with an emphasis on supporting exploratory analysis and end-to-end productivity. CyberIntegrator is a novel workflow-based system that supports interactive workflow creation, connection to external data and event streams, provenance tracking, and incorporation of workflow fragments and functionality from other systems and applications, all of which enable the types of tasks expected in observatories. This presentation describes CyberIntegrator's use in three environmental use cases that reveal its novel aspects. The three environmental use cases are: modeling fecal coliform concentrations in Copano Bay, TX; discovering vegetation variability from large remotely sensed images at the US continental scale; detecting anomalous data from sensors in Corpus Christi Bay, TX. The use cases show how CyberIntegrator supports scientists through: 1. Integration of heterogeneous tools: CyberIntegrator can execute tools from multiple (currently six) heterogeneous software packages while hiding integration complexity. It passes the outputs of a software tool to the input of another tool transparently to an end user. 2. Provenance information gathering: Meta-data about scientific analyses are gathered and stored in a meta- data repository as Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples. The information enables tracking of provenance from data to workflow to publication and provides recommendations to users based on previous community activities. 3. Interactive human-computer interface: CyberIntegrator editor provides a user-friendly interface for browsing registries of data, tools and computational resources; creating workflows in a step-by-step exploration mode; re-using and re-purposing workflows; executing process flows locally or

  16. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G L

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. Repeated doses (five oral doses per week for 2 weeks) of 300 mg/kg to rats produced slight weight loss in one of two replicate experiments. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. There were no alterations in livers from treated rabbits examined by light microscopy. No dermal sensitization was produced when concentrations of up to 50% were tested in guinea pigs. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6479506

  17. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  18. Adsorption of a Protein Monolayer via Hydrophobic Interactions Prevents Nanoparticle Aggregation under Harsh Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Blankenburg, Jan; Olson, Jana; Landes, Christy F.; Link, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We find that citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles aggregate and precipitate in saline solutions below the NaCl concentration of many bodily fluids and blood plasma. Our experiments indicate that this is due to complexation of the citrate anions with Na+ cations in solution. A dramatically enhanced colloidal stability is achieved when bovine serum albumin is adsorbed to the gold nanoparticle surface, completely preventing nanoparticle aggregation under harsh environmental conditions where the NaCl concentration is well beyond the isotonic point. Furthermore, we explore the mechanism of the formation of this albumin ‘corona’ and find that monolayer protein adsorption is most likely ruled by hydrophobic interactions. As for many nanotechnology-based biomedical and environmental applications, particle aggregation and sedimentation are undesirable and could substantially increase the risk of toxicological side-effects, the formation of the BSA corona presented here provides a low-cost bio-compatible strategy for nanoparticle stabilization and transport in highly ionic environments. PMID:23914342

  19. Brownfield Action Online - An Interactive Undergraduate Science Course in Environmental Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Bower, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Brownfield Action (BA) is a web-based, interactive, three dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collectively to explore problems in environmental forensics. Created at Barnard College (BC) in conjunction with the Center for New Media Teaching and Learning at Columbia University, BA has a 12-year history at BC of use in one semester of a two-semester Introduction to Environmental Science course that is taken by more than 100 female undergraduate non-science majors to satisfy their science requirement. The pedagogical methods and design of the BA model are grounded in a substantial research literature focused on the design, use, and effectiveness of games and simulation in education. The successful use of the BA simulation at BC and 14 other institutions in the U.S. is described in Bower et al. (2011 and 2014). Soon to be taught online to non-traditional undergraduate students, BA has 15 modules that include a reconnaissance survey; scale; topographic, bedrock, and water table maps; oral and written reports from residents and the municipal government; porosity and permeability measurements of the regolith (sand) in the area of interest; hydrocarbon chemistry; direction and velocity of groundwater flow; and methods of geophysical exploration (soil gas, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, excavation, and drilling). Student performance is assessed by weekly exercises and a semester ending Environmental Site Assessment Phase I Report that summarizes the individual and collective discoveries about a contaminated subsurface plume that emanates from a leaking underground storage tank at a gasoline station upgrade from the water well that serves the surrounding community. Texts for the course are Jonathan Harr's A Civil Action and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, which are accompanied by questions that direct the reading.

  20. Environmental Education in Action-IV: Case Studies of Teacher Education Programs for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Lynne, Ed.; Disinger, John F., Ed.

    Contained are 25 descriptions of teacher education programs for environmental education offered by colleges and universities in the United States. These programs were identified on the basis of recommendations from specialists in the state education agencies and reflect a broad spectrum of approaches and emphases. The case studies include: (1)…

  1. Role of Environmental Conditions on the Interaction of L-Arginine with Oxide Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Lee, N.; Cleaves, H. J., II; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    The current study is focused on surface interactions between L-arginine, the most basic protein amino acid, and rutile in NaCl media over a wide range of solution pH conditions, amino acid concentrations, and solution ionic strengths.

  2. Social Behavior in Interacting Squirrel Monkeys with Differential Nutritional and Environmental Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Patricia F.

    This paper reports an observational study of the effects of handling on the social behavior of squirrel monkeys who received a protein deficient diet. After birth, experimental animals received a low-protein diet for a 6-week period. A subgroup of these animals were handled between 3 and 12 weeks of age. All of the animals interacted (in four…

  3. A Study on the Management Systematize of Environmental Restoration Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoike, Toshiki; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    In recent years, it has been wrestled an investigation and the soil, groundwater contamination measures business (as follows: the environmental restoration project) that purify it and take measures against about pollution of the soil and groundwater led by a private enterprise. Japan has accumulated rich in restoration projects on the environment. The measures requires a hefty cost, it is clear that variety risks, management techniques are required to establish an efficient environmental restoration projects. In this paper, comparative study of the generation construction and environmentalrestoration projects, said the basic features of environmental restoration projects and trouble cases residents have been there. The types of features of the project for environmental restoration CM and demonstrated the business. To organize a variety of business risks and illustrates the concept of risk management. In addition, the figure of a management system based on its severity and the relationship between each elements and the business.

  4. Studying cloud aerosol interactions from space - advantages and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Wollner, Uri; Dagan, Guy

    2015-04-01

    As clouds form a complex dynamical system, theoretical studies may offer several attractors for the system to converge to. Such attractors can suggest trends that link changes in aerosol properties to changes in clouds' ones. The variety of possible trends can reflect the reality or can be the result of the research approach. Differences in the way by which the physics is described (say in the turbulence scheme), or in the configurations of the numerical schemes (say bin vs. bulk) may result in significant differences in the cloud (and cloud field) properties. Therefore, it is not uncommon to find reports of contradicting conclusions to this important problem. Observations, despite having numerous problems and limitations, are the only way by which one can find if there is a preferred trend. To do so one has to slice the data to narrow cloud types, environmental conditions and aerosol properties. Furthermore, there are many artifacts or alternative interpretations that one has to consider as a part of the analysis. Most importantly, one has to "ask" the data the right questions, trying to distil clear and coherent set of evidences that will allow not only to find the preferred trend, but also to offer a physical mechanism that later could be further tested with the aid of other approaches, such as numerical models or in situ measurements. Here we will describe some of the challenges of such studies and show how we link observations and numerical models to explain contradicting reports of aerosol interaction with warm convective clouds.

  5. Microfluidic Devices for Studying Biomolecular Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Wilbur W.; Garcia, Carlos d.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for monitoring biomolecular interactions have been invented. These devices are basically highly miniaturized liquid-chromatography columns. They are intended to be prototypes of miniature analytical devices of the laboratory on a chip type that could be fabricated rapidly and inexpensively and that, because of their small sizes, would yield analytical results from very small amounts of expensive analytes (typically, proteins). Other advantages to be gained by this scaling down of liquid-chromatography columns may include increases in resolution and speed, decreases in the consumption of reagents, and the possibility of performing multiple simultaneous and highly integrated analyses by use of multiple devices of this type, each possibly containing multiple parallel analytical microchannels. The principle of operation is the same as that of a macroscopic liquid-chromatography column: The column is a channel packed with particles, upon which are immobilized molecules of the protein of interest (or one of the proteins of interest if there are more than one). Starting at a known time, a solution or suspension containing molecules of the protein or other substance of interest is pumped into the channel at its inlet. The liquid emerging from the outlet of the channel is monitored to detect the molecules of the dissolved or suspended substance(s). The time that it takes these molecules to flow from the inlet to the outlet is a measure of the degree of interaction between the immobilized and the dissolved or suspended molecules. Depending on the precise natures of the molecules, this measure can be used for diverse purposes: examples include screening for solution conditions that favor crystallization of proteins, screening for interactions between drugs and proteins, and determining the functions of biomolecules.

  6. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  7. Soil-on-a-Chip: microfluidic platforms for environmental organismal studies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Claire E; Grossmann, Guido; i Solvas, Xavier Casadevall; deMello, Andrew J

    2016-01-21

    Soil is the habitat of countless organisms and encompasses an enormous variety of dynamic environmental conditions. While it is evident that a thorough understanding of how organisms interact with the soil environment may have substantial ecological and economical impact, current laboratory-based methods depend on reductionist approaches that are incapable of simulating natural diversity. The application of Lab-on-a-Chip or microfluidic technologies to organismal studies is an emerging field, where the unique benefits afforded by system miniaturisation offer new opportunities for the experimentalist. Indeed, precise spatiotemporal control over the microenvironments of soil organisms in combination with high-resolution imaging has the potential to provide an unprecedented view of biological events at the single-organism or single-cell level, which in turn opens up new avenues for environmental and organismal studies. Herein we review some of the most recent and interesting developments in microfluidic technologies for the study of soil organisms and their interactions with the environment. We discuss how so-called "Soil-on-a-Chip" technology has already contributed significantly to the study of bacteria, nematodes, fungi and plants, as well as inter-organismal interactions, by advancing experimental access and environmental control. Most crucially, we highlight where distinct advantages over traditional approaches exist and where novel biological insights will ensue. PMID:26645910

  8. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  9. Integrating High School Chemistry with Environmental Studies and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry class that regularly studies a local river to incorporate hands-on environmental studies into chemistry topics. This integration has proven to be a successful technique to make science come alive for students, arouse students' curiosity, and convince students that chemistry is indeed everywhere. (DKM)

  10. Interactions between Environmental Factors and Melatonin Receptor Type 1A Polymorphism in Relation to Oral Cancer Susceptibility and Clinicopathologic Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Lin, Yung-Wei; Lee, Liang-Ming; Chang, Junn-Liang; Weng, Wei-Chun; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A) gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer. Methodology and Principal Findings Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010) was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use) on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis. PMID:25806809

  11. Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance Document

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Morrison, M.; Sinclair, K.

    1999-12-01

    This guidance document is a product of the Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC). The NWCC was formed to better understand and promote responsible, credible, and comparable avian/wind energy interaction studies. Bird mortality is a concern and wind power is a potential clean and green source of electricity, making study of wind energy/bird interactions essential. This document provides an overview for regulators and stakeholders concerned with wind energy/bird interactions, as well as a more technical discussion of the basic concepts and tools for studying such interactions.

  12. Studies of the toxic interaction of disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie, R.D.; Bercz, J.P.; Wessendarp, T.K.; Condie, L.W.

    1986-11-01

    A large number and variety of compounds are formed in the process of chlorinating drinking water. Many of the compounds have been shown to be toxic and are currently being further evaluated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). One group of the halopropanones found in chlorinated drinking water is the dichloropropanones. The toxicological properties of this group have not been well characterized. In addition, a number of investigators have shown that ketones potentiate the hepatotoxicity of haloalkanes. The authors conducted a series of studies to explore both the toxicity of the dichloropropanones and their potential interaction with a well-characterized haloalkane, carbon tetrachloride. A variety of toxicological and biochemical endpoints were used to evaluate the toxicity of the dichloropropanones and their interaction with CCl/sub 4/, including cytochrome P-450 concentration, reduced glutathione levels, pentane generation, serum enzyme activities, and histopathology. Administration of 1,1-dichloropropanone (DCP) resulted in elevated serum enzymes associated with periportal necrosis. Glutathione levels were reduced by the administration of 1,1-DCP; pentane generation was not increased. When 1,1-DCP was given prior to CCl/sub 4/, the data were consistent with additivity. Administration of 1,3-DCP did not result in elevated serum enzymes, nor was there histopathologic evidence of necrosis. Glutathione levels and pentane generation in the 1,3-DCP-treated groups were the same as those of controls. Inhibition of the toxicologic effects of CCl/sub 4/ in a dose-related manner was observed when 1,3-DCP was administered prior to CCl/sub 4/.

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on disordered eating: An adoption study.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L; Suisman, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-11-01

    Twin studies indicate significant genetic, but little shared environmental, influences on eating disorders. However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted. The current study was the first adoption study to examine genetic/environmental effects for disordered eating. Participants included 123 adopted and 56 biological female sibling pairs. Disordered eating (i.e., overall eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, binge eating) was assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey (Klump, McGue, & Iacono, 2000; von Ranson, Klump, Iacono, & McGue, 2005). Biometric model fitting indicated significant genetic influences (59%-82%) on all forms of disordered eating, with nonshared environmental factors accounting for the remaining variance. Shared environmental factors did not contribute significantly to any disordered eating symptom. Our findings bolster those from twin studies and provide critical evidence of significant genetic effects on disordered eating symptoms. PMID:19899849

  14. Study of volcano/ice interactions gains momentum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Mary G.; Smellie, John L.; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Jakobsson, Sveinn P.; Skilling, Ian P.

    2001-01-01

    Observations of recent volcanic eruptions in Iceland and detailed studies of sub-glacially erupted deposits and the interaction of lava and pyroclastic flows with snow and ice have provided important new data that should lead to significant advances in the understanding of volcano/ice interaction on Earth and Mars. A conference on this subject, the first of its kind, recently brought together geologists, geophysicists, glaciologists, and planetary scientists studying various aspects of volcano-ice interaction.

  15. Wildfire Ash: Chemical Composition, Ash-Soil Interactions and Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Hamzi, Seham; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Of the five classical factors of soil formation, climate, parent material, topography, time, organisms, and recently recognized human activity, it is the latter factor which discretely includes fire and post-burn impact. However, it is considered that soil undergoing fire just experience a temporary removal of the top organic horizon, thus slightly modified and often labeled as 'temporarily disturbed' soil or soil 'under restoration/rehabilitation'. In fact the suggested seventh factor, post-burned produced ash, can act both dependently and independently of the other soil forming factors (Levin et al., 2013; Certini 2013). They are interdependent in cases where ash influences occur on time scales similar to 'natural' soil formation (Keesstra et ai., 2014) such as changes in vegetation. On the other hand, in post-fire areas a strong dependency is expected between soil-water retention mechanism, climate and topography. Wild-land fires exert many changes on the physical, chemical, mineralogical, biological, and morphological properties of soil that, in turn, affect the soil's hydrology and nutrient flux, modifying its ability to support vegetation and resist erosion. The ash produced by forest fires is a complex mixture composed of organic and inorganic particles characterized by vary physical-chemical and morphological properties. The importance of this study is straightforwardly related to the frequency and large-scales wildfires in Mediterranean region. In fact, wildfires are major environmental and land management concern in the world, where the number and severity of wildfires has increased during the past decades (Bodi, 2013). Certini (2013) assumed that cumulatively all of the vegetated land is burned in about 31 years annually affecting 330-430 Mha (over 3% of the Earth's surface) and wide range of land cover types worldwide including forests, peatlands, shrublands and grasslands. Whereas, the fire is identified as an important factor in soil formation, the

  16. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  17. Studies of the content and process of environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Vickie Lynn

    2002-01-01

    In order to examine the extent to which four-year institutions in the U.S. provide for the environmental education of students in nonenvironmental majors, and to identify various approaches to increasing environmental literacy at the college level, chief academic officers at these institutions were surveyed electronically. Of the 496 responding institutions (representing a 42.3 percent response rate), 11.6 percent indicated that an "environmental literacy" course was required of all students, and 55.0 percent reported that such a course was available and countable toward the institution's general education requirements. At least one "environmental" minor (e.g. Environmental Science, Environmental Studies) was offered at 33.7 percent of the institutions. Thirty-nine percent reported the existence of an "environmental" academic program that offered a course appropriate for non-majors. Various approaches to achieving environmental literacy at the college level are discussed, as are statistical differences in survey responses (1) among Carnegie classifications, from Research to Baccalaureate; (2) between public and private institutions; and (3) among geographical regions. Generally, proportions of positive responses were greater among Research institutions than among the other Carnegie categories, and among public than private institutions. Also explored are ways in which higher education institutions can enhance environmental education at the K--12 level, as well as some of the obstacles to such efforts. Brief overviews are provided of several higher education institutions' activities in the area of K--12 environmental education, either in the form of direct outreach to K--12 students, teacher training (pre-service or in-service), or both. Methods used by some of the programs to assess their success are discussed briefly, as are impediments to higher education institutions' enhancement of K--12 environmental education. Prominent among these impediments are funding and

  18. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  19. Physiopathology of blood platelets: a model system for studies of cell-to-cell interaction. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This report covers the studies on basic mechanisms of cellular interactions, utilizing platelets as a model system and, when possible, concentrating on the influence that environmental factors (nutritional, metabolic, cellular, immunologic and others) have on them. The four major sections include: platelet interaction with tumor cells; a model for the study of cell-to-cell interaction; interaction of platelets with vessel walls; and platelet interactions with immune proteins.

  20. Interactions among Online Learners: A Quantitative Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Pawan; Jain, Sachin; Jain, Smita

    2011-01-01

    This study concerns the design and development of online instruction and specifically targets interaction and communication between online learners. Facilitating appropriate and meaningful interactions in designing instruction is a major goal for anyone developing a course, especially an online class. The data for this study came from the online…

  1. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs. PMID:17368921

  2. Fluorescence Studies of Protein Crystallization Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Smith, Lori; Forsythe, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    We are investigating protein-protein interactions in under- and over-saturated crystallization solution conditions using fluorescence methods. The use of fluorescence requires fluorescent derivatives where the probe does not markedly affect the crystal packing. A number of chicken egg white lysozyme (CEWL) derivatives have been prepared, with the probes covalently attached to one of two different sites on the protein molecule; the side chain carboxyl of ASP 101, within the active site cleft, and the N-terminal amine. The ASP 101 derivatives crystallize while the N-terminal amine derivatives do not. However, the N-terminal amine is part of the contact region between adjacent 43 helix chains, and blocking this site does would not interfere with formation of these structures in solution. Preliminary FRET data have been obtained at pH 4.6, 0.1M NaAc buffer, at 5 and 7% NaCl, 4 C, using the N-terminal bound pyrene acetic acid (PAA, Ex 340 nm, Em 376 nm) and ASP 101 bound Lucifer Yellow (LY, Ex 425 nm, Em 525 nm) probe combination. The corresponding Csat values are 0.471 and 0.362 mg/ml (approximately 3.3 and approximately 2.5 x 10 (exp 5) M respectively), and all experiments were carried out at approximately Csat or lower total protein concentration. The data at both salt concentrations show a consistent trend of decreasing fluorescence yield of the donor species (PAA) with increasing total protein concentration. This decrease is apparently more pronounced at 7% NaCl, consistent with the expected increased intermolecular interactions at higher salt concentrations (reflected in the lower solubility). The estimated average distance between protein molecules at 5 x 10 (exp 6) M is approximately 70 nm, well beyond the range where any FRET can be expected. The calculated RO, where 50% of the donor energy is transferred to the acceptor, for the PAA-CEWL * LY-CEWL system is 3.28 nm, based upon a PAA-CEWL quantum efficiency of 0.41.

  3. Environmental management and firm performance: a case study.

    PubMed

    Claver, Enrique; López, María D; Molina, José F; Tarí, Juan J

    2007-09-01

    This study has as its aim to help to clarify the relationship between environmental management and economic performance by integrating it into a wider framework that includes the relationship between environmental strategy and firm performance, the latter being understood as the combination of environmental performance, competitive advantage and economic performance. A case study of the COATO farming cooperative showed us that its environmental management, focused on prevention logic, has had a positive net effect on its environmental performance. Besides, the order in which these practices were adopted favoured the development of new organisational capabilities that have contributed to the appearance of advantages derived from the greater accumulated experience of employees in creating new projects that are designed to reduce residues and pollution. COATO has also obtained a competitive advantage in differentiation thanks to an improved brand image and to its increased credibility in business relationships. Finally, a positive correlation exists between the pioneering proactive strategy adopted by this cooperative and the improvement of its firm performance with respect to the other firms in its sector. PMID:17141938

  4. Gene-environment interaction from international cohorts: impact on development and evolution of occupational and environmental lung and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam; Christiani, David C

    2015-06-01

    Environmental and occupational pulmonary diseases impose a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality on the global population. However, it has been long observed that only some of those who are exposed to pulmonary toxicants go on to develop disease; increasingly, it is being recognized that genetic differences may underlie some of this person-to-person variability. Studies performed throughout the globe are demonstrating important gene-environment interactions for diseases as diverse as chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, asbestosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, and pollution-associated asthma. These findings have, in many instances, elucidated the pathogenesis of these highly complex diseases. At the same time, however, translation of this research into clinical practice has, for good reasons, proceeded slowly. No genetic test has yet emerged with sufficiently robust operating characteristics to be clearly useful or practicable in an occupational or environmental setting. In addition, occupational genetic testing raises serious ethical and policy concerns. Therefore, the primary objective must remain ensuring that the workplace and the environment are safe for all. PMID:26024343

  5. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage-Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100.

    PubMed

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host-virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered. PMID:27516757

  6. Environmental and genetic risk factors and gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R; Gottlieb, D J; O'Connor, G T

    2000-01-01

    Current understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, suggests that chronic inflammation leads to the airways obstruction and parenchymal destruction that characterize this condition. Environmental factors, especially tobacco smoke exposure, are known to accelerate longitudinal decline of lung function, and there is substantial evidence that upregulation of inflammatory pathways plays a vital role in this process. Genetic regulation of both inflammatory responses and anti-inflammatory protective mechanisms likely underlies the heritability of COPD observed in family studies. In alpha-1 protease inhibitor deficiency, the only genetic disorder known to cause COPD, lack of inhibition of elastase activity, results in the parenchymal destruction of emphysema. Other genetic polymorphisms have been hypothesized to alter the risk of COPD but have not been established as causes of this condition. It is likely that multiple genetic factors interacting with each other and with a number of environmental agents will be found to result in the development of COPD. PMID:10931792

  7. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K.; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host–virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered. PMID:27516757

  8. Interdisciplinary Teaching: Analyzing Consensus and Conflict in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caviglia-Harris, Jill L.; Hatley, James

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of a team-taught interdisciplinary course that was designed to provide cohesion between the 12 departments that participate in the environmental studies major at Salisbury University. This course provides a model for addressing several positive and negative tendencies at work in interdisciplinary programs, and provides…

  9. A Curriculum Activities Guide to In-Depth Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This guide is the fourth in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It utilizes a three-level activity approach: awareness, transitional, and operational. The intent is to provide investigations that will motivate students to pursue in-depth studies, thus encouraging them to generate…

  10. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environment Studies, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books, articles, films, and organizations dealing with the earth and environmental studies. In addition to the above topics of a general nature, specific categories include food, natural resources, origin of life, recycling, and wastes. Items are indexed only by title but information…

  11. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  12. Quantitative modeling and analysis in environmental studies. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaver, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the many mathematical modeling and statistical data analysis problems that arise in environmental studies. It makes no claim to be comprehensive nor truly up-to-date. It will appear as a chapter in a book on ecotoxicology to be published by CRC Press, probably in 1995. Workshops leading to the book creation were sponsored by The Conte Foundation.

  13. Environmental Studies at the CIC Universities--A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Kenneth W.; Smith, Thomas W.

    This survey presents the highlights (not an inventory) of the environmental studies, capabilities, and instrumentalities on the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) campuses. The CIC institutions include the University of Illinois, Indiana University, University of Iowa, University of Michigan, Michigan State University, University of…

  14. A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck

    2013-01-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…

  15. Greenwich Township Environmental Analysis: A Field Study 1972-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahorik, J. Wesley, Ed.

    This project attempted to develop a baseline on which the community could assess its own local environment. The objectives of the study include developing a list of references and resources, developing an assessment model for community use, composing an environmental quality index, determining areas to be protected and persuading decision-making…

  16. An Environmental Studies Enrichment Program an UNC Pembroke

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, Andrew N.

    2001-12-19

    This document represents a final report of four years of activities at UNC Pembroke concerning DOE grant number DE-FG02-96EW13510, entitled An Environmental Studies Enrichment Program at UNC Pembroke. The four-year cycle has been extremely successful. An overview of the training program is presented and success of program graduates is estimated.

  17. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... decommissioning. II. Further Information DG-4016, was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011 (76 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  18. Environmental Influences on Children's Language: A Model and Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kaiser, Ann P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a conceptual model of the language learning environment of young children, incorporating child engagement with the physical environment, contributions of child and caregiver, and caregiver mediation of physical environment. A case study illustrates the impact of a relatively simple home environmental intervention on a…

  19. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 6--Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Based on the environment and directed at elementary and intermediate level students, 5 field trips are a significant part of the 12 social studies activities in the sixth booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center outlining environmental and outdoor education activities. Most of the activities include objectives, activity description,…

  20. Environmental Concern and Sociodemographic Variables: A Study of Statistical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chenyang; McCright, Aaron M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the social bases of environmental concern over the past 30 years have produced somewhat inconsistent results regarding the effects of sociodemographic variables, such as gender, income, and place of residence. The authors argue that model specification errors resulting from violation of two statistical assumptions (interval-level…

  1. Environmental Policy. Law, and Administration: A Guide to Advanced Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Lynton K.; Siddiqi, Toufiq A.

    This guide is intended to assist the organization of studies dealing with the behavior of human societies and their institutions in relation to their environments. Emphasis is on contemporary industrial and postindustrial society as it expresses its environmental relationships through action defined by policies, laws, and administrative…

  2. Environmental Study Area Prototype, Idea Sketch No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueblo Regional Planning Commission, CO.

    Development of an environmental study area in conjunction with a school landscaping project is outlined in this model. The Pueblo (Colorado) Regional Planning Commission and the Pueblo Beautiful Association determined the need for landscaping school grounds. Together with a school district committee of teachers and community leaders interested in…

  3. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology.

  4. Environmental Studies, Conference Report, Secondary Schools Science Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    In addition to complete texts or summaries of a number of papers considering the scope and relevance of "environmental studies" to the secondary and elementary school programs in Victoria (Australia), many teaching techniques are described. Techniques for measuring carrying capacity of roadways, examining published air pollution data, estimation…

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  6. Interaction between radiation effects, gravity and other environmental factors in Tribolium confusum.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Tobias, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, was studied through all stages of its life cycle. The results show that for each environmental factor there is a limited range of values within which the organisms are able best to survive and that this optimum range of survival becomes smaller when additional stresses are imposed upon the organism. This has been shown for external temperature, oxygen content of the atmosphere, gravity compensation, and radiation. On Biosatellite II it was shown that Tribolium pupae irradiated in spaceflight exhibited more wing abnormalities than ground controls. Later it was shown that gravity compensation, when combined with irradiation, can induce a similar effect at ground level.

  7. Microbiome-Epigenome Interactions and the Environmental Origins of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fofanova, Tatiana Y.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Kellermayer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, which includes Crohn's and ulcerative colitis, has risen alarmingly in the Western and developing world in recent decades. Epidemiological (including monozygotic twin and migrant) studies highlight the substantial role of environment and nutrition in IBD etiology. Here we review the literature supporting the developmental and environmental origins hypothesis of IBD. We also provide a detailed exploration of how the human microbiome and epigenome (primarily through DNA methylation) may be important elements in the developmental origins of IBD in both children and adults. PMID:26308318

  8. Pattern formation--A missing link in the study of ecosystem response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Meron, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes can affect the functioning of an ecosystem directly, through the response of individual life forms, or indirectly, through interspecific interactions and community dynamics. The feasibility of a community-level response has motivated numerous studies aimed at understanding the mutual relationships between three elements of ecosystem dynamics: the abiotic environment, biodiversity and ecosystem function. Since ecosystems are inherently nonlinear and spatially extended, environmental changes can also induce pattern-forming instabilities that result in spatial self-organization of life forms and resources. This, in turn, can affect the relationships between these three elements, and make the response of ecosystems to environmental changes far more complex. Responses of this kind can be expected in dryland ecosystems, which show a variety of self-organizing vegetation patterns along the rainfall gradient. This paper describes the progress that has been made in understanding vegetation patterning in dryland ecosystems, and the roles it plays in ecosystem response to environmental variability. The progress has been achieved by modeling pattern-forming feedbacks at small spatial scales and up-scaling their effects to large scales through model studies. This approach sets the basis for integrating pattern formation theory into the study of ecosystem dynamics and addressing ecologically significant questions such as the dynamics of desertification, restoration of degraded landscapes, biodiversity changes along environmental gradients, and shrubland-grassland transitions. PMID:26529391

  9. 75 FR 77897 - Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental... National Historic Trail Feasibility Study. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of... Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility...

  10. Study of soliton interactions in sodium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolfi, D. W.; Hahn, E. L.

    1980-04-01

    Collision properties of optical solitons are studied experimentally using the technique of self-induced transparency. Numerical plane-wave simulations of collisions using parameters for the input pulses and the atomic system appropriate to the actual experimental situation are presented and compared to matching analytic solutions derived previously by other workers. Experimental studies of overtaking collisions in sodium vapor are presented for the first time and found to be in qualitative agreement with numerical results at intermediate optical absorption. At higher absorption, dynamic transverse effects cause a rapid attenuation of the pulses which prevents the observation of complete collisions. Attempts to compensate for losses by focusing the input beam are described.

  11. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments. PMID:27094437

  12. Research review. Interactions between environmental chemicals and drug biotransformation in man.

    PubMed

    Alvares, A P

    1978-01-01

    Many factors influence the metabolism of drugs in man. Besides genetic factors, environmental factors may play a significant role in explaining the variation observed in the rates of drug metabolism between different individuals. Intentional or unintentional exposure to environmental chemicals could enhance or inhibit the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidases that metabolise drugs and other foreign chemicals, as well as endogenous substrates such as steroid hormones. A major source of such exposure may be occupational. Exposure to the heavy metal, lead, has been shown to inhibit drug metabolism; whereas intensive exposure to chlorinated insecticides, and other halogenated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls, has been shown to enhance the metabolism of test drugs such as antipyrine and phenylbutazone. An intentional source of exposure to foreign chemicals is cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contains polycyclic hydrocarbons, which are known inducers of hepatic mixed function oxidases. A number of studies have shown that cigarette smoking can alter the pharmacological action and/or the metabolism of some drugs. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that cigarette smoking decreases the bioavailability of phenacetin and increases dosage requirements of theophylline by enhancing their rate of metabolism. Data, which are not very conclusive, indicate that heavy marijuana use may have an inhibitory effect on metabolism of some drugs and an inducing effect on others such as theophylline. Dietary factors may also play a significant role in the regulation of drug metabolism. Charcoal broiling which introduces polycyclic hydrocarbons into foods has been shown to enhance the metabolism of the test drug, antipyrine, and of such commonly used drugs as phenacetin and theophylline. Such intentional or unintentional exposure to environmental chemicals which may alter the rates of drug metabolism in man indicates the importance of individualisation of drug therapy. PMID

  13. Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method for determination of aromatic amines in environmental water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, precise, and accurate hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) method has been developed for the determination of 5 aromatic amines in environmental water samples. Chromatography was carried out on a bare silica column, using a mixture of acetonitrile: phosphate buffer (10 mM...

  14. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  15. Differential susceptibility to environmental influences: Interactions between child temperament and parenting in adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rioux, Charlie; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2016-02-01

    Temperament and parental practices (PP) are important predictors of adolescent alcohol use (AU); however, less is known about how they combine to increase or decrease risk of AU. This study examined whether age 6 temperament (i.e., impulsivity and inhibitory control) interacted with age 6 coercive PP and/or age 14 parental monitoring to predict AU at 15 years among 209 adolescents. Results showed that low parental monitoring was associated with more frequent AU and that coercive PP interacted with impulsivity to predict AU. This interaction was examined as a function of two models that were not studied before in the prediction of AU: the diathesis-stress model (i.e., impulsive children are more "vulnerable" to adverse PP than those with an easy temperament); and the differential susceptibility model (i.e., impulsive children are also more likely to benefit from good PP). Results supported the differential susceptibility model by showing that impulsive children were not only at higher risk for AU when combined with high coercive PP but also benefit from the absence of coercive PP. This supports the suggestion that the conception of certain temperament characteristics, or in this case impulsivity, as a "vulnerability" for adolescent AU, may need revision because it misrepresents the malleability it may imply. PMID:26030853

  16. Differential susceptibility to environmental influences: Interactions between child temperament and parenting in adolescent alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    RIOUX, CHARLIE; CASTELLANOS-RYAN, NATALIE; PARENT, SOPHIE; VITARO, FRANK; TREMBLAY, RICHARD E.; SÉGUIN, JEAN R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperament and parental practices (PP) are important predictors of adolescent alcohol use (AU); however, less is known about how they combine to increase or decrease risk of AU. This study examined whether age 6 temperament (i.e., impulsivity and inhibitory control) interacted with age 6 coercive PP and/or age 14 parental monitoring to predict AU at 15 years among 209 adolescents. Results showed that low parental monitoring was associated with more frequent AU and that coercive PP interacted with impulsivity to predict AU. This interaction was examined as a function of two models that were not studied before in the prediction of AU: the diathesis–stress model (i.e., impulsive children are more “vulnerable” to adverse PP than those with an easy temperament); and the differential susceptibility model (i.e., impulsive children are also more likely to benefit from good PP). Results supported the differential susceptibility model by showing that impulsive children were not only at higher risk for AU when combined with high coercive PP but also benefit from the absence of coercive PP. This supports the suggestion that the conception of certain temperament characteristics, or in this case impulsivity, as a “vulnerability” for adolescent AU, may need revision because it misrepresents the malleability it may imply. PMID:26030853

  17. The effect of environmental plasma interactions on the performance of the solar sail system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, M.; Laquey, R.; Deforest, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    Interaction between the solar sail and the natural plasma environment were examined for deleterious impacts upon the operation of the sail and its associated payload. Electrostatic charging of the sail in the solar wind and in near earth environment were examined. Deployment problems were studied. An analysis of electromechanical oscillations coupling the sail to the natural plasma was performed. As a result of these studies, it was concluded that none of these effects will have a significant negative impact upon the sail operation. The natural environment will be significantly perturbed and this will preclude measurements of electric and magnetic fields from an attached payload.

  18. Presenting an Environmental Analysis to the Public: An Interactive Computer Based Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P.; Hopkins, J.; Birdsell, K.; Hollis, D.

    2001-12-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Environmental Restoration Project is currently involved in clean-up of many legacy waste sites associated with work performed in the past at LANL. A growing part of the ER mission is to involve the public in the processes of monitoring, remediation, and stewardship. The challange of presenting complex environmantal analysis to the public is addressed via an educational exercise that uses web-based applications to allow interactive learning from a home computer. The presentation begins with discussions of the site history, regulations, and basic facts about VOCs. Measured concentrations of vapor phase VOC are shown on figures which clearly relate the plume to features of concern such as the water table and nearby surface facilities. Nature and extent are demonstrated with an animation that visually shows the relationship of the vapor phase VOC plume to the monitoring boreholes. Simulations of VOC vapor transport are describe and compared to data. Conclusions based on the data and modeling complete the exercise. We hope to use this type of educational tool in the future to provide the public with the knowledge they need to become more proactive in the process of remediating legacy waste sites.

  19. Molecular modeling of interactions in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding analyte interactions with sensors made from polymer-carbon black composite films. The sensors are used in an Electronic Nose (ENose) which is used for monitoring the breathing air quality in human habitats. The model mimics the experimental conditions of the composite film deposition and formation and was developed using molecular modeling and simulation tools. The Dreiding 2.21 Force Field was used for the polymer and analyte molecules while graphite parameters were assigned to the carbon black atoms. The polymer considered for this work is methyl vinyl ether / maleic acid copolymer. The target analytes include both inorganic (NH3) and organic (methanol) types of compound. Results indicate different composite-analyte interaction behavior.

  20. Interaction of ribonucleotides with oxide and silicate minerals under varying environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillie, C.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large quantities of nucleic acids are found in natural environments, released after the death of an organism and subsequent cell lysis [1]. Nucleic acids are known to adsorb on mineral surfaces [2, 3, 4], which protect them from degradation, whether enzymatic [5, 6] or UV-mediated [7]. It may then contribute to the extracellular genetic pool available in soils to microorganisms for horizontal gene transfers [8]. In order to better understand the behaviour of extracellular nucleic acids in soils, we have investigated the interactions between nucleotides, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP, 5'-AMP and 5'-UMP, and α-alumina as a model compound for Al in six-fold coordination in soil minerals. We carried out batch adsorption experiments over a wide range of pH, ionic strength and surface loading. Alumina adsorbs high amounts of nucleotides > 2 μmol/m2. In similar environmental conditions, swelling clays such as nontronite and montmorillonite adsorb less than 0.1 μmol/m2 if the total surface area is taken under consideration. However, if only the edges of clay particles are considered, the amount of nucleotides adsorbed reaches values between 1.2 and 2 μmol/m2 [9], similar to the alumina and consistent with ';oxide-like' surface sites on the edges of the clay particles. Surface complexation modeling enabled us to predict the speciation of the surface species on the alumina, as well as the stoichiometry and thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the adsorption of nucleotides. We used the extended triple-layer model (ETLM), that takes into account the electrical work linked to the desorption of chemisorbed water molecules during the formation of inner-sphere complexes. Two surface species are thought to form on the surface of corundum: a monodentate inner-sphere complex, dominant at pH < 7.5, and a bidentate outer-sphere complex, dominant at higher pH. Both complexes involve interactions between the negatively charged phosphate group and the positively charged surface of alumina. Our

  1. Study of molecular interactions with 13C DNP-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, Mathilde H.; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille R.; Baumann, Herbert; Petersen, Bent O.; Karlsson, Magnus; Duus, Jens Ø.; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan H.

    2010-03-01

    NMR spectroscopy is an established, versatile technique for the detection of molecular interactions, even when these interactions are weak. Signal enhancement by several orders of magnitude through dynamic nuclear polarization alleviates several practical limitations of NMR-based interaction studies. This enhanced non-equilibrium polarization contributes sensitivity for the detection of molecular interactions in a single NMR transient. We show that direct 13C NMR ligand binding studies at natural isotopic abundance of 13C gets feasible in this way. Resultant screens are easy to interpret and can be performed at 13C concentrations below μM. In addition to such ligand-detected studies of molecular interaction, ligand binding can be assessed and quantified with enzymatic assays that employ hyperpolarized substrates at varying enzyme inhibitor concentrations. The physical labeling of nuclear spins by hyperpolarization thus provides the opportunity to devise fast novel in vitro experiments with low material requirement and without the need for synthetic modifications of target or ligands.

  2. Ocean dynamics studies. [of current-wave interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Both the theoretical and experimental investigations into current-wave interactions are discussed. The following three problems were studied: (1) the dispersive relation of a random gravity-capillary wave field; (2) the changes of the statistical properties of surface waves under the influence of currents; and (3) the interaction of capillary-gravity with the nonuniform currents. Wave current interaction was measured and the feasibility of using such measurements for remote sensing of surface currents was considered. A laser probe was developed to measure the surface statistics, and the possibility of using current-wave interaction as a means of current measurement was demonstrated.

  3. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  4. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  5. Gene-environment interactions related to body mass: School policies and social context as environmental moderators

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Roettger, Michael E.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Harris, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of institutional resources and policies, whose origins lie in political processes, in shaping the genetic etiology of body mass among a national sample of adolescents. Using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we decompose the variance of body mass into environmental and genetic components. We then examine the extent to which the genetic influences on body mass are different across the 134 schools in the study. Taking advantage of school differences in both health-related policies and social norms regarding body size, we examine how institutional resources and policies alter the relative impact of genetic influences on body mass. For the entire sample, we estimate a heritability of .82, with the remaining .18 due to unique environmental factors. However, we also show variation about this estimate and provide evidence suggesting that social norms and institutional policies often mask genetic vulnerabilities to increased weight. Empirically, we demonstrate that more-restrictive school policies and policies designed to curb weight gain are also associated with decreases the proportion of variance in body mass that is due to additive genetic influences. PMID:23236222

  6. Interaction between dose and susceptibility to environmental cancer: a short review.

    PubMed Central

    Hietanen, E; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, K; Vainio, H

    1997-01-01

    Increased risk of environmentally induced cancer is associated with various types of exposures and host factors, including differences in carcinogen metabolism. Since many carcinogenic compounds require metabolic activation to enable them to react with cellular macromolecules, individual features of carcinogen metabolism may play an essential role in the development of environmental cancer. In this context, cigarette smoking has often been the main type of carcinogenic exposure examined in human studies. Increasing attention has recently been paid to the dose level at which individual susceptibility may be observed. Present studies on increased risk of smoking-related lung cancer associated with phenotypic or genotypic variation of the genes encoding for CYP1A1 or CYP2D6 enzymes are summarized. Similarly, higher risks of lung or bladder cancer seen at various levels of smoking in association with polymorphism of the glutathione S-transferase gene GSTM1 or NAT1 and NAT2 genes involved in N-acetylation are reviewed. Finally, the influence of CYP2E1, GSTM1, or the combined at-risk genotype on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in smokers is briefly discussed. PMID:9255556

  7. Using Facebook Data to Analyze Learner Interaction during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although study abroad is viewed as an ideal environment for interaction in the target language, research in this area has relied mostly upon self-reported data, which pose challenges regarding recall bias and participant commitment. This article shows how Facebook data can be used to analyze naturally occurring learner interactions during study…

  8. Teacher Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosevear, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This case study investigated the process of adopting and integrating interactive whiteboards into the daily practice of teachers and compared the findings to relevant theoretical models. Participants were drawn from a small international school in Damascus, Syria, where interactive whiteboards were introduced for the first time. The findings…

  9. Studies defining interactions between hypertension and air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, R T; Costa, D L; Haber, S; Iwai, J

    1980-01-01

    An animal model of hypertension was developed by breeding two lines of rats. The model was used to investigate interactions between commonly encountered air pollutants and the development of hypertension. This paper summarizes studies of the interaction of sulfur dioxide and ozone with the models. (ACR)

  10. A Usability Study of Interactive Web-Based Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa

    2011-01-01

    This research advances the understanding of the usability of marketing case study modules in the area of interactive web-based technologies through the assignment of seven interactive case modules in a Principles of Marketing course. The case modules were provided for marketing students by the publisher, McGraw Hill Irwin, of the "Marketing"…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Interaction Analysis in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Sister Mariellen

    This study focused on the Instructor-Group Interaction Scale, formulated by Hildebrand, Wilson, and Dienst (1971), to explore the feasibility and usefulness of an instrument for recording instructor-group interaction in the college classroom. It was hypothesized that data from the scale would (a) provide the instructor with the pattern of…

  12. A Bayesian Multilocus Association Method: Allowing for Higher-Order Interaction in Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Albrechtsen, Anders; Castella, Sofie; Andersen, Gitte; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    For most common diseases with heritable components, not a single or a few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explain most of the variance for these disorders. Instead, much of the variance may be caused by interactions (epistasis) among multiple SNPs or interactions with environmental conditions. We present a new powerful statistical model for analyzing and interpreting genomic data that influence multifactorial phenotypic traits with a complex and likely polygenic inheritance. The new method is based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and allows for identification of sets of SNPs and environmental factors that when combined increase disease risk or change the distribution of a quantitative trait. Using simulations, we show that the MCMC method can detect disease association when multiple, interacting SNPs are present in the data. When applying the method on real large-scale data from a Danish population-based cohort, multiple interactions are identified that severely affect serum triglyceride levels in the study individuals. The method is designed for quantitative traits but can also be applied on qualitative traits. It is computationally feasible even for a large number of possible interactions and differs fundamentally from most previous approaches by entertaining nonlinear interactions and by directly addressing the multiple-testing problem. PMID:17435250

  13. The use of grounded theory to study interaction.

    PubMed

    Maijala, Hanna; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper Hanna Maijala, Eija Paavilainen and Päivi Astedt-Kurki examine the use of grounded theory from the perspective of data analysis. The paper reports on the findings of a Finnish study of interaction between caregivers and families expecting an impaired child. The objective of the study was to describe and explain the social processes between caregivers and families expecting an impaired child by identifying the central descriptive concepts, their interconnections, and the overall structure of the interaction process. The authors conclude that grounded theory is a diverse approach to studying interaction, and that the constant comparative method is a challenge to a researcher's perseverance and flexibility. PMID:14708428

  14. Modelling the impact of the environmental scenario on population recovery from chemical stress exposure: a case study using Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gabsi, Faten; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Recovery of organisms is an important attribute for evaluating the acceptability of chemicals' effects in ecological risk assessment in Europe. Recovery in the field does not depend on the chemical's properties and type of exposure only, but it is strongly linked to important environmental variables and biological interactions as well. Yet, these remain only marginally considered in the European risk assessment of chemicals. Here, we use individual-based modelling to investigate how the environmental scenario affects Daphnia magna population recovery from chemical exposure. Simulation experiments were performed for chemicals with lethality levels ranging from 40% to 90% at different food and temperature conditions. The same toxicity levels were then tested in combination with biological interactions including predation or competition. Results show that for the same chemical effect strength, populations often exhibited different recovery times in a different environmental context. The interactions between the chemical and the environmental variables were the strongest determinants of population recovery. Most important, biotic interactions even induced opposite effects on recovery at low and at high mortality levels. Results of this study infer that no specific role can be attributed to any abiotic or biotic variable in isolation. We conclude that unless the complex interactive mechanisms between the different factors constituting the full environmental scenario are taken into account in risk assessment, we cannot achieve a complete understanding of recovery processes from chemical effects. PMID:25261821

  15. Wildfire Ash: Chemical Composition, Ash-Soil Interactions and Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Hamzi, Seham; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Of the five classical factors of soil formation, climate, parent material, topography, time, organisms, and recently recognized human activity, it is the latter factor which discretely includes fire and post-burn impact. However, it is considered that soil undergoing fire just experience a temporary removal of the top organic horizon, thus slightly modified and often labeled as 'temporarily disturbed' soil or soil 'under restoration/rehabilitation'. In fact the suggested seventh factor, post-burned produced ash, can act both dependently and independently of the other soil forming factors (Levin et al., 2013; Certini 2013). They are interdependent in cases where ash influences occur on time scales similar to 'natural' soil formation (Keesstra et ai., 2014) such as changes in vegetation. On the other hand, in post-fire areas a strong dependency is expected between soil-water retention mechanism, climate and topography. Wild-land fires exert many changes on the physical, chemical, mineralogical, biological, and morphological properties of soil that, in turn, affect the soil's hydrology and nutrient flux, modifying its ability to support vegetation and resist erosion. The ash produced by forest fires is a complex mixture composed of organic and inorganic particles characterized by vary physical-chemical and morphological properties. The importance of this study is straightforwardly related to the frequency and large-scales wildfires in Mediterranean region. In fact, wildfires are major environmental and land management concern in the world, where the number and severity of wildfires has increased during the past decades (Bodi, 2013). Certini (2013) assumed that cumulatively all of the vegetated land is burned in about 31 years annually affecting 330-430 Mha (over 3% of the Earth's surface) and wide range of land cover types worldwide including forests, peatlands, shrublands and grasslands. Whereas, the fire is identified as an important factor in soil formation, the

  16. Remote Environmental Monitoring of Hydrologic/ Biotic Interaction in a Mountain Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Tuli, A.; Kamai, T.; Kizito, F.; Bales, R.; Broad, A.; Hopmans, J.

    2008-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks offer several advantages in monitoring of dynamic environmental variables in remote landscapes and offer a promising approach to realize the full potential of environmental monitoring. Wireless sensors also offer the advantage of real time data collection and sensor/network management and reduced long-term costs. Better understanding of surface water budgets in remote landscapes warrants close monitoring of moisture and temperature variability in near surfaces soils. This work describes field data demonstrating the functionality of four different wireless networks, at two field sites, both part of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). Equipment used varied from traditional point to point radio communication to a wireless mote based, distributed network. Sensors measuring water potential, volumetric water content, and soil temperature were deployed at a variety of sites including, a remote alpine meadow, along a topographic gradient with a dense tree canopy and within the root structure of an individual tree. The sensors were reactive to moisture and temperature variations and the wireless systems met the goal of providing informative data on dynamic responses of soil moisture to precipitation, snow melt and changes in vegetative demand. The systems were dependable, with low power consumption and were robust enough to withstand harsh winter conditions at a high elevation site. The study highlights measurement accuracy, power consumption, and data transmission limitations of the three systems. We demonstrate that deployment, implementation and long-term field monitoring in remote and challenging environments is possible with a variety of wireless systems.

  17. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  18. Age of Onset in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Complex Interactions between Genetic and Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Laura; Toscano, Elena; Porcelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the role of a candidate gene for major psychosis, Sialyltransferase (ST8SIA2), in the risk to develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorders, taking into account exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Eight polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 94 Schizophreniainpatients and 176 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients were also evaluated for SLEs in different life periods. None of the SNPs showed association with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, when crossing genetic variants with childhood SLEs, we could observe trends of interaction with age of onset. Though several limitations, our results support a protective role of ST8SIA2 in individuals exposed to moderate childhood stress. PMID:27081388

  19. Age of Onset in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Complex Interactions between Genetic and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Elena; Porcelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the role of a candidate gene for major psychosis, Sialyltransferase (ST8SIA2), in the risk to develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorders, taking into account exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Eight polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 94 Schizophreniainpatients and 176 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients were also evaluated for SLEs in different life periods. None of the SNPs showed association with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, when crossing genetic variants with childhood SLEs, we could observe trends of interaction with age of onset. Though several limitations, our results support a protective role of ST8SIA2 in individuals exposed to moderate childhood stress. PMID:27081388

  20. Interactions of Environmental Factors and APOA1-APOC3-APOA4-APOA5 Gene Cluster Gene Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanhua; Yu, Yaqin; Zhao, Tiancheng; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yang, Guang; Yao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Ma, Yue; Shi, Jieping; Jiang, Jing; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for Metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and the MetS risk and analyzed the interactions of environmental factors and APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster polymorphisms with MetS. Methods A study on the prevalence and risk factors for MetS was conducted using data from a large cross-sectional survey representative of the population of Jilin Province situated in northeastern China. A total of 16,831 participations were randomly chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling of residents aged from 18 to 79 years in all nine administrative areas of the province. Environmental factors associated with MetS were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses based on the weighted sample data. A sub-sample of 1813 survey subjects who met the criteria for MetS patients and 2037 controls from this case-control study were used to evaluate the association between SNPs and MetS risk. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and SNP genotyping was determined by MALDI-TOF-MS. The associations between SNPs and MetS were examined using a case-control study design. The interactions of environmental factors and APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster polymorphisms with MetS were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The overall adjusted prevalence of MetS was 32.86% in Jilin province. The prevalence of MetS in men was 36.64%, which was significantly higher than the prevalence in women (29.66%). MetS was more common in urban areas (33.86%) than in rural areas (31.80%). The prevalence of MetS significantly increased with age (OR = 8.621, 95%CI = 6.594–11.272). Mental labor (OR = 1.098, 95%CI = 1.008–1.195), current smoking (OR = 1.259, 95%CI = 1.108–1.429), excess salt intake (OR = 1.252, 95%CI = 1.149–1.363), and a fruit and dairy intake less

  1. Pharmacogenomic study using bio- and nanobioelectrochemistry: Drug-DNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    Small molecules that bind genomic DNA have proven that they can be effective anticancer, antibiotic and antiviral therapeutic agents that affect the well-being of millions of people worldwide. Drug-DNA interaction affects DNA replication and division; causes strand breaks, and mutations. Therefore, the investigation of drug-DNA interaction is needed to understand the mechanism of drug action as well as in designing DNA-targeted drugs. On the other hand, the interaction between DNA and drugs can cause chemical and conformational modifications and, thus, variation of the electrochemical properties of nucleobases. For this purpose, electrochemical methods/biosensors can be used toward detection of drug-DNA interactions. The present paper reviews the drug-DNA interactions, their types and applications of electrochemical techniques used to study interactions between DNA and drugs or small ligand molecules that are potentially of pharmaceutical interest. The results are used to determine drug binding sites and sequence preference, as well as conformational changes due to drug-DNA interactions. Also, the intention of this review is to give an overview of the present state of the drug-DNA interaction cognition. The applications of electrochemical techniques for investigation of drug-DNA interaction were reviewed and we have discussed the type of qualitative or quantitative information that can be obtained from the use of each technique. PMID:26838928

  2. Heart rate measures in blind cave crayfish during environmental disturbances and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Listeman, L R; Doshi, D; Cooper, R L

    2000-09-01

    Most animals continually assess the environment in which they live and alter their behavior according to various stimuli. As an observer, one looks for changes in a behavior indicating that an animal responded to a particular event. When the animal does not make significant behavioral changes as measured by bodily movements, the animal may be characterized as unresponsive to a given stimulus. This study demonstrates that when behavioral body movements can not be observed an internal physiological measure of heart rate (HR) shows dramatic changes following presentation of defined stimuli. This study used the blind cave crayfish and examined their responsiveness to the following stimuli: light (infrared, dim red, and white), water-borne vibrations, removal of water, olfactory cues, and social interaction with partners. This study demonstrates that there is substantial individual variation of HR at basal levels and with the intensity of an social interaction. We find HR is a reasonable measure of the responsiveness of blind cave crayfish to given stimuli even in the absence of observable behavioral changes. This enables the observer to determine if an individual is responsive to and making an assessment of particular cues. PMID:10996818

  3. Will environmental interventions affect the level of mastery motivation among children with disabilities? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim

    2015-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities tend to demonstrate lower levels of mastery motivation in comparison with typically developing children. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and social environmental interventions on the mastery motivation of children with disabilities. Participants included 19 children (from two classes) with disabilities between the ages of 2-4 years from an educational rehabilitation centre. The Individualized Assessment of Mastery Motivation was used to assess the level of mastery motivation; the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised and the Teacher-Child Interaction Observation were used to assess the physical and social environments. A counterbalance study design was used such that the children from the two classes received two phases of intervention, social and physical environmental interventions. The study's results point to the advantage of the social intervention, over the physical one, in improving the child's mastery motivation. However, the results lend support for the efficacy of using both aspects of environmental changes to the overall persistent score. The study findings, although preliminary, demonstrate the efficacy of providing both social and physical environmental interventions to improve mastery motivation. PMID:25308165

  4. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The issue of the effects of the space environment on spacecraft needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 KeV - 2.5 MeV can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 KeV to 2.5 MeV. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly less than 400 nm wavelength, is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study in order to perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. That system has continued to function as planned and has been used in carrying out portions of the proposed study.

  5. Colonization of Abandoned Land by Juniperus thurifera Is Mediated by the Interaction of a Diverse Dispersal Assemblage and Environmental Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers’ faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience. PMID:23071692

  6. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience. PMID:23071692

  7. Virtual Visit to the School of Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KnowledgeWorks Foundation, Cincinnati, OH.

    This CD-ROM presents a virtual visit to the School of Environmental Studies, located on the grounds of its major community partner, the Minnesota Zoo. This 11th and 12th grade high school was opened in 1995, and in 1999 it was named a New American High School by the U.S. Department of Education because of its new, innovative approach to learning.…

  8. Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning through an Environmental Water Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhl, Lorie; Yearsley, Kaye; Silva, Andrew J.

    1997-12-01

    An interdisciplinary environmental water quality study was designed and conducted to enhance training and employability of chemical and environmental technician students in associate degree programs. Four project objectives were identified as a means to enhance the educational experience and employability of our students: provide experience on analytical instrumentation for organic compounds (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, GC/MS), require interdisciplinary group interactions and problem solving, provide experience with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures, and require cooperation with state agencies/private organizations. Students worked in groups that included representatives from both programs to develop project objectives and a Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) following EPA standards. Input from personnel at Idaho's Department of Environmental Quality and Bureau of Laboratories and from volunteers in an environmental "watch dog" organization called the Henry's Fork Foundation aided students in the development and implementation of their SAP. Subsequently, groups sampled sections of the Henry's Fork River and analyzed for organic, inorganic, and fecal contaminants. Analysis included EPA method 525.2 for pesticides using GC/MS. Data from all river segments was shared and each group submitted a final report analyzing results. Surveys completed by students and instructors indicate that the project is a successful teaching method allowing introduction of new skills as well as review of important technical and employability skills.

  9. The interactions between an orthodox Christian worldview and environmental attitudes and beliefs; for the purpose of developing better instructional practice in support of environmental/ecological attitudes and knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Robert S.

    Students bring with them to the classroom a wide variety of beliefs and attitudes about the environment and its associated issues. One worldview belief structure prominently discussed in ecological discussions is the worldview of orthodox Christianity. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative measures to analyze the degree to which the orthodox Christian worldview of students influences their environmental attitudes and beliefs. Surveys were conducted with 281 undergraduate pre-service elementary teaching students enrolled in a science methods course to determine the degree to which orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews interact with one another. From this pool of students, 16 students representing both positive and neutral-negative orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews were interviewed to determine how orthodox Christian students may differ from non-orthodox Christian students in their attitudes and beliefs about the environment. Analysis revealed that students with orthodox Christian worldview beliefs do not as a general rule use their orthodox Christian worldview beliefs in the discussion of their environmental beliefs and attitudes. Exceptions to this may occur when environmental issues touch on orthodox Christian worldview beliefs which have a bearing on matters of origin, life purpose, or destiny. These interactions between ecological and orthodox Christian worldviews have implications for the teaching of environmental issues to students in that the orthodox Christian worldview of students is not likely to hinder the appropriation of concepts associated with environmental issues. However, moving students with an orthodox Christian worldview to a view where they become actively involved in environmental issue resolution may require educators to situate curriculum in such a way as to invoke the students' orthodox Christian worldview beliefs.

  10. Uranium interaction with two multi-resistant environmental bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations. PMID:23251623

  11. Uranium Interaction with Two Multi-Resistant Environmental Bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations. PMID:23251623

  12. Key Considerations and Methods in the Study of Gene-Environment Interactions.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul H G; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    With increased involvement of genetic data in most epidemiological investigations, gene-environment (G × E) interactions now stand as a topic, which must be meticulously assessed and thoroughly understood. The level, mode, and outcomes of interactions between environmental factors and genetic traits have the capacity to modulate disease risk. These must, therefore, be carefully evaluated as they have the potential to offer novel insights on the "missing heritability problem", reaching beyond our current limitations. First, we review a definition of G × E interactions. We then explore how concepts such as the early manifestation of the genetic components of a disease, the heterogeneity of complex traits, the clear definition of epidemiological strata, and the effect of varying physiological conditions can affect our capacity to detect (or miss) G × E interactions. Lastly, we discuss the shortfalls of regression models to study G × E interactions and how other methods such as the ReliefF algorithm, pattern recognition methods, or the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) method can enable us to more adequately model G × E interactions. Overall, we present the elements to consider and a path to follow when studying genetic determinants of disease in order to uncover potential G × E interactions. PMID:27037711

  13. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  14. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα−/− mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα−/− mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα−/−-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα−/− mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments. PMID:27013951

  15. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα(-/-) mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα(-/-) mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα(-/-)-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα(-/-) mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments. PMID:27013951

  16. Studies of antikaon interactions with nucleons at DAΦNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doce, O. Vazquez; Bazzi, M.; Berucci, C.; Bosnar, D.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Kienle, P.; Sandri, P. Levi; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.; Okada, S.; Piscicchia, K.; Lener, M. Poli; Rizzo, A.; Vidal, A. Romero; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; d'Uffizi, A.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2011-10-01

    AMADEUS is an experiment planned to be performed at the DAFNE e+e- collider of the Frascati National Laboratories (Italy) of INFN, to investigate the antikaon-nuclei interaction at low energies. AMADEUS will perform, for the first time, full-acceptance studies of antikaon interaction in light nuclei, including a complete experimental program for the case of the kaonic clusters. The study of the absorption of antikaon by the nucleus will provide information concerning the K¯N interaction and the modification of the kaon mass in the nuclear medium. The experiment is being preceded by the study of the hadronic interactions of K- in the 4He of the drift chamber from the KLOE experiment data.

  17. Fluorescence spectroscopic study on the interaction of resveratrol with lipoxygenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, María del Carmen; Duque, Antonio Luis; Macías, Pedro

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of lipoxygenase with (E)-resveratrol was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The data obtained revealed that the quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of lipoxygenase is produced by the formation of a complex lipoxygenase-(E)-resveratrol. From the value obtained for the binding constant, according to the Stern-Volmer modified equation, was deduced the existence of static quenching mechanism and, as consequence, the existence of a strong interaction between (E)-resveratrol and lipoxygenase. The values obtained for the thermodynamic parameter Δ H (-3.58 kJ mol -1) and Δ S (87.97 J mol -1K -1) suggested the participation of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in the stabilization of the complex ligand-protein. From the static quenching we determined that only exist one independent binding site. Based on the Förster energy transfer theory, the distance between the acceptor ((E)-resveratrol) and the donor (Trp residues of lipoxygenase) was calculated to be 3.42 nm. Finally, based on the information obtained from the evaluation of synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, we deduced that the interaction of (E)-resveratrol with lipoxygenase produces micro-environmental and conformational alterations of protein in the binding region.

  18. Differential Susceptibility and the Early Development of Aggression: Interactive Effects of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D.; Liew, Jeffrey; Sallquist, Julie; Popp, Tierney K.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Hart, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to predict the development of aggressive behavior from young children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and environmental quality. In a longitudinal sample of 213 children, baseline RSA, RSA suppression in response to a film of crying babies, and a composite measure of environmental quality (incorporating…

  19. Interacting effects of translocation, artificial propagation, and environmental conditions on the marine survival of Chinook salmon from the Columbia River, Washington, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Holsman, Kirstin K; Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric; Emmett, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Captive rearing and translocation are often used concurrently for species conservation, yet the effects of these practices can interact and lead to unintended outcomes that may undermine species' recovery efforts. Controls in translocation or artificial-propagation programs are uncommon; thus, there have been few studies on the interacting effects of these actions and environmental conditions on survival. The Columbia River basin, which drains 668,000 km(2) of the western United States and Canada, has an extensive network of hydroelectric and other dams, which impede and slow migration of anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and can increase mortality rates. To mitigate for hydrosystem-induced mortality during juvenile downriver migration, tens of millions of hatchery fish are released each year and a subset of wild- and hatchery-origin juveniles are translocated downstream beyond the hydropower system. We considered how the results of these practices interact with marine environmental conditions to affect the marine survival of Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). We analyzed data from more than 1 million individually tagged fish from 1998 through 2006 to evaluate the probability of an individual fish returning as an adult relative to its rearing (hatchery vs. wild) and translocation histories (translocated vs. in-river migrating fish that traveled downriver through the hydropower system) and a suite of environmental variables. Except during select periods of very low river flow, marine survival of wild translocated fish was approximately two-thirds less than survival of wild in-river migrating fish. For hatchery fish, however, survival was roughly two times higher for translocated fish than for in-river migrants. Competition and predator aggregation negatively affected marine survival, and the magnitude of survival depended on rearing and translocation histories and biological and physical conditions encountered during their first few weeks of residence in

  20. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M; Saxena, Deep R; Jain, Yogendra K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  1. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  2. A pooled analysis of smoking and colorectal cancer: timing of exposure and interactions with environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Hutter, Carolyn; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja; Caan, Bette; Campbell, Peter T; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward; Harrison, Tabitha; Hayes, Richard; Hsu, Li; Jiao, Shuo; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly; Pflugeisen, Bethann; Phipps, Amanda I.; Rohan, Thomas; Schoen, Robert; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha; Stelling, Deanna; Thomas, Fridtjof; Warnick, Greg; White, Emily; Potter, John; Peters, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer. What is unclear, however, is the impact of quitting smoking on risk attenuation and whether other risk factors for colorectal cancer modify this association. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 8 studies, including 6,796 colorectal cancer cases and 7,770 controls to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking history and colorectal cancer risk, and to investigate potential effect modification by other risk factors. Results Current smokers (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.11–1.43) and former smokers (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.09–1.27), relative to never smokers, showed higher risks of colorectal cancer. Former smokers remained at higher colorectal cancer risk, relative to never smokers, for up to about 25 years after quitting. The impact of time since quitting varied by cancer subsite: the excess risk due to smoking decreased immediately after quitting for proximal colon and rectal cancer, but not until about 20 years post-quitting for distal colon cancer. Further, we observed borderline statistically significant additive interactions between smoking status and BMI (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI]=0.15, 95% CI:−0.01–0.31, P=0.06) and significant additive interaction between smoking status and fruit consumption (RERI=0.16, 95% CI: 0.01–0.30, P=0.04). Conclusion Colorectal cancer risk remained increased for about 25 years after quitting smoking, and the pattern of decline in risk varied by cancer subsite. BMI and fruit intake modified the risk associated with smoking. Impact These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms through which smoking impacts colorectal cancer etiology. PMID:23001243

  3. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  4. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  5. Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals used in regulatory toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Dean, S W

    1999-10-01

    There is a wealth of information in the published literature which describes a multitude of approaches to enriching the environment of laboratory animals. This paper attempts to review the various methods of enrichment through social contact, enhancement of the environment and diet, and improvements in husbandry. It attempts to place the various enrichment initiatives within the context of a laboratory which conducts regulatory toxicology, describes some of the experiences in the author's own laboratory and attempts to highlight those ideas which might prove practical to implement in the future. The aim is to demonstrate that a creative approach to environmental enrichment is indeed compatible with regulatory toxicology. It is hoped that this will encourage those responsible for the care and welfare of animals in such a laboratory to challenge historical practices and include environmental enrichment as a fundamental necessity of study design. PMID:10778780

  6. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting {pi}{sup 0} mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized {sup 3}He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure.

  7. Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

  8. Effects of verbal interaction within cooperative groups on conceptual change in environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, Lynn Eloise

    2000-10-01

    Conceptual change theorists argue that learning occurs as a consequence of students becoming dissatisfied with their initial knowledge and then searching for ideas that are intelligible and plausible. Cooperative groups provide the vehicle for verbal interactions to take place with research indicating improvement in achievement. This study examines the verbal interactions that occur in the cooperative learning setting and how that discourse reflects the components of conceptual change. Cooperative learning groups were videotaped as they participated in active learning sessions in a general science course where the participants experimented with short-term and long-term carbon cycling. Groups were introduced to the guidelines of cooperative learning and group roles were assigned to the groups. Videotaping was followed by stimulated recall interviews with participants from the groups. This data from the videotapes and the stimulated recall interviews were transcribed and assigned categories using the Q. S. R. NUD·IST software program to gain insights into the process of science learning. Interpretations were made based on the findings from the data. Prior knowledge or information gathered by participants in preparation for the active learning session was the starting point for discussions about scientific concepts. Once the discussions began, group members with confidence in their understanding of scientific concepts tended to participate and defend their ideas with examples. The recorder role was the most significant role as the recorder usually directed the discussions in order to develop complete responses. As the discussions continued, explanations by those who were confident assisted other group members with learning scientific concepts---peer teaching. As discourse occurred, conflicts in ideas generated discussion, clarifying ideas, elaborating on ideas, and reformulating science concepts until they were able to reach consensus. Through this process

  9. Space Operations Center, shuttle interaction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the SOC, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design is studied. The considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions are identified.

  10. Study of the Interaction of Micrometeoroids with Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briani, G.; Pupillo, G.; Aiello, S.; Pace, E.; Shore, S.; Passaro, A.

    Submillimetric micrometeoroids dominates the annual extraterrestrial mass flux toward the Earth. Indeed these bodies show an unexpected ability to survive the interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere. In this work it is suggested a new general numerical model for the micrometeoroids-atmosphere interaction: this is the first step of a more extended study \\citep{aiello} that includes also experiments for the next few years in laboratories as well in atmosphere (microsatellites or balloon-borne experiments).

  11. Our School at Blair Grocery: A Case Study in Promoting Environmental Action through Critical Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2012-01-01

    Despite wide agreement on the goals of environmental education (EE), the promotion of action is still considered contentious. Critical environmental education (critical EE) teaches students to combine critical reflection with the ability to engage in local action to address social/environmental problems. This article examines a critical urban…

  12. Comparative Environmental Assessment in the Studies of Benthic Diatom, Macroinvertebrate, and Fish Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Carlson, Douglas M.; Novak, Margaret A.

    2004-05-01

    Community response to environmental gradients operating at hierarchical scales was assessed in studies of benthic diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish from 44 stream sites in the New York City watershed. Hierarchical cluster analysis (TWINSPAN) of diatoms and fish partitioned the study sites into four groups, i.e., acid streams, reservoir outlets and wetland streams, large eutrophic streams, and small eutrophic streams; macroinvertebrate TWINSPAN distinguished an additional group of silty eutrophic streams. The correspondence among the three assemblage TWINSPAN groupings was moderate, ranging from 51 to 57%. The similarity across the four major group types was the highest among large eutrophic stream and acid stream assemblages, and the lowest among small eutrophic stream assemblages.Stepwise discriminant function analysis revealed that environmental factors discriminated most effectively the diatom grouping and least effectively the fish grouping. The best environmental predictors for diatom and macroinvertebrate grouping were conductance and percent surface water, while population density was most powerful in separating the fish groups. Carbaryl was the only pesticide that correlated with macroinvertebrate grouping.Partial redundancy analyses suggested a differential dependence of freshwater communities on the scale of the environmental factors to which they respond. The role of small-scale habitat and habitatland cover/land use interaction steadily increased across the diatom, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages, whereas the effect of large-scale land cover/land use declined.

  13. Plant-plant interactions in a subtropical mangrove-to-marsh transition zone: effects of environmental drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Day, Richard H.; Biagas, Janelda M.; Allain, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Questions Does the presence of herbaceous vegetation affect the establishment success of mangrove tree species in the transition zone between subtropical coastal mangrove forests and marshes? How do plant–plant interactions in this transition zone respond to variation in two primary coastal environmental drivers? Location Subtropical coastal region of the southern United States. Methods We conducted a greenhouse study to better understand how abiotic factors affect plant species interactions in the mangrove-to-marsh transition zone, or ecotone. We manipulated salinity (fresh, brackish or salt water) and hydrologic conditions (continuously saturated or 20-cm tidal range) to simulate ecotonal environments. Propagules of the mangroves Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa were introduced to mesocosms containing an established marsh community. Both mangrove species were also introduced to containers lacking other vegetation. We monitored mangrove establishment success and survival over 22 mo. Mangrove growth was measured as stem height and above-ground biomass. Stem height, stem density and above-ground biomass of the dominant marsh species were documented. Results Establishment success of A. germinans was reduced under saturated saltwater conditions, but establishment of L. racemosa was not affected by experimental treatments. There was complete mortality of A. germinans in mesocosms under freshwater conditions, and very low survival of L. racemosa. In contrast, survival of both species in monoculture under freshwater conditions exceeded 62%. The marsh species Distichlis spicata and Eleocharis cellulosa suppressed growth of both mangroves throughout the experiment, whereas the mangroves did not affect herbaceous species growth. The magnitude of growth suppression by marsh species varied with environmental conditions; suppression was often higher in saturated compared to tidal conditions, and higher in fresh and salt water compared to

  14. Gender interaction in coed physical education: a study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koca, Canan

    2009-01-01

    Although there has been a long-standing debate about whether a single-sex or mixed-sex environment is better for students in many Western countries, coeducation is one of the taken-for-granted issues in the modern Turkish education system. This study examined commonly expressed concerns about gender equity in a mixed-sex environment within the context of physical education (PE) in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to examine teacher-student interaction in the coed PE classroom, focusing on gender-stereotyped beliefs. Participants consisted of two PE teachers and 37 eighth-grade students from a private school situated in suburban Ankara Turkey. The modified observational instrument with the combination of Teacher-Student Interaction (TSI) and Interactions for Sex Equity in Classroom Teaching Observation System (INTERSECT) was used to assess teacher-student interaction in the classroom. In order to understand students' and teachers' gender-stereotyped beliefs, individual interviews were also conducted. The findings of this study indicated that both male and female PE teachers interact more frequently with boys, and this interaction was influenced by gender-stereotyped beliefs of both teachers and students. In sum, similar to many other western countries, the movement toward coeducation in Turkey has not automatically brought equal opportunities for girls or boys in PE. PMID:19435173

  15. A study of photon interaction parameters in lung tissue substitutes.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, H C

    2014-04-01

    The study of photon interaction with different composite materials has become a topic of prime importance for radiation physicists. Some parameters of dosimetric interest are the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density; these help in the basic understanding of photon interactions with composite materials. The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff), and effective electron density (N el) must be identical for the phantom material and their tissue. In the present study, we have evaluated the photon interaction parameters such as (μ/ρ), Z eff and N el of 13 lung tissue substitutes. The variations of these parameters of lung tissue substitutes with photon energy are graphically represented. The photon interaction parameters of lung tissue substitutes are compared with that of lung tissue. The variation of photon interaction parameters of the studied lung tissue substitutes is similar that of the lung. Logically, it can be shown that Alderson lung is good substitute for lung than the other substitutes. PMID:24872609

  16. Interaction between genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450-1B1 and environmental pollutants in breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Saintot, M; Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Gerber, M

    2004-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is implicated in the activation of potentially carcinogenic xenobiotics and oestrogens. The polymorphism of the CYP1B1 gene at codon 432 (Val-->Leu) is associated with change in catalytic function. In a case-series study of breast cancer patients, we investigated the interaction between this polymorphism and environmental exposure. The women carrying the Val CYP1B1 allele and who had lived near to a waste incinerator for more than 10 years had a higher risk of breast cancer than those never exposed with the Leu/Leu genotype (odds ratio of interactions (ORi)=3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-8.84). Also, the Val CYP1B1 allele increased the susceptibility to breast cancer for women exposed during their life to agricultural products used in farming (ORi = 2.18, 95% CI 1.10-4.32). These xenobiotics, mainly organochlorine hydrocarbons, are known to bind to the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and to induce the expression of CYP1B1 enzyme. The excess risk for exposed women with a Val CYP1B1 homo/heterozygous genotype could result from a higher exposure to activated metabolites of pesticides or dioxin-like substances. Also, a higher induction of CYP1B1 enzyme by xenobiotics could increase the formation of genotoxic catechol-oestrogens among exposed women carrying the Val CYP1B1 allele. Our results suggested that the Val CYP1B1 allele increases the susceptibility to breast cancer in women exposed to waste incinerator or agricultural pollutants. PMID:15075793

  17. Consilient Research Approaches in Studying Gene x Environment Interactions in Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Kenneth J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Crabbe, John C.; Hutchison, Kent E.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the importance of identifying gene-environment interactions for understanding the etiology and course of alcohol use disorders and related conditions. A number of critical challenges are discussed including the fact that there is no organizing typology for classifying different types of environmental exposures, many key human environmental risk factors for alcohol dependence have no clear equivalents in other species, much of the genetic variance of alcohol dependence in human is not “alcohol specific”, and the potential range of gene-environment interactions that could be considered is so vast that maintaining statistical control of Type 1 errors is a daunting task. Despite these and other challenges, there appears to be a number of promising approaches that could be taken in order to achieve consilience and ecologically valid translation between human alcohol dependence and animal models. Foremost among these is to distinguish environmental exposures that are thought to have enduring effects on alcohol use motivation (and self-regulation) from situational environmental exposures that facilitate the expression of such motivations but do not, by themselves, have enduring effects. In order to enhance consilience, various domains of human approach motivation should be considered so that relevant environmental exposures can be sampled as well as the appropriate species to study them in (i.e., where such motivations are ecologically relevant). Foremost among these are social environments which are central to the initiation and escalation of human alcohol consumption. The value of twin studies, human laboratory studies, and pharmacogenetic studies is also highlighted. PMID:20148780

  18. Interaction of genetic predisposition and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Jacob, G.; Pohar, B.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not understood. If genetic predisposition were important in the pathogenesis of IOI, monozygotic twins of patients with IOI should have similar hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities. METHODS: We studied two patients with IOI and their identical twins. Both siblings in the first twin pair had orthostatic symptoms, significant orthostatic tachycardia, increased plasma norepinephrine levels with standing, and a greater than normal decrease in systolic blood pressure with trimethaphan infusion. RESULTS: Both siblings had a normal response of plasma renin activity to upright posture. In the second twin pair, only one sibling had symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, an orthostatic tachycardia, and raised plasma catecholamines with standing. The affected sibling had inappropriately low plasma renin activity with standing and was 8-fold more sensitive to the pressor effect of phenylephrine than the unaffected sibling. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in some patients, IOI seems to be strongly influenced by genetic factors. In others, however, IOI may be mainly caused by nongenetic factors. These findings suggest that IOI is heterogenous, and that both genetic and environmental factors contribute individually or collectively to create the IOI phenotype.

  19. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America.

    PubMed

    Redo, Daniel J; Grau, H Ricardo; Aide, T Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L

    2012-06-01

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001-2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeconomic variables associated with human development. Results show a net decrease of woody vegetation resulting from 12,201 km(2) of deforestation of moist forests and 6,825 km(2) of regrowth of conifer and dry forests. The Human Development Index was the socioeconomic variable best associated with forest cover change. The least-developed countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, experienced both rapid deforestation of moist forests and significant recovery of conifer and dry forests. In contrast, the most developed countries, Panama and Costa Rica, had net woody vegetation gain and a more stable forest cover configuration. These results imply a good agreement with FT predictions of forest change in relation to socioeconomic development, but strong asymmetry in rates and directions of change largely dependent upon the biome where change is occurring. The FT model should be refined by incorporating ecological and socioeconomic heterogeneity, particularly in multicountry and regional studies. These asymmetric patterns of forest change should be evaluated when developing strategies for conserving biodiversity and environmental services. PMID:22615408

  20. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Redo, Daniel J.; Grau, H. Ricardo; Aide, T. Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001–2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeconomic variables associated with human development. Results show a net decrease of woody vegetation resulting from 12,201 km2 of deforestation of moist forests and 6,825 km2 of regrowth of conifer and dry forests. The Human Development Index was the socioeconomic variable best associated with forest cover change. The least-developed countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, experienced both rapid deforestation of moist forests and significant recovery of conifer and dry forests. In contrast, the most developed countries, Panama and Costa Rica, had net woody vegetation gain and a more stable forest cover configuration. These results imply a good agreement with FT predictions of forest change in relation to socioeconomic development, but strong asymmetry in rates and directions of change largely dependent upon the biome where change is occurring. The FT model should be refined by incorporating ecological and socioeconomic heterogeneity, particularly in multicountry and regional studies. These asymmetric patterns of forest change should be evaluated when developing strategies for conserving biodiversity and environmental services. PMID:22615408

  1. High throughput imaging and analysis for biological interpretation of agricultural plants and environmental interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyundae; Benac, Jasenka; Riggsbee, Daniel; Koutsky, Keith

    2014-03-01

    High throughput (HT) phenotyping of crops is essential to increase yield in environments deteriorated by climate change. The controlled environment of a greenhouse offers an ideal platform to study the genotype to phenotype linkages for crop screening. Advanced imaging technologies are used to study plants' responses to resource limitations such as water and nutrient deficiency. Advanced imaging technologies coupled with automation make HT phenotyping in the greenhouse not only feasible, but practical. Monsanto has a state of the art automated greenhouse (AGH) facility. Handling of the soil, pots water and nutrients are all completely automated. Images of the plants are acquired by multiple hyperspectral and broadband cameras. The hyperspectral cameras cover wavelengths from visible light through short wave infra-red (SWIR). Inhouse developed software analyzes the images to measure plant morphological and biochemical properties. We measure phenotypic metrics like plant area, height, and width as well as biomass. Hyperspectral imaging allows us to measure biochemcical metrics such as chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and foliar water content. The last 4 years of AGH operations on crops like corn, soybean, and cotton have demonstrated successful application of imaging and analysis technologies for high throughput plant phenotyping. Using HT phenotyping, scientists have been showing strong correlations to environmental conditions, such as water and nutrient deficits, as well as the ability to tease apart distinct differences in the genetic backgrounds of crops.

  2. Spectrophotometric studies on the interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kalyan Sundar; Sahoo, Bijaya Ketan; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2008-02-01

    Various reported antibacterial activities of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol of green tea prompted us to study its binding with lysozyme. This has been investigated by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and protein-ligand docking. The binding parameters were determined using a modified Stern-Volmer equation. The thermodynamic parameters are indicative of an initial hydrophobic association. The complex is, however, held together predominantly by van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. CD studies do not indicate any significant changes in the secondary structure of lysozyme. Docking studies revealed that specific interactions are observed with residues Trp 62 and Trp 63.

  3. Environmental regulatory compliance on army lands: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Robert B.; Laven, Richard D.

    1993-05-01

    A “finding of no significant impact” (FONSI) resulting from an environmental assessment (EA) was reported by the US Army in June 1986 for the construction and utilization of a multipurpose range complex (MPRC) at the Pohakuloa Training Area, Hawaii. There was little public response, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service and state agencies were consulted and had few comments concerning the results of the botanical surveys used in the assessment. Construction of the 24 million project was begun in 1988. Near the end of construction in 1989 a lawsuit was filed to halt construction because an environmental impact statement (EIS) had not been done for the project, and the plaintiff thought that significant damage had occurred to several unusual ecosystems. Judgment was against the plaintiff and construction continued. An appeal was filed with the 9th Circuit Court. As MPRC construction was nearly complete, and on advice of Department of Justice lawyers, the Department of Army agreed to settle out of court. The settlement in part called for: (1) the plaintiff to drop the appeal and allow construction to be completed as scheduled, and (2) the Department of Army to prepare an EIS for the operation of the MPRC. A subsequent botanical survey for the EIS discovered one endangered plant species, four category 1 candidate plant species (taxa with sufficient data to support listing as endangered or threatened), three category 2 candidate plant species (taxa with some evidence of vulnerability but insufficient data to support listing at this time), one category 3a species (presumably extinct taxa), and possibly three undescribed species growing within the MPRC boundary. The MPRC case study is an excellent example of why the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) must be modified to require in-depth and thorough environmental surveys.

  4. Interacting as Experimenting. The Integration of Interaction Laboratory Functions for Lecture Improvement: Four Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    This paper examines four studies, integrated into regular courses for the preparation of secondary school teachers at the University of Tuebingen (Germany), that assessed the effectiveness of an interaction laboratory to enhance social competence, as well as lecturing skills. The program involved formal instruction; symbolic modeling and…

  5. A Collaborative Problem-solving Process Through Environmental Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung; Teck Tan, Hoe

    2013-02-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students (n = 16; age 14) and high-school students (n = 16; age 17) from two Singapore public institutions participated in an environmental science field study to experience knowledge integration and a decision-making process. Students worked on six research topics to understand the characteristics of an organic farm and plan for building an ecological village. Students collected and analysed data from the field and shared their findings. Their field work and discussions were video-recorded, and their reflective notes and final reports were collected for data coding and interpretation. The results revealed that throughout the study, students experienced the needs and development of integrated knowledge, encountered the challenges of knowledge sharing and communication during their collaboration, and learned how to cope with the difficulties. Based on research findings, this study further discusses students' learning through a collaborative problem-solving process, including the interdependence of knowledge and the development of mutual relationships such as respect and care for others' knowledge and learning.

  6. An environmental radionuclide baseline study near three Canadian naval ports

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, E.J.; Cole, D. )

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes an environmental radionuclide baseline study undertaken for the Department of National Defence in Canada. The purpose of the project was to establish levels of radionuclides present in the environment around areas where nuclear propelled vessels may be berthed. Specifically, this report describes environmental baselines near Halifax (Nova Scotia), Esquimalt (British Columbia), and Nanoose Bay (British Columbia). Valued ecosystem component samples were taken from dairy farms, beef producers, market gardens, vegetables, tree fruits and berries within the study areas, as well as marine bivalves (mussels and clams), salmon, seaweed, and food from native fisheries. Numerous naturally occurring isotopes were detected and quantified. The only non-naturally occurring isotope positively identified was in the form of trace quantities of [sup 131]I, measured in the Halifax study zone (attributed to local hospital cancer therapy). [sup 137]Cs is the only other anthropogenic radionuclide detected. Its origin may be the combination of fallout from the Chernobyl accident and fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. The results indicate that nuclear-powered vessels have not resulted in activity levels that would contribute a significant radiation exposure to the public, the biota, and the environment within the three study zones.

  7. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Young, B; Briscoe, J

    1988-01-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in families who use good quality water supplies and latrines experience 20% less diarrhoea as reported to the health clinics during the warm, rainy season. PMID:3418292

  8. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Young, B; Briscoe, J

    1988-03-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in families who use good quality water supplies and latrines experience 20% less diarrhoea as reported to the health clinics during the warm, rainy season. PMID:3418292

  9. Social Interaction and Linguistic Gain during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Sally Sieloff; Back, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the role of social interaction in language gain among study abroad students in France. Using the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), the Can-Do self-assessment scale (Clark, 1981), a revised version of the Language Contact Profile (LCP; Freed, Dewey, Segalowitz, & Halter, 2001), and pre- and postdeparture…

  10. The Philosophy of Local Studies in the Interactive Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter H.; Macafee, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine strategic priorities for local studies libraries in the context of the interactive Web. They examine the implications for access, investigations and the needs of different users. The philosophy that has previously guided local studies is articulated as a number of maxims, taking into account also social inclusion and lifelong…

  11. Two Perspectives on Interactive Social Studies Websites for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner (Lee); Fraboni, Michelle C.

    2007-01-01

    Internet websites for use in the social studies disciplines are often not easily accessed and used by young children, particularly those in the primary grades, without adult assistance. In this study a group of teachers and students evaluated a set of interactive websites designed specifically for young children on the hyperlinked US Government…

  12. Social signal processing for studying parent–infant interaction

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent–infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

  13. Photochemistry of dianthrylsilanes: a study of sigma,pi-interaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Djung H; Yang, Nien-Chu C; Steele, Ian M; Li, Hui; Ma, Ying-Zhong; Fleming, Graham R

    2003-04-30

    In this article, we demonstrated by the application of time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray structural analysis and other spectroscopic techniques that 9-Anthrylsilanes exhibits sigma,pi-interaction between 9-anthryl group and the Si-Si linkage in anthryl-disilanes, ASi(2), ASi(2)A, and ASi(3)A which does not occur in the analogous alkyl derivatives as well as the pyrenylsilane derivatives, in spite of the fact that the 0,0-band of PSi(2) is about 12.8 KJ more energetic than that of ASi(2) (Figure 1). More interestingly, the X-ray structural studies reveal that ASi(3)A exists in a butterfly-like structure in agreement with other spectroscopic analyses that the two anthryl groups do not interact in their excited states, while those in ASi(2)A do. This is in contrast to the analogous pyrenylsilanes; the trisilanes exhibits a stronger excimer interaction than that of disilane.(10b) Our results show that the sigma,pi-interactions in ASi(3)A has imparted rigidity to the tri-silyl linkage. Potential applications of anthrylsilanes in material sciences will be explored.(5) This work provides evidence that sigma,pi-interaction between the 9-anthryl group and disilyl linkage does play an important role in the properties of disilanes. We attribute this enhanced sigma,pi-interaction to the nature of the lowest excited state (S(1) state) of anthracenes, the L(a) transition, which has a much higher oscillator strength than the S(1)L(b)-transition of pyrenes (Figure 1). We define the interaction in anthracene as a sigma,pi(S(1,)L(a)) interaction. This interaction lends a substantial barrier to the Si-Si bond with the excited anthryl nucleus in anthrylsilanes. The scope and potential applications of this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:12708861

  14. A Study of Fan Stage/Casing Interaction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the performance of several existing and new, blade-case interactions modeling capabilities that are compatible with the large system simulations used to capture structural response during blade-out events. Three contact models are examined for simulating the interactions between a rotor bladed disk and a case: a radial and linear gap element and a new element based on a hydrodynamic formulation. The first two models are currently available in commercial finite element codes such as NASTRAN and have been showed to perform adequately for simulating rotor-case interactions. The hydrodynamic model, although not readily available in commercial codes, may prove to be better able to characterize rotor-case interactions.

  15. Study of /sup 12/C interactions at HISS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, H.J.

    1982-12-01

    Single-particle inclusive measurements in high-energy nuclear physics have provided the foundation for a number of models of interacting nuclear fluids. Such measurements yield information on the endpoints of the evolution of highly excited nuclear systems. However, they suffer from the fact that observed particles can be formed in a large number of very different evolutionary paths. To learn more about how interactions proceed we have performed a series of experiments in which all fast nuclear fragments are analyzed for each individual interaction. These experiments were performed at the LBL Bevalac HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System) facility where we studied the interaction of 1 GeV/nuc 12C nuclei with targets of C, CH/sub 2/, Cu, and U. In this paper we describe HISS and present some preliminary results of the experiment.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  17. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Environmental Values and Their Effect on the Environmental Behavior of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Environmental values (EV) are regarded as significant precursors for environmental behavior (EB) by many scholars. The present study addresses the issue of the invariance of EV (tapped by the two-dimensional model of ecological values), and their effect on EB, across cultural contexts. In all, a total of 1,833 ten- to thirteen-year-old children…

  19. Environmental Education Curriculum Guide - K-Grade 5. [Ah-Nei, The Special Classroom Environmental Education Study Area].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Billings, MT.

    This is a curriculum guide for environmental education designed for use in grades K-5. While the guide is designed to be used in a Montana environmental education study area, most activities can be used directly in other locations; others can be adapted. Included are: (1) a discussion of ecological terms, (2) a list of vocabulary words, (3)…

  20. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress. PMID:26060583

  1. The fate of siderophores: antagonistic environmental interactions in exudate-mediated micronutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James M; Duckworth, Owen W; Haselwandter, Kurt

    2015-06-01

    Organisms acquire metals from the environment by releasing small molecules that solubilize and promote their specific uptake. The best known example of this nutrient uptake strategy is the exudation of siderophores, which are a structurally-diverse class of molecules that are traditionally viewed as being integral to iron uptake. Siderophores have been proposed to act through a variety of processes, but their effectiveness can be mitigated by a variety of chemical and physical processes of both biotic and abiotic origin. Processes that occur at the surface of minerals can degrade or sequester siderophores, preventing them from fulfilling their function of returning metals to the organism. In addition, biotic processes including enzymatic degradation of the siderophore and piracy of the metal or of the siderophore complex also disrupt iron uptake. Some organisms have adapted their nutrient acquisition strategies to address these potential pitfalls, producing multiple siderophores and other exudates that take advantage of varying kinetic and thermodynamic factors to allow the continued uptake of metals. A complete understanding of the factors that contribute to metal uptake in nature will require a concerted effort to study processes identified in laboratory systems in the context of more complicated environmental systems. PMID:25619589

  2. Interactive visual analysis of heterogeneous cohort-study data.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paolo; Oeltze, Steffen; Haász, Judit; Turkay, Cagatay; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid; Lundervold, Astri J; Preim, Bernhard; Hauser, Helwig

    2014-01-01

    Medical cohort studies enable the study of medical hypotheses with many samples. Often, these studies acquire a large amount of heterogeneous data from many subjects. Usually, researchers study a specific data subset to confirm or reject specific hypotheses. A new approach enables the interactive visual exploration and analysis of such data, helping to generate and validate hypotheses. A data-cube-based model handles partially overlapping data subsets during the interactive visualization. This model enables seamless integration of the heterogeneous data and the linking of spatial and nonspatial views of the data. Researchers implemented this model in a prototype application and used it to analyze data acquired in a cohort study on cognitive aging. Case studies employed the prototype to study aspects of brain connectivity, demonstrating the model's potential and flexibility. PMID:25248201

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION AND ITS INTERACTIONS WITH CLIMATE CHANGE: PROGRESS REPORT 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The measures needed for the protection of the Earth's ozone layer are decided regularly by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. This progress report is the 2004 update by the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel.

  4. HIGH SENSITIVITY FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR. INTERMOLECULAR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project explored the feasibility of developing new techniques for evaluation of the effects of environmental toxic materials on complex biopolymer systems using high sensitivity Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy. Commercial instrumentation avail...

  5. MOLECULAR MODELING OF THE INTERACTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS WITH MACROMOLECULES IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will use experimentally determined structures of the estrogen receptor. The structure of estrogen and other (environmental) ligands will be used as starting points for computer docking experiments. Programs utilizing a classical molecular mechanics algorithm to qu...

  6. Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Environmental characteristics and human interaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1998-10-01

    This report is a multidisciplinary update of various topics concerning the Banks -- oceanography, meteorology, commercial fishing, recreation, military activities, hydrocarbon development, and potential environmental impacts. The area surrounding the Flower Garden Banks is increasingly active with oil and gas development.

  7. Methods for studying vinca alkaloid interactions with tubulin.

    PubMed

    Lobert, Sharon; Correia, John J

    2007-01-01

    Vinca alkaloids play a vital role in chemotherapy protocols for a wide range of hematological and solid tumors. Studies of drug interactions with the drug target, tubulin or microtubules, have helped us to understand the cytotoxic and toxic effects. We present here in vivo and in vitro methods for studying vinca alkaloid interactions with tubulin. In vivo methods for examining drug effects on cell proliferation and intracellular tubulin or microtubules and direct visualization of drug effects by fluorescence microscopy are presented. In vitro methods for measuring drug affinity for tubulin by analytical ultracentrifugation, kinetics of drug binding by light scattering and drug effects on microtubules by turbidity are also presented. PMID:18085235

  8. Observational Study and Parameterization of Aerosol-fog Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J.; Guo, X.; Liu, Y.; Fang, C.; Su, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that human activities such as increased aerosols affect fog occurrence and properties significantly, and accurate numerical fog forecasting depends on, to a large extent, parameterization of fog microphysics and aerosol-fog interactions. Furthermore, fogs can be considered as clouds near the ground, and enjoy an advantage of permitting comprehensive long-term in-situ measurements that clouds do not. Knowledge learned from studying aerosol-fog interactions will provide useful insights into aerosol-cloud interactions. To serve the twofold objectives of understanding and improving parameterizations of aerosol-fog interactions and aerosol-cloud interactions, this study examines the data collected from fogs, with a focus but not limited to the data collected in Beijing, China. Data examined include aerosol particle size distributions measured by a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X), fog droplet size distributions measured by a Fog Monitor (FM-120), Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), liquid water path measured by radiometers and visibility sensors, along with meteorological variables measured by a Tethered Balloon Sounding System (XLS-Ⅱ) and Automatic Weather Station (AWS). The results will be compared with low-level clouds for similarities and differences between fogs and clouds.

  9. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2005-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  10. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2002-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth s radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  11. Kinetic and Structural Studies of Interactions between Glycosaminoglycans and Langerin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Xinyue; Kao, Chelsea; Zhang, Emily; Li, Quanhong; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-08-16

    Langerin, a C-type lectin, is expressed in Langerhans cells. It was reported that langerin binds sulfated glycans, which is an important initial step for its role in blocking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by capturing HIV pathogens and mediating their internalization into Birbeck granules for their elimination. It is fundamentally important to understand these interactions at the molecular level for the design of new highly specific therapeutic agents for HIV. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which allows for the real-time, direct, quantitative analysis of the label-free molecular interactions, has been used successfully for biophysical characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-protein interactions. In this study, we report kinetics, structural analysis, and the effects of physiological conditions (e.g., pH, salt concentration, and Ca(2+) and Zn(2+)concentrations) on the interactions between GAGs and langerin using SPR. SPR results revealed that langerin binds to heparin with high affinity (KD ∼ 2.4 nM) and the oligosaccharide length required for the interactions is larger than a tetrasaccharide. This heparin/heparan sulfate-binding protein also interacts with other GAGs, including dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfates C-E and KS. In addition, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to characterize the structure of sulfated glycans that bound to langerin. PMID:27447199

  12. Gene environment interaction studies in depression and suicidal behavior: An update.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Laura; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports the involvement of both heritable and environmental risk factors in major depression (MD) and suicidal behavior (SB). Studies investigating gene-environment interaction (G × E) may be useful for elucidating the role of biological mechanisms in the risk for mental disorders. In the present paper, we review the literature regarding the interaction between genes modulating brain functions and stressful life events in the etiology of MD and SB and discuss their potential added benefit compared to genetic studies only. Within the context of G × E investigation, thus far, only a few reliable results have been obtained, although some genes have consistently shown interactive effects with environmental risk in MD and, to a lesser extent, in SB. Further investigation is required to disentangle the direct and mediated effects that are common or specific to MD and SB. Since traditional G × E studies overall suffer from important methodological limitations, further effort is required to develop novel methodological strategies with an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:23886513

  13. Influence of environmental parameters and of their interactions on the release of metal(loid)s from a construction material in hydraulic engineering.

    PubMed

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Goryunova, E; Ecker, D; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2016-03-01

    Besides the leaching behaviour of a construction material under standardised test-specific conditions with laboratory water, for some construction materials it is advisable to test their environmental behaviour also under close to end use conditions. The envisaged end use combined with the product characteristics (e.g. mineral phases) is decisive for the choice of environmental factors that may change the release of substance that potentially cause adverse environmental effects (e.g. fertilisation or ecotoxicity). At the moment an experimental link is missing between mono-factorial standardised test systems and non standardised complex incubation experiments such as mesocosms which are closer to environmental conditions. Multi-factorial batch experiments may have the potential to close the gap. To verify this, batch experiments with copper slag were performed which is used as armour stones in hydraulic engineering. Design of experiments (DoE) was applied to evaluate the impact of pH, ionic strength, temperature and sediment content on the release of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn. The study shows that release and sediment-eluent partitioning of metal(loid)s are impacted by interactions between the studied factors. Under the prevalent test conditions sediment acts as a sink enhancing most strongly the release of elements from the material. PMID:26546704

  14. Polymorphisms of XRCC1 and XRCC2 DNA Repair genes and Interaction with Environmental Factors Influence the Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Seram Anil; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors have been reported to play key role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we investigated interactions of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphisms and environmental factors in modulating susceptibility to NPC in Northeast India. One-hundred NPC patients, 90 first-degree relatives of patients and 120 controls were enrolled in the study. XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphisms were determined using PCR-RFLP, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Logistic regression (LR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approaches were applied for statistical analysis. The XRCC1 Gln/Gln genotype showed increased risk (OR=2.76; <0.024) of NPC. However, individuals with both XRCC1 and XRCC2 polymorphic variants had 3.2 fold elevated risk (<0.041). An enhanced risk of NPC was also observed in smoked meat (OR=4.07; P=0.004) and fermented fish consumers (OR=4.34, P=0.001), and tobacco-betel quid chewers (OR=7.00; P=0.0001) carrying XRCC1 polymorphic variants. However, smokers carrying defective XRCC1 gene showed the highest risk (OR = 7.47; <0.0001). On MDR analysis, the best model for NPC risk was the five-factor model combination of XRCC1 variant genotype, fermented fish, smoked meat, smoking and chewing (CVC=10/10; TBA=0.636; <0.0001); whereas in interaction entropy graphs, smoked meat and tobacco chewing showed synergistic interactions with XRCC1. These findings suggest that interaction of genetic and environmental factors might increase susceptibility to NPC in Northeast Indian populations. PMID:27356695

  15. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  16. Use of time to pregnancy to study environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.; Weinberg, C.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is need in reproductive epidemiology for sensitive and convenient screening tools that can be used to study environmental and occupational exposures. The measurement of fecundability (the probability of pregnancy in each cycle) by ascertaining how long it takes couples to conceive, may be useful for this purpose. Theoretically, exposures that interfere with any of the biologic processes involved in achieving pregnancy could lower fecundability among exposed men or women. To evaluate problems with collecting data on time to pregnancy, telephone interviews were conducted with nearly 700 pregnant women who reported having planned their pregnancies. Power curves were developed based on the distribution of time to pregnancy in the interviewed population. These curves indicate that relatively small sample sizes are sufficient for investigating an exposure. For example, the authors estimate that to detect a given 50% drop in mean fecundability with 80% power would require data from 55 exposed and 55 unexposed women who are pregnant. Disadvantages of using time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint include susceptibility to selection bias and need for data on several potential confounding variables. The next step in evaluating time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint is to apply it in studies of environmental or occupational exposures.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM CASE STUDIES: DEMONSTRATING PROGRAM OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This bookle...

  18. Environmental Technology Verification Program - ETV - Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This cd con...

  19. Enlightening molecular mechanisms through study of protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rizo, Josep; Rosen, Michael K.; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of molecular mechanisms is a fascinating area of current biological research that unites efforts from scientists with very diverse expertise. This review provides a perspective on the characterization of protein interactions as a central aspect of this research. We discuss case studies on the neurotransmitter release machinery that illustrate a variety of principles and emphasize the power of combining nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with other biophysical techniques, particularly X-ray crystallography. These studies have shown that: (i) the soluble SNAP receptor (SNARE) proteins form a tight complex that brings the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes together, which is key for membrane fusion; (ii) the SNARE syntaxin-1 adopts an autoinhibitory closed conformation; (iii) Munc18-1 plays crucial functions through interactions with closed syntaxin-1 and with the SNARE complex; (iv) Munc13s mediate the opening of syntaxin-1; (v) complexins play dual roles through distinct interactions with the SNARE complex; (vi) synaptotagmin-1 acts a Ca2+ sensor, interacting simultaneously with the membranes and the SNAREs; and (vii) a Munc13 homodimer to Munc13-RIM heterodimer switch modulates neurotransmitter release. Overall, this research underlines the complexities involved in elucidating molecular mechanisms and how these mechanisms can depend critically on an interplay between strong and weak protein interactions. PMID:22735643

  20. A study on interaction App platform between expert knowledge and community applied on disaster education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruljigaljig, T.; Huang, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    This study development interface for Mobile Application (App) use cloud technology, Web 2.0 and online community of technology to build the Environmental-Geological Disaster Network(EDN). The interaction App platform between expert knowledge and community is developed as a teaching tool, which bases on the open data released by Central Geological Survey. The APP can through Augmented Reality technology to potential hazards position through the camera lens, the real show in real-world environment. The interaction with experts in the community to improve the general public awareness of disaster. Training people to record the occurrence of geological disasters precursor, thereby awakened their to natural disaster consciousness and attention.General users obtain real-time information during travel, mountaineering and teaching process. Using App platform to upload and represent the environmental geological disaster data collected by themselves. It is expected that by public joint the open platform can accumulate environmental geological disaster data effectively, quickly, extensively and correctly. The most important thing of this study is rooting the concept of disaster prevention, reduction, and avoidance through public participation.