Science.gov

Sample records for environmental marketing claims

  1. 16 CFR 260.7 - Environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental marketing claims. 260.7 Section 260.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.7 Environmental marketing claims. Guidance about the use of environmental marketing claims is set...

  2. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts and... deceptive or unsubstantiated environmental advertising claims. A current list of environmental...

  3. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental marketing claims. 260.5 Section 260.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.5 Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts...

  4. 16 CFR 260.2 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims. 260.2 Section 260.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.2 Interpretation...

  5. 16 CFR 260.7 - Environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... implication, that a product is safe for or “friendly” to the ozone layer or the atmosphere. For example, a claim that a product does not harm the ozone layer is deceptive if the product contains an ozone... the product does not harm the ozone layer, the claim is deceptive. Example 4: A product is...

  6. 16 CFR 260.7 - Environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... implication, that a product is safe for or “friendly” to the ozone layer or the atmosphere. For example, a claim that a product does not harm the ozone layer is deceptive if the product contains an ozone... the product does not harm the ozone layer, the claim is deceptive. Example 4: A product is...

  7. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasonable basis substantiating the claim. A reasonable basis consists of competent and reliable evidence. In... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... qualified to do so, using procedures generally accepted in the profession to yield accurate and...

  8. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    PubMed

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed. PMID:24364816

  9. Green power marketing claims: A free ride on conventional power?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.S.

    1999-07-01

    It appears that a lot, if not most, of the green power being marketed to consumers today in customer choice states is not green at all, at least as that term may be understood by the typical consumer. Such power is not, contrary to claims, coal and nuke free and does not displace power generated from coal or nuclear power plants. It does not create a market for renewable resources. And it does not make a contribution to improving environmental quality. Indeed, it appears that green power in its current form is receiving a free ride on the conventional power industry, a face about which green power consumers are not being made aware.

  10. Using Medicaid claims to construct dental service market areas.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, M L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use Medicaid claims data to construct patient origin-based market areas for dental services and compare constructed market areas with those based on the practice county. DATA SOURCES: North Carolina Medicaid claims, eligibility, and provider files, the Cooperative Health Information Systems' dentist licensure files, and the Log Into North Carolina data. STUDY DESIGN: A visit-level file was created from the Medicaid claims data and aggregated by provider practice county and patient county of residence. Using the aggregated file and an algorithm based on the Elzinga-Hogarty approach, patient travel patterns were used to construct mutually exclusive patient origin market areas. DATA ANALYSIS: Market area characteristics were compared across definitions using Pearson correlation coefficients. In addition, estimations of provider participation were performed using market area characteristics as control variables. The beta coefficients associated with market area characteristics were compared across market area definitions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Medicaid claims data, when combined with provider licensure files, can be used to construct market areas based on patient origin data. However, measures of market area characteristics are correlated highly between the two types of market areas studied. Furthermore, beta coefficients on market area variables in models of provider participation are similar in sign, significance, and magnitude across market definitions. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with market areas constructed using patient origin data, county-based market areas adequately proxy for dental markets. Using the county as the market area also avoids the time and computational costs associated with using a patient origin-based approach and facilitates the use of widely available data. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10591272

  11. Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Nils-Georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationships eligible for generic disease risk reduction claims in two steps and general rules regarding nutrient function claims. Since 2001, there has also been the possibility for using “product-specific physiological claims (PFP)”, subject to premarketing evaluation of the scientific dossier supporting the claim. The scientific documentation has been approved for 10 products with PFP, and another 15 products have been found to fulfil the Code's criteria for “low glycaemic index”. In the third edition of the Code, active since 2004, conditions in terms of nutritional composition were set, i.e. “nutrient profiles”, with a general reference to the Swedish National Food Administration's regulation on the use of a particular symbol, i.e. the keyhole symbol. Applying the Swedish Code of practice has provided experience useful in the implementation of the European Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods, effective from 2007.

  12. Free market environmentalism

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.L.; Leal, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Free Market Environmentalism by Terry L. Anderson and Donald R. Leal is a call to action rather than an empirical study. These authors argue that the environment and the market are inextricably connected in a positive rather than negative way. In their view, individual property owners, who are in a position and have an incentive to obtain time- and place-specific information about their resource endowments, are better suited than centralized bureaucracies to manage resources. Government should strive as much as possible to encourage and facilitate the working of the market through the enforcement of property rights, including clearly specified titles, strict liability rules and adjudication of disputed property rights in court. Markets could then be created in a variety of environmental policy domains. For example, Yellowstone National park currently has a problem with migrating bison who wander off the park premises and infect the cattle of adjoining ranches with deadly viruses. To Anderson and Leal, this problem could be solved if park officials owned the bison and could be sued for damages. Overfishing could be solved through the allocation of property rights to specific people who would be allowed to trade their rights. This property rights model is applied to a wide variety of environmental circumstances and problems including land policy, outdoor recreation, energy development, groundwater pollution, garbage disposal, and global warming.

  13. Environmental Education: A Market Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Stanley L., Jr.

    Applying techniques and statistical procedures of market research, this research paper treats the subject of environmental education. The first segment of the paper is involved with the identification of the role marketing can play in the analysis of environmental curricula and defines the potential market for environmental education. Sampling…

  14. 16 CFR 260.4 - General environmental benefit claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... service has no negative environmental impact. Because it is highly unlikely that marketers can... may convey that the product has no negative environmental impact. Because it is highly unlikely that... negative environmental impact. Because it is highly unlikely that the marketer can substantiate...

  15. 16 CFR 260.4 - General environmental benefit claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... service has no negative environmental impact. Because it is highly unlikely that marketers can... may convey that the product has no negative environmental impact. Because it is highly unlikely that... negative environmental impact. Because it is highly unlikely that the marketer can substantiate...

  16. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. PMID:26054781

  17. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  18. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  19. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  20. Environmental Issues in the Land Claims: One of a Series of Articles on the Native Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Guy

    As one in a series of eight articles written by different professionals concerned with Alaska Native land claims, this article focuses on the debate of environmental issues prior to passage of the Alaska Land Claims Settlement Act. Designed to stimulate careful political/historical reading and discussion at an advanced secondary or adult level,…

  1. Online E-cigarette Marketing Claims: A Systematic Content and Legal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Berman, Micah; Hemmerich, Natalie; Carlson, Cristen; Htut, SuSandi; Slater, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. Methods We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen. We analyzed English-language websites where ENDS are sold for implicit and explicit health-related claims. A legal analysis determined whether such claims are permissible under the US Food and Drug Administration’s regulations. Results The vast majority of ENDS manufacturer (N = 78) and retailer (N = 32) websites made at least one health-related claim (77% and 65%, respectively). Modified risk claims and secondhand smoke-related claims were most prevalent, with an average of 2 claims per site. Conclusions Health-related claims are plentiful within ENDS manufacturer and retailer websites. Results demonstrate that these sites focus on potential benefits while minimizing or eliminating information about possible harmful effects of ENDS. These claims are subject to the current regulatory authority by the FDA, and pose a risk of misinforming consumers. PMID:27446984

  2. Is Free-Market Environmentalism "Mainstream"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry L.; Shaw, Jane S.

    2000-01-01

    Explains free-market environmentalism, demonstrating how it is integral to environmental economics. Discusses issues such as market and government failures; the "tragedy of the commons"; and how to avoid said tragedy, focusing on the role of private property rights. Provides suggestions for history, social studies, and economics teachers on…

  3. Male enhancement Nutraceuticals in the Middle East market: Claim, pharmaceutical quality and safety assessments.

    PubMed

    ElAgouri, Ghada; ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElYazbi, Ahmed; Eshra, Ahmed; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2015-08-15

    The global market is invaded by male enhancement nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a major therapeutic claim. Most of these products have been reported by international systems like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We hypothesize that these products could represent a major threat to the health of the consumers. In this paper, pharmaceutical evaluation of some of these nutraceutical products sold in Egypt under the therapeutic claim of treating erectile dysfunction, are discussed along with pharmacological evaluation to investigate their safety and efficacy parameters. Samples were analyzed utterly using conventional methods, i.e.: HPLC, HPTLC, NIR, content uniformity and weight variation and friability. The SeDeM system was used for quality assessment. On the basis of the results of this research, the sampled products are adulterated and totally heterogeneous in their adulterant drug content and pharmaceutical quality. These products represent a major safety threat for the consumers in Egypt and the Middle East, especially; the target audience is mostly affected with heart and blood pressure problems seeking natural and safe alternatives to the well-established Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors (PDE-5Is). PMID:26165612

  4. Defending mining claims and mineral leases in environmental suits against federal land managers

    SciTech Connect

    Twelker, E. )

    1989-01-01

    Suits in the last 4-5 years jeopardize the title of thousands of mining claims and mineral leases. The cases presenting the most striking examples are National Wildlife Federation v. Burford, Connor v. Burford, Sierra Club V. Watt, and Bob Marshall Alliance v. Watt. From the claimants' and lessees' point of view, these decisions granted environmental groups sweeping, though somewhat ill-defined, relief. The challenges by environmental groups are based on statutes designed to bring environmental considerations before federal decision makers. The claimants and lessees are caught in the middle of the exchange between environmentalists and federal agencies. Lawsuits that indirectly challenge leases and claims are unlike environmental challenges to fixed projects such as highways or dams. Those affected often times do not know exactly what is at stake. When the challenge is indirect, unexplored, or partially explored, proper ties have only speculative value and the claimants and lessees are often unwilling or unable to engage in a fight with well-heeled environmental public interest law firms. While the federal government has defended the suits, their interests and those of the claimants and lessees may diverge. In the context of the four cases mentioned above, this paper addresses the rights and remedies of claimants and lessees before, during, and after environmental procedural suits that indirectly challenge federal mining claims and mineral leases.

  5. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Pitfalls and opportunities for environmental marketers.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, R J

    1992-01-01

    Issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, insufficient landfill capacity, and excess packaging are foremost on the minds of consumers. Companies face a myriad of environmental challenges, but they also recognize the opportunities to be gained by implementing responsible marketing action plans. PMID:10120306

  7. 16 CFR 260.15 - Renewable energy claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Renewable energy claims. 260.15 Section 260.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.15 Renewable energy claims. (a) It is deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that a product...

  8. 16 CFR 260.9 - Free-of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Free-of claims. 260.9 Section 260.9... ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.9 Free-of claims. (a) It is deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that a product, package, or service is free of, or does not contain or use, a substance....

  9. 16 CFR 260.9 - Free-of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Free-of claims. 260.9 Section 260.9... ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.9 Free-of claims. (a) It is deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that a product, package, or service is free of, or does not contain or use, a substance....

  10. 16 CFR 260.16 - Renewable materials claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Renewable materials claims. 260.16 Section 260.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.16 Renewable materials claims. (a) It is deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that...

  11. 16 CFR 260.16 - Renewable materials claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Renewable materials claims. 260.16 Section 260.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.16 Renewable materials claims. (a) It is deceptive...

  12. Power marketing policy, Cumberland System: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-04

    Major issues raised by the proposed policy are: determination of marketing area, allocation of power among customers within the marketing area, extent and condition of sales to TVA, utilization of area utility systems for power integration, firming, wheeling, and other essential relationships, wholesale rates, handling of resale rates, and conservation measures. This Marketing Policy will continue present practices in many areas, and to the extent that this is done, the existing environmental impacts will continue. SEPA has informally consulted with other agencies, public bodies, and individuals which may be affected by the proposed policy to look for activities resulting from the proposed action which could affect the environment on a local or regional basis. In this review, SEPA has not uncovered any unresolved conflicts as a result of the implementation of the proposed policy. SEPA has found that the nature and extent of the environmental consequences resulting from the policy are too remote and speculative to link directly to any air, land, or water quality impacts. No extraordinary, controversial, unique, or hazardous circumstances or conditions will be created or furthered by this policy.

  13. 16 CFR 260.11 - Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... friendly to, the ozone layer or the atmosphere. Example 1: A product is labeled “ozone-friendly.” The claim... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. 260.11... THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.11 Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. It...

  14. 16 CFR 260.11 - Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... friendly to, the ozone layer or the atmosphere. Example 1: A product is labeled “ozone-friendly.” The claim... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. 260.11... THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.11 Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. It...

  15. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  16. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  17. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    SciTech Connect

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  18. Legal action against health claims on foods and beverages marketed to youth.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Edwards, Danielle M; Rodman, Sarah O; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children raises numerous health concerns. One pathway to reduce childhood obesity is by decreasing energy intake through the ingestion of fewer calories. Yet, food and beverage manufacturers often promote energy-dense items for children via varied health claims. Deceptive health claims are prohibited, and may be addressed through litigation or governmental regulatory efforts. While the amount of legal action against these potentially deceptive claims has increased, no comprehensive assessment has been conducted. This article, which analyzes litigation and governmental regulatory activities, considers key factors that may influence decisions to take legal action against potentially deceptive health claims on foods and beverages, including scientific support, forum selection, selection of plaintiffs, and potential public health impact. PMID:25602904

  19. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  20. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the United States based on contamination by toxic substances found in the air or the ground must be... geographical jurisdiction over the claim and USARCS. Claims for personal injury from contamination frequently arise at an area that is the subject of claims for cleanup of the contamination site. The cleanup...

  1. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the United States based on contamination by toxic substances found in the air or the ground must be... geographical jurisdiction over the claim and USARCS. Claims for personal injury from contamination frequently arise at an area that is the subject of claims for cleanup of the contamination site. The cleanup...

  2. The market for precedent: shifting visions of the role of clinical negligence claims and trials.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the interface between the standard setting activity of the NHS Litigation Authority, and the courts and uses the clinical negligence action as a prism through which to examine it. It is suggested that despite its many disadvantages, the clinical negligence action remains an important safety valve when internal regulatory systems fail or are insufficiently transparent to gain full legitimacy. More specifically, it explores the ways in which attitudes about the usefulness of the data contained in claims against the NHS have changed in the aftermath of a number of high profile inquiries which have focused on issues of poor performance. The article concludes that while much greater use is now been made of the data contained in claims when setting standards, strategies for prompting judicial precedent as an alternative way of mobilising standard setting behaviour remain under developed. PMID:24841531

  3. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  4. 7 CFR 2.75 - Director, Office of Environmental Markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Director, Office of Environmental Markets. 2.75 Section 2.75 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Chief Economist § 2.75 Director, Office of Environmental...

  5. 78 FR 33839 - Access by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contractors to Information Claimed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Activities Air, and Title II Emission Standards for Moving Sources, and Act To Prevent Pollution From Ships... (CAA) Titles I and II and the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (APPS) that may be claimed as, or...

  6. Impact of environmental traders on water markets: An experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdell, John G.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of economic experiments in which an environmental agency with a stochastic demand function enters an existing water market to buy or sell water for instream use. Previous experimental studies have examined the use of tenders to reduce water extractions and social suasion to maintain aggregate flow levels and compared imposing minimum flow restrictions with subsidizing downstream water use and the allocation of tradeable minimum flow rights. The important contribution of this paper is that it explores the consequence of having an environmental agency enter an existing water market. In this paper we explore the consequences of (1) formally allocating tradeable water rights to the environmental agency, (2) allocating funding to purchase water as required, and (3) having the trading actions of the environmental agency a matter of public record. The research, while contextualized to water markets in this paper, addresses an important and timely issue that could have implication beyond water markets. In pollution permit markets, for example, there is the question of what the impact on the market would be if a government agency were to begin buying back permits, particularly if this represented a relatively large volume of trades and entered into such purchases on a needs basis.

  7. Service Area Market Analysis: Environmental Scanning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This environmental scanning report presents, in brief, various key indicators: political climate, population demographics, secondary education, postsecondary education, welfare, unemployment, industry, labor, and general conclusions. General conclusions made in this report are as follows: higher education is expected to receive a slight increase…

  8. The international market for environmental goods and services

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, W.; Sobin, R.

    1994-12-31

    Markets for environmental products and services are growing in most regions of the world. Some believe this growth will present major new opportunities for exports and export-related job growth, while also improving the environment. Others fear that commercial objectives will overshadow environmental goals; the danger is that inappropriate technologies will be transferred, especially to developing countries with limited experience in environmental management. These tensions are apparent as the US, Germany, Japan, and other industrialized countries shape policies for development assistance and export promotion. The challenge will be to assure that the commercial aspects of these policies contribute to development that is environmentally sound.

  9. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. Allocating more flow to the environment though can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows can vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydro-economic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse river basin in Eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10 to 15% loss in economic benefits.

  10. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  11. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  12. Environmental market factors associated with physician career satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mazurenko, Olena; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that physician career satisfaction is declining, but no study has examined the relationship between market factors and physician career satisfaction. Using a theoretical framework, we examined how various aspects of the market environment (e.g., munificence, dynamism, complexity) are related to overall career satisfaction. Nationally representative data from the 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey were combined with environmental market variables from the 2008 Area Resource File. After controlling for physician and practice characteristics, at least one variable each representing munificence, dynamism, and complexity was associated with satisfaction. An increase in the market number of primary care physicians per capita was positively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.9) whereas an increase in the number of specialists per capita was negatively associated with physician satisfaction (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.97). Moreover, an increase in poverty rates was negatively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.01). Lastly, physicians practicing in states with a malpractice crisis (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.96) and/or those who perceived high competition in their markets (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.95) had lower odds of being satisfied. A better understanding of an organization's environment could assist healthcare managers in shaping their policies and strategies to increase physician satisfaction. PMID:23087994

  13. 75 FR 63551 - Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Act (FTC Act), 15 U.S.C. 45.\\1\\ Industry guides, such as these, are administrative interpretations of... or practice is unfair or deceptive. \\1\\ The Commission issued the Green Guides in 1992 (57 FR 36363 (Aug. 13, 1992)), and subsequently revised them in 1996 (61 FR 53311 (Oct. 11, 1996)) and 1998 (63...

  14. 77 FR 62121 - Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... certification. If, for example, an independent certifier administers an industry trade association certification... Institute of Degradable Materials (``AIDM'') is an industry trade association, the certification likely....'' \\2\\ In October 2010, the Commission proposed changes to the 1998 Guides. 75 FR 63552 (Oct. 15,...

  15. 16 CFR 260.2 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requires competent and reliable scientific evidence. Such evidence consists of tests, analyses, research... generally accepted in the profession to yield accurate and reliable results. Such evidence should be..., when considered in light of the entire body of relevant and reliable scientific evidence,...

  16. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  17. The "natural" aversion: the FDA's reluctance to define a leading food-industry marketing claim, and the pressing need for a workable rule.

    PubMed

    Farris, April L

    2010-01-01

    As of 2009, the "natural foods" industry has become a 22.3 billion dollar giant and "all-natural" is the second-leading marketing claim for all new food products. Even in such a flourishing market, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has never defined the term "natural" through rulemaking. FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have instead created separate, non-identical policy statements governing the use of the term "natural," and FDA has abandoned efforts to define "natural" through rulemaking in the face of more pressing priorities. In absence of any governing federal standard, consumer advocacy groups and warring food industries have attempted to define "natural" to fit their preferences through high-stakes litigation of state law claims, leaving courts free to apply diverging standards without the expertise of FDA. Recent case law from federal district courts and the Supreme Court leaves little hope that FDA's current policy statement will preempt state law causes of action. To prevent a potential patchwork of definitions varying by state, and to create a legitimate standard resting on informed scientific expertise rather than consumer whims, FDA should engage in rulemaking to define the term "natural." This paper concludes by sketching potential formulations for such a rule based on FDA's previous successful rule-making ventures and standards used by natural foods retailers. PMID:24475548

  18. The effects of environmental context on recognition memory and claims of remembering.

    PubMed

    Hockley, William E

    2008-11-01

    Recognition memory for words was tested in same or different contexts using the remember/know response procedure. Context was manipulated by presenting words in different screen colors and locations and by presenting words against real-world photographs. Overall hit and false-alarm rates were higher for tests presented in an old context compared to a new context. This concordant effect was seen in both remember responses and estimates of familiarity. Similar results were found for rearranged pairings of old study contexts and targets, for study contexts that were unique or were repeated with different words, and for new picture contexts that were physically similar to old contexts. Similar results were also found when subjects focused attention on the study words, but a different pattern of results was obtained when subjects explicitly associated the study words with their picture context. The results show that subjective feelings of recollection play a role in the effects of environmental context but are likely based more on a sense of familiarity that is evoked by the context than on explicit associations between targets and their study context. PMID:18980405

  19. [The unbearable lightness of aluminum: the social and environmental impacts of Brazil's insertion in the primary aluminum global market].

    PubMed

    Henriques, Alen Batista; Porto, Marcelo Firpo Souza

    2013-11-01

    This article assesses aluminum production in Brazil and its social, environmental and public health impacts. The effects of the aluminum production chain challenge the idea of sustainable growth affirmed by business groups that operate in the sector. This article upholds the theory that the insertion of Brazil in the global aluminum market is part of a new configuration of the International Division of Labor (IDL), the polluting economic and highly energy dependent activities of which - as is the case of aluminum - have been moving to peripheral nations or emerging countries. The laws in such countries are less stringent, and similarly the environmental movements and the claims of the affected populations in the territories prejudiced in their rights to health, a healthy environment and culture are less influential. The competitiveness of this commodity is guaranteed in the international market, from the production of external factors such as environmental damage, deforestation, emissions of greenhouse gases and scenarios of environmental injustice. This includes undertakings in the construction of hydroelectric dams that expose traditional communities to situations involving the loss of their territories. PMID:24196888

  20. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  1. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    PubMed

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  2. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Integrating Marketing and Environmental Studies through an Interdisciplinary, Experiential, Service-Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Nila M.; Sherman, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates an interdisciplinary, experiential service-learning project that combined environmental studies and marketing courses at a liberal arts college over a 2-year period. The inherent tensions between these two disciplines regarding issues of environmental protection and conservation make this project's contribution…

  4. CAN MARKETS FOR DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS IMPROVE LAND USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research will shed light on the potential for a market-based trading program to be effectively used to achieve land use and associated environmental goals. The case studies and model runs will provide useful information for policymakers about (i) which environmental goa...

  5. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  6. 40 CFR 14.8 - Investigation of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation of claims. 14.8 Section 14.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL EMPLOYEE PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 14.8 Investigation of claims. The EPA Claims Officer investigates claims filed under this...

  7. Claiming Copernicus.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    The reputations of scientific heroes shift constantly, modified by politicians as well as by historians. Now that the Scientific Revolution has been reappraised, Nicolas Copernicus is portrayed as a friend of the Catholic Church rather than a scientific martyr. As a German-speaking Pole he has been claimed as a figure of national historical importance by both Germany and Poland, and since the early 20th century has been an important symbol of Polish independence. PMID:16271765

  8. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3 Interagency claims. This regulation does not apply to debts owed EPA by other Federal agencies. Such debts will be resolved by...

  9. Can Market Capitalism Be Greened? Environmental Education Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Deb J.; Tulloch, Lynley

    2013-01-01

    Widespread recognition of the detrimental effects that human activities have had on nature and its ecosystems can now be found in every domain of public policy. Since the inception of international accords in the 1970s provoked greater engagement by nations in environmental amelioration measures, "education" has been lauded as an important panacea…

  10. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  11. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  12. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  13. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  14. Structural Analysis of the Global Multimedia Scenario: Technological, Market, Environmental, and Regulatory Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolo, Enrico; Sapio, Bartolomeo

    1996-01-01

    Presents a strategic evaluation of the global multimedia scenario, considering both stand-alone workstations and distributed multimedia in the worldwide interactive network, including educational databases on the Internet. Discusses 50 technological, market, environmental, and regulatory factors and estimates their impacts on each other using WISE…

  15. Market assessment of environmental issues affecting coal use for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-20

    This is a market assessment of environmental issues affecting coal use through 2020. It was prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratories for the Fossil Energy R&D Program. It is based on interviews of representatives of 8 coal, coal technology, electricity and environmental groups concerned with the future of energy and the environment. Interviewees generally agreed that the U.S. and other countries would continue to need to use coal into the middle of the next century. The size of the market for coal would be determined by the ability of coal and coal technologies to meet environmental requirements at costs that would compete with natural gas. Outside the U.S., three interviewees suggested that there is a market for low cost coal technologies that will reduce the environmental impact of coal use, particularly in developing countries that have few alternative sources of energy. The principal environmental concerns mentioned in these interviews were: efficiency and carbon, air toxics, and NO{sub x}. Several also mentioned potential modifications to the SO{sub x} standards, a fine particulate standard, bottom and fly ash, and methane from coalbeds.

  16. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Aye, Lu . E-mail: lua@unimelb.edu.au; Widjaya, E.R.

    2006-07-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used.

  17. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements for weight loss. These sites are a marketing ploy created to sell acai berry supplements.  Tainted ... on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  18. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihsu

    Around the world, the electric sector is evolving from a system of regulated vertically-integrated monopolies to a complex system of competing generation companies, unregulated traders, and regulated transmission and distribution. One emerging challenge faced by environmental policymakers and electricity industry is the interaction between electricity markets and environmental policies. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these interactions using large-scale computational models of electricity markets based on noncooperative game theory. In particular, this dissertation is comprised of four essays. The first essay studies the interaction of the United States Environmental Protection Agency NOx Budget Program and the mid-Atlantic electricity market. This research quantifies emissions, economic inefficiencies, price distortions, and overall social welfare under various market assumptions using engineering-economic models. The models calculate equilibria for imperfectly competitive markets---Cournot oligopoly---considering the actual landscape of power plants and transmission lines, and including the possibility of market power in the NOx allowances market. The second essay extends the results from first essay and models imperfectly competitive markets using a Stackelberg or leader-follower formulation. A leader in the power and NO x markets is assumed to have perfect foresight of its rivals' responses. The rivals' best response functions are explicitly embedded in the leader's constraints. The solutions quantify the extent to which a leader in the markets can extract economic rents on the expense of its followers. The third essay investigates the effect of implementing the European Union (EU) CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on wholesale power prices in the Western European electricity market. This research uses theoretical and computational modeling approaches to quantify the degree to which CO2 costs were passed on to power prices, and quantifies the

  19. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principal types of allowable claims. 14.11 Section 14.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL EMPLOYEE PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 14.11 Principal types of allowable claims. (a) General. A claim under this part is allowed for tangible personal property of...

  20. Sales of environmental products and services in the Mexican market. How to sell in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, A.

    1994-12-31

    The seven major fields in the Mexican environmental market are: solid waste management; air pollution control; hazardous waste management; waste water treatment and water pollution control; recycling; remediation and site cleanup; and consulting services. According to Mexican authorities, the total value of imports of environmental goods and services in 1992 was more than $1 billion dollars; it is expected to increase to more than $2.2 billion dollars by 1995, with an average rate of 30% growth per year. The still growing and the large size of the Mexican industrial sector, the privatization of hundreds of state enterprises, the government`s economics reform program, the expanded needs of the public sector, the enforcement of the existing environmental regulations, the creation of new regulations, and the new environmental mentality of many of the public and private institutions and companies are the result of the values mentioned above.

  1. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market

    PubMed Central

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  2. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    PubMed

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  3. Environmental Sampling for Avian Influenza A(H7N9) in Live-Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jie; Lin, Jinyan; Huang, Guofeng; Tan, Xiaohua; Zhong, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Background To provide an increased understanding of avian influenza A(H7N9) activity in live-poultry market in space and time and hence improve H7N9 epidemic control, an ongoing environmental sampling program in multiple live-poultry markets across Guangdong, China was conducted during March 2013–June 2014. Methods A total of 625 live-poultry markets throughout 21 prefecture areas took part in the study. A total of 10 environmental sites in markets for sampling were identified to represent 4 different poultry-related activity areas. At least 10 environmental samples were collected from each market every month. The real time RT-PCR was performed to detect the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. Field survey was conducted to investigate the sanitation status of live-poultry markets. Results There were 109 human infections with H7N9 avian influenza in Guangdong, of which 37 (34%) died. A total of 18741 environmental swabs were collected and subjected to real-time RT-PCR test, of which 905(4.83%) were found positive for H7N9 virus. There were 201 (32.16%) markets affected by H7N9 in 16 prefecture areas. The detection of H7N9 virus in markets spiked in winter months. 63.33% markets (38/60) had no physical segregation for poultry holding, slaughter or sale zones. Closing live-poultry market significantly decreased the H7N9 detection rate from 14.83% (112/755) to 1.67% (5/300). Conclusions This study indicates the importance of live-poultry market surveillance based on environmental sampling for H7N9 Avian Influenza control. Improving live-poultry market management and sanitation and changing consumer practices are critical to reduce the risk of H7N9 infection. PMID:25933138

  4. 48 CFR 552.238-72 - Identification of Products That Have Environmental Attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and post-consumer material content levels for the specific products designated by EPA (40 CFR part 247... means energy produced by solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass power. Renewable energy technology means... claim (see 16 CFR part 260, Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims). The Government...

  5. 48 CFR 552.238-72 - Identification of Products That Have Environmental Attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and post-consumer material content levels for the specific products designated by EPA (40 CFR part 247... means energy produced by solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass power. Renewable energy technology means... claim (see 16 CFR part 260, Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims). The Government...

  6. 48 CFR 552.238-72 - Identification of Products That Have Environmental Attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and post-consumer material content levels for the specific products designated by EPA (40 CFR part 247... means energy produced by solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass power. Renewable energy technology means... claim (see 16 CFR part 260, Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims). The Government...

  7. 48 CFR 552.238-72 - Identification of Products That Have Environmental Attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and post-consumer material content levels for the specific products designated by EPA (40 CFR part 247... means energy produced by solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass power. Renewable energy technology means... claim (see 16 CFR part 260, Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims). The Government...

  8. 48 CFR 552.238-72 - Identification of Products That Have Environmental Attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and post-consumer material content levels for the specific products designated by EPA (40 CFR part 247... means energy produced by solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass power. Renewable energy technology means... claim (see 16 CFR part 260, Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims). The Government...

  9. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) in an appropriate composting facility, or in a home compost pile or device. (c) A marketer should... composting facilities, a marketer should clearly and prominently qualify compostable claims if such... municipal or institutional composting facilities is irrelevant. Example 2: A garden center sells...

  10. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) in an appropriate composting facility, or in a home compost pile or device. (c) A marketer should... composting facilities, a marketer should clearly and prominently qualify compostable claims if such... municipal or institutional composting facilities is irrelevant. Example 2: A garden center sells...

  11. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality claims. 716.55 Section 716.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.55 Confidentiality claims. (a)(1) Section 14(b) of TSCA provides that EPA may...

  12. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make...

  13. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer...

  14. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer...

  15. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer...

  16. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer...

  17. Sustainability: Measure it before you claim it

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability: Measure it before You Claim itSubhas K. SikdarAssociate Director for ScienceNational Risk Management Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnati, OH 45268Sikdar.subhas@epa.govABSTRACTSustainability is claimed too often without a rational veri...

  18. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  19. Consumer perceptions of nutrition and health claims.

    PubMed

    van Trijp, Hans C M; van der Lans, Ivo A

    2007-05-01

    The number of food products containing extra or reduced levels of specific ingredients (e.g. extra calcium) that bring particular health benefits (e.g. stronger bones) is still increasing. Nutrition- and health-related (NH) claims promoting these ingredient levels and their health benefit differ in terms of the (legal) strength with which the claim is brought forward and the specific wording of the claim, both of which may differ between countries. Using a large-scale cross-national internet-based survey in Italy (n=1566), Germany (n=1620), UK (n=1560) and US (n=1621), the purpose of the study described here is to investigate consumer perceptions of NH food product claims, across different countries. NH claims are systematically varied as a function of six health benefits (cardiovascular disease, stress, infections, fatigue, overweight and concentration) and five claim types (content, structure-function, product, disease-risk reduction and marketing claim). The general results indicate that consumer perceptions differ substantially by country and benefit being claimed but much less by the claim type. Implications of these findings are being discussed. PMID:17157958

  20. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  1. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  2. Everybody's doing it. With the U.S. economy limping along, the unlikeliest marketers are trying to claim a niche in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Becker, Cinda

    2003-05-01

    The hospital outlook might seem bleak to some investors, but a bevy of diverse companies are seeking the financial cure they believe the healthcare industry can provide. Everyone from carpet companies to trucking firms has been drawn to healthcare because of its seemingly endless consumer demand. Jeannine Rossignol, left, senior marketing manager at Xerox Corp., demonstrates a product at the recent VHA Leadership Conference in Boston. PMID:12776664

  3. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX "really" move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  4. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-11-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX really move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  5. Growth in Biofuels Markets: Long Term Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Seth D. Meyer; Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2010-12-02

    Over the last several years increasing energy and petroleum prices have propelled biofuels and the feedstocks used to produce them, to the forefront of alternative energy production. This growth has increased the linkages between energy and agricultural markets and these changes around the world are having a significant effect on agricultural markets as biofuels begin to play a more substantial role in meeting the world's energy needs. Biofuels are alternatively seen as a means to reduce carbon emissions, increase energy independence, support rural development and to raise farm income. However, concern has arisen that the new demand for traditional commodities or alternative commodities which compete for land can lead to higher food prices and the environmental effects from expanding crop acreage may result in uncertain changes in carbon emissions as land is converted both in the US and abroad. While a number of studies examine changes in land use and consumption from changes in biofuels policies many lack effective policy representation or complete coverage of land types which may be diverted in to energy feedstock production. Many of these biofuels and renewable energy induced land use changes are likely to occur in developing countries with at-risk consumers and on environmentally sensitive lands. Our research has improved the well known FAPRI-MU modeling system which represents US agricultural markets and policies in great detail and added a new model of land use and commodity markets for major commodity producers, consumers and trade dependent and food insecure countries as well as a rest of the world aggregate. The international modules include traditional annual crop lands and include perennial crop land, pasture land, forest land and other land uses from which land may be drawn in to biofuels or renewable energy feedstock production. Changes in calorie consumption in food insecure countries from changes in renewable energy policy can also be examined with a

  6. Nutrition Marketing on Children's Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the rise in childhood obesity, marketing non-nutrient dense foods to children has instigated a worldwide debate. This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% ...

  7. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Roetker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  8. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  9. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  10. 12 CFR 380.50 - Determination of secured claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... property of the covered financial company, the Corporation as receiver shall determine the amount of the... the claimant's security interest, and the fair market value of the property that is subject to the... equal to the fair market value of such property as an unsecured claim. (b) The fair market value of...

  11. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  12. "Claims Made" Insurance Requires Thoughtful Consideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, James G.

    1986-01-01

    The Insurance Service Office's extensive revisions of its commercial general liability policy, including the "claims made" coverage, have been approved in most states. Before accepting a policy in today's insurance market, purchasers should be aware that defense costs can create problems during settlement negotiations. (CJH)

  13. State Your Claim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers relates a young couple's experience in learning about small claims court through an incident involving damage to the husband's leather jacket. The damage to the jacket occurred when it was left at a dry clearner, but the dry cleaner claims that it sent the jacket to a special cleaner that handles…

  14. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71 Health claims: claims not authorized. Health...

  15. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  16. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  17. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  18. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129... Justice § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited... person to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a...

  19. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129 Section... § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited to... to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a violation...

  20. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  1. Predicting project environmental performance under market uncertainties: case study of oil sands coke.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Jennifer M; Bergerson, Joule A; Kettunen, Janne; MacLean, Heather L

    2013-06-01

    A method combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and real options analyses is developed to predict project environmental and financial performance over time, under market uncertainties and decision-making flexibility. The method is applied to examine alternative uses for oil sands coke, a carbonaceous byproduct of processing the unconventional petroleum found in northern Alberta, Canada. Under uncertainties in natural gas price and the imposition of a carbon price, our method identifies that selling the coke to China for electricity generation by integrated gasification combined cycle is likely to be financially preferred initially, but eventually hydrogen production in Alberta is likely to be preferred. Compared to the results of a previous study that used life cycle costing to identify the financially preferred alternative, the inclusion of real options analysis adds value as it accounts for flexibility in decision-making (e.g., to delay investment), increasing the project's expected net present value by 25% and decreasing the expected life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 11%. Different formulations of the carbon pricing policy or changes to the natural gas price forecast alter these findings. The combined LCA/real options method provides researchers and decision-makers with more comprehensive information than can be provided by either technique alone. PMID:23675646

  2. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  3. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  4. The social and environmental context of argan oil production.

    PubMed

    de Waroux, Yann le Polain

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, argan oil has become one of the most expensive cosmetic oils on world markets. This review outlines the social and environmental context of the argan boom, highlighting its consequences on local livelihoods and conservation. It examines the claims that the argan oil boom has benefited the local population and that it encourages the conservation of argan woodlands. PMID:23472447

  5. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality claims. 716.55 Section 716.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... contained in a study, the disclosure of which would clearly be an unwarranted invasion of personal...

  6. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    PubMed

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures. PMID:27217574

  7. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. PMID:25124136

  8. SALT: Weaving the Claim Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, Tudor; Möller, Knud; Handschuh, Siegfried; Trif, Diana; Decker, Stefan

    In this paper we present a solution for "weaving the claim web", i.e. the creation of knowledge networks via so-called claims stated in scientific publications created with the SALT (Semantically Annotated {mboxLaTeX}) framework. To attain this objective, we provide support for claim identification, evolved the appropriate ontologies and defined a claim citation and reference mechanism. We also describe a prototypical claim search engine, which allows to reference to existing claims and hence, weave the web. Finally, we performed a small-scale evaluation of the authoring framework with a quite promising outcome.

  9. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  10. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  11. Plastics in packaging - an environmental law perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Lowenstein, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years, source separation, recycling, incineration and development of degradable polymers have been suggested to reduce the impact of plastic waste on the municipal solid waste crisis. Concern has also been raised, particularly by the National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) and by the Coalition of North Eastern Governors (CONEG), concerning the potential for consumer deception due to environmental marketing claims and toxicity of packaging materials disposed of in landfills. This paper discusses legal issues attendent with (i) the development of degradable polymers, (ii) the development of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) guides for the use of environmental marketing claims for packaging materials` and (iii) the adoption of statutes requiring reductions in toxics in packaging.

  12. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  13. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 307 - Claim for CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. B Appendix B to Part 307—Claim for CERCLA... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim for CERCLA Response Action B Appendix B to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 307 - Claim for CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim for CERCLA Response Action B Appendix B to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. B Appendix B to Part 307—Claim for...

  16. The United States pork niche market phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, M S; Pirog, R S; Huber, G H; Lammers, P J; Hermann, J R

    2006-08-01

    After the broad industrialization of the US pork industry, there has been a development of niche markets for export and domestic pork; that is, there is a pork niche market phenomenon. The US pork niche market phenomenon is characterized, and 2 of the major markets are explained in detail. With the Midwest's tradition of a diversified family-based agriculture and record low hog prices of the late 1990s, the conditions were conducive for this phenomenon to develop. Pork niche markets utilize various sales methods including Internet sales, local abattoir sales, direct marketing, farmer networks, and targeting to organized groups. In 2003, there were approximately 35 to 40 active pork niche marketing efforts in Iowa. The Berkshire breed is an example of a swine breed that has had a recent resurgence because of niche markets. Berkshire pork is known for tenderness and excellent quality. Berkshire registrations have increased 4-fold in the last 10 yr. One of the larger niche marketers of "natural pork" is Niman Ranch Pork, which has more than 400 farmer-producers and processes about 2,500 pigs weekly. Many US consumers of pork are interested in issues concerning the environment, food safety, pig welfare, and pig farm ownership and structure. These consumers may be willing to pay more for pork from farmers who are also concerned about these issues. Small- and medium-sized swine farmers are active in pork niche markets. Niche markets claim product differentiation by superior or unique product quality and social attributes. Quality attributes include certain swine breeds, and meat quality, freshness, taste or flavor, and tenderness. Social or credence attributes often are claimed and include freedom from antibiotics and growth promotants; local family farm production; natural, organic, outdoor, or bedded rearing; humane rearing; known origin; environmentally friendly production; and the absence of animal by-products in the feed. Niche pork markets and alternative swine

  17. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  18. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  19. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  20. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  1. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  2. Locating Environmental Education between Modern Capitalism and Postmodern Socialism: A Reply to Lucie Sauve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckle, John

    1999-01-01

    Claims that structural-adjustment programs, deregulation, and opening of markets may be good for international capital, but such processes increase inequalities, encourage people and countries to over-exploit natural resources, and contribute to reductions in spending on social and environmental welfare. (Author/CCM)

  3. A changing industry -- A need for new market-based environmental regulatory treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Gildea, M.

    1995-12-31

    As deregulation occurs in the electric utility industry, ratemaking treatments must correctly and economically handle all economic costs and revenues. This paper briefly examines the ratemaking treatment given to sulfur dioxide emissions allowances (EAs) by state public utility commissions (PUCs) prior to 1995. The paper then overviews a new market-based ratemaking treatment recently approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for wholesale coordination transactions and identifies important virtues of this regulatory treatment. The paper concludes with arguments supporting the hypothesis that changes currently underway in the electric utility industry are compatible and may enhance the operational effectiveness of Title IV`s implementation.

  4. The use of existing environmental networks for the post-market monitoring of GM crop cultivation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Smets, G; Alcalde, E; Andres, D; Carron, D; Delzenne, P; Heise, A; Legris, G; Martinez Parrilla, M; Verhaert, J; Wandelt, C; Ilegems, M; Rüdelsheim, P

    2014-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment requires that both Case-Specific Monitoring (CSM) and General Surveillance (GS) are considered as post-market implementing measures. Whereas CSM is directed to monitor potential adverse effects of GMOs or their use identified in the environmental risk assessment, GS aims to detect un-intended adverse effects of GMOs or their use on human and animal health or the environment. Guidance documents on the monitoring of genetically modified (GM) plants from the Commission and EFSA clarify that, as appropriate, GS can make use of established routine surveillance practices. Networks involved in routine surveillance offer recognised expertise in a particular domain and are designed to collect information on important environmental aspects over a large geographical area. However, as the suitability of existing monitoring networks to provide relevant data for monitoring impacts of GMOs is not known, plant biotechnology companies developed an approach to describe the processes and criteria that will be used for selecting and evaluating existing monitoring systems. In this paper, the availability of existing monitoring networks for this purpose is evaluated. By cataloguing the existing environmental monitoring networks in the EU, it can be concluded that they can only be used, in the context of GMO cultivation monitoring, as secondary tools to collect baseline information. PMID:24836113

  5. Higher Learning and the Labour Market in a Changing World: Environmental Scan for British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy, economic and social well-being depend on the development of human resources, and those with access to education benefit from higher lifetime earnings, lower rates of unemployment and poverty, a greater sense of engagement at work and society, and healthier lifestyles. This environmental scan considers the major…

  6. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  7. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  8. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  9. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  10. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  11. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal. PMID:19501767

  12. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  13. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  14. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  15. Constituting Market Citizenship: Regulatory State, Market Making and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes three claims: first that regulatory state making and market making in higher education is intertwined through a project of market citizenship that shapes the "publicness" of higher education. Second, we argue that these projects of market citizenship are variegated and in Australia has taken the form of accommodation--via…

  16. 40 CFR 307.40 - Payment of approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of approved claims. 307.40 Section 307.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION,...

  17. 7 CFR 249.20 - Claims and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims and penalties. 249.20 Section 249.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous...

  18. 7 CFR 249.20 - Claims and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Claims and penalties. 249.20 Section 249.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous...

  19. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  20. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  1. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  2. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  3. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  4. Product environmental footprint in policy and market decisions: Applicability and impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Annekatrin; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    In April 2013, the European Commission published the Product and Organisation Environmental Footprint (PEF/OEF) methodology--a life cycle-based multicriteria measure of the environmental performance of products, services, and organizations. With its approach of "comparability over flexibility," the PEF/OEF methodology aims at harmonizing existing methods, while decreasing the flexibility provided by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards regarding methodological choices. Currently, a 3-y pilot phase is running, aiming at testing the methodology and developing product category and organization sector rules (PEFCR/OEFSR). Although a harmonized method is in theory a good idea, the PEF/OEF methodology presents challenges, including a risk of confusion and limitations in applicability to practice. The paper discusses the main differences between the PEF and ISO methodologies and highlights challenges regarding PEF applicability, with a focus on impact assessment. Some methodological aspects of the PEF and PEFCR Guides are found to contradict the ISO 14044 (2006) and ISO 14025 (2006). Others, such as prohibition of inventory cutoffs, are impractical. The evaluation of the impact assessment methods proposed in the PEF/OEF Guide showed that the predefined methods for water consumption, land use, and abiotic resources are not adequate because of modeling artefacts, missing inventory data, or incomplete characterization factors. However, the methods for global warming and ozone depletion perform very well. The results of this study are relevant for the PEF (and OEF) pilot phase, which aims at testing the PEF (OEF) methodology (and potentially adapting it) as well as addressing challenges and coping with them. PMID:25919189

  5. Policies, programs, and public participation: Environmental and occupational health in the emerging market economies and democracies of central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, B.S.; Levenstein, C.

    1993-12-31

    The report focuses on material presented at the Third Annual Symposium. The topics considered at this conference included policies and programs in Poland, in other countries in Europe, and in the United States; market economies and democratic political systems including reports on market forces and environmental health, and public participation, democracy in action; methods and applications; studies of environmental contamination and health; and studies of social factors and health. Based on the information given at the conference, the general conclusions were that there is a need to establish new working relationships and strengthen existing ones, to develop and provide educational and informational programs and materials, to find ways to balance environmental protection and economic development, to strengthen democratic institutions and processes, and to undertake new policy initiatives.

  6. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  7. 32 CFR 536.15 - Claims policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Compromise. DA policy seeks to compromise claims in a manner that represents a fair and equitable result to both the claimant and the United States. This policy does not extend to frivolous claims or claims... on all Army claims personnel. (g) Communication. All claims personnel are authorized to...

  8. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  9. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  10. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  11. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  12. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  13. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  14. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  15. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  16. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  17. Health Care Market Deviations from the Ideal Market

    PubMed Central

    Mwachofi, Ari; Al-Assaf, Assaf F.

    2011-01-01

    A common argument in the health policy debate is that market forces allocate resources efficiently in health care, and that government intervention distorts such allocation. Rarely do those making such claims state explicitly that the market they refer to is an ideal in economic theory which can only exist under very strict conditions. This paper explores the strict conditions necessary for that ideal market in the context of health care as a means of examining the claim that market forces do allocate resources efficiently in health care. PMID:22087373

  18. [Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Mitsuru

    2013-03-01

    The Ibaraki Medical Association established the Committee for Alternative Dispute Resolution called the Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee in 2006. Among 64 claims presented to the committee, 29 were settled through mediation or consultation. Patients were generally satisfied that their claims were considered fairly by the committee and that they were able to talk directly with healthcare professionals. However, some did not consider the committee to be completely neutral. The healthcare professionals involved rated the committee highly because they felt that the processes were neutral and no emotional aspects were involved. PMID:23617190

  19. [Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Environmental Samples Collected from Live Poultry Markets in China during 2009-2013].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Zou, Shumei; Bo, Hong; Dong, Libo; Gao, Rongbao; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-11-01

    Abstract: To investigate the distribution of avian influenza virus in environmental samples from live poultry markets (LPM) in China, samples were collected and tested by nucleic acid during 2009-2013 season. Each sample was tested by real-time RT PCR using flu A specific primers. If any real-time PCR was positive, the sample was inoculated into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs for viral isolation. The results indicated that the positive rate of nucleic acid in enviromental samples exhibited seasonality. The positive rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in Winter and Spring. The positive rate of nucleic acid in LPM located in the south of China was higher than in northern China. Samples of Sewage for cleaning poultry and chopping board showed that higher positive rate of nucleic acid than other samples. The Subtype identification showed that H5 and H9 were main subtypes in the enviromental samples. Viral isolation indicated H5 subtypes was more than H9 subtypes between 2009 and 2013 while H9 subtypes increased in 2013. Our findings suggested the significance of public health based on LPM surveillance and provided the basis of prevention and early warning for avian flu infection human. PMID:26951005

  20. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  1. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  2. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  3. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  4. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  5. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body—as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU—do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  6. Consumers’ health-related motive orientations and reactions to claims about dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers' health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers' explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers' explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body-as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU-do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers' HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  7. 32 CFR 757.14 - Claims asserted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims asserted. 757.14 Section 757.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS Medical Care Recovery Act (MCRA) Claims and Claims Asserted Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 1095 § 757.14 Claims asserted. (a) General. The DoN asserts...

  8. Livestock welfare product claims: the emerging social context.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P; Harris, C; Holt, D; Pajor, E A

    2007-09-01

    An increasing number of product claims about food animal welfare or well-being have appeared in the global food industry and global market in recent years. These claims have significant consequences for producers, processors, transporters, retailers, consumers, and the animals themselves. Furthermore, recent restructuring of the global food industry has altered the power relationships of various actors. Regulation of the industry is moving toward greater private control, and the power of retailers has dramatically increased. The changing structure of the industry carries implications both in terms of how standards are created and in terms of the types of standards themselves. The purpose of this article is to provide a greater understanding of how these product claims are made, their implications, and the challenges they present. PMID:17504960

  9. 28 CFR 8.10 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 8.10 Claims. (a) Filing. In order to contest the forfeiture of seized property in federal court, any...) Availability of claim forms. The claim need not be made in any particular form. However, each seizing agency conducting forfeitures under the regulations in this part must make claim forms generally available...

  10. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  11. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  12. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  13. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  14. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  15. 22 CFR 33.8 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claim procedures. 33.8 Section 33.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES UNDER SECTION 7 § 33.8 Claim procedures. (a) Where and when to apply. Claims must be submitted to the Office Director, Office of...

  16. 22 CFR 33.8 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claim procedures. 33.8 Section 33.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES UNDER SECTION 7 § 33.8 Claim procedures. (a) Where and when to apply. Claims must be submitted to the Office Director, Office of...

  17. 29 CFR 15.24 - Unallowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unallowable claims. 15.24 Section 15.24 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Under... books, is not compensable. Loss of a thesis, or other similar item, is compensable only to the extent...

  18. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claim defined. 504.1 Section 504.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES... 1948, AS AMENDED FILING OF CLAIMS AND PROCEDURES THEREFOR § 504.1 Claim defined. (a) This subchapter...

  19. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claim defined. 504.1 Section 504.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES... 1948, AS AMENDED FILING OF CLAIMS AND PROCEDURES THEREFOR § 504.1 Claim defined. (a) This subchapter...

  20. 40 CFR 704.7 - Confidential business information claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidential business information claims. 704.7 Section 704.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS General Reporting and Recordkeeping Provisions for Section 8(a)...

  1. 40 CFR 85.2106 - Warranty claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warranty claim procedures. 85.2106 Section 85.2106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emissions Control System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket...

  2. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  3. The environmental profile of a community’s health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries

    PubMed Central

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Findings Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15–1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17–5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23–5.17, respectively). Of the 11 842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24–76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Conclusion Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities. PMID:26668437

  4. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71 Health... dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar substances: (a) Dietary fiber...

  5. Exaggerated Claims for Interactive Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thue, David; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia; Webb, Michael

    As advertising becomes more crucial to video games' success, developers risk promoting their products beyond the features that they can actually include. For features of interactive storytelling, the effects of making such exaggerations are not well known, as reports from industry have been anecdotal at best. In this paper, we explore the effects of making exaggerated claims for interactive stories, in the context of the theory of advertising. Results from a human user study show that female players find linear and branching stories to be significantly less enjoyable when they are advertised with exaggerated claims.

  6. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  7. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  8. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  9. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  10. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  11. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  12. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  13. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  14. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  15. 32 CFR 536.103 - Statutory authority for claims cognizable under international claims agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... international claims agreements. 536.103 Section 536.103 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... International Agreements § 536.103 Statutory authority for claims cognizable under international claims... International Agreements Claims Act) as amended, for claims arising overseas under international agreements....

  16. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  17. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  18. Global Warming: Claims, Science, and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Laurence I.

    2007-04-01

    Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2 and scientific methodology^3. Some of the issues considered will be: What are the major ``greenhouse gases''? To what extent is global warming a result of human influences through an increase of ``greenhouse gases''? Is an increase in (1) global temperature and (2) carbon dioxide bad/good? What are some meanings that can be given to the term ``consensus'' in science? What are the estimated financial and other costs of governments implementing the Kyoto accords? Links to readings and videos will be given at the conclusion of the talk. ^1Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It -- (Rodale Press, May, 2006). ^2Marlo Lewis, ``A Skeptic's Guide to An Inconvenient Truth'' http://www.cei.org/pages/aitresponse-book.cfm ^3Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to Environmental Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995), Intro. and Chap. 11. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C1.6

  19. 76 FR 35086 - Proposed Information Collection (Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension,...

  20. Amending the National Practitioner Data Bank reporting requirements: are small claims predictive of large claims?

    PubMed

    Rolph, J E; Pekelney, D; McGuigan, K

    1993-01-01

    This study addresses whether a physician incurring small malpractice claims is predictive of large claims. This is one consideration behind reevaluating whether all claims that result in an indemnity payment should continue to be reported to the National Practitioner Data Bank, or whether claims with payments below some "floor" should be excluded. Using a claims database from 3,098 physicians for 1977-1986, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses show that an individual having a small claim (under $30,000) is indicative of a propensity to incur large claims. This finding is robust to the cutpoint between large and small claims. PMID:8288406

  1. Automated claim and payment verification.

    PubMed

    Segal, Mark J; Morris, Susan; Rubin, James M O

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of managed care, there has been steady deterioration in the ability of physicians, hospitals, payors, and patients to understand reimbursement and the contracts and payment policies that drive it. This lack of transparency has generated administrative costs, confusion, and mistrust. It is therefore essential that physicians, hospitals, and payors have rapid access to accurate information on contractual payment terms. This article summarizes problems with contract-based reimbursement and needed responses by medical practices. It describes an innovative, Internet-based claims and payment verification service, Phynance, which automatically verifies the accuracy of all claims and payments by payor, contract and line item. This service enables practices to know and apply the one, true, contractually obligated allowable. The article details implementation costs and processes and anticipated return on investment. The resulting transparency improves business processes throughout health care, increasing efficiency and lowering costs for physicians, hospitals, payors, employers--and patients. PMID:12122814

  2. Dirac's Claim and the Chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Ana

    In 1929 Paul A. M. Dirac claimed that ``the underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of ... the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble.'' This sentence of Dirac's is cited frequently by historians and philosophers of chemistry in the context of discussions on the hypothetical reduction of chemistry to physics. But how did chemists themselves react to Dirac's claim? Did they feel threatened by physicists who felt they could do their job better than themselves? Did they feel indifferent, or did they simply not care? Was Dirac's paper often cited by chemists? Why was it cited? In this paper, I provide answers to these questions on the basis of an analysis of citations to Dirac's 1929 paper in the Science Citation Index.

  3. Marketing of Food in the Grocery Store Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goals/hypothesis: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or any marketing using health or nutrition information beyond minimum requirements) is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat (approx. 20% daily value), sodium (...

  4. 32 CFR 750.64 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Not Cognizable Under Any Other Provision of Law § 750.64 Claim procedures. (a) The general provisions... notification of a nonscope claim incident accompanied by a demand for money damages in a sum certain. (c)...

  5. 5 CFR 177.103 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.103 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim... assert a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss totally compensated by an...

  6. Characterization and Potential Environmental Implications of Select Cu-Based Fungicides and Bactericides Employed in U.S. Markets

    EPA Science Inventory

    This exploratory study aimed to examine the extent and mineral speciation of nanosized Cu in two fungicide products (A and B) available in the U.S. markets. Electron microcopy results demonstrated the presence of spherical and polydisperse <100 nm Cu particles in product B. Oth...

  7. NutrientNet: An Internet-Based Approach to Teaching Market-Based Policy for Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, To N.; Woodward, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    NutrientNet is an Internet-based environment in which a class can simulate a market-based approach for improving water quality. In NutrientNet, each student receives a role as either a point source or a nonpoint source polluter, and then the participants are allowed to trade water quality credits to cost-effectively reduce pollution in a…

  8. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  9. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  10. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  11. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  12. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  13. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  14. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  15. Diagnosing an Employment Civil Rights Claim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Nicholas D.

    1980-01-01

    An approach is developed to evaluating an employment civil rights claim, on the theory that proper diagnosis will facilitate a more appropriate defensive strategy. The statutory basis for the claims, substance of the complaint, parties defendant, pretext, feasible alternatives, and reasonable accommodation are discussed as claim criteria. (MSE)

  16. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  17. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  18. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  19. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  20. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in PCT Art. 6 and PCT Rules 6, 9, 10 and 11 and shall be adhered to. The number of the claims shall...

  1. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Claims. 1037.3 Section 1037.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the...

  2. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR part 14 sets forth certain...). (3) Affirmative claims (32 CFR part 537). (i) The Federal Claims Collection Act (FCCA), 31 U.S.C... by a Fifth Amendment “taking.” (2) Maritime authority statutes, Public Vessels Act (PVA), 46...

  3. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR Part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR Part 14 sets forth certain...). (3) Affirmative claims (32 CFR Part 537). (i) The Federal Claims Collection Act (FCCA), 31 U.S.C... by a Fifth Amendment “taking.” (2) Maritime authority statutes, Public Vessels Act (PVA), 46...

  4. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR Part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR Part 14 sets forth certain...). (3) Affirmative claims (32 CFR Part 537). (i) The Federal Claims Collection Act (FCCA), 31 U.S.C... by a Fifth Amendment “taking.” (2) Maritime authority statutes, Public Vessels Act (PVA), 46...

  5. 42 CFR 401.607 - Claims collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims collection. 401.607 Section 401.607 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Claims Collection and Compromise § 401.607 Claims collection. (a) General policy. CMS recovers amounts...

  6. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  7. 24 CFR 17.67 - Claims files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims files. 17.67 Section 17.67... files. Each claims collection officer is responsible for obtaining current credit data about each person against whom a claim is pending in his office. The file shall be kept reasonably up to date by...

  8. 38 CFR 21.31 - Informal claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal claim. 21.31...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Claims § 21.31 Informal claim. Any communication or action indicating an intent to apply...

  9. 36 CFR 530.1 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Department of Justice in 28 CFR part 14. Information on specific claims procedures can be obtained as follows... 530.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAIMS AGAINST THE SMITHSONIAN... WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR SCHOLARS § 530.1 Tort claims. The Smithsonian Institution...

  10. 36 CFR 530.1 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Department of Justice in 28 CFR part 14. Information on specific claims procedures can be obtained as follows....1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAIMS AGAINST THE SMITHSONIAN... WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR SCHOLARS § 530.1 Tort claims. The Smithsonian Institution...