Science.gov

Sample records for environmental pollutant studies

  1. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer: epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Moysich, Kirsten B; Humblet, Olivier; Attfield, Kathleen R; Beehler, Gregory P; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2007-06-15

    Laboratory research has shown that numerous environmental pollutants cause mammary gland tumors in animals; are hormonally active, specifically mimicking estrogen, which is a breast cancer risk factor; or affect susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. An assessment of epidemiologic research on these pollutants identified in toxicologic studies can guide future research and exposure reduction aimed at prevention. The PubMed database was searched for relevant literature and systematic critical reviews were entered in a database available at URL: www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and URL: www.komen.org/environment (accessed April 10, 2007). Based on a relatively small number of studies, the evidence to date generally supports an association between breast cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in conjunction with certain genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen activation and steroid hormone metabolism. Evidence regarding dioxins and organic solvents is sparse and methodologically limited but suggestive of an association. Methodologic problems include inadequate exposure assessment, a lack of access to highly exposed and unexposed populations, and a lack of preclinical markers to identify associations that may be obscured by disease latency. Among chemicals identified in toxicologic research as relevant to breast cancer, many have not been investigated in humans. The development of better exposure assessment methods is needed to fill this gap. In the interim, weaknesses in the epidemiologic literature argue for greater reliance on toxicologic studies to develop national policies to reduce chemical exposures that may be associated with breast cancer. Substantial research progress in the last 5 years suggests that the investigation of environmental pollutants will lead to strategies to reduce breast cancer risk. PMID:17503436

  2. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  3. Hazard identification of environmental pollutants by combining results from ecological and biomarker studies: an example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Linking exposures from environmental pollutants with adverse health effects is difficult because these exposures are usually low-dose and ill-defined. According to several investigators, a series of multidisciplinary, multilevel studies is needed to address this prob...

  4. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  5. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  6. Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onianwa, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

  7. Environmental Perception and Citizen Response: a Denver, Colorado Air Pollution Case Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naomi, Leaura M.

    Denver, a high altitude city, suffers from air pollution. Automobile emissions, as well as wood and coal burning contribute to Denver's air pollution. In order to reduce its air pollution, Denver hosted a no-drive campaign, The Better Air Campaign. This study examined how Denver -area citizens perceived their air pollution, responded to their air pollution, and responded to their no-drive campaign. First, I conducted personal interviews of twenty Denver air pollution decision-makers to ascertain their perceptions and definitions of Denver's air pollution problem. Second, I created a theoretical model of environmental perception and behavioral response to air pollution. Third, I conducted a telephone survey of 500 Denver-area residents to examine the usefulness of the model. By segmenting a sample of 500 Denver-area residents via a modified values and lifestyles (VALS) technique included in a telephone survey, the perceptions and behaviors of residents fell into a clear pattern. This values and lifestyles pattern coincided with a conventional innovation-adoption pattern, including innovators, the bandwagon, and laggards. Thus, the research determined the population's perceptions and behavioral responses to their air pollution. The research also pointed a direction for Denver's air pollution decision-makers to follow in order to reduce use of the gasoline-powered automobile. And, for those interested in encouraging public acceptance of ecological sustainability, it suggested application of the VALS technique for reaching the public.

  8. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented environmental guide is the result of cooperative efforts of high school teachers, students, scientists, and technicians. The activities are divided into four chapters: Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: an introduction; questions…

  9. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, E.L. . Div. of Biological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise.

  10. Pollution as a Form of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael Pugh

    1986-01-01

    Proposes that a case-study approach to pollution problems can enhance the environmental awareness of students. Presents background information and instructional ideas for case studies on water pollution, cars, and the urban environment. (ML)

  11. Aerosols and environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth’s radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  12. Understanding Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Marquita K.

    2004-09-01

    Introducing pollution issues to students and others with little scientific background, this new edition of a well-received textbook has been completely revised and updated. Starting with the definition of pollution and how pollutants behave, it progresses to covering air and water pollution basics, pollution and global change, solid waste, and pollution in the home. First Edition Hb (1997): 0-521-56210-4 First Edition Pb (1997): 0-521-56680-0

  13. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P

    2016-10-01

    This annual review covers the literature published in 2015 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, I have discussed only a fraction of the quality research publications, up to maximum 20 relevant articles per section, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, full-text articles were referred to better understand new findings. This review is divided into the following sections: biological agents, disinfection by-products (DBPs), halogenated compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other emerging contaminants. PMID:27620105

  14. The Onset of a Novel Environmental Offset: A case study for diverse pollutant scheme in Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A.; Arora, M.; Delbridge, N.; Pettigrove, V.; Feldman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental offset schemes employ a crediting system to mitigate the impacts of pollutants. In this talk, we present a novel trade-off concept comparing diverse groups of pollutants: environmental flows, micropollutants (heavy metals, pesticides, estrogen compounds) and nutrients in a test watershed (Jacksons Creek), in the vicinity of Melbourne. A reservoir in the upper watershed, and a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) are the main sources of flow into Jacksons Creek. The current land use is a mix of agriculture, and rural, though rapid urbanization is anticipated with a 40% increase in the population by 2040. The creek is impacted by: 1) low flow, especially during dry periods (contribution from the reservoir drops dramatically), 2) nutrient enrichment (WTP and agricultural runoff), and 3) micropollutants-heavy metals (urban runoff), estrogenic compounds (WTP), and pesticides (agricultural runoff). In this offset framework, we evaluated current and future scenarios to identify the main stressor in Jacksons Creek. We collected monitoring data at 15 sites for separate 3 events. Then we developed a watershed model to assess sources of pollutant loads to the creek, using two different tools, Model for Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC) for the preliminary flow and water quality modeling, and eWater Source for integrated water resource management (IWRM), and a decision support system for stakeholders. Scenario analysis includes urbanization and population growth, and anticipated discharges from WTP and the reservoir. Measured nutrient concentrations were high for all sampling events. Micropollutants were detected at a concentration higher than the trigger value at several locations. Preliminary analysis shows that low flow is one of the major stressors in the creek causing elevated micropollutant and nutrient concentrations (non-point), and that discharge from the WTP is essential to maintain the minimum environmental flows, though nutrient

  15. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  16. Impact of Environmental Pollution on the Preservation of Archives and Records: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, M. W.

    Following a description of the essential chemical and physical structures of most archive documents, this paper examines the various pollutants that can damage these documents and gives their characteristics. The pollutants are categorized as environmental (e.g., smokes, mineral dusts); exterior gas and vapor (e.g., oxygen, water, sulphur…

  17. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  18. Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B.; Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Houthuijs, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Hoogh K, Breugelmans O, Kruize H, Janssen NA, Houthuijs D. 2015. Air pollution and mortality in seven million adults: the Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS). Environ Health Perspect 123:697–704; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408254 PMID:25760672

  19. Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

  20. Land Resources and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's land resources. The visual aids,…

  1. Air Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's atmosphere. The visual aids, worksheets,…

  2. Approaches to environmental restoration of a polluted harbour with submerged archaeology: the Alexandria case study.

    PubMed

    El-Rayis, Osman A; Hemeda, Engy I; Ismael, Amany M; Jammo, K

    2003-01-01

    Many invaluable underwater buildings of archaeological interest in Alexandria were discovered in 1996 at different sites in the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria. There is a belief that the best way to protect these invaluable heritages is to transfer them to an underwater park or museum. Obviously, the execution of such a project depends essentially upon the water quality (including water transparency) improving in the future. The harbour is presently polluted by discharge of wastewater effluents from different sources. It has recently been decided to restore this important coastal area through: (1) stopping the direct discharge of wastewater effluents into this semi-enclosed harbour in 1993 and (2) gradually reducing the discharge of the municipal wastewater through marine outfalls at two sites lying at the outer sides of the harbour. Zero discharge is expected to be effective by the end of the year 2001. The present work, therefore, is a follow up of the study of water quality in the harbour after 1993: in 1996 and 1999-2000. The water quality of an open sea reference station was also studied for comparison. The results reveal occurrence of an improvement of the environmental conditions in the harbour. The water has turned from being eutrophic to mesotrophic. The harbour is expected to become meso/oligotrophic as soon as the complete cessation of the discharge from the two outside sources is attained. PMID:12787619

  3. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  4. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  5. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  6. Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, George K., Ed.

    The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

  7. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  8. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  9. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  10. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  11. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  12. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  13. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume I - Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume I of a two volume set, consists of many tested water pollution study activities. The activities are grouped into four headings: (1) Hydrologic Cycle, (2) Human Activities, (3) Ecological Perspectives, and (4) Social and Political Factors. Three levels of activities are provided: (1) those which increase awareness, (2)…

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT / POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...

  15. Environmental Law and the Export of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John F.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental problems do not stop at state boundaries; they reach beyond local or national jurisdictions and require international control. Problems concerning air quality, water pollution, and indirect pollution are discussed. Environmental legislation can have a significant impact. (RM)

  16. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution Equipment and Environmental Studies, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this guidebook is to present instructions for constructing low-cost instruments for environmental studies. The instruments discussed were either adopted or designed by students who were presented with the problem of producing low-cost environmental monitoring equipment. This book is a sequel to A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water…

  17. Stress-70 proteins in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarkers of environmental pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Hamer, B; Hamer, D Pavicić; Müller, W E G; Batel, R

    2004-09-01

    In the present work we have investigated levels of stress-70 proteins in the gills of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected seasonally from subtidal rocky shores at 6 different sites of the Rovinj coastal area (Northern Adriatic, Croatia). 1-D analysis (SDS-PAGE) using monoclonal mouse antibodies anti-HSP70 detected two bands of stress-70 proteins, 70 and 72 kDa constitutively present during the year. 2-D analysis (IEF+SDS-PAGE) proved that the antibodies used detected HSP70 (pI 5.7-5.9) and HSP72 (pI 5.5-5.6). The quantification of stress-70 proteins was possible using 200 ng of external HSP70 protein standard included on every blot. Maximal levels of HSP72 and HSP70 were observed in mussels in summer (September), and minimal levels in winter (December), and only HSP70 showed significant correlation with the sea temperature (r=+0.822, p<0.05). Acclimatization of mussels to a different lower salinity under experimental conditions proved that small changes in sea salinity (Delta=2 psu) could not cause significant stress-70 proteins induction. Results indicated that there are significant differences in HSP70 and HSP72 content in mussels from the control site (S-1) and mussels from other sampling sites with urban and industrial pollution. The usefulness of stress-70 proteins as biomarkers of environmental pollution is discussed. PMID:15196835

  18. Environmental and pollution science. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Pepper; Charles Gerba; Mark Brusseau,

    2006-07-01

    This book integrates a large number of subjects in environmental studies and provides a realistic and objective evaluation of pollution as a price we pay for a modern economy. It focuses on the scientific assessment of environmental quality by developing a framework of principles that can be applied to any environmental problem. It addresses tactical issues for managers and government workers such as remediation, environmental monitoring, risk assessment, and management. It can be used by professionals as well as undergraduate students. 186 ills. 79 tabs.

  19. Pollution. Environmental Education Instructional Unit. Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Science Education.

    This unit on pollution is one in a series of three prepared for use in the classroom. An interdisciplinary approach encompassing mathematics, science, and social studies is utilized in these environmental units. The material is designed for middle grades and above. Many activities are open-ended with each activity in this unit emphasizing the…

  20. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. PMID:16442592

  1. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    PubMed

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments. PMID:25656265

  2. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    PubMed

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method. PMID:16181728

  3. Particle pollution - An environmental magnetism study using biocollectors located in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Lacerda, Maria João; Gomes, Celeste

    2012-12-01

    In this study the magnetic properties of tree leaves were measured in order to compare their capability to accumulate particles, to establish the relationship between magnetic properties and chemical data and to assess the particle pollution in selected locations in the cities of Braga, Porto, Valongo and Trancoso-Reboleiro, northern Portugal. In Porto, Braga and Valongo, leaves from the evergreen Nerium oleander were sampled each month during a year. N. oleander and deciduous Quercus spp. and Platanus spp. samples were collected in the same site in Porto, in order to determine the ability of these different leaves to accumulate particles. The leaves of deciduous Tilia spp. were collected in Porto and in a rural area (Trancoso-Reboleiro) so that a comparison could be established between them. The results indicated a contrast between the urban and the rural areas. The highest concentration of magnetic particles was found in the sampling site of Valongo and the lowest concentration in the sampling site of Trancoso-Reboleiro. In Porto, the results have shown that the Quercus leaves possessed the highest capability to accumulate particles even though it is a deciduous species. The IRM acquisition curves and the S-300 ratios found in the samples of the urban areas indicated the presence of magnetite-like structures. SIRM/χ ratio revealed particles whose dimensions ranged between 5 μm and 8 μm in urban areas. The chemical elements copper and iron have a significant positive correlation with χ and SIRM, which highlights the use of magnetic properties as a proxy for the concentration of these metals in atmospheric dust. The magnetic properties were interpreted taking into consideration the rainfall peaks and then compared with the PM10 concentration levels monitored in an air quality station in Porto. Our data corroborated that magnetic properties provide a fast and inexpensive tool to evaluate long-term urban pollution from anthropogenic origin, especially heavy

  4. Teaching Environmental Pollution, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.

    This guide is activity oriented and designed to provide environmental experiences for children in grades four through six which will involve them in making value judgments relative to their own community. Content covers problems dealing with air pollution, water pollution, solid wastes, and the aesthetics of visual pollution. Five to fourteen…

  5. Environmental study for pollution in the area of Megalopolis power plant (Peloponnesos, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarris, Apostolos; Kokinou, Eleni; Aidona, Eleni; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos; Koulouridakis, Pavlos; Kakoulaki, Georgia; Droulia, Kassiani; Damianovits, Ourania

    2009-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the suitability of magnetic properties in correlation to geochemical measurements as a pollution-monitoring tool and study the metal transmission factors in an area around a major local source, namely a lignite-burning power plant. Surface soil samples were collected in the wide area of the power plant of Megalopolis (Peloponnesos, Greece). The magnetic susceptibility and other magnetic properties of the surface soils were originally measured and mapped. Loci of high values of magnetic susceptibility within the study area gave rise to further analyze the soil samples for metal concentrations. GIS techniques were used for mapping all the chemical constituent concentrations and the magnetic measurements on the various topographic and geological features of the area. Maps were created through interpolation algorithms indicating the spatial distribution of the above measurements. Spatial tools and statistical analysis through the calculation of Pearson’s coefficients proved the correlation between magnetic properties, metal concentrations and the terrain attributes (especially the geological structure and the wind currents) of the region.

  6. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  7. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: a case study.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D

    2013-04-01

    If residents' perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents' perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about odour and environmental pollution because the municipality received economic compensation for their presence. PMID:23321503

  8. Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.

  9. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  10. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  11. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  12. Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

  13. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  14. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies. PMID:25312333

  15. Environmental Risk Score as a New Tool to Examine Multi-Pollutants in Epidemiologic Research: An Example from the NHANES Study Using Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Tao, Yebin; Meeker, John D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and plasticizers play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. Most epidemiologic studies have examined environmental pollutants individually, but in real life, we are exposed to multi-pollutants and pollution mixtures, not single pollutants. Although multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, challenges exist such as how to estimate the risk of adverse health responses from multi-pollutants. We propose an “Environmental Risk Score (ERS)” as a new simple tool to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research. Methods and Results We examined 134 environmental pollutants in relation to serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2006. Using a two-stage approach, stage-1 for discovery (n = 10818) and stage-2 for validation (n = 4615), we identified 13 associated pollutants for total cholesterol, 9 for HDL, 5 for LDL and 27 for triglycerides with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and serum nutrient levels. Using the regression coefficients (weights) from joint analyses of the combined data and exposure concentrations, ERS were computed as a weighted sum of the pollutant levels. We computed ERS for multiple lipid outcomes examined individually (single-phenotype approach) or together (multi-phenotype approach). Although the contributions of ERS to overall risk predictions for lipid outcomes were modest, we found relatively stronger associations between ERS and lipid outcomes than with individual pollutants. The magnitudes of the observed associations for ERS were comparable to or stronger than those for socio-demographic factors or BMI. Conclusions This study suggests ERS is

  16. [My experience in mercury toxicology: behavioral teratology study of the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    I would like to express sincere thanks to all the people involved in awarding the 2005 Congress Award. It is a great honor to be given the prize. I have been interested in mercury toxicology since I was a graduate student and mercury toxicology has been my main subject of focus for 30 years. I am proud to continue the research in this field. In this presentation I would like to summarize some of my research works and to talk anecdotes related to the research works. Soon after I became involved in this research field, I came across "behavioral teratology", which is a novel field of study whose focus is understanding the postnatal consequences of exposure to harmful agents in utero. Spyker and her colleagues clearly showed postnatal behavioral deviations in mouse offspring exposed to a low dose of methylmercury prenatally. In various animal experiments, I elucidated the subtle consequences that appear postnatally. I found that these consequences are modified by many factors such as selenium status, PCBs, and heat, because the degree of exposure to produce these consequences can be extremely small. These experiments simulate actual human life and the results will be useful to assess the risk of methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in the human population, since fish eating populations are exposed to these factors at a low dose. Recently, cohort studies elucidating the possible effects of prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants in the postnatal period have been established and ongoing. When a conclusion is drawn, it is expected to serve as basic information that is useful for the risk assessment of methylmercury and other environmental pollutants. This will give great gratification to scientists in environmental health and preventive medicine. PMID:17575786

  17. Comparing Environmental Conditions Using Indicators of Pollution Hazard

    PubMed

    Turner; Ruffio; Roberts

    1997-07-01

    / Land use/land cover classifications for 1973 and 1991, derived from the interpretation of satellite imagery, are quantified on the basis of biophysical land units in a study area in southeastern Australia. Nutrient export potentials are estimated for each land unit based on their composition of land use/land cover classes. Spatial and temporal comparisons are made of the land units based on the calculated pollution hazard indicators to provide an insight into changes in the state of the environment and the regional significance of land use changes. For example, one ecosystem, unique to the study, showed a large increase in pollution hazard over the study period as a manifestation of an 11-fold rise in cleared area and an expansion of cropping activities. The benefits to environmental management in general are discussed.KEY WORDS: Land cover change; Nutrient export; Environmental condition; Pollution hazard; Agricultural pollution; Nonpoint source pollution; Diffuse pollution; Environmental degradation PMID:9175549

  18. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates social and…

  19. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

  20. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  1. On the use of non-Gaussian models for prediction of extreme pollution levels in environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, D. B.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Taubayev, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the distribution of contamination at the territory on the data of snow samples analysis, in order to find an approach to forecasting of the extreme pollution levels. The hypothesis of normal distribution of the values of pollution index (the intensity of dust fallout on the territory, mg /m2/day) is not confirmed on the results of statistical analysis of the data for six different experimental sites (from 81 to 256 values of the index for each site). For the set of 243 values of the pollution index at the territory of a city, there is made an attempt of forecast of its possible extreme values not detected on the results of the snow sampling. For this, the linear dependence "pollution index - the number of points with the given pollution index" built in double logarithmic coordinates, is extrapolated into the area of high values of the pollution index.

  2. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  3. Vitamin A homeostasis endangered by environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zile, M.H. )

    1992-11-01

    Normal vitamin A function depends on adequate stores of the vitamin, a finely regulated supply of the vitamin to target tissues, and an ability of cells to generate functionally active forms of the vitamin. Both endogenous and exogenous factors can adversely affect vitamin A homeostasis. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and cause severe disturbances in vitamin A metabolism, manifested by an accelerated metabolism and breakdown of vitamin A and its metabolites and a depletion of vitamin A from the body; this sequence of events accounts for the vitamin A deficiency-like symptoms associated with PHAH intoxication. The mechanism(s) responsible for these events most likely includes altered activities of enzymes that are either directly or indirectly involved in critical vitamin A metabolic pathways. Human populations that continue to be exposed to environmental pollutants, may accumulate critical levels of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and will be at risk for inadequate vitamin A function as well as for other health impairments that have been difficult to link to any specific causes. Therefore, it is important to seriously evaluate the similarities in physiological disturbances across species that have become apparent in studies with wildlife inhabiting polluted environments similar to ours; the relevance to human health is evident.197 references.

  4. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-19

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company`s regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS TO THE STUDY OF CHIRAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ENANTIOMER SEPARATION AND MEASUREMENTS OF ENANTIOSELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    CE is rarely used for routine environmental analysis of organic pollutants -- certainly not to the extent of gas chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography. There are advantages to CE, however, that belie this lack of application. For example, CE is preferred over GC f...

  6. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION TOLERANCE OF EPHEMEROPTERA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on the environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of 400 species of mayflies (Insecta:Ephemeroptera) from the United States and Canada were compiled from 200 sources. The following ecological parameters were considered: pH, nutrients, organic pollution, oxygen concen...

  8. Energy Slaves and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    Modern man pays a price, pollution, with the dependency shift from humans as converters of energy for work to machines as converters of energy. Emphasis is placed on electromechanical appliances and their respective power ratings. (EB)

  9. Concern about Environmental Pollution: How Much Difference Do Race and Ethnicity Make? A New Jersey Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted among 1,513 residents of New Jersey during March–May 2004 showed that non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and English-speaking Hispanic Americans were significantly more concerned about environmental pollution problems than were Asian Americans and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans. For example, an average of > 40% of the first three groups was very concerned about New Jersey’s environmental problems, compared with 15% of the last two populations. There were also racial/ethnic differences among these groups in their desire for government action to protect the environment and in their personal support of the environmental movement. Regression analyses suggest that the 1970s and 1980s model of core support for environmental protection from white, female, young, educated, and politically liberal people has largely, but not completely, continued among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and English-language Hispanic populations. But these demographic pointers do not hold for Asian and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans, except indicating more support among the more formally educated. The last two groups are the two fastest-growing subpopulations in the United States, and although acculturation may slowly increase their concern about environmental pollution, it is more prudent for proponents of environmental protection not to wait and instead to try to better understand the environmental perceptions of these groups. PMID:15811824

  10. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  11. TOXICITY AND METABOLISM STUDIES WITH EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PRIORITY POLLUTANTS AND RELATED CHEMICALS IN FRESHWATER ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-two chemicals from the EPA priority pollutant list were studied for their acute and/or chronic toxicity to selected freshwater organisms. Freshwater species tested included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis...

  12. Is chemosensitisation by environmental pollutants ecotoxicologically relevant?

    PubMed

    Kurth, Denise; Brack, Werner; Luckenbach, Till

    2015-10-01

    The active cellular efflux of toxicants is an efficient biological defense mode present in all organisms. By blocking this so-called multixenobiotic resistance transport-a process also referred to as chemosensitisation-, cellular bioaccumulation and the sensitivity of organisms towards environmental pollutants can increase. So far, a wide range of compounds, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and surfactants, have been identified as chemosensitisers. Although, significant on a cellular level, the environmental impact of chemosensitisation on the organism level is not yet understood. Critically evaluating existing data, this paper identifies research needs to support our tentative conclusion that chemosensitisation may well enhance the risks of chemical exposure to aquatic organisms. Our conclusion is based on studies investigating the impact of individual chemicals and complex environmental mixtures on aquatic wildlife and a chemosensitiser mixture toxicity model which, however, is subject to great uncertainty due to substantial knowledge gaps. Those uncertainties include the inconsistent reporting of effect data, the lack of representative environmental contaminants tested for chemosensitisation, and the publishing of highly unreliable nominal exposure concentrations. In order to confirm the tentative conclusion of this paper, we require the significant and systematic investigation of a broader set of chemicals and environmental samples with a harmonised set of bioassays and rigorously controlled freely dissolved effect concentrations. PMID:26281775

  13. Environmental degradation of polluting aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons: a case study.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Ozioma, Achugasim

    2007-03-01

    Oil extracts of Ukpeliede spill samples from Niger Delta (Nigeria) were analyzed by gas chromatography. The amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially the lower-molecular-weight naphthene, fluorine, phenathrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene, decreased within the sampling intervals of 2 months and 5 months. There was a predominance of three-to-six-ring PAHs over the two-ring PAHs. There was marked disappearance of n-C8 to n-C11 hydrocarbon fractions and the acyclic isoprenoids (pristane and phytane). The depletion of these molecules within the two sampling intervals suggests the possible attenuation of hydrocarbons as a result of the environmental modification within the set interval. PMID:17372944

  14. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  15. Quantitative EPR study on free radicals in the natural polyphenols interacting with metal ions and other environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezierski, Adam; Czechowski, Franciszek; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Golonka, Iwona; Drozd, Jerzy; Bylinska, Ewa; Chen, Yona; Seaward, Mark R. D.

    2002-04-01

    Quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method was applied to characterise radicals stabilised in polyphenolic matrices of various biogenic materials: lichens, mosses, composts, soils, peats, brown coals and sewage sludge sediments. The investigations were carried out on raw materials and extracted fractions of humic acids (HA). General trends of g value and spin concentration changes were found. These parameters in lichens strongly depend on lichen species and air pollution. Determination of the g value and semiquinone spin concentration allows to assess degree of transformation of organic matter in compost, soil, peat and lignite. Application of gaseous ammonia as a base penetrating the organic matrices extends the possibilities and usefulness of the method. Interaction of metal ions with humic materials is illustrated by interaction of VO 2+ ion with peat and lignite HA as well as demineralised (raw and carbonised) brown coal. Our investigations demonstrate that quantitative EPR is a rapid and effective monitoring method to study the influence of various environmental factors on substances containing polyphenolic matrices.

  16. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  17. An integrated environmental decision support system for water pollution control based on TMDL--A case study in the Beiyun River watershed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanghong; Li, Yueqiang; Zhang, Tianxiang; Peng, Yang

    2015-06-01

    This paper details the development and application of an integrated environmental decision support system (EDSS) for water pollution control based on total maximum daily load (TMDL). The system includes an infrastructure, simulation, and application platforms. Using the water pollution control of Beiyun River in China as a case study, the key development processes and technologies of the EDSS are discussed including relations and links between various environmental simulation models, and model integration, visualization and real-time simulation methods. A loose coupling method is used to connect the environmental models, and an XML file is used to complete data exchange between different models. Project configuration and scheme configuration are used for simulation data organization. The integration approach is easy to implement and enables different development languages and reuse of existing models. The EDSS has been applied to water environment management of Beiyun River, and can be applied to other geographic regions. PMID:25791234

  18. The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exit, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We use an environmental Gini coefficient with Toxic Release Inventory ...

  19. Environmental pollution and allergy: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Alessandrini, Francesca; Buters, Jeroen; Krämer, Ursula; Koren, Hillel; Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    It may be a coincidence, but it is a fact that the first clear characterization of hay fever began in England where modern industrialization started in Europe. Only at the end of the 20th century were associations of the increasing prevalence of allergy with outdoor air pollution discussed. The seminal study came from Japan from the group of T. Miyamoto linking the increase in Japanese cedar pollinosis to an increased prevalence of Diesel cars and probably exposure to Diesel exhaust in epidemiological, animal experimental and in vitro studies. In Germany first epidemiological studies were done in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria in 1987 and 1988 showing a striking prevalence of allergic disease of up to 10-20% in preschool children. After German reunification the most surprising observation was a lower prevalence of hay fever in East German children compared to the West, although there was a much higher air pollution with SO2 and large particulate matter. Modern smog as found over West German cities most likely originating from traffic exhaust and consisting of fine and ultrafine particles was shown to be associated with higher incidence rates of allergy and allergic sensitization. In the 10 years after reunification there was a steep increase of allergy prevalence in East German children reaching almost the same level as in West Germany. Obviously, a multitude of lifestyle factors - beyond air pollution - may be involved in the explanation of this phenomenon. Surprisingly the skin manifestation of atopy, namely atopic eczema, was more frequent in East German children compared to the West, thus differing from airway allergy. Meanwhile in vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that a variety of air pollutants mostly from environmental tobacco smoke (indoors) and from traffic exhaust (outdoors) can stimulate immune cells inducing a Th2-dominated response besides their irritative effects. While 50 years ago in allergy textbooks a clear distinction was made

  20. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME IV. STUDIES ON PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACHES TO VALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AMENITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research presented in this volume of a five volume study of the economic benefits of air pollution control explores various facets of the two central project objectives that have not been given adequate attention in the previous volumes. The valuations developed in these prev...

  1. Education against Environmental Pollution in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire B.

    1989-01-01

    A community education campaign is beginning to heighten public awareness of the pollution of air, water, and land resources in Nigeria. Research-based information has led to the development of printed educational materials, radio and television messages, and the establishment of a national Environmental Protection Agency. (SK)

  2. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  3. Indoor Pollutants: Environmental Hazards to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Alerts parents, teachers, and others to some of the leading indoor environmental hazards to young children which are caused by various types of indoor pollutants: cigarette smoke; heating/cooking equipment; asbestos; pesticides; art supplies; radon; and lead. Also suggests ways to reduce these health hazards. (BB)

  4. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence. PMID:24889992

  5. Monitoring environmental pollution by atmospheric corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kharafi, F.M.; Ismail, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is monitored by outdoor exposure of several commercial alloys including steel, Al, Cu, and brass (Cu-30Zu) alloys. Three districts of Kuwait were selected for this study including of residential, industrial, and marine areas. The atmospheric pollution level could be monitored directly by observation of the corrosion of the test alloys.

  6. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  7. The Environmental Pollution Perception of Residents in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study in the Hancheng Mine Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  8. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment. PMID:22864550

  9. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  10. Air Pollution Exposure Assessment for Epidemiologic Studies of Pregnant Women and Children: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Frank; Avol, Ed; Kinney, Patrick; Jerrett, Michael; Dvonch, Timothy; Lurmann, Frederick; Buckley, Timothy; Breysse, Patrick; Keeler, Gerald; de Villiers, Tracy; McConnell, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The National Children’s Study is considering a wide spectrum of airborne pollutants that are hypothesized to potentially influence pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, asthma, atopy, immune development, obesity, and pubertal development. In this article we summarize six applicable exposure assessment lessons learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research that may enhance the National Children’s Study: a) Selecting individual study subjects with a wide range of pollution exposure profiles maximizes spatial-scale exposure contrasts for key pollutants of study interest. b) In studies with large sample sizes, long duration, and diverse outcomes and exposures, exposure assessment efforts should rely on modeling to provide estimates for the entire cohort, supported by subject-derived questionnaire data. c) Assessment of some exposures of interest requires individual measurements of exposures using snapshots of personal and microenvironmental exposures over short periods and/or in selected microenvironments. d) Understanding issues of spatial–temporal correlations of air pollutants, the surrogacy of specific pollutants for components of the complex mixture, and the exposure misclassification inherent in exposure estimates is critical in analysis and interpretation. e) “Usual” temporal, spatial, and physical patterns of activity can be used as modifiers of the exposure/outcome relationships. f) Biomarkers of exposure are useful for evaluation of specific exposures that have multiple routes of exposure. If these lessons are applied, the National Children’s Study offers a unique opportunity to assess the adverse effects of air pollution on interrelated health outcomes during the critical early life period. PMID:16203261

  11. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  12. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  13. Role of bougainvilleas in mitigation of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Srivastava, Richa; Roy, R K

    2005-04-01

    Environmental pollution adversely affects health of the people. Industrialization, urbanization, over exploitation of natural resources and increasing number of automobiles have aggravated the pollution manifold though there are various ways to mitigate the environmental pollution. Bio-remediation by using selected plant species is an effective method to control pollution which is universally accepted. Bougainvillea is a pollution tolerant plant and can help in the mitigation of air pollution besides its ornamental value in the landscaping. From the rich germplasm collection in NBRI Botanical Garden, tolerant plants have been experimented for road side plantation in view of mitigating the environmental pollution. PMID:16649617

  14. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  15. Exploring the associations between microRNA expression profiles and environmental pollutants in human placenta from the National Children's Study (NCS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Kappil, Maya A; Li, An; Dassanayake, Priyanthi S; Darrah, Thomas H; Friedman, Alan E; Friedman, Michelle; Lambertini, Luca; Landrigan, Philip; Stodgell, Christopher J; Xia, Yulin; Nanes, Jessica A; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Schadt, Eric E; Murray, Jeff C; Clark, Edward B; Dole, Nancy; Culhane, Jennifer; Swanson, James; Varner, Michael; Moye, Jack; Kasten, Carol; Miller, Richard K; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the principal regulator of the in utero environment, and disruptions to this environment can result in adverse offspring health outcomes. To better characterize the impact of in utero perturbations, we assessed the influence of known environmental pollutants on the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in placental samples collected from the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard birth cohort. This study analyzed the expression of 654 miRNAs in 110 term placentas. Environmental pollutants measured in these placentas included dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). A moderated t-test was used to identify a panel of differentially expressed miRNAs, which were further analyzed using generalized linear models. We observed 112 miRNAs consistently expressed in >70% of the samples. Consistent with the literature, miRNAs located within the imprinted placenta-specific C19MC cluster, specifically mir-517a, mir-517c, mir-522, and mir-23a, are among the top expressed miRNA in our study. We observed a positive association between PBDE 209 and miR-188–5p and an inverse association between PBDE 99 and let-7c. Both PCBs and Cd were positively associated with miR-1537 expression level. In addition, multiple let-7 family members were downregulated with increasing levels of Hg and Pb. We did not observe DDE or BPA levels to be associated with placental miRNA expression. This is the first birth cohort study linking environmental pollutants and placental expression of miRNAs. Our results suggest that placental miRNA profiles may signal in utero exposures to environmental chemicals. PMID:26252056

  16. Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-03-16

    Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers (P2-EDGE) provides nearly 300 recommendations to incorporate pollution prevention into projects during the design phase. Each is supplemented by examples, references, and additional data to help the user evaluate applicability and potential benefits to their design project. Built in filters allow the user to narrow the review to only those opportunities that are applicable based on project size and design phase. User responses are saved to a custommore » data file or can also be generated into a report and printed. Other features include the ability to search the database for keywords, add opportunities to the database, or edit existing entries.« less

  17. HOSPITAL POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has instituted a broad pollution prevention research program through the Office of Research and Development to support continued environmental improvements throughout the nation. he Agency is also responding to the national concern in rega...

  18. Which came first, people or pollution? A review of theory and evidence from longitudinal environmental justice studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-12-01

    A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies exist and those that do exist have often led to confusing and contradictory findings. In this paper we review the theoretical arguments, methods, findings, and conclusions drawn from existing longitudinal environmental justice studies. Our goal is to make sense of this literature and to identify the direction future research should take in order to resolve confusion and arrive at a clearer understanding of the processes and contributory factors by which present-day racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of environmental hazards have come about. Such understandings also serve as an important step in identifying appropriate and effective societal responses to ameliorate environmental disparities.

  19. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  20. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NO(x), PM(2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between -10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NO(x)), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM(2.5), due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  1. Corporate Characteristics, Political Embeddedness and Environmental Pollution by Large U.S. Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prechel, Harland; Zheng, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Organizational and environmental sociology contain surprisingly few studies of the corporation as one of the sources of environmental pollution. To fill this gap, we focus on the parent company as the unit of analysis and elaborate environmental theories that focus on the organizational and political-legal causes of pollution. Using a compiled…

  2. Energy needs versus environmental pollution: a reconciliation?

    PubMed

    Green, L

    1967-06-16

    In this article I have presented, for discussion, a proposed system for energy generation by which the principal sources of environmental pollution by power plants could be eliminated. For stationary power plants the concept appears feasible technically and, according to my " horseback estimates," perhaps economically as well, depending upon the economic value of the by-products of sulfur, CO(2), water, and possibly nitrogen, and upon the price we are willing to pay for a clean environment .Thus, a more thorough engineering and economic analysis to explore these and other factors in greater depth seems warranted. In the case of turbine-driven vehicles, the technical and economic feasibility of widespread distribution and handling of the fuel constitutes a serious question, but one which deserves equally serious consideration before the possibility is discounted. The reports of the cited study panels notwithstanding, the technology required for the proposed system exists today, with one exception. This exception (which is not essential for trial of the system but will be required for its complete fruition) is the development of a nuclear reactor for the prime purpose of delivering process heat for the steam reforming of natural gas and, ultimately, for gas production from coal in a continuous process, such as those discussed by Pieroni et al. (16). Today's intermittent processes of coking and gas production are both archaic and themselves large sources of atmospheric pollution, and a development program aimed at advancing the technology of the coal industry in this regard would seem long overdue. The report of the PSAC Environmental Pollution Panel recommended "demonstration of the feasibility and economy of new developments for abating or controlling pollution through their use at Federal installations" and suggested the coalburning TVA power plants as a likely place for such demonstration. This suggestion is doubly appropriate since the TVA is in a region of

  3. Environmental management/pollution prevention/environmental electrochemistry opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenchuck, N.H.

    1994-12-31

    Thank you for inviting me to be your keynoter. I`m impressed by what you`ve accomplished through the years and the program that you`ve put together for this International Forum on Environmental Electrochemistry. Above all, we must remember what has brought us together. We must be aware of the challenge, the need, the opportunity we have before us. Sustainable economic development that is responsive to environmental concerns is vital to continued national prosperity. Coincidentally, there are boundless environmental electrochemistry opportunities in environmental management and pollution prevention. The basic approach to environmental protection in this country, for far too many years, has been, for the most part, reactive. As a society, we react to crisis; and in the environmental business, we react to environmental crisis. We react to problems that already were posing substantial ecological and human health risks and problems that already were causing significant public concern. We need both a quality and results-oriented national environmental electrochemistry program.

  4. Retrospective qualitative analysis of ecological networks under environmental perturbation: a copper-polluted intertidal community as a case study.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Garay-Narváez, Leslie; Medina, Matías H

    2012-01-01

    The coast of Chañaral Bay in northern Chile has been affected by copper mine wastes for decades. This sustained perturbation has disrupted the intertidal community in several ways, but the mechanisms behind the observed shifts in local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Our main goal was to identify the species (lumped into trophic groups) belonging to the Chañaral intertidal community that, being directly affected by copper pollution, contributed primarily to the generation of the observed changes in community structure. These groups of species were called initiators. We applied a qualitative modelling approach based only on the sign and direction of effects among species, and present a formula for predicting changes in equilibrium abundances considering stress on multiple variables simultaneously. We then applied this technique retrospectively to identify the most likely set of initiators. Our analyses allowed identification of a unique set of four initiators in the studied intertidal system (a group of algae, sessile invertebrates, a group of herbivores and starfish), which were hypothesized to be the primary drivers of the observed changes in community structure. In addition, a hypothesis was derived about how the perturbation affected these initiators. The hypothesis is that pollution affected negatively the population growth rate of both algae and sessile invertebrates and suppressed the interaction between herbivores and starfish. Our analytic approach, focused on identifying initiators, constitutes an advance towards understanding the mechanisms underlying human-driven ecosystem disruption and permits identifying species that may serve as a focal point for community management and restoration. PMID:21877226

  5. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment. PMID:26523104

  6. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  7. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (<500 m) from the highway. Objectives of the study included (1) characterizing the temporal and spatial PM concentration fluctuation and distribution patterns in the urban street canyon; (2) investigating the effects of urban structures such as a tall building or an intersection on the transport and dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of

  8. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources. PMID:24531338

  9. Involuntary bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population

    SciTech Connect

    Krotoszynski, B.K.; O'Neill, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical bioaccumulation in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population was determined by a noninvasive expired air technique. Ubiquitous and nonubiquitous environmental pollutants were isolated and identified and the respective distribution and inhalation hazards were evaluated. Attempts were made to isolate and identify the state of health related expired air constituents. The selected 291 environmental pollutants or the total estimated bioaccumulation, were distributed among the heterogenous and homogenous study populations as the constituents of the respective chemical bioaccumulation. The bioaccumulation of the environmental pollutants observed in the heterogenous population, including controls, prediabetics and diabetics, consisted of 176 compounds or 60.5% of the total estimated bioaccumulation. The constituents of this bioaccumulation are termed ubiquitous pollutants because they have accumulated in the heterogenous population as the result of the prolonged body exposures irrespectively of the residence, age, height, weight, sex, occupation, diet and the state of health of the exposed individuals. The major contribution to the bioaccumulation in the heterogenous population arose from 150 hydrocarbons (85.2% of total bioaccumulation) which presents serious exposure health hazards to this population. This is supported by the known toxicity and the possible mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of these hydrocarbons. Such health hazards will augment with the increasing utilization of petroleum products in industry and automobiles. (JMT)

  10. A method for estimating urban background concentrations in support of hybrid air pollution modeling for environmental health studies.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  11. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  12. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China. PMID:25294690

  13. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation. PMID:25549348

  14. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  15. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  16. Surface study and sensing activity of nanotubular indium trioxide to NH3, H2S, NO2 and CO environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Molecular and electronic structures of nanotubular indium trioxide were studied using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP density functional methods. Three nanotube models including nanotubes with closed ends (CENT), one opened end (OOENT) and two opened ends (TOENT) were considered. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of CENT is distributed over the entire nanotube; while it is distributed on the end cap of OOENT. In both CENT and OOENT, the distribution of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is on the end caps. HOMO and LUMO of TOENT are distributed on the center of nanotube. The sensing activity of OOENT to environmental pollutants was evaluated regarding the interaction of nanotube with NH3, H2S, NO2 and CO molecules. Adsorptions over different positions of OOENT are exothermic and the NH3 adsorption is thermodynamically more favorable. The selectivity of OOENT toward gaseous pollutants is investigated as NH3 > H2S > CO > NO2. Interaction of NO2 and CO over the closed end (end cap) of nanotube is preferred; while adsorption of NH3 and H2S on the opened end is more favorable.

  17. Indoor air pollution and childhood asthma: effective environmental interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollutants such as tobacco smoke and dust mites may exacerbate childhood asthma. Environmental interventions to reduce exposures to these pollutants can help prevent exacerbations of the disease. Among the most important interventions is the elimination of environmental tobacco smoke from the environments of children with asthma. However, the effectiveness of reducing asthmatic children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the severity of their symptoms has not yet been systematically evaluated. Dust mite reduction is another helpful environmental intervention. This can be achieved by enclosing the child's mattresses, blankets, and pillows in zippered polyurethane-coated casings. Primary prevention of asthma is not as well understood. It is anticipated that efforts to reduce smoking during pregnancy could reduce the incidence of asthma in children. European studies have suggested that reducing exposure to food and house dust mite antigens during lactation and for the first 12 months of life diminishes the development of allergic disorders in infants with high total IgE in the cord blood and a family history of atopy. Many children with asthma and their families are not receiving adequate counseling about environmental interventions from health care providers or other sources. PMID:8549490

  18. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

    1999-02-10

    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  19. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  20. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  1. ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

  2. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results. PMID:15193095

  3. Environmental inequity in England: small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752

  4. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  5. The U.S. and Environmental Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1974-01-01

    Background concerning legislation and development of environmental programs is detailed in the areas of air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, and multimedia toxic substances. Each section contains a discussion of scientific knowledge, health effects, costs, proposed standards, and possible approaches to the problems. (LS)

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  7. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary pollutants during a 2001 summer study in Pittsburgh using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Martello, D.V.; Lucas, L.J.; Davidson, C.I.; Modey, W.K.; Eatough, D.J.

    2006-09-15

    Apportionment of primary and secondary pollutants during the summer 2001 Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) is reported. Several sites were included in PAQS, with the main site (the supersite) adjacent to the Carnegie Mellon University campus in Schenley Park. One of the additional sampling sites was located at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, 18 km southeast of Pittsburgh. Coal- and natural gas fired power plants were in the vicinity of NETL, as were coking plants; and metal and chemical plants. Plants burning bituminous coal and natural gas were near the supersite. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass, gas-phase volatile organic material (VOM), particulate semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material (NVOM), and ammonium sulfate were apportioned at the two sites into their primary and secondary contributions using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX 2.3 multivariate receptor modeling and analysis software. A portion of each of these species was identified as originating from gasoline and diesel primary mobile sources. Some of the organic material was formed from local secondary transformation processes, whereas the great majority of the secondary sulfate was associated with regional transformation contributions. The results indicated that the diurnal patterns of secondary gas- phase VOM and particulate semivolatile and NVOM were not correlated with secondary ammonium sulfate contributions but were associated with separate formation pathways. These findings are consistent with the bulk of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport and, thus, decoupled from local activity involving organic pollutants in the metropolitan area. 19 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION TOLERANCE OF COMMON FRESHWATER CHIRONOMIDAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on the environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of 230 taxa of freshwater chironomids were compiled from 33 references. This compilation was prepared to assist biologists in evaluating data from macroinvertebrate samples collected for the assessment of water qualit...

  9. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  10. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS: DIVERSE GALAXY OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  11. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local...

  12. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typicall...

  13. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCP'S) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  14. Environmental distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Emmi, F.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the concentration of PCB's and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Susquehanna River Basin sediments was performed on samples collected from New York and Pennsylvania in 1976-1979. Highest concentrations were found for PCB's, with median and range of 38 and 13-524 ng/g, respectively. Pesticides had median concentrations ranging from approx.1 ng/g for DDT, DDD, and DDE, to less than 0.1 ng/g for aldrin and dieldrin. Highest concentrations generally were found downstream from industrial centers. Concentrations of PCB's and pesticides were also determined for soil composites collected from six areas of the basin. For several pollutants, the highest levels were found in the Pennsylvania areas, especially the Conestoga River Basin site. The PCB levels were the same (approx.35 ng/g) in all New York soil composites; this was consistent with concentrations predicted from known atmospheric deposition data. Adsorption of atrazine and simazine on model substrates was stuided to elucidate the partitioning of these herbicides on river sediments. Clean sea sand had little affinity for these compounds. Adsorption on illite clay and humic acid-coated sea sand gave relatively large K/sub p/ and K/sub oc/ values compared to the values for river sediments, suggesting that the nature of the sites available for absorbing organic molecules needs further study.

  15. Ambient particulate air pollution and ectopy--the environmental epidemiology of arrhythmogenesis in Women's Health Initiative Study, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Liao, Duanping; Whitsel, Eric A; Duan, Yinkang; Lin, Hung-Mo; Quibrera, P Miguel; Smith, Richard; Peuquet, Donna J; Prineas, Ronald J; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Anderson, Garnet

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between ambient PM(2.5) and PM(10) and arrhythmia and the effect modification by cigarette smoking were investigated. Data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality monitors and an established national-scale, log-normal kriging method were used to spatially estimate daily mean concentrations of PM at addresses of 57,422 individuals from 59 examination sites in 24 U.S. states in 1999-2004. The acute and subacute exposures were estimated as mean, geocoded address-specific PM concentrations on the day of, 0-2 d before, and averaged over 30 d before the electrocardiogram (ECG) (Lag(0); Lag(1); Lag(2); Lag(1-30)). At the time of standard 12-lead resting ECG, the mean age (SD) of participants was 67.5 (6.9) yr (84% non-Hispanic White; 6% current smoker; 15% with coronary heart disease; 5% with ectopy). After the identification of significant effect modifiers, two-stage random-effects models were used to calculate center-pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) of arrhythmia per 10 mug/m(3) increase in PM concentrations. Among current smokers, Lag(0) and Lag(1) PM concentrations were significantly associated ventricular ectopy (VE)-the OR (95% CI) for VE among current smokers was 2 (1.32-3.3) and 1.32 (1.07-1.65) at Lag(1) PM(2.5) and PM(10), respectively. The interactions between current smoking and acute exposures (Lag(0); Lag(1); Lag(2)) were significant in relationship to VE. Acute exposures were not significantly associated with supraventricular ectopy (SVE), or with VE among nonsmokers. Subacute (Lag(1-30)) exposures were not significantly associated with arrhythmia. Acute PM(2.5) and PM(10) exposure is directly associated with the odds of VE among smokers, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to the arrhythmogenic effects of PM. PMID:18979352

  16. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, W.A.

    1988-11-01

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement.

  17. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  18. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies: Activities. Appendices, Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented guide is divided into four sections dealing with the Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: (1) an introduction; (2) questions about the activity; (3) necessary equipment; (4) procedures; (5) results obtained by using the study; (6)…

  19. AIR POLLUTION AND TERRAIN AERODYNAMICS: A REVIEW OF FLUID MODELING STUDIES AT THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) FLUID MODELING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review is given of recent fluid modeling studies conducted at the EPA Fluid Modeling Facility of flow and diffusion in complex terrain. Estimates are given for the ratio of the maximum concentration on a hill surface to the maximum concentration in the absence of the hill. The ...

  20. Linking protein oxidation to environmental pollutants: redox proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Braconi, Daniela; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2011-10-19

    Environmental pollutants, such as compounds used in agriculture or deriving from vehicles, industries and human activities, can represent major concern for human health since they are considered to contribute significantly to many diseased states with major public health significance. Besides considerable epidemiological evidence linking environmental pollutants with adverse health effects, little information is provided on the effects of these compounds at the cellular and molecular level. Though oxidative stress is generally acknowledged as one of the most important mechanisms of action for pollutant-induced toxicity, redox proteomics, the elective tool to identify post-translationally oxidized proteins, is still in its very infancy in this field of investigation. This review will provide the readers with an outline of the use of redox proteomics in evaluating pollutant-induced oxidative damage to proteins in various biological systems. Future potential applications of redox proteomic approaches from an environmental point of view will be discussed as well. PMID:21767673

  1. Prospects for microbiological solutions to environmental pollution with plastics.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Martin C; Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly named plastics, are among the most widespread anthropogenic pollutants of marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems. Disruptive effects of plastics are known to threaten wildlife and exert effects on natural food webs, but signs for and knowledge on plastic biodegradation are limited. Microorganisms are the most promising candidates for an eventual bioremediation of environmental plastics. Laboratory studies have reported various effects of microorganisms on many types of polymers, usually by enzymatic hydrolysis or oxidation. However, most common plastics have proved to be highly recalcitrant even under conditions known to favour microbial degradation. Knowledge on environmental degradation is yet scarcer. With this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on microbiological degradation of several of the most common plastic types. Furthermore, we illustrate the analytical challenges concerning the evaluation of plastic biodegradation as well as constraints likely standing against the evolution of effective biodegradation pathways. PMID:26318446

  2. POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental evaluation of 38 screening test runs using a laboratory-scale, fixed-bed coal gasifier to study pollutants generated during the gasification of various coals. Pollutants were identified and quantitative analyses performed for tars, aqu...

  3. Medical aspects of environmental pollution. Environmental incidents in the Netherlands 1980-1984.

    PubMed

    Sangster, B; Cohen, H

    1985-01-01

    In the Netherlands since 1980, 16 situations have been identified in which man might be exposed to environmental pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these incidents and describes how health risk assessments, public studies and provision of individual medical toxicological care are dealt with. The importance of involving general practitioners and other primary health care personnel at an early stage is stressed. PMID:4057326

  4. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

  6. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  7. Privatization and environmental pollution in an international mixed Cournot model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition between a domestic public firm and a foreign private firm, supposing that the production processes generates environmental pollution. Introducing the residents' environmental preference into the public firm's objective function, we analyse its economic impacts. We also analyse the economic impacts of the privatization.

  8. IN SITU ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by laboratory analysis of environmental samples or by measurement of biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. he organis...

  9. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANT INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In conjunction with the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) being conducted in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), an inventory of non-criteria pollutants was assembled for point sources. The inventory was based on the following data: (1) The National Emissions Data ...

  10. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartíNez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  11. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  12. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees.

    PubMed

    Doty, Sharon L; James, C Andrew; Moore, Allison L; Vajzovic, Azra; Singleton, Glenda L; Ma, Caiping; Khan, Zareen; Xin, Gang; Kang, Jun Won; Park, Jin Young; Meilan, Richard; Strauss, Steven H; Wilkerson, Jasmine; Farin, Federico; Strand, Stuart E

    2007-10-23

    Small, volatile hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and chloroform, are common environmental pollutants that pose serious health effects. We have developed transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) plants with greatly increased rates of metabolism and removal of these pollutants through the overexpression of cytochrome P450 2E1, a key enzyme in the metabolism of a variety of halogenated compounds. The transgenic poplar plants exhibited increased removal rates of these pollutants from hydroponic solution. When the plants were exposed to gaseous trichloroethylene, chloroform, and benzene, they also demonstrated superior removal of the pollutants from the air. In view of their large size and extensive root systems, these transgenic poplars may provide the means to effectively remediate sites contaminated with a variety of pollutants at much faster rates and at lower costs than can be achieved with current conventional techniques. PMID:17940038

  13. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION TOLERANCE OF TRICHOPTERA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on the environmental requirements for 245 taxa of North American Trichoptera are compiled from 294 references. This compilation is prepared to assist biologists in evaluating data from macroinvertebrate samples collected for the assessment of water quality. The following par...

  15. Common lung conditions: environmental pollutants and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can have short- and long-term effects on lung health. Sources of air pollution include gases (eg, carbon monoxide, ozone) and particulate matter (eg, soot, dust). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollution. Elevated ozone concentrations are associated with increases in lung-related hospitalizations and mortality. Elevated particulate matter pollution increases the risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. Occupations with high exposures to pollutants (eg, heavy construction work, truck driving, auto mechanics) pose higher risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. Some industrial settings (eg, agriculture, sawmills, meat packing plants) also are associated with higher risks from pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency issues an air quality index for cities and regions in the United States. The upper levels on the index are associated with increases in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Damp and moldy housing might make asthma symptoms worse; individuals from lower socioeconomic groups who live in lower quality housing are particularly at risk. Other household exposures that can have negative effects on lung health include radon, nanoparticles, and biomass fuels. PMID:23767420

  16. [Methodological problems of studying and evaluating the effect of environmental pollution on the reproductive function of women and on the population increase].

    PubMed

    Golubev, I R; Mamatsashvili, M I; Kuntsevich, I E; Osipova, E M

    1982-04-01

    One of the longterm effects of environmental pollution is disturbance of embryonal development. If the embryo is adversely affected at the moment of conception and immediately thereafter, this can have an adverse impact on the individual's whole life. We know that lead, mercury, and some other industrial pollutants affect the reproductive function of women. Also antimony, which has been shown to cause premature birth and stillbirth. Manganese, thallium, and fluorine also adversely affect pregnancy. Our investigation was done on the women, aged 18-35, living near a metallurgical plant. We compared the monthly measurements of contamination of the air with sulphur gas, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxides, with the course of pregnancy of the women living in the area. The results demonstrated an unfavorable impact of these contaminants on the women. We then formulated a program for a 2nd stage of investigation, in an area with lead contamination. We investigated: a highly urbanized administrative center, a contemporary industrial city, and some surrounding villages. In the 1st 2 cases the lead contamination was due to industrial contamination; in the last case it was due to the use of certain chemicals in hail protection. The lead content was measured in the air, water, soil, and food products. The women investigated were 20-30 years of age during 1st pregnancies; we also investigated the children during the 1st 2 years of life. The materials were processed in the traditional way, constructing empirical curves and then selecting appropriate functions for analysis. This will enable a quantitative estimate of the impact of environmental pollution on reproductive function to be obtained. PMID:7095473

  17. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  18. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ISSUES REGARDING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) provides the legislative mandate for the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Water Quality Program to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Therefore, a common goal is to maintain water...

  19. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S. Khardi, S.

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  20. The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico: a quantitative analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exist, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We calculate an environmental Gini coefficient using Toxic Release In...

  1. Transgenic Plants as Sensors of Environmental Pollution Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Rapid technological development is inevitably associated with many environmental problems which primarily include pollution of soil, water and air. In many cases, the presence of contamination is difficult to assess. It is even more difficult to evaluate its potential danger to the environment and humans. Despite the existence of several whole organism-based and cell-based models of sensing pollution and evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity, there is no ideal system that allows one to make a quick and cheap assessment. In this respect, transgenic organisms that can be intentionally altered to be more sensitive to particular pollutants are especially promising. Transgenic plants represent an ideal system, since they can be grown at the site of pollution or potentially dangerous sites. Plants are ethically more acceptable and esthetically more appealing than animals as sensors of environmental pollution. In this review, we will discuss various transgenic plant-based models that have been successfully used for biomonitoring genotoxic pollutants. We will also discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of these systems and describe some novel ideas for the future generation of efficient transgenic phytosensors.

  2. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs. PMID:27620188

  3. Surface Modification of Graphene Oxides by Plasma Techniques and Their Application for Environmental Pollution Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangxue; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Zhongshan; Wang, Qi; Li, Jiaxing; Hobiny, Aatef; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties and possible applications. The large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on GOs leads to a high sorption capacity for the removal of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup. However, the lack of selectivity results in difficulty in the selective removal of target pollutants from aqueous solutions in the presence of other coexisting pollutants. Herein, the surface grafting of GOs with special oxygen-containing functional groups using low-temperature plasma techniques and the application of the surface-modified GOs for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental pollution are reviewed. This paper gives an account of our research on the application of GO-based nanomaterials in environmental pollution cleanup, including: (1) the synthesis and surface grafting of functional groups on GOs, summarizing various types of low-temperature plasma techniques for the synthesis of graphene/GOs; and (2) the application of graphene/GOs and their composites for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions, including the interaction mechanism according to recently published results. PMID:26915704

  4. Compensation of victims exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, R D; Simonds, M

    1986-01-01

    The sponsors of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), also known as "Superfund," agreed that more information was needed regarding legal remedies for injuries to persons from exposures to hazardous wastes. There has been a rush in Congress and some states to introduce "victims' compensation" bills to facilitate recovery for personal injury from exposure to hazardous waste sites. Such approaches are overly simplistic and totally disregard the reach and shortfall of scientific data. PMID:2943236

  5. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental "Obesogen" Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called "obesogenic environment". Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity. PMID:27483295

  6. BIODEGRADABILITY STUDIES WITH ORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANT COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ninty-six organic priority pollutants (from EPA Effluent Guidelines Consent Decree) were studied to determine the extent and rate of microbial degradation and the acclimation periods needed for substrate biooxidation. The pollutants have been classified into groups with character...

  7. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  8. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  9. Quality assurance of hair analysis for evaluation of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.; Gwozdz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Trace analysis of human hair has been used for assessing the exposure to toxic trace elements in the environment of an ore-processing plant. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a reference scenario for environmental pollution to determine the effect of future major technical improvements in plant operation.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  11. Environmental Pollution, Student's Book (Experiences/Experiments/Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Elbert C.

    Described in this student's manual are numerous experiments to acquaint the learner with community environmental problems. Experiments are relatively simple and useful in the junior high school grades. Activities are provided which emphasize some of the materials involved in pollution problems, such as carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and others,…

  12. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, María J.; Haller, George

    2012-01-01

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer. PMID:22411824

  13. The experience of mutation rate quantitative evaluation in connection with environmental pollution (based on studies of congenital anomalies in human populations).

    PubMed

    Antipenko YeN; Kogut, N N

    1993-10-01

    For 3 years genetic monitoring of congenital anomalies (CA) has been carried out in three Ukrainian towns essentially different in the level of air pollution: the most polluted, Mariupol (M.); medium polluted, Zaporozhye (Z.); and relatively clean, Simpheropol (S.). In this work we present the results of this study. Eighteen CAs being used in the International Clearinghouse program were registered during the first year of life. For each case of CA an individual questionnaire was filled in. It included practically all known causes of malformations. Similar questionnaires were filled in for cases of normal birth outcome. The estimation of newborns of control groups was made according to a score of 9-10 on the Apgar scale. The questionnaires were completed by physicians in all maternity hospitals and children's clinics and based on the information obtained from mothers. Multiple malformations, dominant and X-linked CA in M. were 2.6-3.1 times more frequent than in S. The frequency of new mutations was 0.45-0.95 and 0.17-0.47 per 10(3) births respectively. No differences in multifactorial and recessive CA were noted. The mathematical method (so-called statusmetrical analysis) was used to indirectly determine the part of CAs of unknown etiology (probably of mutation origin) in the total number of CAs. Their quota in Z. and M. was 1.2-1.5 times more than in S. The advantage of statusmetrical analysis lies in the absence of any restrictions connected with a large number of parameters which describe the object's status. It makes it possible to analyze tens, even hundreds of factors (along with the increased number of parameters the reliability of the conclusions increases) and range them in accordance with their validity. Genetic consequences of chemical pollution were estimated in biological equivalents Röntgen (BER). In M. they were equal to the effect of irradiation at doses of 180-300 BER (230 BER, central estimate) over 30 years. In the polluted towns (M. and Z.) the

  14. Hydroquinone: Environmental Pollution, Toxicity, and Microbial Answers

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone is a major benzene metabolite, which is a well-known haematotoxic and carcinogenic agent associated with malignancy in occupational environments. Human exposure to hydroquinone can occur by dietary, occupational, and environmental sources. In the environment, hydroquinone showed increased toxicity for aquatic organisms, being less harmful for bacteria and fungi. Recent pieces of evidence showed that hydroquinone is able to enhance carcinogenic risk by generating DNA damage and also to compromise the general immune responses which may contribute to the impaired triggering of the host immune reaction. Hydroquinone bioremediation from natural and contaminated sources can be achieved by the use of a diverse group of microorganisms, ranging from bacteria to fungi, which harbor very complex enzymatic systems able to metabolize hydroquinone either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Due to the recent research development on hydroquinone, this review underscores not only the mechanisms of hydroquinone biotransformation and the role of microorganisms and their enzymes in this process, but also its toxicity. PMID:23936816

  15. Hungry fungi seek rough diet, root out environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1993-12-01

    The US Navy asked biochemist Stephen Aust to determine whether a common fungus could destroy 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, a highly explosive compound popularly known as TNT. The reason white rot fungus apparently can be used to attack nearly any organic contaminant, lies in the organisms' evolution in response to a nearly infinite variety of trees and lignin. White rot fungus, evolved to degrade wood, and not every tree is the same. Environmental pollutants are very similar. Some environmental pollutants are very insoluble. Aust emphasizes that using white rot fungi in environmental treatment is not an off-the-shelf technology. Applications and remediation techniques in most cases will be site-specific success will require prior, accurate calculation of the fungi's nutrient demands, contaminant types and concentrations, local conditions, and economic considerations. Most work with white rot fungi to date has been at the laboratory scale. Experiments indicated that the fungus can indeed degrade TNT to carbon dioxide.

  16. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  17. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

  18. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  19. Effects of environmental pollutants on cellular iron homeostasis and ultimate links to human disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic disease has increased in the last several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanism underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to co...

  20. Effects of environmental pollutants on airways, allergic inflammation, and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Handzel, Z T

    2000-01-01

    Particulate and gaseous air pollutants are capable of damaging the airway epithelial lining and of shifting the local immune balance, thereby facilitating the induction of persistent inflammation. Epidemiological studies are inconclusive regarding whether air pollution increases the incidence of asthma and chronic bronchitis in the population. Clearly, environmental pollution can, however, precipitate attacks and emergency-room admissions in those already suffering from such conditions. The catastrophic potential of airborne pollution was demonstrated in the 1960s and 1970s, when inverted atmospheric pressure conditions trapped smog over cities on the Eastern coast of the United States and over Europe. This smog resulted in thousands of hospital admissions and dozens of deaths. With the general rise in the incidence of atopy and asthma in the Western population, it is of major public health interest to reduce, as much as possible, the exposure of such populations to anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. PMID:11048334

  1. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

  2. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  3. Engineering dioxygenases for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, K

    2000-06-01

    Dioxygenases have recently been engineered to improve their capabilities for environmental pollutant degradation. The techniques used to achieve this include in vitro DNA shuffling and subunit or domain exchanges between dioxygenases of different bacterial origins. Such evolved enzymes acquire novel and enhanced degradation capabilities of xenobiotic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene and a variety of aromatic compounds. Hybrid strains in which the evolved genes are integrated into the chromosomal operons exhibit efficient degradation of xenobiotic chlorinated compounds. PMID:10851151

  4. Measuring and minimizing the social cost of environmental pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The various impacts to the environmental protection movement on the largest corporations in several industries which had the most serious pollution problem are discussed. The purpose was to examine the impacts from the point of view of top corporation managers so that a broader perspective could be provided for all concerned parties- citizens, environmentalists, legislators, governmental administrators and agency personnel, scientists, engineers, and other industrial managers.

  5. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants. PMID:25019067

  6. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-06-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  7. Something's fishy. [Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats from pollutants such as PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1994-07-02

    Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats to the immune system of marine animals such as seals, dolphins and turtles. A number of studies are discussed in this article, with particular emphasis on an ongoing study which makes the connection between marine pollution and the decrease in immune system functioning in harbor seals. The effects on the whole marine ecosystem are discussed.

  8. In-situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Lower, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by laboratory analysis of environmental samples or by measurement of biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. The organisms most commonly used to assess mutagenicity under real-world conditions are flowering plants, wild and captive mammals, and aquatic vertebrates. Plant species have been used to monitor ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the USA, nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also to assess potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals can be used as sentinels to provide information on effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed to assess health hazards and prioritize clean-up efforts at hazardous-waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution.

  9. Industrial workers' health and environmental pollution under the new international division of labor: the Taiwan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Huang, C L

    1997-01-01

    Using Taiwan as an example, this paper conducts a historical analysis of the relationship between economic development in the new international division of labor and environmental pollution and industrial workers' health. Three industries-asbestos, plastic, and dye-were chosen for case studies. We trace the emergence of each industry in Taiwan and study each industry's protection of workers' health and environmental quality. Under the new international division of labor, the state's prioritization of economic development leads to lenient regulation. Under such state policies, employers have few incentives to invest in the protection of their workers' health and in the control of environmental pollution. Workers and the public are constrained in their efforts to protect their own health and prevent environmental pollution. This situation is exemplified by the deplorable working conditions and inadequate environmental pollution controls in the asbestos, plastic, and dye industries. Workers' health and the public's health are greatly compromised by economic development in the new international division of labor. Images p1228-a p1228-b PMID:9240119

  10. Aquatic selenium pollution is a global environmental safety issue.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2004-09-01

    Selenium pollution is a worldwide phenomenon and is associated with a broad spectrum of human activities, ranging from the most basic agricultural practices to the most high-tech industrial processes. Consequently, selenium contamination of aquatic habitats can take place in urban, suburban, and rural settings alike--from mountains to plains, from deserts to rainforests, and from the Arctic to the tropics. Human activities that increase waterborne concentrations of selenium are on the rise and the threat of widespread impacts to aquatic life is greater than ever before. Important sources of selenium contamination in aquatic habitats are often overlooked by environmental biologists and ecological risk assessors due to preoccupation with other, higher priority pollutants, yet selenium may pose the most serious long-term risk to aquatic habitats and fishery resources. Failure to include selenium in the list of constituents measured in contaminant screening/monitoring programs is a major mistake, both from the hazard assessment aspect and from the pollution control aspect. Once selenium contamination begins, a cascade of bioaccumulation events is set into motion which makes meaningful intervention nearly impossible. However, this cascade of events need not happen if adequate foresight and planning are exercised. Early evaluation and action are key. Prudent risk management based on environmentally sound hazard assessment and water quality goals can prevent biological impacts. PMID:15261722

  11. Environmental Pollution: A Tangible Risk for NAFLD Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arciello, Mario; Gori, Manuele; Maggio, Roberta; Barbaro, Barbara; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2013-01-01

    The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human lifestyles, is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a multifactorial disease that embraces many histo-pathologic conditions and is highly linked to metabolic derangements. Technological progress and industrialization have also had the consequence of releasing pollutants in the environment, for instance pesticides or solvents, as well as by-products of discharge, such as the particulate matter. In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has emerged, shedding light on the potential impact of environmental pollutants on liver health and, in particular, on NAFLD occurrence. These contaminants have a great steatogenic potential and need to be considered as tangible NAFLD risk factors. There is an urgent need for a deeper comprehension of their molecular mechanisms of action, as well as for new lines of intervention to reduce their worldwide diffusion. This review wishes to sensitize the community to the effects of several environmental pollutants on liver health. PMID:24213605

  12. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: XI. CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reviews the health and environmental effects of chlorophenols. It includes discussions of physical and chemical properties; analytical methods; biological aspects in microorganisms, plants, animals, and humans; environmental distribution and transformation; and environ...

  13. Supplemental mathematical formulations: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Hoopes, B.L.; Walter, M.B.; Knight, R.L.; Brown, S.M.

    1989-12-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a methodology for assessing relative health impacts from the release of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials. MEPAS is an enhanced version of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). This document, a supplement to the RAPS documentation, contains an overview of MEPAS followed by detailed discussions of enhancements. MEPAS provides outputs of health impact parameters for use in ranking and screening applications. Environmental contaminant concentrations are used to estimate potential health impacts based on major exposure pathways. Enhancements to the groundwater, surface water, overland, atmospheric, and exposure components are documented. These enhancements include a revision in the integration method for the waterborne pathway, a wetland component, a gaseous emission (volatilization) component, an atmospheric complex terrain component, mass budget formulations, and environmental decay of chemical constituents. Several new exposure components are described along with enhancements to the exposure pathways computations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Histopathological and apoptotic changes on marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) following exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yavaşoğlu, Altuğ; Özkan, Dilara; Güner, Adem; Katalay, Selma; Oltulu, Fatih; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2016-08-15

    Marine bivalve mussels, especially Mytilus species are an earlywarning system used for determining of damage caused by the various aquatic pollutions. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (black mussel) have been utilised as a biomonitoring organism to reveal environmental pollution in the Aliaga, Foca and Urla where located along the Izmir Coast of Turkey. Mussels were collected at these areas and gill and hepatopancreas (digestive gland) tissues were excised. mRNA expressions of initiator (caspase-2 and -8) and executioner (caspase -3/7-1, -3/7-2, -3/7-3 and -3/7-4) caspases of mussels tissues in areas exposed to pollution agent have been observed. TUNEL immunoreactivity in paralel to histopathological changes in both Aliaga and Foca areas were compared with Urla. This study is the first report to reveal the pollution with apoptotic expression on mussels in the coast of Turkey. PMID:27301687

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: MECHANISMS OF IMMUNOTOXICITY ACROSS PHYLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental pollution and the immune system: Mechanisms of immunotoxicity across phyla. Bob Luebke and Dori Germolec, US EPA, RTP, NC and NIEHS, RTP, NC

    Our current understanding of immunotoxicology comes largely from studies done in rodents or using in vitro systems, a...

  16. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  17. Lidar applications to pollution studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of lidar (laser radar) to the measurement of air pollution. Lidar techniques and instrumentation utilizing elastic, Raman, and fluorescence scattering are discussed. Data showing measurements of the mixing of particulate pollutants in the atmosphere are presented. These data include: simultaneous two-wavelength results, isopleths showing the temporal dynamics of particulate mixing, measurements of the top of the earth's mixing layer, and measurements in a valley with restricted circulation and mixing. All measurements are compared with simultaneous radiosonde and/or aircraft-mounted temperature probe support. In addition, a second generation lidar system presently under development is described.

  18. On the reversibility of environmental contamination with persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Deuk; Wania, Frank

    2011-10-15

    An understanding of the factors that control the time trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment is required to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reductions and to predict future exposure. Using a regional contaminant fate model, CoZMo-POP 2, and a generic bell-shaped emission profile, we simulated time trends of hypothetical chemicals with a range of POP-like partitioning and degradation properties in different compartments of a generic warm temperate environment, with the objective of identifying the processes that may prevent the reversibility of environmental contamination with POPs after the end of primary emissions. Evaporation from soil and water can prevent complete reversibility of POP contamination of the atmosphere after the end of emissions. However, under the selected conditions, only for organic chemicals within a narrow range of volatility, that is, a logarithm of the octanol air equilibrium partition coefficient between 7 and 8, and with atmospheric degradation half-lives in excess of a few month can evaporation from environmental reservoirs sustain atmospheric levels that are within an order of magnitude of those resulting from primary emissions. HCB and α-HCH fulfill these criteria, which may explain, why their atmospheric concentrations have remained relatively high decades after their main primary emissions have been largely eliminated. Soil-to-water transfer is found responsible for the lack of reversibility of POP contamination of the aqueous environment after the end of emissions, whereas reversal of water-sediment exchange, although possible, is unlikely to contribute significantly. Differences in the reversibility of contamination in air and water suggests the possibility of changes in the relative importance of various exposure pathways after the end of primary emissions, namely an increase in the importance of the aquatic food chain relative to the agricultural one, especially if the former has a benthic

  19. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanek, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

  20. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  1. Environmental inequality: Air pollution exposures in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    Environmental inequality is quantified here using linear regression, based on results from a recent mobility-based exposure model for 25,064 individuals in California's South Coast Air Basin [Marshall et al., 2006. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4381-4392]. For the four primary pollutants studied (benzene, butadiene, chromium particles, and diesel particles), mean exposures are higher than average for people who are nonwhite, are from lower-income households, and live in areas with high population density. For ozone (a secondary pollutant), the reverse holds. Holding constant attributes such as population density and daily travel distance, mean exposure differences between whites and nonwhites are 16-40% among the five pollutants. These findings offer a baseline to compare against future conditions or to evaluate the impact of proposed policies.

  2. In situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Lower, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of the environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by the laboratory analysis of the environmental samples or by the measurement of the biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. The induced toxic effects are often the result of synergistic and antagonistic interactions among various physical and chemical factors that are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, conceivably the biological effects measured on or near the impacted site have greater relevancy for hazard assessment to man than from the data derived from the environmental samples analyzed in the lab. The organisms most commonly employed for the assessment of mutagenicity under real-world conditions are: (1) flowering plants, (2) wild and captive mammals, and (3) aquatic vertebrates. Plant species such as Tradescantia paludosa, Zea mays, and Osmunda regalis have been used for monitoring ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the U.S.A., nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also for the assessment of potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals such as dogs can be used as sentinels to provide information on the effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate the environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed for assessing the health hazards and prioritizing the clean-up efforts at hazardous waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution. 51 references.

  3. Plants and their microbial assistants: Nature's answer to Earth's environmental pollution problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of higher plants and their associated microorganisms to solve environmental pollution problems on Earth and in future space applications is briefly reviewed. If man is sealed inside closed facilities, he becomes a polluter of the environment. It is also common knowledge to most people that man cannot survive on Earth without green photosynthesizing plants and microorganisms. Therefore, it is vitally important to have a better understanding of the interactions of man with plants and microorganisms. Biosphere 2 and other related studies presently being conducted or planned, hopefully, will supply data that will help save planet Earth from impending environmental disaster. The development of means to utilize both air and water pollution as a nutrient source for growing green plants is examined.

  4. Deaths and Medical Visits Attributable to Environmental Pollution in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline; Thomsen, Jens; Launay, Frederic; Harder, Elizabeth; DeFelice, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Background This study estimates the potential health gains achievable in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with improved controls on environmental pollution. The UAE is an emerging economy in which population health risks have shifted rapidly from infectious diseases to chronic conditions observed in developed nations. The UAE government commissioned this work as part of an environmental health strategic planning project intended to address this shift in the nature of the country’s disease burden. Methods and Findings We assessed the burden of disease attributable to six environmental exposure routes outdoor air, indoor air, drinking water, coastal water, occupational environments, and climate change. For every exposure route, we integrated UAE environmental monitoring and public health data in a spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the annual disease burden attributable to selected pollutants. The assessment included the entire UAE population (4.5 million for the year of analysis). The study found that outdoor air pollution was the leading contributor to mortality, with 651 attributable deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 143–1,440), or 7.3% of all deaths. Indoor air pollution and occupational exposures were the second and third leading contributors to mortality, with 153 (95% CI 85–216) and 46 attributable deaths (95% CI 26–72), respectively. The leading contributor to health-care facility visits was drinking water pollution, to which 46,600 (95% CI 15,300–61,400) health-care facility visits were attributed (about 15% of the visits for all the diseases considered in this study). Major study limitations included (1) a lack of information needed to translate health-care facility visits to quality-adjusted-life-year estimates and (2) insufficient spatial coverage of environmental data. Conclusions Based on international comparisons, the UAE’s environmental disease burden is low for all factors except outdoor air pollution. From a

  5. Effect of environmental pollutants on taste and smell

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffman, S.S.; Nagle, H.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Various man-made and naturally occurring chemicals and substances can modify the chemosensory systems of animals and man. This article provides an overview of research studies that investigate the impact of pollution on taste and smell perception. Acute and chronic alterations in taste and olfaction are discussed for solvents, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, disinfectants, germicides, soil fumigants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, textile wastes, smog, tobacco smoke, perfumes, flavors, plastics, synthetic rubber, and other industrial substances. The mechanisms by which pollutants may cause physiologic and biologic changes are highlighted. Natural detoxification systems are discussed, as well as treatments for chemosensory deficits.89 references.

  6. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  7. Environmental management intentions: an empirical investigation of Argentina's polluting firms.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Brust, Diego Alfonso; Liston-Heyes, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    This paper builds on past behavioural research which explicitly recognises that 'actions' are preceded by 'intentions' which are in turn determined by individual mindsets, locus of control, principles of governances and context factors. More concretely, it presents a model that investigates the extent to which environmental behavioural intentions are explained by i) managers' core values, basic assumptions, and beliefs, ii) individual and socio-cognitive frames, iii) principles of governance, and iv) context factors. Context factors include obstacles and drivers of greener behaviours, market pressures, and firm demographics. The resulting theoretical framework is tested empirically through regression analyses that use data gathered from a survey of 536 Argentinean firms in polluting industries. The model performs well, explaining approximately 50% of the variations in the (pro) environmental behaviour of firms. Policy implications are briefly discussed. PMID:20110148

  8. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  9. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  10. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  11. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health. PMID:26931532

  12. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  13. Changes in Gene Expression due to Chronic Exposure to Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabit and have adapted to highly polluted Superfund sites that are contaminated with persistent toxic chemicals. Populations inhabiting different Superfund sites provide independent contrasts for studying mechanisms of toxicity and resistance due to exposure to environmental pollutants. To identify both shared and unique responses to chronic pollutant exposure, liver, metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus populations from each of three Superfund sites (New Bedford Harbor, MA, Newark Bay, NJ, and Elizabeth River, VA) were compared to two flanking reference site populations (9 populations in total). In comparisons to their two clean reference sites, the three Superfund sites had 8 to 32% of genes with altered expression patterns. Between any two Superfund populations, up to 9 genes (4%) show a conserved response, yet among all three populations, there was no gene which had a conserved, altered pattern of expression. Across all three Superfund sites in comparison to all six reference populations, the most significant gene was fatty acid synthase. Fatty acid synthase is involved in the storage of excess energy as fat, and its lesser expression in the polluted populations suggests that the polluted populations may have limited energy stores. In contrast to previous studies of metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus, body weight was a significant covariate for many of the genes which could reflect accumulation and different body burdens of pollutants. Overall, the altered gene expression in these populations likely represents both induced and adaptive changes in gene expression. PMID:18929415

  14. [Research in Mexico on the health impact of environmental chemical pollutants].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ceseña, J; Carreón-Valencia, T; López-Carrillo, L; Chávez-Ayala, R; Hernández-Avila, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended to offer a qualitative and quantitative diagnosis on publications concerned with human health impact of exposure to environmental chemical pollutants in Mexico. The review of these subjects included scientific papers on studies carried out in Mexico, published both in Mexican and international journals. The articles were analyzed according to the following criteria: chemical pollutants, type of study and institution that conducted it, study population, design, and analysis of data. The article concludes that publications in this field are scarce. Moreover, this review showed that there is little diversity, limited methodology and an unequal distribution of the human and material resources for research. All this indicates a rudimentary level of scientific knowledge in Mexico regarding public health implications of chemical pollutants. PMID:8128296

  15. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle. PMID:26728288

  16. Environmental regulations on air pollution in China and their impact on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    This study explores the impact of environmental regulations in China on infant mortality. In 1998, the Chinese government imposed stringent air pollution regulations, in one of the first large-scale regulatory attempts in a developing country. We find that the infant mortality rate fell by 20 percent in the treatment cities designated as "Two Control Zones." The greatest reduction in mortality occurred during the neonatal period, highlighting an important pathophysiologic mechanism, and was largest among infants born to mothers with low levels of education. The finding is robust to various alternative hypotheses and specifications. Further, a falsification test using deaths from causes unrelated to air pollution supports these findings. PMID:25868145

  17. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  18. Environmental pollutants and child health-A review of recent concerns.

    PubMed

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Gascon, Mireia; Valvi, Damaskini; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many new studies have evaluated associations between environmental pollutants and child health. This review aims to provide a broad summary of this literature, comparing the state of epidemiological evidence for the effects of a wide range of environmental contaminants (air pollutants, heavy metals, organochlorine compounds, perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pesticides, phthalates and bisphenol A) on child health outcomes. The review addresses effects on foetal growth and prematurity, neurodevelopment, respiratory and immune health, and childhood growth and obesity. Findings of recent prospective studies and meta-analyses have corroborated previous good evidence, often at lower exposure levels, for effects on foetal growth of air pollution and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for neurotoxic effects of lead, methylmercury, PCBs and organophosphate pesticides, and for respiratory health effects of air pollution. Moderate evidence has emerged for a potential role of environmental pollutants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism (lead, PCBs, air pollution), respiratory and immune health (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene - DDE - and PCBs), and obesity (DDE). In addition, there is now moderate evidence that certain chemicals of relatively recent concern may be associated with adverse child health outcomes, specifically perfluorooctanoate and foetal growth, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers and neurodevelopment. For other chemicals of recent concern, such as phthalates and bisphenol A, the literature is characterised by large inconsistencies preventing strong conclusions. In conclusion, since most of the recent literature evaluates common exposures in the general population, and not particularly high exposure situations, this accumulating body of evidence suggests that the unborn and young child require more protection than is currently provided. Large, coordinated research efforts are needed to improve

  19. Geochemical mapping of polluted soils and environmental risk assessment associated to mining activities: a comparison case study in El Campillo (Huelva, Spain) and the Zambales (Luzon Island,The Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, Maria Clara; Albanese, Stefano; de Vivo, Benedetto; Nieto, Jose Miguel; David, Carlos Primo C.; Norini, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    The soil is one of the environmental systems which could be most affected by the dispersion of pollutant, also because of the close relationship with the atmosphere and meteoric waters. The distribution and type of contamination depends closely on the climate, precipitations, drainage, vegetation, lithology and human activities. As a matter of fact, soil contamination due to heavy metals and metalloids, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, represents the source of a severe potential hazard for the ecosystem equilibrium and the health of living beings. This study is carried out in two abandoned mining zones near to populated areas, which underwent similar mining history, but in very different climatic and environmental conditions. The aim of the research is to analyze the influence of precipitation amounts, soil thickness, drainage density and vegetation cover on pollutant distribution. The first zone is in El Campillo, a town at the Rio Tinto mining district and belongs to the Iberic Pyritic Belt of the southwest Iberian peninsula. This mining site is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with low precipitation (700 mm/year), low vegetation cover and poor soil development. The second case study is the Zambales Mountain Range, a mining district in the Luzon Island of the Philippines dominated by a tropical weather, forests, intense rainfalls (2350 mm/year) and good soil development. The wide spectrum of climatic variables in the case studies requires to develop a single flexible methodology for the mapping and monitoring of the environmental degradation in both semi-arid and tropical environments, allowing comparative studies. The methodological approach comprises remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), spatial statistical analysis, field sampling, ICP analysis and isotopic geochemical analysis. The presentation illustrates the first stage of the project. The processing of multispectral (Aster) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) images, in comparison

  20. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants. PMID:15820725

  1. Continuing pollution from the Rum Jungle U-Cu project: a critical evaluation of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Patterson, James

    2010-05-01

    The former Rum Jungle uranium-copper project, Australia, is an internationally important case study on environmental pollution from and rehabilitation of mining. The Rum Jungle mining project is briefly reviewed, followed by a critical evaluation of monitoring data and pollution loads prior to and after rehabilitation - leading to the conclusion that rehabilitation has clearly failed the test of time after just two decades. The most critical findings are the need to understand pollution cycles holistically, and designing monitoring regimes to match, explicit inclusion of radiological criteria (lacking in original planning), and finally the need to set targets based on environmental criteria. Two examples include polluted groundwater which was excluded from rehabilitation and the poor design, construction and/or performance of engineered soil covers - both leading to increasing acid drainage impacts on the Finniss River. The critical review therefore presents a valuable case study of the environmental performance of uranium mine site rehabilitation. PMID:20176422

  2. Influence of coal as an energy source on environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article considers the influence of coal energy on environmental pollution. Coal is undoubtedly part of the greenhouse problem. The main emissions from coal combustion are sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and mercury (Hg). Since 1980, despite a 36% increase in electricity generation and more than a 50% increase in coal use, electric utility SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions have declined significantly. Globally, the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO{sub 2} from the combustion of fossil fuels - around 75% of total GHG emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuels.

  3. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries. PMID:12173425

  4. "Who Polluted the Potomac?" The Translation and Implementation of a US Environmental Story in Brazilian and Turkish Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Colak, Huseyin; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine how elementary teachers in Brazil and Turkey approached the translation and subsequent classroom implementation of an instructional activity that promotes environmental awareness through a combination of student role playing and teacher oral delivery of an environmental story about river pollution. A discourse analysis…

  5. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  6. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  7. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  8. Environmental Modification: A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Richard M., Jr.; Kyte, Nancy S.

    1975-01-01

    This study shows that environmental modification is a surprisingly intricate technique. This may account for its relatively low use and also for its more frequent use by MSW than non-MSW caseworkers. The findings indicate the need for further research on environmental modification. (Author)

  9. Everglades Environmental Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Environment Education.

    These environmental study units consist of four modules and a tape-slide presentation on the Everglades National Park. Although not required for completion of the modules, the slide-tape presentation provides a resource for orientation of teachers and parents to camping experience for school children in an environmental education program. The four…

  10. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  11. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  12. Development of an eco-sensor based on bilayer lipid membrane for the continuous monitoring of environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimori, Yoshio; Kawano, Koichiro; Ishizuka, Masaru; Murahashi, Mizuho; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, we have developed an advanced environmental monitoring system (AEMS) containing the eco-sensor, which means a sensor for the measurement of environmental pollutants, based on lipid membranes for continuous monitoring of ground water in industry areas such as semiconductor factories. The AEMS project is composed of three work packages as follows, 1) Eco -sensor, 2) Prediction of plume propagation using a computer simulation technique, and 3) Environmental protection method. In this paper, we would like to focus on the study of the eco-sensor. We considered that modified lipid membranes serve as good models for cell membranes because they would be ideal hosts for receptor molecules of biological origin or disruptive environmental pollutants. Thus, we selected lipid membrane as a sensing element for environmental pollutants. We have already confirmed that the eco-sensor could detect a 10 ppb level of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene in ground water. Here, we tried to apply the eco-sensor to measure other environmental pollutants containing pesticides and endocrine disrupting chemicals. We made a novel automatic bilayer lipid membrane preparation device and a new system for the continuous measurement of environmental pollutants in ground water.

  13. The transferability from rat subacute 4-week oral toxicity study to translational research exemplified by two pharmaceutical immunosuppressants and two environmental pollutants with immunomodulating properties.

    PubMed

    Kemmerling, Jessica; Fehlert, Ellen; Kuper, C Frieke; Rühl-Fehlert, Christine; Stropp, Gisela; Vogels, Jack; Krul, Cyrille; Vohr, Hans-Werner

    2015-07-15

    Exposure to chemicals may have an influence on the immune system. Often, this is an unwanted effect but in some pharmaceuticals, it is the intended mechanism of action. Immune function tests and in depth histopathological investigations of immune organs were integrated in rodent toxicity studies performed according to an extended OECD test guideline 407 protocol. Exemplified by two immunosuppressive drugs, azathioprine and cyclosporine A, and two environmental chemicals, hexachlorobenzene and benzo[a]pyrene, results of subacute rat studies were compared to knowledge in other species particular in humans. Although immune function has a high concordance in mammalian species, regarding the transferability from rodents to humans various factors have to be taken into account. In rats, sensitivity seems to depend on factors such as strain, sex, stress levels as well as metabolism. The two immunosuppressive drugs showed a high similarity of effects in animals and humans as the immune system was the most sensitive target in both. Hexachlorobenzene gave an inconsistent pattern of effects when considering the immune system of different species. In some species pronounced inflammation was observed, whereas in primates liver toxicity seemed more obvious. Generally, the immune system was not the most sensitive target in hexachlorobenzene-treatment. Immune function tests in rats gave evidence of a reaction to systemic inflammation rather than a direct impact on immune cells. Data from humans are likewise equivocal. In the case of benzo[a]pyrene, the immune system was the most sensitive target in rats. In the in vitro plaque forming cell assay (Mishell-Dutton culture) a direct comparison of cells from different species including rat and human was possible and showed similar reactions. The doses in the rat study had, however, no realistic relation to human exposure, which occurs exclusively in mixtures and in a much lower range. In summary, a case by case approach is necessary

  14. Environmental compatibility of closed landfills - assessing future pollution hazards.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills need to be managed after closure. This so-called aftercare comprises the treatment and monitoring of residual emissions as well as the maintenance and control of landfill elements. The measures can be terminated when a landfill does not pose a threat to the environment any more. Consequently, the evaluation of landfill environmental compatibility includes an estimation of future pollution hazards as well as an assessment of the vulnerability of the affected environment. An approach to assess future emission rates is presented and discussed in view of long-term environmental compatibility. The suggested method consists (a) of a continuous model to predict emissions under the assumption of constant landfill conditions, and (b) different scenarios to evaluate the effects of changing conditions within and around the landfill. The model takes into account the actual status of the landfill, hence different methods to gain information about landfill characteristics have to be applied. Finally, assumptions, uncertainties, and limitations of the methodology are discussed, and the need for future research is outlined. PMID:21068055

  15. Large animal model for health hazard assessment of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Costa, D.L.; Janoff, A.; Susskind, H.; Weiss, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of large animals for the experimental assessment of human health hazards associated with inhaled pollutants are discussed. Results from studies designed to elucidate mechanisms controlling pulmonary function at the organismal, cellular and molecular level are presented. It is shown that studies in large animals permit technically sophisticated approaches not feasible in small animals and not permissible in man. Use of large animals also permits serial, non-invasive determinations of structural and functional changes which may be of temporal importance. 6 references.

  16. LABORATORY STUDIES OF PRIORITY POLLUTANT TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated several methods currently available to reduce the level of pollutants in an industrial plant wastewater stream. Its purpose was to screen these treatment processes. As a result of this screening, further in-depth evaluations should be considered. The study...

  17. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, N; Kenkre, V D; Verlecar, X N

    2002-05-01

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es) that may impede the full functioning of bacterial communities in situ. Most notably, DVC were quite low during pre-monsoon (March-May) in pollution-affected locations when compared to relatively less/non-polluted ones. In contrast, their abundance was significantly higher (up to or > 10%) suggesting a substantially higher microbial activity (thus, a larger turnover of organic matter) during monsoon (June-September) and post-monsoon (October-February) even in pollution-affected locations. The ease of reliably measuring DVC was useful in realising decreased metabolic functioning of bacteria during pre-monsoon, a season where dispersion of land discharges/effluents is much lower. From laboratory and field analyses of this study it is ascertained that DVC are direct indices of potential bacterial metabolic activity, reliable for sensing metabolic stress experienced by bacterial communities in situ and can be useful for evaluating risks in marine environment through human (industrial) activities. PMID:12108730

  18. Animal species endangerment: the role of environmental pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Fellows, V.L.; Bounds, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Summary & conclusions: Multiple factors contribute to the decline of species. Habitat destruction is the primary factor that threatens species. affecting 73 % of endangered species. The second major factor causing species decline is the introduction of nonnative species. affecting 68% of endangered species. Pollution and overharvesting were identified as impacting, respectively, 38 and 15% of endangered species. Other factors affecting species decline include hybridization, competition, disease, and other interspecific interactions. Once a species is reduced to a remnant of its former population size and distribution, its vulnerability to catastrophic pollution events increases, frequently exceeding or replacing the factors responsible for the initial decline. Small, isolated populations are particularly vulnerable to catastrophic loss by an acute event. such as a chemical spill or pesticide application. However, when it comes to surviving a single disaster, widespread subpopulations of a species are far more resilient and ensure genetic survival. Hypothesizing theoretical concerns of potential factors that could affect an endangered species could predispose the scientific and political communities to jeopardizing threats. The user of recovery plans as a data source must be aware of the bias within the data set. These data should be used with the caveat that the source of information in recovery plans is not always based on scientific research and rigorous data collection. Over 58% of the information identifying species threats is based on estimates or personal communication. while only 42% is based on peer reviewed literature, academic research. or government reports. Many recovery plans were written when a species was initially listed in the 1970s or 1980s. Politics, human disturbance, and habitat demand issues evolve over a 20- to 30-year period. leaving much of the threats facing endangered species outdated and inadequate. These data are most valuable when used

  19. Diet as a confounder of the association between air pollution and female lung cancer: Hong Kong studies on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes as examples.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Ho, J H

    1996-03-01

    Chinese females in Hong Kong, where only about a third of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to a history of active smoking, have a world age-standardized lung cancer incidence rate of 32.6 per 100 000, which is among the highest in the world. Trends in Hong Kong's female lung cancer mortality also indicate a tripling in mortality rates from 1961 to 1990. The characteristically high Chinese female lung cancer incidence among nonsmokers is also found among overseas Chinese communities in Singapore and Hawaii. To help elucidate the role of ingested and inhaled substances in the etiology of lung cancer, four epidemiological studies have been conducted in Hong Kong over the last 15 years: (1) a retrospective study of 200 cases and 200 neighbourhood controls, (2) a cross-sectional study measuring personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide among 362 children and their mothers, (3) a site monitoring study of 33 homes measuring airborne carcinogens, and (4) a telephone survey of 500 women on their dietary habits and exposure to air pollutants. Selected data from each study were drawn to evaluate exposures to three major air pollutants (environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes), their relationship with lung cancer risk, and their association with dietary habits. Generally in this population, nutritionally poorer diets were characterized by higher consumption of alcohol and preserved/cured foods, whereas better diets were characterized by higher intakes of fresh fruits, vegetables, and fish. For environmental tobacco smoke, exposure was only moderately high in Hong Kong (36% have current smokers at home), lung cancer risk was equivocal with exposure, and it was associated with poorer diets among wives with smoking husbands. Incense was identified as a major source of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and airborne carcinogens, but it had no effect on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers and significantly reduced risk (trend, P-value = 0.01) among smokers, even after

  20. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  1. Environmental pollution at Linfen and its change - magnetic monitoring of leaves and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Hu, S. Y.; Yin, G.; Rösler, W.

    2012-04-01

    Linfen city (Shanxi Province, China) is one of the world's most polluted city due to coal mining, refineries and other industries. During recent years the local government took enormous efforts to improve the environmental standard. In this study, we are testing the efficiency of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements for the assessment of this pollution "hot spot" where the environmental issues dictate the questions and up turning methodical obstacles have to be mastered. In particular we are testing to which extent the combination of MS results from soil and dust-loaded tree leaves allow to discriminate in between historical and present pollution. MS signals in the large abandoned industrial area and in new industrial areas are strongly enhanced with surface soil mass-specific MS (χ) between (232-3126)×10-8m3kg-1, while in the agricultural areas they range from (88-179)×10-8m3kg-1. Temperature dependence of MS identifies magnetite as the major magnetic phase in all topsoil samples; additionally a variable content of a harder coercive phase indicated by S-ratios of 0.82-0.99. Low χfd% (<5%) and hysteresis properties show that magnetite particles occur in PSD+MD domain state. In contrast to soil samples which accumulate pollutants over a long time span, dust-loaded tree leaf samples reflect the current air spread of pollution. Leaf samples were taken from the wider Linfen city area at intervals of about 2 km. Values of χ (normalized to the mass of the dried leaf) range from (2.2-501.1)×10-8m3kg-1 with a median of 23.16×10-8m3kg-1, and gradually decrease with distance from pollution sources. Rock magnetic parameters again identify a dominance of PSD+MD low-coercivity magnetite. Strong enhancement of MS occurs in the new urban industrial area and in the southern part of city, which is also controlled by the prevailing wind direction and the typical basin topography. XRF results show an enrichment of heavy metals for topsoils and leaves, which were outlined

  2. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  3. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  4. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  5. Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

    1993-08-03

    A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

  6. MY 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES IN CHINA: (1) STUDIES ON LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN YUNNAN AND (2) HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a research health scientist at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, I have been very fortunate to have opportunities to work as a principal investigator for two major environmental health research projects. The first study was conducted in 1983-1996 under a formal U.S.-China ...

  7. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.

  8. The non-specific inhibition of enzymes by environmental pollutants: a study of a model system towards the development of electrochemical biosensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Young, S J; Hart, J P; Dowman, A A; Cowell, D C

    2001-12-01

    Previous research has shown that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was competitively inhibited by pentachlorophenol (PCP) and a modified assay produced a detection limit of 1 microM (270 microg l(-1)). This work used spectrophotometric rate-determination but in order to move towards biosensor development the selected detection method was electrochemical. The linkage of LDH to lactate oxidase (LOD) provided the electroactive species, hydrogen peroxide. This could be monitored using a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) incorporating the mediator, cobalt phthalocyanine, at a potential of +300 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). A linked LDH/LOD system was optimised with respect to inhibition by PCP. It was found that the SPCE support material, PVC, acted to reduce inhibition, possibly by combining with PCP. A cellulose acetate membrane removed this effect. Inhibition of the system was greatest at enzyme activities of 5 U ml(-1) LDH and 0.8 U ml(-1) LOD in reactions containing 246 microM pyruvate and 7.5 microM NADPH. PCP detection limits were an EC(10) of 800 nM (213 microg l(-1)) and a minimum inhibition detectable (MID) limit of 650 nM (173 microg l(-1)). The inclusion of a third enzyme, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), provided cofactor recycling to enable low concentrations of NADPH to be incorporated within the assay. NADPH was reduced from 7.5 to 2 microM. PCP detection limits were obtained for an assay containing 5 U ml(-1) LDH, 0.8 U ml(-1) LOD and 0.1 U ml(-1) GDH with 246 microM pyruvate, 400 mM glucose and 2 microM NADPH. The EC(10) limit was 150 nM (39.9 microg l(-1)) and the MID was 100 nM (26.6 microg l(-1)). The design of the inhibition assays discussed has significance as a model for other enzymes and moves forward the possibility of an electrochemical biosensor array for pollution monitoring. PMID:11679267

  9. Development of an inexact fuzzy flexible programming approach for environmental pollution control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. W.; Huang, G. H.; Maqsood, I.

    2010-12-01

    Optimization techniques have been widely applied to solving environmental management problems, particularly for regional air quality management systems where potential air pollutions arising from improper management would seriously threaten human health. An inexact fuzzy flexible programming approach is developed to facilitate decision support for air quality management. It can tackle both stipulation uncertainty and parameter uncertainty in the objective function and constraints. Upon the previous research efforts, the most significant improvement of this approach is the introduction of multiple control variables corresponding to the objective function and all constraints. This attempt makes it possible for the constraints to be relaxed under respective levels, such that a more satisfactory objective value may be obtained. The impact of each constraint on the system outputs can also be further interpreted. The proposed approach would be helpful for such systems where the decision makers prefer to not only find out an air pollution control scheme with a satisfaction level as high as possible, but also mitigate the uncertainty in decision making. A regional air pollution control problem is then studied to demonstrate the applicability of the developed approach. A variety of management strategies for air pollutants allocation and treatment are suggested in terms of the optimal solutions to decision variables. Comparison between the optimal solutions from the proposed approach and those from a conventional fuzzy flexible programming model is undertaken. It can be found that neither the management strategies nor the priorities of pollutants allocation obtained from the two models are the same. The satisfaction level of the proposed approach (taking the average value of optimized solutions of control variables for comparison) is always higher than that of the existing approach, indicating the superiority of the proposed approach in handling many air pollution control

  10. In utero exposures to environmental organic pollutants disrupt epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development

    PubMed Central

    Kappil, Maya A.; Li, Qian; Li, An; Dassanayake, Priyanthi S.; Xia, Yulin; Nanes, Jessica A.; Landrigan, Philip J.; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.; Schadt, Eric E.; Dole, Nancy; Varner, Michael; Moye, John; Kasten, Carol; Miller, Richard K.; Ma, Yula; Chen, Jia; Lambertini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    While the developing fetus is largely shielded from the external environment through the protective barrier provided by the placenta, it is increasingly appreciated that environmental agents are able to cross and even accumulate in this vital organ for fetal development. To examine the potential influence of environmental pollutants on the placenta, we assessed the relationship between polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and several epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development. We measured IGF2/H19 imprint control region methylation, IGF2 and H19 expression, IGF2 loss of imprinting (LOI) and global DNA methylation levels in placenta (n = 116) collected in a formative research project of the National Children’s Study to explore the relationship between these epigenetic marks and the selected organic environmental pollutants. A positive association was observed between global DNA methylation and total PBDE levels (P <0.01) and between H19 expression and total PCB levels (P = 0.04). These findings suggest that differences in specific epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development occur in association with some, but not all, measured environmental exposures. PMID:27308065