Science.gov

Sample records for environmental pollutant studies

  1. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer: epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Moysich, Kirsten B; Humblet, Olivier; Attfield, Kathleen R; Beehler, Gregory P; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2007-06-15

    Laboratory research has shown that numerous environmental pollutants cause mammary gland tumors in animals; are hormonally active, specifically mimicking estrogen, which is a breast cancer risk factor; or affect susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. An assessment of epidemiologic research on these pollutants identified in toxicologic studies can guide future research and exposure reduction aimed at prevention. The PubMed database was searched for relevant literature and systematic critical reviews were entered in a database available at URL: www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and URL: www.komen.org/environment (accessed April 10, 2007). Based on a relatively small number of studies, the evidence to date generally supports an association between breast cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in conjunction with certain genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen activation and steroid hormone metabolism. Evidence regarding dioxins and organic solvents is sparse and methodologically limited but suggestive of an association. Methodologic problems include inadequate exposure assessment, a lack of access to highly exposed and unexposed populations, and a lack of preclinical markers to identify associations that may be obscured by disease latency. Among chemicals identified in toxicologic research as relevant to breast cancer, many have not been investigated in humans. The development of better exposure assessment methods is needed to fill this gap. In the interim, weaknesses in the epidemiologic literature argue for greater reliance on toxicologic studies to develop national policies to reduce chemical exposures that may be associated with breast cancer. Substantial research progress in the last 5 years suggests that the investigation of environmental pollutants will lead to strategies to reduce breast cancer risk. PMID:17503436

  2. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  3. Hazard identification of environmental pollutants by combining results from ecological and biomarker studies: an example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Linking exposures from environmental pollutants with adverse health effects is difficult because these exposures are usually low-dose and ill-defined. According to several investigators, a series of multidisciplinary, multilevel studies is needed to address this prob...

  4. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  5. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  6. Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onianwa, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

  7. Environmental Perception and Citizen Response: a Denver, Colorado Air Pollution Case Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naomi, Leaura M.

    Denver, a high altitude city, suffers from air pollution. Automobile emissions, as well as wood and coal burning contribute to Denver's air pollution. In order to reduce its air pollution, Denver hosted a no-drive campaign, The Better Air Campaign. This study examined how Denver -area citizens perceived their air pollution, responded to their air pollution, and responded to their no-drive campaign. First, I conducted personal interviews of twenty Denver air pollution decision-makers to ascertain their perceptions and definitions of Denver's air pollution problem. Second, I created a theoretical model of environmental perception and behavioral response to air pollution. Third, I conducted a telephone survey of 500 Denver-area residents to examine the usefulness of the model. By segmenting a sample of 500 Denver-area residents via a modified values and lifestyles (VALS) technique included in a telephone survey, the perceptions and behaviors of residents fell into a clear pattern. This values and lifestyles pattern coincided with a conventional innovation-adoption pattern, including innovators, the bandwagon, and laggards. Thus, the research determined the population's perceptions and behavioral responses to their air pollution. The research also pointed a direction for Denver's air pollution decision-makers to follow in order to reduce use of the gasoline-powered automobile. And, for those interested in encouraging public acceptance of ecological sustainability, it suggested application of the VALS technique for reaching the public.

  8. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented environmental guide is the result of cooperative efforts of high school teachers, students, scientists, and technicians. The activities are divided into four chapters: Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: an introduction; questions…

  9. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, E.L. . Div. of Biological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise.

  10. Pollution as a Form of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael Pugh

    1986-01-01

    Proposes that a case-study approach to pollution problems can enhance the environmental awareness of students. Presents background information and instructional ideas for case studies on water pollution, cars, and the urban environment. (ML)

  11. Aerosols and environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth’s radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  12. Understanding Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Marquita K.

    2004-09-01

    Introducing pollution issues to students and others with little scientific background, this new edition of a well-received textbook has been completely revised and updated. Starting with the definition of pollution and how pollutants behave, it progresses to covering air and water pollution basics, pollution and global change, solid waste, and pollution in the home. First Edition Hb (1997): 0-521-56210-4 First Edition Pb (1997): 0-521-56680-0

  13. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P

    2016-10-01

    This annual review covers the literature published in 2015 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, I have discussed only a fraction of the quality research publications, up to maximum 20 relevant articles per section, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, full-text articles were referred to better understand new findings. This review is divided into the following sections: biological agents, disinfection by-products (DBPs), halogenated compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other emerging contaminants. PMID:27620105

  14. The Onset of a Novel Environmental Offset: A case study for diverse pollutant scheme in Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A.; Arora, M.; Delbridge, N.; Pettigrove, V.; Feldman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental offset schemes employ a crediting system to mitigate the impacts of pollutants. In this talk, we present a novel trade-off concept comparing diverse groups of pollutants: environmental flows, micropollutants (heavy metals, pesticides, estrogen compounds) and nutrients in a test watershed (Jacksons Creek), in the vicinity of Melbourne. A reservoir in the upper watershed, and a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) are the main sources of flow into Jacksons Creek. The current land use is a mix of agriculture, and rural, though rapid urbanization is anticipated with a 40% increase in the population by 2040. The creek is impacted by: 1) low flow, especially during dry periods (contribution from the reservoir drops dramatically), 2) nutrient enrichment (WTP and agricultural runoff), and 3) micropollutants-heavy metals (urban runoff), estrogenic compounds (WTP), and pesticides (agricultural runoff). In this offset framework, we evaluated current and future scenarios to identify the main stressor in Jacksons Creek. We collected monitoring data at 15 sites for separate 3 events. Then we developed a watershed model to assess sources of pollutant loads to the creek, using two different tools, Model for Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC) for the preliminary flow and water quality modeling, and eWater Source for integrated water resource management (IWRM), and a decision support system for stakeholders. Scenario analysis includes urbanization and population growth, and anticipated discharges from WTP and the reservoir. Measured nutrient concentrations were high for all sampling events. Micropollutants were detected at a concentration higher than the trigger value at several locations. Preliminary analysis shows that low flow is one of the major stressors in the creek causing elevated micropollutant and nutrient concentrations (non-point), and that discharge from the WTP is essential to maintain the minimum environmental flows, though nutrient

  15. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  16. Impact of Environmental Pollution on the Preservation of Archives and Records: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, M. W.

    Following a description of the essential chemical and physical structures of most archive documents, this paper examines the various pollutants that can damage these documents and gives their characteristics. The pollutants are categorized as environmental (e.g., smokes, mineral dusts); exterior gas and vapor (e.g., oxygen, water, sulphur…

  17. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  18. Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B.; Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Houthuijs, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Hoogh K, Breugelmans O, Kruize H, Janssen NA, Houthuijs D. 2015. Air pollution and mortality in seven million adults: the Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS). Environ Health Perspect 123:697–704; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408254 PMID:25760672

  19. Air Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's atmosphere. The visual aids, worksheets,…

  20. Land Resources and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's land resources. The visual aids,…

  1. Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

  2. Approaches to environmental restoration of a polluted harbour with submerged archaeology: the Alexandria case study.

    PubMed

    El-Rayis, Osman A; Hemeda, Engy I; Ismael, Amany M; Jammo, K

    2003-01-01

    Many invaluable underwater buildings of archaeological interest in Alexandria were discovered in 1996 at different sites in the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria. There is a belief that the best way to protect these invaluable heritages is to transfer them to an underwater park or museum. Obviously, the execution of such a project depends essentially upon the water quality (including water transparency) improving in the future. The harbour is presently polluted by discharge of wastewater effluents from different sources. It has recently been decided to restore this important coastal area through: (1) stopping the direct discharge of wastewater effluents into this semi-enclosed harbour in 1993 and (2) gradually reducing the discharge of the municipal wastewater through marine outfalls at two sites lying at the outer sides of the harbour. Zero discharge is expected to be effective by the end of the year 2001. The present work, therefore, is a follow up of the study of water quality in the harbour after 1993: in 1996 and 1999-2000. The water quality of an open sea reference station was also studied for comparison. The results reveal occurrence of an improvement of the environmental conditions in the harbour. The water has turned from being eutrophic to mesotrophic. The harbour is expected to become meso/oligotrophic as soon as the complete cessation of the discharge from the two outside sources is attained. PMID:12787619

  3. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  4. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  5. Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, George K., Ed.

    The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

  6. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  7. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  8. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  9. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  10. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  11. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  12. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  13. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume I - Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume I of a two volume set, consists of many tested water pollution study activities. The activities are grouped into four headings: (1) Hydrologic Cycle, (2) Human Activities, (3) Ecological Perspectives, and (4) Social and Political Factors. Three levels of activities are provided: (1) those which increase awareness, (2)…

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT / POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...

  15. Environmental Law and the Export of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John F.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental problems do not stop at state boundaries; they reach beyond local or national jurisdictions and require international control. Problems concerning air quality, water pollution, and indirect pollution are discussed. Environmental legislation can have a significant impact. (RM)

  16. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution Equipment and Environmental Studies, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this guidebook is to present instructions for constructing low-cost instruments for environmental studies. The instruments discussed were either adopted or designed by students who were presented with the problem of producing low-cost environmental monitoring equipment. This book is a sequel to A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water…

  17. Stress-70 proteins in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarkers of environmental pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Hamer, B; Hamer, D Pavicić; Müller, W E G; Batel, R

    2004-09-01

    In the present work we have investigated levels of stress-70 proteins in the gills of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected seasonally from subtidal rocky shores at 6 different sites of the Rovinj coastal area (Northern Adriatic, Croatia). 1-D analysis (SDS-PAGE) using monoclonal mouse antibodies anti-HSP70 detected two bands of stress-70 proteins, 70 and 72 kDa constitutively present during the year. 2-D analysis (IEF+SDS-PAGE) proved that the antibodies used detected HSP70 (pI 5.7-5.9) and HSP72 (pI 5.5-5.6). The quantification of stress-70 proteins was possible using 200 ng of external HSP70 protein standard included on every blot. Maximal levels of HSP72 and HSP70 were observed in mussels in summer (September), and minimal levels in winter (December), and only HSP70 showed significant correlation with the sea temperature (r=+0.822, p<0.05). Acclimatization of mussels to a different lower salinity under experimental conditions proved that small changes in sea salinity (Delta=2 psu) could not cause significant stress-70 proteins induction. Results indicated that there are significant differences in HSP70 and HSP72 content in mussels from the control site (S-1) and mussels from other sampling sites with urban and industrial pollution. The usefulness of stress-70 proteins as biomarkers of environmental pollution is discussed. PMID:15196835

  18. Environmental and pollution science. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Pepper; Charles Gerba; Mark Brusseau,

    2006-07-01

    This book integrates a large number of subjects in environmental studies and provides a realistic and objective evaluation of pollution as a price we pay for a modern economy. It focuses on the scientific assessment of environmental quality by developing a framework of principles that can be applied to any environmental problem. It addresses tactical issues for managers and government workers such as remediation, environmental monitoring, risk assessment, and management. It can be used by professionals as well as undergraduate students. 186 ills. 79 tabs.

  19. Pollution. Environmental Education Instructional Unit. Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Science Education.

    This unit on pollution is one in a series of three prepared for use in the classroom. An interdisciplinary approach encompassing mathematics, science, and social studies is utilized in these environmental units. The material is designed for middle grades and above. Many activities are open-ended with each activity in this unit emphasizing the…

  20. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. PMID:16442592

  1. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    PubMed

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments. PMID:25656265

  2. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    PubMed

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method. PMID:16181728

  3. Particle pollution - An environmental magnetism study using biocollectors located in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Lacerda, Maria João; Gomes, Celeste

    2012-12-01

    In this study the magnetic properties of tree leaves were measured in order to compare their capability to accumulate particles, to establish the relationship between magnetic properties and chemical data and to assess the particle pollution in selected locations in the cities of Braga, Porto, Valongo and Trancoso-Reboleiro, northern Portugal. In Porto, Braga and Valongo, leaves from the evergreen Nerium oleander were sampled each month during a year. N. oleander and deciduous Quercus spp. and Platanus spp. samples were collected in the same site in Porto, in order to determine the ability of these different leaves to accumulate particles. The leaves of deciduous Tilia spp. were collected in Porto and in a rural area (Trancoso-Reboleiro) so that a comparison could be established between them. The results indicated a contrast between the urban and the rural areas. The highest concentration of magnetic particles was found in the sampling site of Valongo and the lowest concentration in the sampling site of Trancoso-Reboleiro. In Porto, the results have shown that the Quercus leaves possessed the highest capability to accumulate particles even though it is a deciduous species. The IRM acquisition curves and the S-300 ratios found in the samples of the urban areas indicated the presence of magnetite-like structures. SIRM/χ ratio revealed particles whose dimensions ranged between 5 μm and 8 μm in urban areas. The chemical elements copper and iron have a significant positive correlation with χ and SIRM, which highlights the use of magnetic properties as a proxy for the concentration of these metals in atmospheric dust. The magnetic properties were interpreted taking into consideration the rainfall peaks and then compared with the PM10 concentration levels monitored in an air quality station in Porto. Our data corroborated that magnetic properties provide a fast and inexpensive tool to evaluate long-term urban pollution from anthropogenic origin, especially heavy

  4. Teaching Environmental Pollution, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.

    This guide is activity oriented and designed to provide environmental experiences for children in grades four through six which will involve them in making value judgments relative to their own community. Content covers problems dealing with air pollution, water pollution, solid wastes, and the aesthetics of visual pollution. Five to fourteen…

  5. Environmental study for pollution in the area of Megalopolis power plant (Peloponnesos, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarris, Apostolos; Kokinou, Eleni; Aidona, Eleni; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos; Koulouridakis, Pavlos; Kakoulaki, Georgia; Droulia, Kassiani; Damianovits, Ourania

    2009-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the suitability of magnetic properties in correlation to geochemical measurements as a pollution-monitoring tool and study the metal transmission factors in an area around a major local source, namely a lignite-burning power plant. Surface soil samples were collected in the wide area of the power plant of Megalopolis (Peloponnesos, Greece). The magnetic susceptibility and other magnetic properties of the surface soils were originally measured and mapped. Loci of high values of magnetic susceptibility within the study area gave rise to further analyze the soil samples for metal concentrations. GIS techniques were used for mapping all the chemical constituent concentrations and the magnetic measurements on the various topographic and geological features of the area. Maps were created through interpolation algorithms indicating the spatial distribution of the above measurements. Spatial tools and statistical analysis through the calculation of Pearson’s coefficients proved the correlation between magnetic properties, metal concentrations and the terrain attributes (especially the geological structure and the wind currents) of the region.

  6. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  7. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: a case study.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D

    2013-04-01

    If residents' perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents' perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about odour and environmental pollution because the municipality received economic compensation for their presence. PMID:23321503

  8. Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.

  9. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  10. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  11. Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

  12. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  13. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  14. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies. PMID:25312333

  15. Environmental Risk Score as a New Tool to Examine Multi-Pollutants in Epidemiologic Research: An Example from the NHANES Study Using Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Tao, Yebin; Meeker, John D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and plasticizers play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. Most epidemiologic studies have examined environmental pollutants individually, but in real life, we are exposed to multi-pollutants and pollution mixtures, not single pollutants. Although multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, challenges exist such as how to estimate the risk of adverse health responses from multi-pollutants. We propose an “Environmental Risk Score (ERS)” as a new simple tool to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research. Methods and Results We examined 134 environmental pollutants in relation to serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2006. Using a two-stage approach, stage-1 for discovery (n = 10818) and stage-2 for validation (n = 4615), we identified 13 associated pollutants for total cholesterol, 9 for HDL, 5 for LDL and 27 for triglycerides with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and serum nutrient levels. Using the regression coefficients (weights) from joint analyses of the combined data and exposure concentrations, ERS were computed as a weighted sum of the pollutant levels. We computed ERS for multiple lipid outcomes examined individually (single-phenotype approach) or together (multi-phenotype approach). Although the contributions of ERS to overall risk predictions for lipid outcomes were modest, we found relatively stronger associations between ERS and lipid outcomes than with individual pollutants. The magnitudes of the observed associations for ERS were comparable to or stronger than those for socio-demographic factors or BMI. Conclusions This study suggests ERS is

  16. [My experience in mercury toxicology: behavioral teratology study of the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    I would like to express sincere thanks to all the people involved in awarding the 2005 Congress Award. It is a great honor to be given the prize. I have been interested in mercury toxicology since I was a graduate student and mercury toxicology has been my main subject of focus for 30 years. I am proud to continue the research in this field. In this presentation I would like to summarize some of my research works and to talk anecdotes related to the research works. Soon after I became involved in this research field, I came across "behavioral teratology", which is a novel field of study whose focus is understanding the postnatal consequences of exposure to harmful agents in utero. Spyker and her colleagues clearly showed postnatal behavioral deviations in mouse offspring exposed to a low dose of methylmercury prenatally. In various animal experiments, I elucidated the subtle consequences that appear postnatally. I found that these consequences are modified by many factors such as selenium status, PCBs, and heat, because the degree of exposure to produce these consequences can be extremely small. These experiments simulate actual human life and the results will be useful to assess the risk of methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in the human population, since fish eating populations are exposed to these factors at a low dose. Recently, cohort studies elucidating the possible effects of prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants in the postnatal period have been established and ongoing. When a conclusion is drawn, it is expected to serve as basic information that is useful for the risk assessment of methylmercury and other environmental pollutants. This will give great gratification to scientists in environmental health and preventive medicine. PMID:17575786

  17. Comparing Environmental Conditions Using Indicators of Pollution Hazard

    PubMed

    Turner; Ruffio; Roberts

    1997-07-01

    / Land use/land cover classifications for 1973 and 1991, derived from the interpretation of satellite imagery, are quantified on the basis of biophysical land units in a study area in southeastern Australia. Nutrient export potentials are estimated for each land unit based on their composition of land use/land cover classes. Spatial and temporal comparisons are made of the land units based on the calculated pollution hazard indicators to provide an insight into changes in the state of the environment and the regional significance of land use changes. For example, one ecosystem, unique to the study, showed a large increase in pollution hazard over the study period as a manifestation of an 11-fold rise in cleared area and an expansion of cropping activities. The benefits to environmental management in general are discussed.KEY WORDS: Land cover change; Nutrient export; Environmental condition; Pollution hazard; Agricultural pollution; Nonpoint source pollution; Diffuse pollution; Environmental degradation PMID:9175549

  18. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates social and…

  19. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

  20. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  1. On the use of non-Gaussian models for prediction of extreme pollution levels in environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, D. B.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Taubayev, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the distribution of contamination at the territory on the data of snow samples analysis, in order to find an approach to forecasting of the extreme pollution levels. The hypothesis of normal distribution of the values of pollution index (the intensity of dust fallout on the territory, mg /m2/day) is not confirmed on the results of statistical analysis of the data for six different experimental sites (from 81 to 256 values of the index for each site). For the set of 243 values of the pollution index at the territory of a city, there is made an attempt of forecast of its possible extreme values not detected on the results of the snow sampling. For this, the linear dependence "pollution index - the number of points with the given pollution index" built in double logarithmic coordinates, is extrapolated into the area of high values of the pollution index.

  2. Vitamin A homeostasis endangered by environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zile, M.H. )

    1992-11-01

    Normal vitamin A function depends on adequate stores of the vitamin, a finely regulated supply of the vitamin to target tissues, and an ability of cells to generate functionally active forms of the vitamin. Both endogenous and exogenous factors can adversely affect vitamin A homeostasis. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and cause severe disturbances in vitamin A metabolism, manifested by an accelerated metabolism and breakdown of vitamin A and its metabolites and a depletion of vitamin A from the body; this sequence of events accounts for the vitamin A deficiency-like symptoms associated with PHAH intoxication. The mechanism(s) responsible for these events most likely includes altered activities of enzymes that are either directly or indirectly involved in critical vitamin A metabolic pathways. Human populations that continue to be exposed to environmental pollutants, may accumulate critical levels of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and will be at risk for inadequate vitamin A function as well as for other health impairments that have been difficult to link to any specific causes. Therefore, it is important to seriously evaluate the similarities in physiological disturbances across species that have become apparent in studies with wildlife inhabiting polluted environments similar to ours; the relevance to human health is evident.197 references.

  3. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  4. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-19

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company`s regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS TO THE STUDY OF CHIRAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ENANTIOMER SEPARATION AND MEASUREMENTS OF ENANTIOSELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    CE is rarely used for routine environmental analysis of organic pollutants -- certainly not to the extent of gas chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography. There are advantages to CE, however, that belie this lack of application. For example, CE is preferred over GC f...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION TOLERANCE OF EPHEMEROPTERA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on the environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of 400 species of mayflies (Insecta:Ephemeroptera) from the United States and Canada were compiled from 200 sources. The following ecological parameters were considered: pH, nutrients, organic pollution, oxygen concen...

  7. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  8. Energy Slaves and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    Modern man pays a price, pollution, with the dependency shift from humans as converters of energy for work to machines as converters of energy. Emphasis is placed on electromechanical appliances and their respective power ratings. (EB)

  9. Concern about Environmental Pollution: How Much Difference Do Race and Ethnicity Make? A New Jersey Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted among 1,513 residents of New Jersey during March–May 2004 showed that non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and English-speaking Hispanic Americans were significantly more concerned about environmental pollution problems than were Asian Americans and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans. For example, an average of > 40% of the first three groups was very concerned about New Jersey’s environmental problems, compared with 15% of the last two populations. There were also racial/ethnic differences among these groups in their desire for government action to protect the environment and in their personal support of the environmental movement. Regression analyses suggest that the 1970s and 1980s model of core support for environmental protection from white, female, young, educated, and politically liberal people has largely, but not completely, continued among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and English-language Hispanic populations. But these demographic pointers do not hold for Asian and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans, except indicating more support among the more formally educated. The last two groups are the two fastest-growing subpopulations in the United States, and although acculturation may slowly increase their concern about environmental pollution, it is more prudent for proponents of environmental protection not to wait and instead to try to better understand the environmental perceptions of these groups. PMID:15811824

  10. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  11. Is chemosensitisation by environmental pollutants ecotoxicologically relevant?

    PubMed

    Kurth, Denise; Brack, Werner; Luckenbach, Till

    2015-10-01

    The active cellular efflux of toxicants is an efficient biological defense mode present in all organisms. By blocking this so-called multixenobiotic resistance transport-a process also referred to as chemosensitisation-, cellular bioaccumulation and the sensitivity of organisms towards environmental pollutants can increase. So far, a wide range of compounds, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and surfactants, have been identified as chemosensitisers. Although, significant on a cellular level, the environmental impact of chemosensitisation on the organism level is not yet understood. Critically evaluating existing data, this paper identifies research needs to support our tentative conclusion that chemosensitisation may well enhance the risks of chemical exposure to aquatic organisms. Our conclusion is based on studies investigating the impact of individual chemicals and complex environmental mixtures on aquatic wildlife and a chemosensitiser mixture toxicity model which, however, is subject to great uncertainty due to substantial knowledge gaps. Those uncertainties include the inconsistent reporting of effect data, the lack of representative environmental contaminants tested for chemosensitisation, and the publishing of highly unreliable nominal exposure concentrations. In order to confirm the tentative conclusion of this paper, we require the significant and systematic investigation of a broader set of chemicals and environmental samples with a harmonised set of bioassays and rigorously controlled freely dissolved effect concentrations. PMID:26281775

  12. TOXICITY AND METABOLISM STUDIES WITH EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PRIORITY POLLUTANTS AND RELATED CHEMICALS IN FRESHWATER ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-two chemicals from the EPA priority pollutant list were studied for their acute and/or chronic toxicity to selected freshwater organisms. Freshwater species tested included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis...

  13. Environmental degradation of polluting aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons: a case study.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Ozioma, Achugasim

    2007-03-01

    Oil extracts of Ukpeliede spill samples from Niger Delta (Nigeria) were analyzed by gas chromatography. The amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially the lower-molecular-weight naphthene, fluorine, phenathrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene, decreased within the sampling intervals of 2 months and 5 months. There was a predominance of three-to-six-ring PAHs over the two-ring PAHs. There was marked disappearance of n-C8 to n-C11 hydrocarbon fractions and the acyclic isoprenoids (pristane and phytane). The depletion of these molecules within the two sampling intervals suggests the possible attenuation of hydrocarbons as a result of the environmental modification within the set interval. PMID:17372944

  14. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  15. Quantitative EPR study on free radicals in the natural polyphenols interacting with metal ions and other environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezierski, Adam; Czechowski, Franciszek; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Golonka, Iwona; Drozd, Jerzy; Bylinska, Ewa; Chen, Yona; Seaward, Mark R. D.

    2002-04-01

    Quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method was applied to characterise radicals stabilised in polyphenolic matrices of various biogenic materials: lichens, mosses, composts, soils, peats, brown coals and sewage sludge sediments. The investigations were carried out on raw materials and extracted fractions of humic acids (HA). General trends of g value and spin concentration changes were found. These parameters in lichens strongly depend on lichen species and air pollution. Determination of the g value and semiquinone spin concentration allows to assess degree of transformation of organic matter in compost, soil, peat and lignite. Application of gaseous ammonia as a base penetrating the organic matrices extends the possibilities and usefulness of the method. Interaction of metal ions with humic materials is illustrated by interaction of VO 2+ ion with peat and lignite HA as well as demineralised (raw and carbonised) brown coal. Our investigations demonstrate that quantitative EPR is a rapid and effective monitoring method to study the influence of various environmental factors on substances containing polyphenolic matrices.

  16. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  17. An integrated environmental decision support system for water pollution control based on TMDL--A case study in the Beiyun River watershed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanghong; Li, Yueqiang; Zhang, Tianxiang; Peng, Yang

    2015-06-01

    This paper details the development and application of an integrated environmental decision support system (EDSS) for water pollution control based on total maximum daily load (TMDL). The system includes an infrastructure, simulation, and application platforms. Using the water pollution control of Beiyun River in China as a case study, the key development processes and technologies of the EDSS are discussed including relations and links between various environmental simulation models, and model integration, visualization and real-time simulation methods. A loose coupling method is used to connect the environmental models, and an XML file is used to complete data exchange between different models. Project configuration and scheme configuration are used for simulation data organization. The integration approach is easy to implement and enables different development languages and reuse of existing models. The EDSS has been applied to water environment management of Beiyun River, and can be applied to other geographic regions. PMID:25791234

  18. The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exit, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We use an environmental Gini coefficient with Toxic Release Inventory ...

  19. Environmental pollution and allergy: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Alessandrini, Francesca; Buters, Jeroen; Krämer, Ursula; Koren, Hillel; Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    It may be a coincidence, but it is a fact that the first clear characterization of hay fever began in England where modern industrialization started in Europe. Only at the end of the 20th century were associations of the increasing prevalence of allergy with outdoor air pollution discussed. The seminal study came from Japan from the group of T. Miyamoto linking the increase in Japanese cedar pollinosis to an increased prevalence of Diesel cars and probably exposure to Diesel exhaust in epidemiological, animal experimental and in vitro studies. In Germany first epidemiological studies were done in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria in 1987 and 1988 showing a striking prevalence of allergic disease of up to 10-20% in preschool children. After German reunification the most surprising observation was a lower prevalence of hay fever in East German children compared to the West, although there was a much higher air pollution with SO2 and large particulate matter. Modern smog as found over West German cities most likely originating from traffic exhaust and consisting of fine and ultrafine particles was shown to be associated with higher incidence rates of allergy and allergic sensitization. In the 10 years after reunification there was a steep increase of allergy prevalence in East German children reaching almost the same level as in West Germany. Obviously, a multitude of lifestyle factors - beyond air pollution - may be involved in the explanation of this phenomenon. Surprisingly the skin manifestation of atopy, namely atopic eczema, was more frequent in East German children compared to the West, thus differing from airway allergy. Meanwhile in vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that a variety of air pollutants mostly from environmental tobacco smoke (indoors) and from traffic exhaust (outdoors) can stimulate immune cells inducing a Th2-dominated response besides their irritative effects. While 50 years ago in allergy textbooks a clear distinction was made

  20. Education against Environmental Pollution in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire B.

    1989-01-01

    A community education campaign is beginning to heighten public awareness of the pollution of air, water, and land resources in Nigeria. Research-based information has led to the development of printed educational materials, radio and television messages, and the establishment of a national Environmental Protection Agency. (SK)

  1. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  2. Indoor Pollutants: Environmental Hazards to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Alerts parents, teachers, and others to some of the leading indoor environmental hazards to young children which are caused by various types of indoor pollutants: cigarette smoke; heating/cooking equipment; asbestos; pesticides; art supplies; radon; and lead. Also suggests ways to reduce these health hazards. (BB)

  3. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME IV. STUDIES ON PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACHES TO VALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AMENITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research presented in this volume of a five volume study of the economic benefits of air pollution control explores various facets of the two central project objectives that have not been given adequate attention in the previous volumes. The valuations developed in these prev...

  4. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence. PMID:24889992

  5. Monitoring environmental pollution by atmospheric corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kharafi, F.M.; Ismail, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is monitored by outdoor exposure of several commercial alloys including steel, Al, Cu, and brass (Cu-30Zu) alloys. Three districts of Kuwait were selected for this study including of residential, industrial, and marine areas. The atmospheric pollution level could be monitored directly by observation of the corrosion of the test alloys.

  6. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  7. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment. PMID:22864550

  8. The Environmental Pollution Perception of Residents in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study in the Hancheng Mine Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  9. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  10. Air Pollution Exposure Assessment for Epidemiologic Studies of Pregnant Women and Children: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Frank; Avol, Ed; Kinney, Patrick; Jerrett, Michael; Dvonch, Timothy; Lurmann, Frederick; Buckley, Timothy; Breysse, Patrick; Keeler, Gerald; de Villiers, Tracy; McConnell, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The National Children’s Study is considering a wide spectrum of airborne pollutants that are hypothesized to potentially influence pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, asthma, atopy, immune development, obesity, and pubertal development. In this article we summarize six applicable exposure assessment lessons learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research that may enhance the National Children’s Study: a) Selecting individual study subjects with a wide range of pollution exposure profiles maximizes spatial-scale exposure contrasts for key pollutants of study interest. b) In studies with large sample sizes, long duration, and diverse outcomes and exposures, exposure assessment efforts should rely on modeling to provide estimates for the entire cohort, supported by subject-derived questionnaire data. c) Assessment of some exposures of interest requires individual measurements of exposures using snapshots of personal and microenvironmental exposures over short periods and/or in selected microenvironments. d) Understanding issues of spatial–temporal correlations of air pollutants, the surrogacy of specific pollutants for components of the complex mixture, and the exposure misclassification inherent in exposure estimates is critical in analysis and interpretation. e) “Usual” temporal, spatial, and physical patterns of activity can be used as modifiers of the exposure/outcome relationships. f) Biomarkers of exposure are useful for evaluation of specific exposures that have multiple routes of exposure. If these lessons are applied, the National Children’s Study offers a unique opportunity to assess the adverse effects of air pollution on interrelated health outcomes during the critical early life period. PMID:16203261

  11. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  12. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  13. Role of bougainvilleas in mitigation of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Srivastava, Richa; Roy, R K

    2005-04-01

    Environmental pollution adversely affects health of the people. Industrialization, urbanization, over exploitation of natural resources and increasing number of automobiles have aggravated the pollution manifold though there are various ways to mitigate the environmental pollution. Bio-remediation by using selected plant species is an effective method to control pollution which is universally accepted. Bougainvillea is a pollution tolerant plant and can help in the mitigation of air pollution besides its ornamental value in the landscaping. From the rich germplasm collection in NBRI Botanical Garden, tolerant plants have been experimented for road side plantation in view of mitigating the environmental pollution. PMID:16649617

  14. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  15. Exploring the associations between microRNA expression profiles and environmental pollutants in human placenta from the National Children's Study (NCS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Kappil, Maya A; Li, An; Dassanayake, Priyanthi S; Darrah, Thomas H; Friedman, Alan E; Friedman, Michelle; Lambertini, Luca; Landrigan, Philip; Stodgell, Christopher J; Xia, Yulin; Nanes, Jessica A; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Schadt, Eric E; Murray, Jeff C; Clark, Edward B; Dole, Nancy; Culhane, Jennifer; Swanson, James; Varner, Michael; Moye, Jack; Kasten, Carol; Miller, Richard K; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the principal regulator of the in utero environment, and disruptions to this environment can result in adverse offspring health outcomes. To better characterize the impact of in utero perturbations, we assessed the influence of known environmental pollutants on the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in placental samples collected from the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard birth cohort. This study analyzed the expression of 654 miRNAs in 110 term placentas. Environmental pollutants measured in these placentas included dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). A moderated t-test was used to identify a panel of differentially expressed miRNAs, which were further analyzed using generalized linear models. We observed 112 miRNAs consistently expressed in >70% of the samples. Consistent with the literature, miRNAs located within the imprinted placenta-specific C19MC cluster, specifically mir-517a, mir-517c, mir-522, and mir-23a, are among the top expressed miRNA in our study. We observed a positive association between PBDE 209 and miR-188–5p and an inverse association between PBDE 99 and let-7c. Both PCBs and Cd were positively associated with miR-1537 expression level. In addition, multiple let-7 family members were downregulated with increasing levels of Hg and Pb. We did not observe DDE or BPA levels to be associated with placental miRNA expression. This is the first birth cohort study linking environmental pollutants and placental expression of miRNAs. Our results suggest that placental miRNA profiles may signal in utero exposures to environmental chemicals. PMID:26252056

  16. Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-03-16

    Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers (P2-EDGE) provides nearly 300 recommendations to incorporate pollution prevention into projects during the design phase. Each is supplemented by examples, references, and additional data to help the user evaluate applicability and potential benefits to their design project. Built in filters allow the user to narrow the review to only those opportunities that are applicable based on project size and design phase. User responses are saved to a custommore » data file or can also be generated into a report and printed. Other features include the ability to search the database for keywords, add opportunities to the database, or edit existing entries.« less

  17. HOSPITAL POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has instituted a broad pollution prevention research program through the Office of Research and Development to support continued environmental improvements throughout the nation. he Agency is also responding to the national concern in rega...

  18. Which came first, people or pollution? A review of theory and evidence from longitudinal environmental justice studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-12-01

    A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies exist and those that do exist have often led to confusing and contradictory findings. In this paper we review the theoretical arguments, methods, findings, and conclusions drawn from existing longitudinal environmental justice studies. Our goal is to make sense of this literature and to identify the direction future research should take in order to resolve confusion and arrive at a clearer understanding of the processes and contributory factors by which present-day racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of environmental hazards have come about. Such understandings also serve as an important step in identifying appropriate and effective societal responses to ameliorate environmental disparities.

  19. Corporate Characteristics, Political Embeddedness and Environmental Pollution by Large U.S. Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prechel, Harland; Zheng, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Organizational and environmental sociology contain surprisingly few studies of the corporation as one of the sources of environmental pollution. To fill this gap, we focus on the parent company as the unit of analysis and elaborate environmental theories that focus on the organizational and political-legal causes of pollution. Using a compiled…

  20. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  1. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NO(x), PM(2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between -10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NO(x)), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM(2.5), due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  2. Energy needs versus environmental pollution: a reconciliation?

    PubMed

    Green, L

    1967-06-16

    In this article I have presented, for discussion, a proposed system for energy generation by which the principal sources of environmental pollution by power plants could be eliminated. For stationary power plants the concept appears feasible technically and, according to my " horseback estimates," perhaps economically as well, depending upon the economic value of the by-products of sulfur, CO(2), water, and possibly nitrogen, and upon the price we are willing to pay for a clean environment .Thus, a more thorough engineering and economic analysis to explore these and other factors in greater depth seems warranted. In the case of turbine-driven vehicles, the technical and economic feasibility of widespread distribution and handling of the fuel constitutes a serious question, but one which deserves equally serious consideration before the possibility is discounted. The reports of the cited study panels notwithstanding, the technology required for the proposed system exists today, with one exception. This exception (which is not essential for trial of the system but will be required for its complete fruition) is the development of a nuclear reactor for the prime purpose of delivering process heat for the steam reforming of natural gas and, ultimately, for gas production from coal in a continuous process, such as those discussed by Pieroni et al. (16). Today's intermittent processes of coking and gas production are both archaic and themselves large sources of atmospheric pollution, and a development program aimed at advancing the technology of the coal industry in this regard would seem long overdue. The report of the PSAC Environmental Pollution Panel recommended "demonstration of the feasibility and economy of new developments for abating or controlling pollution through their use at Federal installations" and suggested the coalburning TVA power plants as a likely place for such demonstration. This suggestion is doubly appropriate since the TVA is in a region of

  3. Environmental management/pollution prevention/environmental electrochemistry opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenchuck, N.H.

    1994-12-31

    Thank you for inviting me to be your keynoter. I`m impressed by what you`ve accomplished through the years and the program that you`ve put together for this International Forum on Environmental Electrochemistry. Above all, we must remember what has brought us together. We must be aware of the challenge, the need, the opportunity we have before us. Sustainable economic development that is responsive to environmental concerns is vital to continued national prosperity. Coincidentally, there are boundless environmental electrochemistry opportunities in environmental management and pollution prevention. The basic approach to environmental protection in this country, for far too many years, has been, for the most part, reactive. As a society, we react to crisis; and in the environmental business, we react to environmental crisis. We react to problems that already were posing substantial ecological and human health risks and problems that already were causing significant public concern. We need both a quality and results-oriented national environmental electrochemistry program.

  4. Retrospective qualitative analysis of ecological networks under environmental perturbation: a copper-polluted intertidal community as a case study.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Garay-Narváez, Leslie; Medina, Matías H

    2012-01-01

    The coast of Chañaral Bay in northern Chile has been affected by copper mine wastes for decades. This sustained perturbation has disrupted the intertidal community in several ways, but the mechanisms behind the observed shifts in local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Our main goal was to identify the species (lumped into trophic groups) belonging to the Chañaral intertidal community that, being directly affected by copper pollution, contributed primarily to the generation of the observed changes in community structure. These groups of species were called initiators. We applied a qualitative modelling approach based only on the sign and direction of effects among species, and present a formula for predicting changes in equilibrium abundances considering stress on multiple variables simultaneously. We then applied this technique retrospectively to identify the most likely set of initiators. Our analyses allowed identification of a unique set of four initiators in the studied intertidal system (a group of algae, sessile invertebrates, a group of herbivores and starfish), which were hypothesized to be the primary drivers of the observed changes in community structure. In addition, a hypothesis was derived about how the perturbation affected these initiators. The hypothesis is that pollution affected negatively the population growth rate of both algae and sessile invertebrates and suppressed the interaction between herbivores and starfish. Our analytic approach, focused on identifying initiators, constitutes an advance towards understanding the mechanisms underlying human-driven ecosystem disruption and permits identifying species that may serve as a focal point for community management and restoration. PMID:21877226

  5. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment. PMID:26523104

  6. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  7. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources. PMID:24531338

  8. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (<500 m) from the highway. Objectives of the study included (1) characterizing the temporal and spatial PM concentration fluctuation and distribution patterns in the urban street canyon; (2) investigating the effects of urban structures such as a tall building or an intersection on the transport and dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of

  9. Involuntary bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population

    SciTech Connect

    Krotoszynski, B.K.; O'Neill, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical bioaccumulation in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population was determined by a noninvasive expired air technique. Ubiquitous and nonubiquitous environmental pollutants were isolated and identified and the respective distribution and inhalation hazards were evaluated. Attempts were made to isolate and identify the state of health related expired air constituents. The selected 291 environmental pollutants or the total estimated bioaccumulation, were distributed among the heterogenous and homogenous study populations as the constituents of the respective chemical bioaccumulation. The bioaccumulation of the environmental pollutants observed in the heterogenous population, including controls, prediabetics and diabetics, consisted of 176 compounds or 60.5% of the total estimated bioaccumulation. The constituents of this bioaccumulation are termed ubiquitous pollutants because they have accumulated in the heterogenous population as the result of the prolonged body exposures irrespectively of the residence, age, height, weight, sex, occupation, diet and the state of health of the exposed individuals. The major contribution to the bioaccumulation in the heterogenous population arose from 150 hydrocarbons (85.2% of total bioaccumulation) which presents serious exposure health hazards to this population. This is supported by the known toxicity and the possible mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of these hydrocarbons. Such health hazards will augment with the increasing utilization of petroleum products in industry and automobiles. (JMT)

  10. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  11. A method for estimating urban background concentrations in support of hybrid air pollution modeling for environmental health studies.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  12. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China. PMID:25294690

  13. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation. PMID:25549348

  14. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  15. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  16. Surface study and sensing activity of nanotubular indium trioxide to NH3, H2S, NO2 and CO environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Molecular and electronic structures of nanotubular indium trioxide were studied using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP density functional methods. Three nanotube models including nanotubes with closed ends (CENT), one opened end (OOENT) and two opened ends (TOENT) were considered. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of CENT is distributed over the entire nanotube; while it is distributed on the end cap of OOENT. In both CENT and OOENT, the distribution of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is on the end caps. HOMO and LUMO of TOENT are distributed on the center of nanotube. The sensing activity of OOENT to environmental pollutants was evaluated regarding the interaction of nanotube with NH3, H2S, NO2 and CO molecules. Adsorptions over different positions of OOENT are exothermic and the NH3 adsorption is thermodynamically more favorable. The selectivity of OOENT toward gaseous pollutants is investigated as NH3 > H2S > CO > NO2. Interaction of NO2 and CO over the closed end (end cap) of nanotube is preferred; while adsorption of NH3 and H2S on the opened end is more favorable.

  17. Indoor air pollution and childhood asthma: effective environmental interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollutants such as tobacco smoke and dust mites may exacerbate childhood asthma. Environmental interventions to reduce exposures to these pollutants can help prevent exacerbations of the disease. Among the most important interventions is the elimination of environmental tobacco smoke from the environments of children with asthma. However, the effectiveness of reducing asthmatic children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the severity of their symptoms has not yet been systematically evaluated. Dust mite reduction is another helpful environmental intervention. This can be achieved by enclosing the child's mattresses, blankets, and pillows in zippered polyurethane-coated casings. Primary prevention of asthma is not as well understood. It is anticipated that efforts to reduce smoking during pregnancy could reduce the incidence of asthma in children. European studies have suggested that reducing exposure to food and house dust mite antigens during lactation and for the first 12 months of life diminishes the development of allergic disorders in infants with high total IgE in the cord blood and a family history of atopy. Many children with asthma and their families are not receiving adequate counseling about environmental interventions from health care providers or other sources. PMID:8549490

  18. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

    1999-02-10

    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  19. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  20. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  1. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results. PMID:15193095

  2. ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

  3. Environmental inequity in England: small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752

  4. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  5. The U.S. and Environmental Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1974-01-01

    Background concerning legislation and development of environmental programs is detailed in the areas of air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, and multimedia toxic substances. Each section contains a discussion of scientific knowledge, health effects, costs, proposed standards, and possible approaches to the problems. (LS)

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  7. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary pollutants during a 2001 summer study in Pittsburgh using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Martello, D.V.; Lucas, L.J.; Davidson, C.I.; Modey, W.K.; Eatough, D.J.

    2006-09-15

    Apportionment of primary and secondary pollutants during the summer 2001 Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) is reported. Several sites were included in PAQS, with the main site (the supersite) adjacent to the Carnegie Mellon University campus in Schenley Park. One of the additional sampling sites was located at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, 18 km southeast of Pittsburgh. Coal- and natural gas fired power plants were in the vicinity of NETL, as were coking plants; and metal and chemical plants. Plants burning bituminous coal and natural gas were near the supersite. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass, gas-phase volatile organic material (VOM), particulate semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material (NVOM), and ammonium sulfate were apportioned at the two sites into their primary and secondary contributions using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX 2.3 multivariate receptor modeling and analysis software. A portion of each of these species was identified as originating from gasoline and diesel primary mobile sources. Some of the organic material was formed from local secondary transformation processes, whereas the great majority of the secondary sulfate was associated with regional transformation contributions. The results indicated that the diurnal patterns of secondary gas- phase VOM and particulate semivolatile and NVOM were not correlated with secondary ammonium sulfate contributions but were associated with separate formation pathways. These findings are consistent with the bulk of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport and, thus, decoupled from local activity involving organic pollutants in the metropolitan area. 19 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION TOLERANCE OF COMMON FRESHWATER CHIRONOMIDAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on the environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of 230 taxa of freshwater chironomids were compiled from 33 references. This compilation was prepared to assist biologists in evaluating data from macroinvertebrate samples collected for the assessment of water qualit...

  9. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  10. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS: DIVERSE GALAXY OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  11. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local...

  12. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typicall...

  13. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCP'S) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  14. Environmental distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Emmi, F.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the concentration of PCB's and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Susquehanna River Basin sediments was performed on samples collected from New York and Pennsylvania in 1976-1979. Highest concentrations were found for PCB's, with median and range of 38 and 13-524 ng/g, respectively. Pesticides had median concentrations ranging from approx.1 ng/g for DDT, DDD, and DDE, to less than 0.1 ng/g for aldrin and dieldrin. Highest concentrations generally were found downstream from industrial centers. Concentrations of PCB's and pesticides were also determined for soil composites collected from six areas of the basin. For several pollutants, the highest levels were found in the Pennsylvania areas, especially the Conestoga River Basin site. The PCB levels were the same (approx.35 ng/g) in all New York soil composites; this was consistent with concentrations predicted from known atmospheric deposition data. Adsorption of atrazine and simazine on model substrates was stuided to elucidate the partitioning of these herbicides on river sediments. Clean sea sand had little affinity for these compounds. Adsorption on illite clay and humic acid-coated sea sand gave relatively large K/sub p/ and K/sub oc/ values compared to the values for river sediments, suggesting that the nature of the sites available for absorbing organic molecules needs further study.

  15. Ambient particulate air pollution and ectopy--the environmental epidemiology of arrhythmogenesis in Women's Health Initiative Study, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Liao, Duanping; Whitsel, Eric A; Duan, Yinkang; Lin, Hung-Mo; Quibrera, P Miguel; Smith, Richard; Peuquet, Donna J; Prineas, Ronald J; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Anderson, Garnet

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between ambient PM(2.5) and PM(10) and arrhythmia and the effect modification by cigarette smoking were investigated. Data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality monitors and an established national-scale, log-normal kriging method were used to spatially estimate daily mean concentrations of PM at addresses of 57,422 individuals from 59 examination sites in 24 U.S. states in 1999-2004. The acute and subacute exposures were estimated as mean, geocoded address-specific PM concentrations on the day of, 0-2 d before, and averaged over 30 d before the electrocardiogram (ECG) (Lag(0); Lag(1); Lag(2); Lag(1-30)). At the time of standard 12-lead resting ECG, the mean age (SD) of participants was 67.5 (6.9) yr (84% non-Hispanic White; 6% current smoker; 15% with coronary heart disease; 5% with ectopy). After the identification of significant effect modifiers, two-stage random-effects models were used to calculate center-pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) of arrhythmia per 10 mug/m(3) increase in PM concentrations. Among current smokers, Lag(0) and Lag(1) PM concentrations were significantly associated ventricular ectopy (VE)-the OR (95% CI) for VE among current smokers was 2 (1.32-3.3) and 1.32 (1.07-1.65) at Lag(1) PM(2.5) and PM(10), respectively. The interactions between current smoking and acute exposures (Lag(0); Lag(1); Lag(2)) were significant in relationship to VE. Acute exposures were not significantly associated with supraventricular ectopy (SVE), or with VE among nonsmokers. Subacute (Lag(1-30)) exposures were not significantly associated with arrhythmia. Acute PM(2.5) and PM(10) exposure is directly associated with the odds of VE among smokers, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to the arrhythmogenic effects of PM. PMID:18979352

  16. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, W.A.

    1988-11-01

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement.

  17. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  18. AIR POLLUTION AND TERRAIN AERODYNAMICS: A REVIEW OF FLUID MODELING STUDIES AT THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) FLUID MODELING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review is given of recent fluid modeling studies conducted at the EPA Fluid Modeling Facility of flow and diffusion in complex terrain. Estimates are given for the ratio of the maximum concentration on a hill surface to the maximum concentration in the absence of the hill. The ...

  19. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies: Activities. Appendices, Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented guide is divided into four sections dealing with the Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: (1) an introduction; (2) questions about the activity; (3) necessary equipment; (4) procedures; (5) results obtained by using the study; (6)…

  20. Linking protein oxidation to environmental pollutants: redox proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Braconi, Daniela; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2011-10-19

    Environmental pollutants, such as compounds used in agriculture or deriving from vehicles, industries and human activities, can represent major concern for human health since they are considered to contribute significantly to many diseased states with major public health significance. Besides considerable epidemiological evidence linking environmental pollutants with adverse health effects, little information is provided on the effects of these compounds at the cellular and molecular level. Though oxidative stress is generally acknowledged as one of the most important mechanisms of action for pollutant-induced toxicity, redox proteomics, the elective tool to identify post-translationally oxidized proteins, is still in its very infancy in this field of investigation. This review will provide the readers with an outline of the use of redox proteomics in evaluating pollutant-induced oxidative damage to proteins in various biological systems. Future potential applications of redox proteomic approaches from an environmental point of view will be discussed as well. PMID:21767673

  1. Prospects for microbiological solutions to environmental pollution with plastics.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Martin C; Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly named plastics, are among the most widespread anthropogenic pollutants of marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems. Disruptive effects of plastics are known to threaten wildlife and exert effects on natural food webs, but signs for and knowledge on plastic biodegradation are limited. Microorganisms are the most promising candidates for an eventual bioremediation of environmental plastics. Laboratory studies have reported various effects of microorganisms on many types of polymers, usually by enzymatic hydrolysis or oxidation. However, most common plastics have proved to be highly recalcitrant even under conditions known to favour microbial degradation. Knowledge on environmental degradation is yet scarcer. With this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on microbiological degradation of several of the most common plastic types. Furthermore, we illustrate the analytical challenges concerning the evaluation of plastic biodegradation as well as constraints likely standing against the evolution of effective biodegradation pathways. PMID:26318446

  2. POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental evaluation of 38 screening test runs using a laboratory-scale, fixed-bed coal gasifier to study pollutants generated during the gasification of various coals. Pollutants were identified and quantitative analyses performed for tars, aqu...

  3. Medical aspects of environmental pollution. Environmental incidents in the Netherlands 1980-1984.

    PubMed

    Sangster, B; Cohen, H

    1985-01-01

    In the Netherlands since 1980, 16 situations have been identified in which man might be exposed to environmental pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these incidents and describes how health risk assessments, public studies and provision of individual medical toxicological care are dealt with. The importance of involving general practitioners and other primary health care personnel at an early stage is stressed. PMID:4057326

  4. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

  6. IN SITU ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by laboratory analysis of environmental samples or by measurement of biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. he organis...

  7. Privatization and environmental pollution in an international mixed Cournot model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition between a domestic public firm and a foreign private firm, supposing that the production processes generates environmental pollution. Introducing the residents' environmental preference into the public firm's objective function, we analyse its economic impacts. We also analyse the economic impacts of the privatization.

  8. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  9. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartíNez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  10. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  11. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANT INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In conjunction with the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) being conducted in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), an inventory of non-criteria pollutants was assembled for point sources. The inventory was based on the following data: (1) The National Emissions Data ...

  12. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees.

    PubMed

    Doty, Sharon L; James, C Andrew; Moore, Allison L; Vajzovic, Azra; Singleton, Glenda L; Ma, Caiping; Khan, Zareen; Xin, Gang; Kang, Jun Won; Park, Jin Young; Meilan, Richard; Strauss, Steven H; Wilkerson, Jasmine; Farin, Federico; Strand, Stuart E

    2007-10-23

    Small, volatile hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and chloroform, are common environmental pollutants that pose serious health effects. We have developed transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) plants with greatly increased rates of metabolism and removal of these pollutants through the overexpression of cytochrome P450 2E1, a key enzyme in the metabolism of a variety of halogenated compounds. The transgenic poplar plants exhibited increased removal rates of these pollutants from hydroponic solution. When the plants were exposed to gaseous trichloroethylene, chloroform, and benzene, they also demonstrated superior removal of the pollutants from the air. In view of their large size and extensive root systems, these transgenic poplars may provide the means to effectively remediate sites contaminated with a variety of pollutants at much faster rates and at lower costs than can be achieved with current conventional techniques. PMID:17940038

  13. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION TOLERANCE OF TRICHOPTERA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on the environmental requirements for 245 taxa of North American Trichoptera are compiled from 294 references. This compilation is prepared to assist biologists in evaluating data from macroinvertebrate samples collected for the assessment of water quality. The following par...

  15. Common lung conditions: environmental pollutants and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can have short- and long-term effects on lung health. Sources of air pollution include gases (eg, carbon monoxide, ozone) and particulate matter (eg, soot, dust). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollution. Elevated ozone concentrations are associated with increases in lung-related hospitalizations and mortality. Elevated particulate matter pollution increases the risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. Occupations with high exposures to pollutants (eg, heavy construction work, truck driving, auto mechanics) pose higher risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. Some industrial settings (eg, agriculture, sawmills, meat packing plants) also are associated with higher risks from pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency issues an air quality index for cities and regions in the United States. The upper levels on the index are associated with increases in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Damp and moldy housing might make asthma symptoms worse; individuals from lower socioeconomic groups who live in lower quality housing are particularly at risk. Other household exposures that can have negative effects on lung health include radon, nanoparticles, and biomass fuels. PMID:23767420

  16. [Methodological problems of studying and evaluating the effect of environmental pollution on the reproductive function of women and on the population increase].

    PubMed

    Golubev, I R; Mamatsashvili, M I; Kuntsevich, I E; Osipova, E M

    1982-04-01

    One of the longterm effects of environmental pollution is disturbance of embryonal development. If the embryo is adversely affected at the moment of conception and immediately thereafter, this can have an adverse impact on the individual's whole life. We know that lead, mercury, and some other industrial pollutants affect the reproductive function of women. Also antimony, which has been shown to cause premature birth and stillbirth. Manganese, thallium, and fluorine also adversely affect pregnancy. Our investigation was done on the women, aged 18-35, living near a metallurgical plant. We compared the monthly measurements of contamination of the air with sulphur gas, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxides, with the course of pregnancy of the women living in the area. The results demonstrated an unfavorable impact of these contaminants on the women. We then formulated a program for a 2nd stage of investigation, in an area with lead contamination. We investigated: a highly urbanized administrative center, a contemporary industrial city, and some surrounding villages. In the 1st 2 cases the lead contamination was due to industrial contamination; in the last case it was due to the use of certain chemicals in hail protection. The lead content was measured in the air, water, soil, and food products. The women investigated were 20-30 years of age during 1st pregnancies; we also investigated the children during the 1st 2 years of life. The materials were processed in the traditional way, constructing empirical curves and then selecting appropriate functions for analysis. This will enable a quantitative estimate of the impact of environmental pollution on reproductive function to be obtained. PMID:7095473

  17. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ISSUES REGARDING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) provides the legislative mandate for the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Water Quality Program to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Therefore, a common goal is to maintain water...

  18. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  19. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S. Khardi, S.

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  20. The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico: a quantitative analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exist, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We calculate an environmental Gini coefficient using Toxic Release In...

  1. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs. PMID:27620188

  2. Transgenic Plants as Sensors of Environmental Pollution Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Rapid technological development is inevitably associated with many environmental problems which primarily include pollution of soil, water and air. In many cases, the presence of contamination is difficult to assess. It is even more difficult to evaluate its potential danger to the environment and humans. Despite the existence of several whole organism-based and cell-based models of sensing pollution and evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity, there is no ideal system that allows one to make a quick and cheap assessment. In this respect, transgenic organisms that can be intentionally altered to be more sensitive to particular pollutants are especially promising. Transgenic plants represent an ideal system, since they can be grown at the site of pollution or potentially dangerous sites. Plants are ethically more acceptable and esthetically more appealing than animals as sensors of environmental pollution. In this review, we will discuss various transgenic plant-based models that have been successfully used for biomonitoring genotoxic pollutants. We will also discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of these systems and describe some novel ideas for the future generation of efficient transgenic phytosensors.

  3. Compensation of victims exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, R D; Simonds, M

    1986-01-01

    The sponsors of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), also known as "Superfund," agreed that more information was needed regarding legal remedies for injuries to persons from exposures to hazardous wastes. There has been a rush in Congress and some states to introduce "victims' compensation" bills to facilitate recovery for personal injury from exposure to hazardous waste sites. Such approaches are overly simplistic and totally disregard the reach and shortfall of scientific data. PMID:2943236

  4. Surface Modification of Graphene Oxides by Plasma Techniques and Their Application for Environmental Pollution Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangxue; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Zhongshan; Wang, Qi; Li, Jiaxing; Hobiny, Aatef; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties and possible applications. The large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on GOs leads to a high sorption capacity for the removal of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup. However, the lack of selectivity results in difficulty in the selective removal of target pollutants from aqueous solutions in the presence of other coexisting pollutants. Herein, the surface grafting of GOs with special oxygen-containing functional groups using low-temperature plasma techniques and the application of the surface-modified GOs for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental pollution are reviewed. This paper gives an account of our research on the application of GO-based nanomaterials in environmental pollution cleanup, including: (1) the synthesis and surface grafting of functional groups on GOs, summarizing various types of low-temperature plasma techniques for the synthesis of graphene/GOs; and (2) the application of graphene/GOs and their composites for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions, including the interaction mechanism according to recently published results. PMID:26915704

  5. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental "Obesogen" Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called "obesogenic environment". Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity. PMID:27483295

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  7. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  8. Quality assurance of hair analysis for evaluation of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.; Gwozdz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Trace analysis of human hair has been used for assessing the exposure to toxic trace elements in the environment of an ore-processing plant. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a reference scenario for environmental pollution to determine the effect of future major technical improvements in plant operation.

  9. Environmental Pollution, Student's Book (Experiences/Experiments/Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Elbert C.

    Described in this student's manual are numerous experiments to acquaint the learner with community environmental problems. Experiments are relatively simple and useful in the junior high school grades. Activities are provided which emphasize some of the materials involved in pollution problems, such as carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and others,…

  10. BIODEGRADABILITY STUDIES WITH ORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANT COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ninty-six organic priority pollutants (from EPA Effluent Guidelines Consent Decree) were studied to determine the extent and rate of microbial degradation and the acclimation periods needed for substrate biooxidation. The pollutants have been classified into groups with character...

  11. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, María J.; Haller, George

    2012-01-01

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer. PMID:22411824

  12. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  13. The experience of mutation rate quantitative evaluation in connection with environmental pollution (based on studies of congenital anomalies in human populations).

    PubMed

    Antipenko YeN; Kogut, N N

    1993-10-01

    For 3 years genetic monitoring of congenital anomalies (CA) has been carried out in three Ukrainian towns essentially different in the level of air pollution: the most polluted, Mariupol (M.); medium polluted, Zaporozhye (Z.); and relatively clean, Simpheropol (S.). In this work we present the results of this study. Eighteen CAs being used in the International Clearinghouse program were registered during the first year of life. For each case of CA an individual questionnaire was filled in. It included practically all known causes of malformations. Similar questionnaires were filled in for cases of normal birth outcome. The estimation of newborns of control groups was made according to a score of 9-10 on the Apgar scale. The questionnaires were completed by physicians in all maternity hospitals and children's clinics and based on the information obtained from mothers. Multiple malformations, dominant and X-linked CA in M. were 2.6-3.1 times more frequent than in S. The frequency of new mutations was 0.45-0.95 and 0.17-0.47 per 10(3) births respectively. No differences in multifactorial and recessive CA were noted. The mathematical method (so-called statusmetrical analysis) was used to indirectly determine the part of CAs of unknown etiology (probably of mutation origin) in the total number of CAs. Their quota in Z. and M. was 1.2-1.5 times more than in S. The advantage of statusmetrical analysis lies in the absence of any restrictions connected with a large number of parameters which describe the object's status. It makes it possible to analyze tens, even hundreds of factors (along with the increased number of parameters the reliability of the conclusions increases) and range them in accordance with their validity. Genetic consequences of chemical pollution were estimated in biological equivalents Röntgen (BER). In M. they were equal to the effect of irradiation at doses of 180-300 BER (230 BER, central estimate) over 30 years. In the polluted towns (M. and Z.) the

  14. Hydroquinone: Environmental Pollution, Toxicity, and Microbial Answers

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone is a major benzene metabolite, which is a well-known haematotoxic and carcinogenic agent associated with malignancy in occupational environments. Human exposure to hydroquinone can occur by dietary, occupational, and environmental sources. In the environment, hydroquinone showed increased toxicity for aquatic organisms, being less harmful for bacteria and fungi. Recent pieces of evidence showed that hydroquinone is able to enhance carcinogenic risk by generating DNA damage and also to compromise the general immune responses which may contribute to the impaired triggering of the host immune reaction. Hydroquinone bioremediation from natural and contaminated sources can be achieved by the use of a diverse group of microorganisms, ranging from bacteria to fungi, which harbor very complex enzymatic systems able to metabolize hydroquinone either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Due to the recent research development on hydroquinone, this review underscores not only the mechanisms of hydroquinone biotransformation and the role of microorganisms and their enzymes in this process, but also its toxicity. PMID:23936816

  15. Hungry fungi seek rough diet, root out environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1993-12-01

    The US Navy asked biochemist Stephen Aust to determine whether a common fungus could destroy 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, a highly explosive compound popularly known as TNT. The reason white rot fungus apparently can be used to attack nearly any organic contaminant, lies in the organisms' evolution in response to a nearly infinite variety of trees and lignin. White rot fungus, evolved to degrade wood, and not every tree is the same. Environmental pollutants are very similar. Some environmental pollutants are very insoluble. Aust emphasizes that using white rot fungi in environmental treatment is not an off-the-shelf technology. Applications and remediation techniques in most cases will be site-specific success will require prior, accurate calculation of the fungi's nutrient demands, contaminant types and concentrations, local conditions, and economic considerations. Most work with white rot fungi to date has been at the laboratory scale. Experiments indicated that the fungus can indeed degrade TNT to carbon dioxide.

  16. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  17. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

  18. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  19. Effects of environmental pollutants on cellular iron homeostasis and ultimate links to human disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic disease has increased in the last several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanism underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to co...

  20. Effects of environmental pollutants on airways, allergic inflammation, and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Handzel, Z T

    2000-01-01

    Particulate and gaseous air pollutants are capable of damaging the airway epithelial lining and of shifting the local immune balance, thereby facilitating the induction of persistent inflammation. Epidemiological studies are inconclusive regarding whether air pollution increases the incidence of asthma and chronic bronchitis in the population. Clearly, environmental pollution can, however, precipitate attacks and emergency-room admissions in those already suffering from such conditions. The catastrophic potential of airborne pollution was demonstrated in the 1960s and 1970s, when inverted atmospheric pressure conditions trapped smog over cities on the Eastern coast of the United States and over Europe. This smog resulted in thousands of hospital admissions and dozens of deaths. With the general rise in the incidence of atopy and asthma in the Western population, it is of major public health interest to reduce, as much as possible, the exposure of such populations to anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. PMID:11048334

  1. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

  2. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  3. Engineering dioxygenases for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, K

    2000-06-01

    Dioxygenases have recently been engineered to improve their capabilities for environmental pollutant degradation. The techniques used to achieve this include in vitro DNA shuffling and subunit or domain exchanges between dioxygenases of different bacterial origins. Such evolved enzymes acquire novel and enhanced degradation capabilities of xenobiotic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene and a variety of aromatic compounds. Hybrid strains in which the evolved genes are integrated into the chromosomal operons exhibit efficient degradation of xenobiotic chlorinated compounds. PMID:10851151

  4. Measuring and minimizing the social cost of environmental pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The various impacts to the environmental protection movement on the largest corporations in several industries which had the most serious pollution problem are discussed. The purpose was to examine the impacts from the point of view of top corporation managers so that a broader perspective could be provided for all concerned parties- citizens, environmentalists, legislators, governmental administrators and agency personnel, scientists, engineers, and other industrial managers.

  5. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants. PMID:25019067

  6. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-06-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  7. Something's fishy. [Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats from pollutants such as PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1994-07-02

    Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats to the immune system of marine animals such as seals, dolphins and turtles. A number of studies are discussed in this article, with particular emphasis on an ongoing study which makes the connection between marine pollution and the decrease in immune system functioning in harbor seals. The effects on the whole marine ecosystem are discussed.

  8. In-situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Lower, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by laboratory analysis of environmental samples or by measurement of biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. The organisms most commonly used to assess mutagenicity under real-world conditions are flowering plants, wild and captive mammals, and aquatic vertebrates. Plant species have been used to monitor ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the USA, nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also to assess potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals can be used as sentinels to provide information on effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed to assess health hazards and prioritize clean-up efforts at hazardous-waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution.

  9. Industrial workers' health and environmental pollution under the new international division of labor: the Taiwan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Huang, C L

    1997-01-01

    Using Taiwan as an example, this paper conducts a historical analysis of the relationship between economic development in the new international division of labor and environmental pollution and industrial workers' health. Three industries-asbestos, plastic, and dye-were chosen for case studies. We trace the emergence of each industry in Taiwan and study each industry's protection of workers' health and environmental quality. Under the new international division of labor, the state's prioritization of economic development leads to lenient regulation. Under such state policies, employers have few incentives to invest in the protection of their workers' health and in the control of environmental pollution. Workers and the public are constrained in their efforts to protect their own health and prevent environmental pollution. This situation is exemplified by the deplorable working conditions and inadequate environmental pollution controls in the asbestos, plastic, and dye industries. Workers' health and the public's health are greatly compromised by economic development in the new international division of labor. Images p1228-a p1228-b PMID:9240119

  10. Environmental Pollution: A Tangible Risk for NAFLD Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arciello, Mario; Gori, Manuele; Maggio, Roberta; Barbaro, Barbara; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2013-01-01

    The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human lifestyles, is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a multifactorial disease that embraces many histo-pathologic conditions and is highly linked to metabolic derangements. Technological progress and industrialization have also had the consequence of releasing pollutants in the environment, for instance pesticides or solvents, as well as by-products of discharge, such as the particulate matter. In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has emerged, shedding light on the potential impact of environmental pollutants on liver health and, in particular, on NAFLD occurrence. These contaminants have a great steatogenic potential and need to be considered as tangible NAFLD risk factors. There is an urgent need for a deeper comprehension of their molecular mechanisms of action, as well as for new lines of intervention to reduce their worldwide diffusion. This review wishes to sensitize the community to the effects of several environmental pollutants on liver health. PMID:24213605

  11. Aquatic selenium pollution is a global environmental safety issue.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2004-09-01

    Selenium pollution is a worldwide phenomenon and is associated with a broad spectrum of human activities, ranging from the most basic agricultural practices to the most high-tech industrial processes. Consequently, selenium contamination of aquatic habitats can take place in urban, suburban, and rural settings alike--from mountains to plains, from deserts to rainforests, and from the Arctic to the tropics. Human activities that increase waterborne concentrations of selenium are on the rise and the threat of widespread impacts to aquatic life is greater than ever before. Important sources of selenium contamination in aquatic habitats are often overlooked by environmental biologists and ecological risk assessors due to preoccupation with other, higher priority pollutants, yet selenium may pose the most serious long-term risk to aquatic habitats and fishery resources. Failure to include selenium in the list of constituents measured in contaminant screening/monitoring programs is a major mistake, both from the hazard assessment aspect and from the pollution control aspect. Once selenium contamination begins, a cascade of bioaccumulation events is set into motion which makes meaningful intervention nearly impossible. However, this cascade of events need not happen if adequate foresight and planning are exercised. Early evaluation and action are key. Prudent risk management based on environmentally sound hazard assessment and water quality goals can prevent biological impacts. PMID:15261722

  12. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: XI. CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reviews the health and environmental effects of chlorophenols. It includes discussions of physical and chemical properties; analytical methods; biological aspects in microorganisms, plants, animals, and humans; environmental distribution and transformation; and environ...

  13. Supplemental mathematical formulations: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Hoopes, B.L.; Walter, M.B.; Knight, R.L.; Brown, S.M.

    1989-12-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a methodology for assessing relative health impacts from the release of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials. MEPAS is an enhanced version of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). This document, a supplement to the RAPS documentation, contains an overview of MEPAS followed by detailed discussions of enhancements. MEPAS provides outputs of health impact parameters for use in ranking and screening applications. Environmental contaminant concentrations are used to estimate potential health impacts based on major exposure pathways. Enhancements to the groundwater, surface water, overland, atmospheric, and exposure components are documented. These enhancements include a revision in the integration method for the waterborne pathway, a wetland component, a gaseous emission (volatilization) component, an atmospheric complex terrain component, mass budget formulations, and environmental decay of chemical constituents. Several new exposure components are described along with enhancements to the exposure pathways computations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Histopathological and apoptotic changes on marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) following exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yavaşoğlu, Altuğ; Özkan, Dilara; Güner, Adem; Katalay, Selma; Oltulu, Fatih; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2016-08-15

    Marine bivalve mussels, especially Mytilus species are an earlywarning system used for determining of damage caused by the various aquatic pollutions. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (black mussel) have been utilised as a biomonitoring organism to reveal environmental pollution in the Aliaga, Foca and Urla where located along the Izmir Coast of Turkey. Mussels were collected at these areas and gill and hepatopancreas (digestive gland) tissues were excised. mRNA expressions of initiator (caspase-2 and -8) and executioner (caspase -3/7-1, -3/7-2, -3/7-3 and -3/7-4) caspases of mussels tissues in areas exposed to pollution agent have been observed. TUNEL immunoreactivity in paralel to histopathological changes in both Aliaga and Foca areas were compared with Urla. This study is the first report to reveal the pollution with apoptotic expression on mussels in the coast of Turkey. PMID:27301687

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: MECHANISMS OF IMMUNOTOXICITY ACROSS PHYLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental pollution and the immune system: Mechanisms of immunotoxicity across phyla. Bob Luebke and Dori Germolec, US EPA, RTP, NC and NIEHS, RTP, NC

    Our current understanding of immunotoxicology comes largely from studies done in rodents or using in vitro systems, a...

  16. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  17. On the reversibility of environmental contamination with persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Deuk; Wania, Frank

    2011-10-15

    An understanding of the factors that control the time trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment is required to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reductions and to predict future exposure. Using a regional contaminant fate model, CoZMo-POP 2, and a generic bell-shaped emission profile, we simulated time trends of hypothetical chemicals with a range of POP-like partitioning and degradation properties in different compartments of a generic warm temperate environment, with the objective of identifying the processes that may prevent the reversibility of environmental contamination with POPs after the end of primary emissions. Evaporation from soil and water can prevent complete reversibility of POP contamination of the atmosphere after the end of emissions. However, under the selected conditions, only for organic chemicals within a narrow range of volatility, that is, a logarithm of the octanol air equilibrium partition coefficient between 7 and 8, and with atmospheric degradation half-lives in excess of a few month can evaporation from environmental reservoirs sustain atmospheric levels that are within an order of magnitude of those resulting from primary emissions. HCB and α-HCH fulfill these criteria, which may explain, why their atmospheric concentrations have remained relatively high decades after their main primary emissions have been largely eliminated. Soil-to-water transfer is found responsible for the lack of reversibility of POP contamination of the aqueous environment after the end of emissions, whereas reversal of water-sediment exchange, although possible, is unlikely to contribute significantly. Differences in the reversibility of contamination in air and water suggests the possibility of changes in the relative importance of various exposure pathways after the end of primary emissions, namely an increase in the importance of the aquatic food chain relative to the agricultural one, especially if the former has a benthic

  18. Lidar applications to pollution studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of lidar (laser radar) to the measurement of air pollution. Lidar techniques and instrumentation utilizing elastic, Raman, and fluorescence scattering are discussed. Data showing measurements of the mixing of particulate pollutants in the atmosphere are presented. These data include: simultaneous two-wavelength results, isopleths showing the temporal dynamics of particulate mixing, measurements of the top of the earth's mixing layer, and measurements in a valley with restricted circulation and mixing. All measurements are compared with simultaneous radiosonde and/or aircraft-mounted temperature probe support. In addition, a second generation lidar system presently under development is described.

  19. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanek, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

  20. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  1. Environmental inequality: Air pollution exposures in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    Environmental inequality is quantified here using linear regression, based on results from a recent mobility-based exposure model for 25,064 individuals in California's South Coast Air Basin [Marshall et al., 2006. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4381-4392]. For the four primary pollutants studied (benzene, butadiene, chromium particles, and diesel particles), mean exposures are higher than average for people who are nonwhite, are from lower-income households, and live in areas with high population density. For ozone (a secondary pollutant), the reverse holds. Holding constant attributes such as population density and daily travel distance, mean exposure differences between whites and nonwhites are 16-40% among the five pollutants. These findings offer a baseline to compare against future conditions or to evaluate the impact of proposed policies.

  2. In situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Lower, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of the environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by the laboratory analysis of the environmental samples or by the measurement of the biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. The induced toxic effects are often the result of synergistic and antagonistic interactions among various physical and chemical factors that are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, conceivably the biological effects measured on or near the impacted site have greater relevancy for hazard assessment to man than from the data derived from the environmental samples analyzed in the lab. The organisms most commonly employed for the assessment of mutagenicity under real-world conditions are: (1) flowering plants, (2) wild and captive mammals, and (3) aquatic vertebrates. Plant species such as Tradescantia paludosa, Zea mays, and Osmunda regalis have been used for monitoring ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the U.S.A., nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also for the assessment of potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals such as dogs can be used as sentinels to provide information on the effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate the environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed for assessing the health hazards and prioritizing the clean-up efforts at hazardous waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution. 51 references.

  3. Plants and their microbial assistants: Nature's answer to Earth's environmental pollution problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of higher plants and their associated microorganisms to solve environmental pollution problems on Earth and in future space applications is briefly reviewed. If man is sealed inside closed facilities, he becomes a polluter of the environment. It is also common knowledge to most people that man cannot survive on Earth without green photosynthesizing plants and microorganisms. Therefore, it is vitally important to have a better understanding of the interactions of man with plants and microorganisms. Biosphere 2 and other related studies presently being conducted or planned, hopefully, will supply data that will help save planet Earth from impending environmental disaster. The development of means to utilize both air and water pollution as a nutrient source for growing green plants is examined.

  4. Deaths and Medical Visits Attributable to Environmental Pollution in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline; Thomsen, Jens; Launay, Frederic; Harder, Elizabeth; DeFelice, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Background This study estimates the potential health gains achievable in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with improved controls on environmental pollution. The UAE is an emerging economy in which population health risks have shifted rapidly from infectious diseases to chronic conditions observed in developed nations. The UAE government commissioned this work as part of an environmental health strategic planning project intended to address this shift in the nature of the country’s disease burden. Methods and Findings We assessed the burden of disease attributable to six environmental exposure routes outdoor air, indoor air, drinking water, coastal water, occupational environments, and climate change. For every exposure route, we integrated UAE environmental monitoring and public health data in a spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the annual disease burden attributable to selected pollutants. The assessment included the entire UAE population (4.5 million for the year of analysis). The study found that outdoor air pollution was the leading contributor to mortality, with 651 attributable deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 143–1,440), or 7.3% of all deaths. Indoor air pollution and occupational exposures were the second and third leading contributors to mortality, with 153 (95% CI 85–216) and 46 attributable deaths (95% CI 26–72), respectively. The leading contributor to health-care facility visits was drinking water pollution, to which 46,600 (95% CI 15,300–61,400) health-care facility visits were attributed (about 15% of the visits for all the diseases considered in this study). Major study limitations included (1) a lack of information needed to translate health-care facility visits to quality-adjusted-life-year estimates and (2) insufficient spatial coverage of environmental data. Conclusions Based on international comparisons, the UAE’s environmental disease burden is low for all factors except outdoor air pollution. From a

  5. Effect of environmental pollutants on taste and smell

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffman, S.S.; Nagle, H.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Various man-made and naturally occurring chemicals and substances can modify the chemosensory systems of animals and man. This article provides an overview of research studies that investigate the impact of pollution on taste and smell perception. Acute and chronic alterations in taste and olfaction are discussed for solvents, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, disinfectants, germicides, soil fumigants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, textile wastes, smog, tobacco smoke, perfumes, flavors, plastics, synthetic rubber, and other industrial substances. The mechanisms by which pollutants may cause physiologic and biologic changes are highlighted. Natural detoxification systems are discussed, as well as treatments for chemosensory deficits.89 references.

  6. Environmental management intentions: an empirical investigation of Argentina's polluting firms.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Brust, Diego Alfonso; Liston-Heyes, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    This paper builds on past behavioural research which explicitly recognises that 'actions' are preceded by 'intentions' which are in turn determined by individual mindsets, locus of control, principles of governances and context factors. More concretely, it presents a model that investigates the extent to which environmental behavioural intentions are explained by i) managers' core values, basic assumptions, and beliefs, ii) individual and socio-cognitive frames, iii) principles of governance, and iv) context factors. Context factors include obstacles and drivers of greener behaviours, market pressures, and firm demographics. The resulting theoretical framework is tested empirically through regression analyses that use data gathered from a survey of 536 Argentinean firms in polluting industries. The model performs well, explaining approximately 50% of the variations in the (pro) environmental behaviour of firms. Policy implications are briefly discussed. PMID:20110148

  7. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  8. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  9. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  10. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  11. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health. PMID:26931532

  12. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  13. Changes in Gene Expression due to Chronic Exposure to Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabit and have adapted to highly polluted Superfund sites that are contaminated with persistent toxic chemicals. Populations inhabiting different Superfund sites provide independent contrasts for studying mechanisms of toxicity and resistance due to exposure to environmental pollutants. To identify both shared and unique responses to chronic pollutant exposure, liver, metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus populations from each of three Superfund sites (New Bedford Harbor, MA, Newark Bay, NJ, and Elizabeth River, VA) were compared to two flanking reference site populations (9 populations in total). In comparisons to their two clean reference sites, the three Superfund sites had 8 to 32% of genes with altered expression patterns. Between any two Superfund populations, up to 9 genes (4%) show a conserved response, yet among all three populations, there was no gene which had a conserved, altered pattern of expression. Across all three Superfund sites in comparison to all six reference populations, the most significant gene was fatty acid synthase. Fatty acid synthase is involved in the storage of excess energy as fat, and its lesser expression in the polluted populations suggests that the polluted populations may have limited energy stores. In contrast to previous studies of metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus, body weight was a significant covariate for many of the genes which could reflect accumulation and different body burdens of pollutants. Overall, the altered gene expression in these populations likely represents both induced and adaptive changes in gene expression. PMID:18929415

  14. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  15. [Research in Mexico on the health impact of environmental chemical pollutants].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ceseña, J; Carreón-Valencia, T; López-Carrillo, L; Chávez-Ayala, R; Hernández-Avila, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended to offer a qualitative and quantitative diagnosis on publications concerned with human health impact of exposure to environmental chemical pollutants in Mexico. The review of these subjects included scientific papers on studies carried out in Mexico, published both in Mexican and international journals. The articles were analyzed according to the following criteria: chemical pollutants, type of study and institution that conducted it, study population, design, and analysis of data. The article concludes that publications in this field are scarce. Moreover, this review showed that there is little diversity, limited methodology and an unequal distribution of the human and material resources for research. All this indicates a rudimentary level of scientific knowledge in Mexico regarding public health implications of chemical pollutants. PMID:8128296

  16. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle. PMID:26728288

  17. Environmental regulations on air pollution in China and their impact on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    This study explores the impact of environmental regulations in China on infant mortality. In 1998, the Chinese government imposed stringent air pollution regulations, in one of the first large-scale regulatory attempts in a developing country. We find that the infant mortality rate fell by 20 percent in the treatment cities designated as "Two Control Zones." The greatest reduction in mortality occurred during the neonatal period, highlighting an important pathophysiologic mechanism, and was largest among infants born to mothers with low levels of education. The finding is robust to various alternative hypotheses and specifications. Further, a falsification test using deaths from causes unrelated to air pollution supports these findings. PMID:25868145

  18. Environmental pollutants and child health-A review of recent concerns.

    PubMed

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Gascon, Mireia; Valvi, Damaskini; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many new studies have evaluated associations between environmental pollutants and child health. This review aims to provide a broad summary of this literature, comparing the state of epidemiological evidence for the effects of a wide range of environmental contaminants (air pollutants, heavy metals, organochlorine compounds, perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pesticides, phthalates and bisphenol A) on child health outcomes. The review addresses effects on foetal growth and prematurity, neurodevelopment, respiratory and immune health, and childhood growth and obesity. Findings of recent prospective studies and meta-analyses have corroborated previous good evidence, often at lower exposure levels, for effects on foetal growth of air pollution and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for neurotoxic effects of lead, methylmercury, PCBs and organophosphate pesticides, and for respiratory health effects of air pollution. Moderate evidence has emerged for a potential role of environmental pollutants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism (lead, PCBs, air pollution), respiratory and immune health (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene - DDE - and PCBs), and obesity (DDE). In addition, there is now moderate evidence that certain chemicals of relatively recent concern may be associated with adverse child health outcomes, specifically perfluorooctanoate and foetal growth, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers and neurodevelopment. For other chemicals of recent concern, such as phthalates and bisphenol A, the literature is characterised by large inconsistencies preventing strong conclusions. In conclusion, since most of the recent literature evaluates common exposures in the general population, and not particularly high exposure situations, this accumulating body of evidence suggests that the unborn and young child require more protection than is currently provided. Large, coordinated research efforts are needed to improve

  19. Geochemical mapping of polluted soils and environmental risk assessment associated to mining activities: a comparison case study in El Campillo (Huelva, Spain) and the Zambales (Luzon Island,The Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, Maria Clara; Albanese, Stefano; de Vivo, Benedetto; Nieto, Jose Miguel; David, Carlos Primo C.; Norini, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    The soil is one of the environmental systems which could be most affected by the dispersion of pollutant, also because of the close relationship with the atmosphere and meteoric waters. The distribution and type of contamination depends closely on the climate, precipitations, drainage, vegetation, lithology and human activities. As a matter of fact, soil contamination due to heavy metals and metalloids, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, represents the source of a severe potential hazard for the ecosystem equilibrium and the health of living beings. This study is carried out in two abandoned mining zones near to populated areas, which underwent similar mining history, but in very different climatic and environmental conditions. The aim of the research is to analyze the influence of precipitation amounts, soil thickness, drainage density and vegetation cover on pollutant distribution. The first zone is in El Campillo, a town at the Rio Tinto mining district and belongs to the Iberic Pyritic Belt of the southwest Iberian peninsula. This mining site is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with low precipitation (700 mm/year), low vegetation cover and poor soil development. The second case study is the Zambales Mountain Range, a mining district in the Luzon Island of the Philippines dominated by a tropical weather, forests, intense rainfalls (2350 mm/year) and good soil development. The wide spectrum of climatic variables in the case studies requires to develop a single flexible methodology for the mapping and monitoring of the environmental degradation in both semi-arid and tropical environments, allowing comparative studies. The methodological approach comprises remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), spatial statistical analysis, field sampling, ICP analysis and isotopic geochemical analysis. The presentation illustrates the first stage of the project. The processing of multispectral (Aster) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) images, in comparison

  20. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants. PMID:15820725

  1. Continuing pollution from the Rum Jungle U-Cu project: a critical evaluation of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Patterson, James

    2010-05-01

    The former Rum Jungle uranium-copper project, Australia, is an internationally important case study on environmental pollution from and rehabilitation of mining. The Rum Jungle mining project is briefly reviewed, followed by a critical evaluation of monitoring data and pollution loads prior to and after rehabilitation - leading to the conclusion that rehabilitation has clearly failed the test of time after just two decades. The most critical findings are the need to understand pollution cycles holistically, and designing monitoring regimes to match, explicit inclusion of radiological criteria (lacking in original planning), and finally the need to set targets based on environmental criteria. Two examples include polluted groundwater which was excluded from rehabilitation and the poor design, construction and/or performance of engineered soil covers - both leading to increasing acid drainage impacts on the Finniss River. The critical review therefore presents a valuable case study of the environmental performance of uranium mine site rehabilitation. PMID:20176422

  2. Influence of coal as an energy source on environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article considers the influence of coal energy on environmental pollution. Coal is undoubtedly part of the greenhouse problem. The main emissions from coal combustion are sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and mercury (Hg). Since 1980, despite a 36% increase in electricity generation and more than a 50% increase in coal use, electric utility SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions have declined significantly. Globally, the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO{sub 2} from the combustion of fossil fuels - around 75% of total GHG emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuels.

  3. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries. PMID:12173425

  4. "Who Polluted the Potomac?" The Translation and Implementation of a US Environmental Story in Brazilian and Turkish Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Colak, Huseyin; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine how elementary teachers in Brazil and Turkey approached the translation and subsequent classroom implementation of an instructional activity that promotes environmental awareness through a combination of student role playing and teacher oral delivery of an environmental story about river pollution. A discourse analysis…

  5. Everglades Environmental Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Environment Education.

    These environmental study units consist of four modules and a tape-slide presentation on the Everglades National Park. Although not required for completion of the modules, the slide-tape presentation provides a resource for orientation of teachers and parents to camping experience for school children in an environmental education program. The four…

  6. Environmental Modification: A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Richard M., Jr.; Kyte, Nancy S.

    1975-01-01

    This study shows that environmental modification is a surprisingly intricate technique. This may account for its relatively low use and also for its more frequent use by MSW than non-MSW caseworkers. The findings indicate the need for further research on environmental modification. (Author)

  7. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  8. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  9. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  10. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  11. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  12. Development of an eco-sensor based on bilayer lipid membrane for the continuous monitoring of environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimori, Yoshio; Kawano, Koichiro; Ishizuka, Masaru; Murahashi, Mizuho; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, we have developed an advanced environmental monitoring system (AEMS) containing the eco-sensor, which means a sensor for the measurement of environmental pollutants, based on lipid membranes for continuous monitoring of ground water in industry areas such as semiconductor factories. The AEMS project is composed of three work packages as follows, 1) Eco -sensor, 2) Prediction of plume propagation using a computer simulation technique, and 3) Environmental protection method. In this paper, we would like to focus on the study of the eco-sensor. We considered that modified lipid membranes serve as good models for cell membranes because they would be ideal hosts for receptor molecules of biological origin or disruptive environmental pollutants. Thus, we selected lipid membrane as a sensing element for environmental pollutants. We have already confirmed that the eco-sensor could detect a 10 ppb level of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene in ground water. Here, we tried to apply the eco-sensor to measure other environmental pollutants containing pesticides and endocrine disrupting chemicals. We made a novel automatic bilayer lipid membrane preparation device and a new system for the continuous measurement of environmental pollutants in ground water.

  13. Environmental compatibility of closed landfills - assessing future pollution hazards.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills need to be managed after closure. This so-called aftercare comprises the treatment and monitoring of residual emissions as well as the maintenance and control of landfill elements. The measures can be terminated when a landfill does not pose a threat to the environment any more. Consequently, the evaluation of landfill environmental compatibility includes an estimation of future pollution hazards as well as an assessment of the vulnerability of the affected environment. An approach to assess future emission rates is presented and discussed in view of long-term environmental compatibility. The suggested method consists (a) of a continuous model to predict emissions under the assumption of constant landfill conditions, and (b) different scenarios to evaluate the effects of changing conditions within and around the landfill. The model takes into account the actual status of the landfill, hence different methods to gain information about landfill characteristics have to be applied. Finally, assumptions, uncertainties, and limitations of the methodology are discussed, and the need for future research is outlined. PMID:21068055

  14. The transferability from rat subacute 4-week oral toxicity study to translational research exemplified by two pharmaceutical immunosuppressants and two environmental pollutants with immunomodulating properties.

    PubMed

    Kemmerling, Jessica; Fehlert, Ellen; Kuper, C Frieke; Rühl-Fehlert, Christine; Stropp, Gisela; Vogels, Jack; Krul, Cyrille; Vohr, Hans-Werner

    2015-07-15

    Exposure to chemicals may have an influence on the immune system. Often, this is an unwanted effect but in some pharmaceuticals, it is the intended mechanism of action. Immune function tests and in depth histopathological investigations of immune organs were integrated in rodent toxicity studies performed according to an extended OECD test guideline 407 protocol. Exemplified by two immunosuppressive drugs, azathioprine and cyclosporine A, and two environmental chemicals, hexachlorobenzene and benzo[a]pyrene, results of subacute rat studies were compared to knowledge in other species particular in humans. Although immune function has a high concordance in mammalian species, regarding the transferability from rodents to humans various factors have to be taken into account. In rats, sensitivity seems to depend on factors such as strain, sex, stress levels as well as metabolism. The two immunosuppressive drugs showed a high similarity of effects in animals and humans as the immune system was the most sensitive target in both. Hexachlorobenzene gave an inconsistent pattern of effects when considering the immune system of different species. In some species pronounced inflammation was observed, whereas in primates liver toxicity seemed more obvious. Generally, the immune system was not the most sensitive target in hexachlorobenzene-treatment. Immune function tests in rats gave evidence of a reaction to systemic inflammation rather than a direct impact on immune cells. Data from humans are likewise equivocal. In the case of benzo[a]pyrene, the immune system was the most sensitive target in rats. In the in vitro plaque forming cell assay (Mishell-Dutton culture) a direct comparison of cells from different species including rat and human was possible and showed similar reactions. The doses in the rat study had, however, no realistic relation to human exposure, which occurs exclusively in mixtures and in a much lower range. In summary, a case by case approach is necessary

  15. Large animal model for health hazard assessment of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Costa, D.L.; Janoff, A.; Susskind, H.; Weiss, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of large animals for the experimental assessment of human health hazards associated with inhaled pollutants are discussed. Results from studies designed to elucidate mechanisms controlling pulmonary function at the organismal, cellular and molecular level are presented. It is shown that studies in large animals permit technically sophisticated approaches not feasible in small animals and not permissible in man. Use of large animals also permits serial, non-invasive determinations of structural and functional changes which may be of temporal importance. 6 references.

  16. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, N; Kenkre, V D; Verlecar, X N

    2002-05-01

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es) that may impede the full functioning of bacterial communities in situ. Most notably, DVC were quite low during pre-monsoon (March-May) in pollution-affected locations when compared to relatively less/non-polluted ones. In contrast, their abundance was significantly higher (up to or > 10%) suggesting a substantially higher microbial activity (thus, a larger turnover of organic matter) during monsoon (June-September) and post-monsoon (October-February) even in pollution-affected locations. The ease of reliably measuring DVC was useful in realising decreased metabolic functioning of bacteria during pre-monsoon, a season where dispersion of land discharges/effluents is much lower. From laboratory and field analyses of this study it is ascertained that DVC are direct indices of potential bacterial metabolic activity, reliable for sensing metabolic stress experienced by bacterial communities in situ and can be useful for evaluating risks in marine environment through human (industrial) activities. PMID:12108730

  17. LABORATORY STUDIES OF PRIORITY POLLUTANT TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated several methods currently available to reduce the level of pollutants in an industrial plant wastewater stream. Its purpose was to screen these treatment processes. As a result of this screening, further in-depth evaluations should be considered. The study...

  18. Animal species endangerment: the role of environmental pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Fellows, V.L.; Bounds, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Summary & conclusions: Multiple factors contribute to the decline of species. Habitat destruction is the primary factor that threatens species. affecting 73 % of endangered species. The second major factor causing species decline is the introduction of nonnative species. affecting 68% of endangered species. Pollution and overharvesting were identified as impacting, respectively, 38 and 15% of endangered species. Other factors affecting species decline include hybridization, competition, disease, and other interspecific interactions. Once a species is reduced to a remnant of its former population size and distribution, its vulnerability to catastrophic pollution events increases, frequently exceeding or replacing the factors responsible for the initial decline. Small, isolated populations are particularly vulnerable to catastrophic loss by an acute event. such as a chemical spill or pesticide application. However, when it comes to surviving a single disaster, widespread subpopulations of a species are far more resilient and ensure genetic survival. Hypothesizing theoretical concerns of potential factors that could affect an endangered species could predispose the scientific and political communities to jeopardizing threats. The user of recovery plans as a data source must be aware of the bias within the data set. These data should be used with the caveat that the source of information in recovery plans is not always based on scientific research and rigorous data collection. Over 58% of the information identifying species threats is based on estimates or personal communication. while only 42% is based on peer reviewed literature, academic research. or government reports. Many recovery plans were written when a species was initially listed in the 1970s or 1980s. Politics, human disturbance, and habitat demand issues evolve over a 20- to 30-year period. leaving much of the threats facing endangered species outdated and inadequate. These data are most valuable when used

  19. Diet as a confounder of the association between air pollution and female lung cancer: Hong Kong studies on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes as examples.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Ho, J H

    1996-03-01

    Chinese females in Hong Kong, where only about a third of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to a history of active smoking, have a world age-standardized lung cancer incidence rate of 32.6 per 100 000, which is among the highest in the world. Trends in Hong Kong's female lung cancer mortality also indicate a tripling in mortality rates from 1961 to 1990. The characteristically high Chinese female lung cancer incidence among nonsmokers is also found among overseas Chinese communities in Singapore and Hawaii. To help elucidate the role of ingested and inhaled substances in the etiology of lung cancer, four epidemiological studies have been conducted in Hong Kong over the last 15 years: (1) a retrospective study of 200 cases and 200 neighbourhood controls, (2) a cross-sectional study measuring personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide among 362 children and their mothers, (3) a site monitoring study of 33 homes measuring airborne carcinogens, and (4) a telephone survey of 500 women on their dietary habits and exposure to air pollutants. Selected data from each study were drawn to evaluate exposures to three major air pollutants (environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes), their relationship with lung cancer risk, and their association with dietary habits. Generally in this population, nutritionally poorer diets were characterized by higher consumption of alcohol and preserved/cured foods, whereas better diets were characterized by higher intakes of fresh fruits, vegetables, and fish. For environmental tobacco smoke, exposure was only moderately high in Hong Kong (36% have current smokers at home), lung cancer risk was equivocal with exposure, and it was associated with poorer diets among wives with smoking husbands. Incense was identified as a major source of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and airborne carcinogens, but it had no effect on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers and significantly reduced risk (trend, P-value = 0.01) among smokers, even after

  20. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  1. Environmental pollution at Linfen and its change - magnetic monitoring of leaves and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Hu, S. Y.; Yin, G.; Rösler, W.

    2012-04-01

    Linfen city (Shanxi Province, China) is one of the world's most polluted city due to coal mining, refineries and other industries. During recent years the local government took enormous efforts to improve the environmental standard. In this study, we are testing the efficiency of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements for the assessment of this pollution "hot spot" where the environmental issues dictate the questions and up turning methodical obstacles have to be mastered. In particular we are testing to which extent the combination of MS results from soil and dust-loaded tree leaves allow to discriminate in between historical and present pollution. MS signals in the large abandoned industrial area and in new industrial areas are strongly enhanced with surface soil mass-specific MS (χ) between (232-3126)×10-8m3kg-1, while in the agricultural areas they range from (88-179)×10-8m3kg-1. Temperature dependence of MS identifies magnetite as the major magnetic phase in all topsoil samples; additionally a variable content of a harder coercive phase indicated by S-ratios of 0.82-0.99. Low χfd% (<5%) and hysteresis properties show that magnetite particles occur in PSD+MD domain state. In contrast to soil samples which accumulate pollutants over a long time span, dust-loaded tree leaf samples reflect the current air spread of pollution. Leaf samples were taken from the wider Linfen city area at intervals of about 2 km. Values of χ (normalized to the mass of the dried leaf) range from (2.2-501.1)×10-8m3kg-1 with a median of 23.16×10-8m3kg-1, and gradually decrease with distance from pollution sources. Rock magnetic parameters again identify a dominance of PSD+MD low-coercivity magnetite. Strong enhancement of MS occurs in the new urban industrial area and in the southern part of city, which is also controlled by the prevailing wind direction and the typical basin topography. XRF results show an enrichment of heavy metals for topsoils and leaves, which were outlined

  2. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  3. Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

    1993-08-03

    A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

  4. MY 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES IN CHINA: (1) STUDIES ON LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN YUNNAN AND (2) HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a research health scientist at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, I have been very fortunate to have opportunities to work as a principal investigator for two major environmental health research projects. The first study was conducted in 1983-1996 under a formal U.S.-China ...

  5. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.

  6. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  7. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  8. The non-specific inhibition of enzymes by environmental pollutants: a study of a model system towards the development of electrochemical biosensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Young, S J; Hart, J P; Dowman, A A; Cowell, D C

    2001-12-01

    Previous research has shown that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was competitively inhibited by pentachlorophenol (PCP) and a modified assay produced a detection limit of 1 microM (270 microg l(-1)). This work used spectrophotometric rate-determination but in order to move towards biosensor development the selected detection method was electrochemical. The linkage of LDH to lactate oxidase (LOD) provided the electroactive species, hydrogen peroxide. This could be monitored using a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) incorporating the mediator, cobalt phthalocyanine, at a potential of +300 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). A linked LDH/LOD system was optimised with respect to inhibition by PCP. It was found that the SPCE support material, PVC, acted to reduce inhibition, possibly by combining with PCP. A cellulose acetate membrane removed this effect. Inhibition of the system was greatest at enzyme activities of 5 U ml(-1) LDH and 0.8 U ml(-1) LOD in reactions containing 246 microM pyruvate and 7.5 microM NADPH. PCP detection limits were an EC(10) of 800 nM (213 microg l(-1)) and a minimum inhibition detectable (MID) limit of 650 nM (173 microg l(-1)). The inclusion of a third enzyme, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), provided cofactor recycling to enable low concentrations of NADPH to be incorporated within the assay. NADPH was reduced from 7.5 to 2 microM. PCP detection limits were obtained for an assay containing 5 U ml(-1) LDH, 0.8 U ml(-1) LOD and 0.1 U ml(-1) GDH with 246 microM pyruvate, 400 mM glucose and 2 microM NADPH. The EC(10) limit was 150 nM (39.9 microg l(-1)) and the MID was 100 nM (26.6 microg l(-1)). The design of the inhibition assays discussed has significance as a model for other enzymes and moves forward the possibility of an electrochemical biosensor array for pollution monitoring. PMID:11679267

  9. Development of an inexact fuzzy flexible programming approach for environmental pollution control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. W.; Huang, G. H.; Maqsood, I.

    2010-12-01

    Optimization techniques have been widely applied to solving environmental management problems, particularly for regional air quality management systems where potential air pollutions arising from improper management would seriously threaten human health. An inexact fuzzy flexible programming approach is developed to facilitate decision support for air quality management. It can tackle both stipulation uncertainty and parameter uncertainty in the objective function and constraints. Upon the previous research efforts, the most significant improvement of this approach is the introduction of multiple control variables corresponding to the objective function and all constraints. This attempt makes it possible for the constraints to be relaxed under respective levels, such that a more satisfactory objective value may be obtained. The impact of each constraint on the system outputs can also be further interpreted. The proposed approach would be helpful for such systems where the decision makers prefer to not only find out an air pollution control scheme with a satisfaction level as high as possible, but also mitigate the uncertainty in decision making. A regional air pollution control problem is then studied to demonstrate the applicability of the developed approach. A variety of management strategies for air pollutants allocation and treatment are suggested in terms of the optimal solutions to decision variables. Comparison between the optimal solutions from the proposed approach and those from a conventional fuzzy flexible programming model is undertaken. It can be found that neither the management strategies nor the priorities of pollutants allocation obtained from the two models are the same. The satisfaction level of the proposed approach (taking the average value of optimized solutions of control variables for comparison) is always higher than that of the existing approach, indicating the superiority of the proposed approach in handling many air pollution control

  10. In utero exposures to environmental organic pollutants disrupt epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development

    PubMed Central

    Kappil, Maya A.; Li, Qian; Li, An; Dassanayake, Priyanthi S.; Xia, Yulin; Nanes, Jessica A.; Landrigan, Philip J.; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.; Schadt, Eric E.; Dole, Nancy; Varner, Michael; Moye, John; Kasten, Carol; Miller, Richard K.; Ma, Yula; Chen, Jia; Lambertini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    While the developing fetus is largely shielded from the external environment through the protective barrier provided by the placenta, it is increasingly appreciated that environmental agents are able to cross and even accumulate in this vital organ for fetal development. To examine the potential influence of environmental pollutants on the placenta, we assessed the relationship between polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and several epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development. We measured IGF2/H19 imprint control region methylation, IGF2 and H19 expression, IGF2 loss of imprinting (LOI) and global DNA methylation levels in placenta (n = 116) collected in a formative research project of the National Children’s Study to explore the relationship between these epigenetic marks and the selected organic environmental pollutants. A positive association was observed between global DNA methylation and total PBDE levels (P <0.01) and between H19 expression and total PCB levels (P = 0.04). These findings suggest that differences in specific epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development occur in association with some, but not all, measured environmental exposures. PMID:27308065

  11. MODELING INHALATION AND MULTIMEDIA MULTIPATHWAY HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children and adults to air toxics or multimedia pollutants require careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pollutants that may be present in different media, as well as various routes and pathways of exposures associated with age-specif...

  12. Effects of environmental pollutants on Connecticut and Maryland ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Spitzer, P.R.; Krantz, W.C.; Lamont, T.G.; Cromartie, E.

    1975-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were exchanged between Connecticut and Maryland osprey nests in 1968 and 1969 to test the hypothesis that the decline in reproductive success of Connecticut ospreys was caused by something within the external environment of the eggs. Incubation of 30 Connecticut osprey eggs by Maryland ospreys did not improve the hatching rate. Forty-five Maryland osprey eggs incubated by Connecticut ospreys hatched at their normal rate. The results of the egg exchanges and associated observations indicated that the most probable cause of the poor reproduction of Connecticut ospreys ,was related to contamination of the birds and their eggs. Residues of DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, and PCBs were generally higher in fish from Connecticut than from Maryland. During 1968-69, average residues (on a nest basis) in osprey eggs from Maryland were: p,p'-DDE, 2.4 ppm; dieldrin, 0.25 ppm; PCB, 2.6 ppm. Average residues in eggs from Connecticut for the same period were: p,p'DDE, 8.9 ppm; dieldrin, 0.61 ppm; PCB, 15 ppm. There were no major changes in residue content of Connecticut eggs collected in 1964 compared with those collected in 1968-B9. One Connecticut osprey had a concentration of dieldrin in its brain which was in the lethal range. The average shell thickness of recently collected osprey eggs from Connecticut had declined 18 percent, and those from Maryland had declined 10 percent from pre-1947 norms. Dieldrin, DDE, and PCB are three environmental pollutants that have most likely been important factors in the greatly reduced reproductive success and rapid population decline of Connecticut ospreys.

  13. Molecularly imprinted adsorbents for selective separation and/or concentration of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takuya; Hosoya, Ken; Otsuka, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the development of molecularly imprinted materials for selective separation and/or concentration of environmental pollutants, the quantitative concentration of which is usually difficult to determine because of their low level of concentration and existence of a large number of contaminants in environmental water. The fragment imprinting technique allowed for the selective separation of endocrine disrupters and halogenated aromatic compounds, including bisphenol A, and chlorinated/brominated aromatic compounds by the specific structural recognition based on the breeds, position, and number of the substituents. Also, the interval immobilization technique provided the specific materials enabling selective concentration based on the interval recognition of ionic functional groups in the targeting compounds, so that the effective determinations were achieved for natural toxins and pharmaceuticals in environmental water. Additionally, a selective photodegradation of toxins and a stimulus responsible hydrogel by the similar molecular recognition ability were successfully carried out. We have summarized these techniques including our recent studies. PMID:24420250

  14. COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM FOR THE EVALUATION OF AQUATIC HABITATS BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION TOLERANCE ASSOCIATIONS OF RESIDENT ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Requirements and Pollution Tolerance (ERAPT) system is a computerized retrieval and analysis system for environmental information on aquatic organisms. It can be used to predict organism assemblages based on environmental conditions, to describe environmental ch...

  15. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D D), and surveillance and maintenance (S M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  16. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), and surveillance and maintenance (S&M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  17. DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papers describes epidemiologic designs and methods in studies of health effects of air pollution, whose implications, however, can be extended to the detection of health effects of other environmental exposures. Recent advances in measurement technology for the assessment of ...

  18. Evaluation and identification of priority air pollutants for environmental management on the basis of risk analysis in Russia.

    PubMed

    Golub, Alexander; Strukova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Since 1997, more than 30 health-risk analyses were conducted using Russian data sets. These studies demonstrated that air pollution is the most important environmental contributor toward morbidity and mortality risk in Russia, with 90% of the total human health risk coming from the criteria pollutants total suspended particulate (TSP), SO2, and NO(x). This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the magnitude of this health issue in Russia by providing an estimate of both the mortality rate attributed to airborne pollutants and the associated economic damages. The 90% confidence interval of mortality is 46,000-132,000, and the associated economic damages are between 2.6 and 6.5% of gross domestic product (GDP). The largest source of uncertainty in mortality is the concentration-response parameter, accounting for 50-60% of the total variability in the estimate. The point estimate of 87,000 implies that mortality due to airborne pollutants is threefold higher than reported due to tuberculosis, twofold due to transportation accidents, and about the same as that from suicide and homicide combined. By 2002 there was enough evidence regarding potential health hazard and air pollution exposure in Russia to start environmental management reform. In 2004 Russia officially adopted guidelines for health risk analysis associated with air pollution. The next step is to use this health-risk assessment approach as a lead for sensible reforms of the emissions-permit system and environmental finance. PMID:18080899

  19. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  20. Bivalve mollusks in metal pollution studies: from bioaccumulation to biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Harper, David A T

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary environmental challenges have emphasized the need to critically assess the use of bivalve mollusks in chemical monitoring (identification and quantification of pollutants) and biomonitoring (estimation of environmental quality). Many authors, however, have considered these approaches within a single context, i.e., as a means of chemical (e.g. metal) monitoring. Bivalves are able to accumulate substantial amounts of metals from ambient water, but evidence for the drastic effects of accumulated metals (e.g. as a TBT-induced shell deformation and imposex) on the health of bivalves has not been documented. Metal bioaccumulation is a key tool in biomonitoring; bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of various metals in relation to bivalves are described in some detail including the development of biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Measuring metal in the whole-body or the tissue of bivalves themselves does not accurately represent true contamination levels in the environment; these data are critical for our understanding of contaminant trends at sampling sites. Only rarely has metal bioaccumulation been considered in combination with data on metal concentrations in parts of the ecosystem, observation of biomarkers and environmental parameters. Sclerochemistry is in its infancy and cannot be reliably used to provide insights into the pollution history recorded in shells. Alteration processes and mineral crystallization on the inner shell surface are presented here as a perspective tool for environmental studies. PMID:23751124

  1. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems. PMID:26512425

  2. AN INTEGRATED GC/FT-IR SYSTEM FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/FT-IR) system developed for the analysis of environmental pollutants is described. The versatility of the system allows the utilization of many different techniques of sample introduction and manipulatio...

  3. Environmental pollutants and aging: Investigating and modeling mechanisms of susceptibility in later life.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapidly expanding population of older adults raises new concerns over their potential vulnerability to environmental pollutants. Decreases in organ-system function and defenses, coupled with reduced metabolic capacity and clearance, are likely mechanisms for enhanced vulnerab...

  4. Basic environmental technology: Water supply, waste disposal, pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes hydrology, hydraulics, water management and water quality. It also discusses solid and hazardous waste, and air and noise pollution. Fundamental scientific concepts are introduced as needed - the text does not assume extensive knowledge of chemistry or biology.

  5. PHARMACEUTICALS & PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. PART I. AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication, directed towards the process and design engineer, describes types, quantities, and sources of emissions, presents the latest control device alternatives, and estimates costs for implementing the air pollution control systems. Emphasis is placed on explanation of...

  7. An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

    1997-01-01

    A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

  8. NEW LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resonance enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometry (CARS) has been demonstrated as a specific identification system for liquid chromatography for water pollution identification. To achieve this, liquid chromatographic preconcentration and separation and computer control o...

  9. Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in the river network of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dević, Gordana; Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the data for ten water quality variables collected during 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia are considered. The results are alarming because 48% of the studied sites were contaminated by Ni, Mn, Pb, As, and nutrients, which are key factors impairing the water quality of the rivers in Serbia. Special attention should be paid to Zn and Cu, listed in the priority toxic pollutants of US EPA for aquatic life protection. The employed Q-model cluster analysis grouped the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high). Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) were in the main rivers, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) were in the large and small tributaries/hydro-system. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) showed that the dissolved metals and nutrients in the Serbian rivers varied depending on the river, the heterogeneity of the anthropogenic activities in the basins (influenced primarily by industrial wastewater, agricultural activities, and urban runoff pollution), and natural environmental variability, such as geological characteristics. In LP dominated non-point source pollution, such as agricultural and urban runoff, whereas mixed source pollution dominated in the MP and HP zones. These results provide information to be used for developing better pollution control strategies for the river network of Serbia. PMID:26593728

  10. Governing Extraterritorial Pollutants: Cultural, Environmental and Political Implications of Atmoshere-Surface Exchangeable Pollutants in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation is part of a series of talks focused on ASEPs. This presentation will focus on the cultural, environmental and political implications of ASEPs in the Great Lakes. In particular, I examine how Indigenous communities in Keweenaw Bay are adversely impacted by extraterritorial pollutants such as ASEPs, both because their territory is fixed geopolitically, and because their ways of life is reliant on the consumption of fish, which, in recent years have become polluted with ASEPs - particularly PCBs and Mercury. This presentation explores the new innovations in governance that are attempting to ameliorate these issues.

  11. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. PMID:25528270

  12. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  13. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Volume 4. Part A, air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Five authors have each contributed one chapter to this first part (A) of the series on Air Pollution (Volume 4). Thus the book is neither a handbook compilation of reference data nor a text on the subject of air pollution. The first and shortest chapter (22 pages) by A. Wint of the University of Nottingham, England, is an overview called Air Pollution in Perspective. The second chapter, by P. Fabian of Max-Planck-Institute fuer Aeronomie, FRG, is titled Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere. This chapter, in 29 pages, summarizes current data on twenty of these compounds. Hans Guesten of the Institute fuer Radiochemie, Karlsruhe, FRG, contributed chapter 3 on Formation, Transport, and Control of Photochemical Smog (52 pages). This chapter is a good survey of current understanding of smog although each of the three topics promised in the title could by itself take up a good sized book. Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants and Modeling of Air Pollution Dispersion by H. van Dop of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, the Netherlands, makes up Chapter 4 (42 pages). The article is written from a meteorological perspective. The last chapter, by J.M. Hales of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, USA, is titled The Mathematical Characterization of Precipitation Scavenging and Precipitation Chemistry (74 pages). Removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is good news/bad news.

  14. Activation of MAP kinase signaling pathway in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Châtel, A; Hamer, B; Talarmin, H; Dorange, G; Schröder, H C; Müller, W E G

    2010-03-01

    Stimulation of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway by various stressful stimuli was investigated in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Analyses were performed in animals exposed in laboratory to selected pollutants and in mussels collected in winter and summer along the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia). Effects of oxidative stress, induced by tributyltin, hydrogen peroxide and water soluble fraction of diesel fuel on the activation/phosphorylation of the three Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK and ERK using a newly developed ELISA procedure were evaluated. MAP kinase activation was analyzed 1h after exposure of mussels to chemical agents, and after recovery periods of 6 and 24h. Our results clearly indicated that pollutants generated different patterns of induction of the MAPK phosphorylation. Indeed, only pp38 and pJNK were activated with 11, 33 and 100 microg/L TBT, reaching a maximum activation after 6h in seawater following treatment of mussels with 11 microg/L TBT. Treatment with 0.074 and 0.222 mM H2O2 enhanced activation of both p38 and ERK. These two kinases were activated after 1h exposure, followed by a diminution after 6h of recovery in seawater and a reactivation after 24h. The levels of phosphorylated P38 and JNK were increased after mussel exposure with 7.5, 15 and 30% of water soluble fraction of diesel oil. P38 was activated concentration dependently at 1h exposure. Additionally, field study pointed out seasonal differences in MAP kinases activation as mussels collected during summer had a higher enzyme activation state than in winter, as well as sampling site differences which could be correlated to the industrial/tourism activity and environmental stresses (salinity). All the results converge towards MAP kinase signaling pathway being induced by various pollutants in M. galloprovincialis. This signaling cascade should be considered as a possible biomarker of environmental stress and pollution. PMID:19948362

  15. Child health and environmental pollution in the Aral Sea region in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Zetterström, R

    1999-05-01

    Environmental pollutants, which may occur in breast milk and in various food products and drinking water, and which are also transferred to the foetus, constitute a severe threat to the health of infants and children. Among such compounds, various organochlorines, such as pesticides for the control of parasites (DDTs, HCHs), and products of industry and agriculture, such as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (PCBs), are much discussed, in addition to organic mercury and heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. The consequences of acute exposure to PCB have been documented in Japan following the ingestion of rice oil contaminated by PCBs. In Sweden birthweight has been found to be reduced and the perinatal mortality rate higher than expected in regions with high consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. In addition, from studies around Lake Michigan, it has been shown that children who have been exposed to PCBs in utero have retarded cognitive development. In the Aral Sea basin in Central Asia people have been subjected to long-term exposure to various pesticides, which have been distributed over the cotton fields in huge quantities. Organochlorines are resistant to breakdown in nature, thus they enter the food chain, eventually entering the human diet, and they may also be inhaled from dust. Such compounds accumulate in the foetus by placental transport and continue to do so postnatally if the infants are breastfed, as they may be present in high concentrations in human milk. The health of children living in the Aral Sea region is reported to be poor, with high morbidity and mortality and a high rate of chronic diseases and retarded mental and physical development. However, in addition to being subjected to environmental pollution, these children also suffer from health hazards related to poverty. Through epidemiological studies it may be possible to obtain information about to what extent exposure to environmental pollution from organochlorines contributes to

  16. NASA Langley in two studies of pollution and climate

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    article title:  NASA Langley in two studies of pollution and climate     View Larger ... campaigns, one of which will study how forest fire smoke, air pollution and natural emissions are transported to the upper troposphere ...

  17. Informal and Formal Environmental Education Infusion: Actions of Malaysian Teachers and Parents among Students in a Polluted Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustam, Baniah; Daniel, Esther Sarojini

    2016-01-01

    The study explored Environmental Education infusion among students by teachers and parents in two schools located in a highly polluted area. Qualitative data was collected through observations, interviews and an open-ended questionnaire. Participants of the observations and interviews were 6 Secondary 4 students, 6 teachers and 6 parents.…

  18. Selenium pollution: Occurrence and environmental fate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources and abatement of pollution caused by selenium and selenium compounds. The citations examine the effects of selenium on the reproductive success of birds and fish, uptake of selenium in plants, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Other topics include selenium chemistry and persistence in soil, water, and the atmosphere; the relative toxicities of selenium and selenium compounds; and decontamination of polluted environments. Special attention is given to agricultural effluent as a source of selenium pollution and to the development of long-term monitoring programs to determine the rate at which pollution declines.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Selenium pollution: Occurrence and environmental fate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources and abatement of pollution caused by selenium and selenium compounds. The citations examine the effects of selenium on the reproductive success of birds and fish, uptake of selenium in plants, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Other topics include selenium chemistry and persistence in soil, water, and the atmosphere; the relative toxicities of selenium and selenium compounds; and decontamination of polluted environments. Special attention is given to agricultural effluent as a source of selenium pollution and to the development of long-term monitoring programs to determine the rate at which pollution declines. (Contains a minimum of 143 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. PCB-pollution problem in the upper Hudson River: From environmental disaster to environmental gridlock

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The PCB pollution of the upper Hudson River has been traced to two discharge pipes from capacitor-manufacturing plants of the General Electric Company (GE) at Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, located about 40 miles north of Troy, New York. In August 1974, EPA biologists carried out a field investigation upstream of, at, and downstream of the GE discharge pipes. In September 1975, goaded by articles about PCB-contaminated fish from the Hudson Estuary, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of conservation (NYS DEC) commenced an administrative proceeding against GE, alleging violations of several NY State Environmental Conservation Law sections, and seeking cessation of PCB discharges, penalties for past discharges, and rehabilitation of the upper river. One stipulation of the resulting settlement agreement was that New York State sign off with GE over PCB pollution of the Hudson River and, if the Advisory Committee recommended in favor of rehabilitation, it would use its best efforts to find funds from sources other than GE to help pay for rehabilitation. The future of the PCB problem in the upper Hudson River seems likely to be settled by the outcome of a class-action lawsuit that commercial fisherman have filed against GE. In January 1989, a NEW York Appeals Court voted in favor of the ruling that the fishermen were entitled not only to payments for lost income, but to injunctive relief (which implies that GE must clean up the River). 311 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Ex-Situ Remediation Technologies for Environmental Pollutants: A Critical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Pollution and the global health impacts from toxic environmental pollutants are presently of great concern. At present, more than 100 million people are at risk from exposure to a plethora of toxic organic and inorganic pollutants. This review is an exploration of the ex-situ technologies for cleaning-up the contaminated soil, groundwater and air emissions, highlighting their principles, advantages, deficiencies and the knowledge gaps. Challenges and strategies for removing different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and priority organic pollutants, are also described. PMID:26423074

  2. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake. PMID:26545892

  3. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  4. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ``multimedia`` model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations.

  5. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of

  6. REVIEW OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: X. TOXAPHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental effects of toxaphene are extensively reviewed. Information is presented on chemical properties and analytical techniques, environmental occurrence, cycling, and fate, as well as on food chain interactions. Biological aspects of toxaphene in microorganisms, plant...

  7. Seasonal relationship of sudden infant death syndrome and environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppenbrouwers, T.; Calub, M.; Arakawa, K.; Hodgman, J.E.

    1981-06-01

    Evidence that chronic hypoxia precedes death from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is mounting. Prolonged exposure to moderate levels of pollutants could be a contributing factor to hypoxia. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and hydrocarbons (HC) are highest in the winter when incidence of SIDS is increased. SIDS cases in Los Angeles County were correlated with daily mean levels of these pollutants, temperature, barometric pressure and monthly lead levels with the aid of time series analyses. Peaks in CO, SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, HC and lead preceded the seasonal increase in SIDS by seven weeks. Theoretical considerations, such as the hypoxia-inducing effects of CO, support the hypothesis that this temporal relation has functional significance. The role of pollution levels as a predisposing factor in risk for SIDS cannot be summarily dismissed.

  8. Satellite, aircraft, and drogue studies of coastal currents and pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Davis, G.; Lackie, J.; Whelan, W.; Tornatore, G.

    1977-01-01

    The mounting interest in extracting oil and other resources from the continental shelf and continuing use of shelf and estuarine waters for waste disposal is creating a need for synoptic means of determining currents and monitoring pollutants in this area. A satellite-aircraft-drogue approach is described which employs remotely tracked expendable drogues together with satellite and aircraft observations of waste plumes and current tracers such as dyes or suspended sediment. Tests conducted on the continental shelf and in Delaware Bay indicate that the approach provides a cost-effective means of studying current circulation, oil-slick movement, and ocean waste dispersion under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  9. MS-MS Approaches for the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about the environment and the start of environmental analysis coincided with the rise of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) was founded in 1970, and as the need for techniques to analyze environmental...

  10. Endangered Education: How Corporate Polluters Are Attacking Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohart, Barbara; Manilov, Marianne; Schwarz, Tamara

    This report claims that an attack has been waged on environmental education to derail the re-authorization of the National Environmental Education Act and to de-stabilize and de-fund environmental education in the United States. Presented in the media as a grassroots movement, stories have appeared in local, state, and national media that…

  11. Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.; France, J.

    1982-03-01

    Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

  12. Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Cellular Iron Homeostasis and Ultimate Links to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, Dina M.; Ghio, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease has increased in the past several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases may indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanisms underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to complex iron through electronegative functional groups containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Cellular exposure to the chemical or its metabolite may cause a loss of requisite functional iron from intracellular sites. The cell is compelled to acquire further iron critical to its survival by activation of iron-responsive proteins and increasing iron import. Iron homeostasis in the exposed cells is altered due to a new equilibrium being established between iron-requiring cells and the inappropriate chelator (the pollutant or its catabolite). Following exposure to environmental pollutants, the perturbation of functional iron homeostasis may be the mechanism leading to adverse biological effects. Understanding the mechanism may lead to intervention methods for this major public health concern. PMID:26966372

  13. [A Method Research on Environmental Damage Assessment of a Truck Rollover Pollution Incident].

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Zhao, Shi-ho; Chen, Gang-cai; Xian, Si-shu; Yang, Qing-ling; Zhou, Xian-jie; Yu, Hai

    2015-05-01

    With high occurrence of sudden water pollution incident, China faces an increasingly severe situation of water environment. In order to deter the acts of environmental pollution, ensure the damaged resources of environment can be restored and compensated, it is very critical to quantify the economic losses caused by the sudden water pollution incident. This paper took truck rollover pollution incidents in Chongqing for an example, established a set of evaluation method for quantifying the environmental damage, and then assessed the environmental damage by the method from four aspects, including the property damage, ecological environment and resources damages, the costs of administrative affairs in emergency disposal, and the costs of investigation and evaluation. PMID:26314145

  14. Environmental impact assessment of persistent organic pollutants in the surroundings of various industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holoubek, I.; Helesic, J.; Kocan, A.; Pokorny, B.

    1995-12-31

    During the last decade several studies have been carried out aimed at improving the knowledge on the behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Evidence has been found that many of these compounds create serious problems due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Examples of POPs that behave in this way are polychlorinated pesticides, industrial compounds (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls) and some degradation, industrial, and combustion by-products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene). Although work has been done in order to understand the fate, behavior, and effects of POPs, less information is available on environmental cycling (migration) of these compounds through various environmental media. The major reason for this deficiency in the knowledge is related to a lack of detailed information on emissions of POPs and the parameters affecting their migration through the environment under various meteorological, chemical and physical conditions.

  15. Species arboreal as a bioindicator of the environmental pollution: Analysis by SR-TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito; Moreira, Silvana; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Filho, Mario Tomazello; Zucchi, Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues; do Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco; Barroso, Regina Cely

    2007-08-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and countrysides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, São Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicle combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ("Sibipiruna") was selected because it is often used in urban arborization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and an Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples were quantified P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb elements.

  16. Piggery: from environmental pollution to a climate change solution.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek N; Maroulis, Jerry

    2008-05-01

    Pig farms are a vital component of rural economies in Australia. However, disposal of effluent leads to many environmental problems. This case study of the Berrybank Farm piggery waste management system in Victoria estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from three different activities. Analysis reveals that the capturing and combusting of methane from piggery effluent could save between 4859 and 5840 tCO2e yr(-1) of GHG emissions. Similarly, using methane for replacing fuels for electricity generation could save another 800 tCO2e yr(-1)of GHGs. Likewise, by utilizing the biogas wastes to replace inorganic fertilizers there could be a further saving of 1193 to 1375 tCO2e yr(-1) of GHG, depending on the type of fertilizers the waste replaces. Therefore, a well-managed piggery farm with 15,000 pigs could save 6,852 to 8,015 tCO2e yr(-1), which equates to the carbon sequestrated from 6,800 to 8,000 spotted gum trees (age=35 year) in their above plus below-ground biomass. Implementation of similar project in suitable areas in Australia could have significant environmental and financial benefits. PMID:18437624

  17. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. PMID:26088539

  18. Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, 4th, New Orleans, La., November 6-11, 1977, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Papers are presented on such topics as environmental chemistry, the effects of sulfur compounds on air quality, the prediction and monitoring of biological effects caused by environmental pollutants, environmental indicators, the satellite remote sensing of air pollution, weather and climate modification by pollution, and the monitoring and assessment of radioactive pollutants. Consideration is also given to empirical and quantitative modeling of air quality, disposal of hazardous and nontoxic materials, sensing and assessment of water quality, pollution source monitoring, and assessment of some environmental impacts of fossil and nuclear fuels.

  19. Electrical Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Citizen use of our nation's industrial products has led to increased pollution problems and demand for diminishing energy reserves. In an attempt to encourage intelligent cooperation among science, industry, government and all citizens, this unit was developed to introduce secondary science students to the many facets of the electrical production…

  20. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  1. Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, F P; Jedrychowski, W; Rauh, V; Whyatt, R M

    1999-01-01

    Evidence shows that fetuses and infants are more affected than adults by a variety of environmental toxicants because of differential exposure, physiologic immaturity, and a longer lifetime over which disease initiated in early life can develop. In this article we review data on the effects of in utero exposure to common environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We then summarize results from our molecular epidemiologic study to assess risks from in utero exposures to ambient air pollution and ETS. This research study, conducted in Poland, used biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants and individual susceptibility factors. The study included 160 mothers and 160 newborns. Ambient air pollution was significantly associated (p= 0.05) with the amount of PAH bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in both maternal and infant cord white blood cells (WBC). Newborns with elevated PAH-DNA adducts (greater than the median) had significantly decreased birth weight (p= 0.05), birth length (p= 0.02), and head circumference (p= 0.0005) compared to the newborns with lower adducts (n= 135). Maternal and infant cotinine levels were increased by active and passive cigarette smoke exposure of the mother (p= 0.01). An inverse correlation was seen between newborn plasma cotinine (nanograms per milliliter) and birth weight (p= 0.0001) and length (p= 0.003). Adducts were elevated in placental tissue and WBC of newborns who were heterozygous or homozygous for the cytochrome P4501A1 MspI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) compared to newborns without the RFLP. Levels of PAH-DNA and cotinine were higher in newborns than mothers. These results document that there is significant transplacental transfer of PAH and ETS constituents from mother to fetus; that PAH-DNA adduct levels in maternal and newborn WBC were increased with environmental exposure to PAH from ambient

  2. Implications of pollution prevention experience for environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, W.

    1993-06-01

    Conventional wisdom in the US is that firms face a trade-off between environmental efforts and profit because of the belief that environmental protection invariably involves costs that reduce profits. Firms, therefore, generally perceive environmental protection as an impediment to their goal of profit maximization. Environmental efforts are viewed as an added hurdle in producing a product, rather than an as intrinsic part of well-designed operations. From this perspective, firms have no incentive to engage in environmental protection efforts, and will do so only if they are forced (or are given incentives) by government or if they perceive in advance potential profits from their efforts (e.g., a market for environmental products). The concept of a trade-off between the environment and profit, however, has been challenged recently. A common argument raised for questioning this trade-off is that efforts directed at environmental protection will lead to the development of new technologies and will give US firms a competitive advantage in the emerging environmental industry. It is argued that opportunities available within this growth field outweigh costs of entry and research. Recent publications (World Wildlife Fund, 1992; Resources for the Future, 1993) have proposed that government actions, may encourage the development of the environmental industry and, thus, improve both economic and environmental performance. Suggested governmental actions include using market incentives rather than command and control regulation to achieve environmental goals, integrating environmental values into governmental policy analysis, and supporting investments in environmental technologies. This paper details the economics and benefits of various waste management efforts.

  3. Modulation of persistent organic pollutant toxicity through nutritional intervention: emerging opportunities in biomedicine and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Dziubla, Thomas D; Hilt, J Zach; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Environmental pollution is increasing worldwide, and there is evidence that exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls can contribute to the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. Pollutant removal from contaminated sites and subsequent pollutant degradation are critical for reducing the long-term health risks associated with exposure. However, complete remediation of a toxicant from the environment is very difficult and cost-prohibitive. Furthermore, remediation technologies often result in the generation of secondary toxicants. Considering these circumstances, environmentally-friendly and sustainable remediation technologies and biomedical solutions to reduce vulnerability to environmental chemical insults need to be explored to reduce the overall health risks associated with exposure to environmental pollutants. We propose that positive lifestyle changes such as healthful nutrition and consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables or bioactive nutrients with antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties will reduce the body's vulnerability to environmental stressors and thus reduce toxicant-mediated disease pathologies. Interestingly, emerging evidence now implicates the incorporation of bioactive nutrients, such as plant-derived polyphenols, in technologies focused on the capture, sensing and remediation of halogenated POPs. We propose that human nutritional intervention in concert with the use of natural polyphenol sensing and remediation platforms may provide a sensible means to develop primary and long-term prevention strategies of diseases associated with many environmental toxic insults including halogenated POPs. PMID:24530186

  4. Modulation of persistent organic pollutant toxicity through nutritional intervention: emerging opportunities in biomedicine and environmental remediation

    PubMed Central

    Petriello, Michael C.; Newsome, Bradley J.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Hilt, J. Zach; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution is increasing worldwide, and there is evidence that exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls can contribute to the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. Pollutant removal from contaminated sites and subsequent pollutant degradation are critical for reducing the long-term health risks associated with exposure. However, complete remediation of a toxicant from the environment is very difficult and cost-prohibitive. Furthermore, remediation technologies often result in the generation of secondary toxicants. Considering these circumstances, environmentally-friendly and sustainable remediation technologies and biomedical solutions to reduce vulnerability to environmental chemical insults need to be explored to reduce the overall health risks associate with exposure to environmental pollutants. We propose that positive lifestyle changes such as healthful nutrition and consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables or bioactive nutrients with antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties will reduce the body’s vulnerability to environmental stressors and thus reduce toxicant-mediated disease pathologies. Interestingly, emerging evidence now implicates the incorporation of bioactive nutrients, such as plant-derived polyphenols, in technologies focused on the capture, sensing and remediation of halogenated POPs. We propose that human nutritional intervention in concert with the use of natural polyphenol sensing and remediation platforms may provide a sensible means to develop primary and long-term prevention strategies of diseases associated with many environmental toxic insults including halogenated POPs. PMID:24530186

  5. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  6. Use of Physicochemical Parameters to Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Xavier; Ayllon, Jose Antonio; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    The environmental fate and behavior of different organic pollutants based on the qualitative analysis of thermodynamic and kinetic data is presented. The Fugacity model allows the use of different partition constants in an easy way, to determine the distribution of chemical between different phases in equilibrium of an environmental system.

  7. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Mafimoradi, Shiva; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:24130939

  8. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Ren, Yixin; Wang, Qingsong; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-08-01

    This study aims at qualifying air pollutants and environmental impacts generated from coal-based power plants and providing useful information for decision makers on the management of coal-based power plants in China. Results showed that approximately 9.03, 54.95, 62.08, and 12.12% of the national carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, respectively, in 2011were generated from coal-based electricity generation. The air pollutants were mainly generated from east China because of the well-developed economy and energy-intensive industries in the region. Coal-washing technology can simply and significantly reduce the environmental burden because of the relativity low content of coal gangue and sulfur in washed coal. Optimizing the efficiency of raw materials and energy consumption is additional key factor to reduce the potential environmental impacts. In addition, improving the efficiency of air pollutants (e.g., dust, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) control system and implementing the strict requirements on air pollutants for power plants are important ways for reducing the potential environmental impacts of coal-based electricity generation in China. PMID:25903190

  9. Are pharmaceuticals potent environmental pollutants? Part I: environmental risk assessments of selected active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Carina; Johansson, Anna-Karin; Alvan, Gunnar; Bergman, Kerstin; Kühler, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    As part of achieving national environmental goals, the Swedish Government commissioned an official report from the Swedish Medical Products Agency on environmental effects of pharmaceuticals. Considering half-lives/biodegradability, environmental occurrence, and Swedish sales statistics, 27 active pharmaceutical ingredients were selected for environmental hazard and risk assessments. Although there were large data gaps for many of the compounds, nine ingredients were identified as dangerous for the aquatic environment. Only the sex hormones oestradiol and ethinyloestradiol were considered to be associated with possible aquatic environmental risks. We conclude that risk for acute toxic effects in the environment with the current use of active pharmaceutical ingredients is unlikely. Chronic environmental toxic effects, however, cannot be excluded due to lack of chronic ecotoxicity data. Measures to reduce potential environmental impact posed by pharmaceutical products must be based on knowledge on chronic ecotoxic effects of both active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as excipients. We believe that the impact pharmaceuticals have on the environment should be further studied and be given greater attention such that informed assessments of hazards as well as risks can be done. PMID:16257037

  10. Estimating the Pollution Risk of Cadmium in Soil Using a Composite Soil Environmental Quality Standard

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2014-01-01

    Estimating standard-exceeding probabilities of toxic metals in soil is crucial for environmental evaluation. Because soil pH and land use types have strong effects on the bioavailability of trace metals in soil, they were taken into account by some environmental protection agencies in making composite soil environmental quality standards (SEQSs) that contain multiple metal thresholds under different pH and land use conditions. This study proposed a method for estimating the standard-exceeding probability map of soil cadmium using a composite SEQS. The spatial variability and uncertainty of soil pH and site-specific land use type were incorporated through simulated realizations by sequential Gaussian simulation. A case study was conducted using a sample data set from a 150 km2 area in Wuhan City and the composite SEQS for cadmium, recently set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. The method may be useful for evaluating the pollution risks of trace metals in soil with composite SEQSs. PMID:24672364

  11. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. PMID:26232739

  12. Molluscs as indicators of environmental pollution by radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Pan`kov, I.V.; Ermakov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical and systematical aspects of the utilization of molluscs were elaborated in an effort to bioindicate pollution by radionuclides after the accident at Chernobyl` Atomic Electric Power Station (CAEPS). Beta-radiometry of shells, gamma-spectroscopy of shells and animals, and a number of chemical and radiochemical analyses were carried out. The composition of radionuclides, incorporated by molluscs before and after the accident, is cited. Average values of the factors of transition and accumulation (relative to water) {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs are estimated. Individual variability and taxonomic distinction of these parameters for {sup 90}Sr are analyzed. The results of radioecological monitoring of rivers of the Dnieper basin and reservoirs of the Dnieper cascade are shown. Direct beta-radiometry of molluscan shells is recommended as the most convenient method of rapidly estimating the level of pollution of the area of {sup 90}Sr.

  13. Renal function and historical environmental cadmium pollution from zinc smelters.

    PubMed

    Staessen, J A; Lauwerys, R R; Ide, G; Roels, H A; Vyncke, G; Amery, A

    1994-06-18

    We investigated whether there was an association between renal function and cadmium pollution in areas with different exposures. Cadmium was measured in the soil and in vegetables in 10 districts, 6 of which were close to zinc smelters; and renal function and the concentrations of metals in blood and urine were measured in 703 randomly selected residents. 6 polluted areas, compared with 4 others showed higher cadmium concentrations in the soil (4.86 vs 0.81 ppm) and in locally grown vegetables, such as celery (2.43 vs 0.68 ppm) and beans (0.42 vs 0.15 ppm). Residents in polluted areas had higher urinary cadmium (10.5 vs 7.9 nmol/24 hours) and copper (0.16 vs 0.14 mumol/24 hours); higher serum creatinine (100 vs 97 mumol/L) urinary excretions of beta 2-microglobulin (109 vs 95 micrograms/24 hours), retinol-binding-protein (136 vs 118 micrograms/24 hours), and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (1.78 vs 1.38 U/24 hours). Serum zinc (12.2 vs 12.6 mumol/L) and creatinine clearance (87 vs 92 mL/min) were reduced in the 6 polluted areas. In all 10 districts, cadmium in the soil was positively correlated with cadmium in celery (r = 0.77), in beans (r = 0.67), and in residents' urine (r = 0.76). The creatinine clearance was inversely correlated with cadmium in soil (r = -0.78), in celery (r = -0.90), and in beans (r = -0.70). Past emissions from zinc smelters gave rise to contamination of the environment with cadmium, which gets into the food chain and has the potential to cause renal dysfunction and alterations in zinc and copper homeostasis. PMID:7911869

  14. Relations of the brown pelican to certain environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Nearly all brown pelican eggs collected from 13 colonies in South Carolina, Florida, and California in 1969 and from 17 colonies in South Carolina and Florida in 1970 exhibited eggshell thinning. Of the 100 eggs analyzed for residues of pollutants, all eggs contained measurable quantities of DDE; most eggs contained measurable quantities of p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, or PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls). All eggs contained measurable quantities of mercury. DDE appears to have been responsible for virtually all the eggshell thinning. There is strong evidence that DDE played a major role in lowered reproductive success in South Carolina and California, and this pollutant appears to be intimately related to the population decline in South Carolina. Other pollutants, particularly dieldrin, may have had deleterious effect on reproductive success in South Carolina. Carcasses of pelicans collected by shooting in Florida and South Carolina in 1970 varied in residue load according to age and geographic location. Birds under 1 year of age contained smaller quantities of residues than did birds I year or older.

  15. Genotoxicity evaluation of environmental pollutants using analysis of nucleolar alterations.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-07-01

    Nucleolar alterations resulting from the action of either chemical or physical agents can serve as important genotoxicity biomarkers. In this study, the efficiency of AgNOR banding technique to identify the presence of nucleoli in micronucleus and assess nucleolar alterations in aberrant cells of Allium cepa was evaluated. Seeds of this plant were exposed to both water samples from a river that receives untreated urban effluent and to the trifluralin herbicide (0.84 mg/L concentration), both analyzed in two different seasons (summer and winter seasons). Samples induced significant frequencies of chromosomal and nuclear aberrations and micronuclei, as observed in cells submitted to conventional chromosomal staining. The herbicide caused a significant increase in the number of nucleoli and micronuclei, interpreted as due to the elimination of excessive nucleolar material resulting from polyploidization. The use of the AgNOR technique enabled the identification of both the presence of the nucleolus in some micronuclei and the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) behavior of aberrant cells. The NOR-banding technique showed to be an efficient tool for studying the genotoxic effects caused by a xenobiotics and a complex environmental sample. PMID:25639248

  16. Economic transition and environmental sustainability: effects of economic restructuring on air pollution in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Cherp, Aleg; Kopteva, Irina; Mnatsakanian, Ruben

    2003-06-01

    Economic liberalization in former socialist countries may have various implications for their environmental sustainability. Positive effects of this process are potentially associated with improved efficiency, investments into cleaner technologies, responsiveness to environmentally aware markets, and ending subsidies to heavy industries. On the other hand, market liberalization may result in weaker environmental controls, economic instabilities distracting attention from environmental issues, and increasing orientation towards profit-making leading to more intensive exploitation of natural resources. In addition, trade liberalization may result in shifts towards more pollution and resource-intensive industries. This article seeks to quantify effects of economic restructuring in Russia on air pollution from productive economic sectors in the 1990s. Air pollution in Russia had significantly declined in 1991-1999, however, this decline was largely due to economic decline, as the overall pollution intensity of the economy had decreased only slightly. The factors that affected the pollution intensity are: (1) a decrease in the combined share of industrial and transport activities in the economy and (2) changing pollution intensities of the industrial and transport sectors. The pollution intensity of the Russian industry had remained relatively stable during the 1990s. This was the result of the two opposite and mutually canceling trends: (a) increasing shares of pollution-intensive branches such as metal smelting and oil production vs. less pollution intensive manufacturing and (b) decline in pollution intensities within the industrial branches. The article proposes a methodology by which the contribution of both factors to the overall pollution intensity of the industrial sector can be quantified. The pollution intensity of the Russian transport sector appears to have declined in the first half of the 1990s and increased in the second half. The most recent trend can be

  17. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. PMID:26292056

  18. Discovery of characteristic molecular signatures for the simultaneous prediction and detection of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Han-Seam; Park, Yong-Keun; Ryu, Jae-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Gene expression data may be very promising for the classification of toxicant types, but the development and application of transcriptomic-based gene classifiers for environmental toxicological applications are lacking compared to the biomedical sciences. Also, simultaneous classification across a set of toxicant types has not been investigated extensively. In the present study, we determined the transcriptomic response to three types of ubiquitous toxicants exposure in two types of human cell lines (HepG2 and HL-60), which are useful in vitro human model for evaluation of toxic substances that may affect human hepatotoxicity (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [PAH] and persistent organic pollutant [POP]) and human leukemic myelopoietic proliferation (e.g., volatile organic compound [VOC]). The findings demonstrate characteristic molecular signatures that facilitated discrimination and prediction of the toxicant type. To evaluate changes in gene expression levels after exposure to environmental toxicants, we utilized 18 chemical substances; nine PAH toxicants, six VOC toxicants, and three POP toxicants. Unsupervised gene expression analysis resulted in a characteristic molecular signature for each toxicant group, and combination analysis of two separate multi-classifications indicated 265 genes as surrogate markers for predicting each group of toxicants with 100 % accuracy. Our results suggest that these expression signatures can be used as predictable and discernible surrogate markers for detection and prediction of environmental toxicant exposure. Furthermore, this approach could easily be extended to screening for other types of environmental toxicants. PMID:24197968

  19. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (solid waste pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discusses pollution by solid wastes including garbage, scrap, junked automobiles, spoil, sludge, containers; Disposal methods such as composts or land application, injection wells, incineration, sanitary landfills; Mining wastes; Processing for separation and materials recovery; Solid waste utilization; Recycling; Biological and ecological effects; Superfund (Records of Decision, etc.); SITE technology; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use. The discussion includes disposal of concentrated or pure liquids such as brines, oils, chemicals, and hazardous materials.

  20. Quaternary Triphenylphosphonium Compounds: A New Class of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Schlüsener, Michael P; Kunkel, Uwe; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-12-15

    A nontarget screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was established to identify industrial emerging contaminants in the Rhine River. With this approach, quaternary triphenylphosphonium compounds (R-Ph3P(+)) were identified as new emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment. The suggested chemical structures were elucidated by MS fragmentation and chemical databank searches and eventually confirmed via authentic standards. R-Ph3P(+) are used worldwide by the chemical industry to synthesize alkenes via the Wittig reaction. In total, five compounds [R = butyl (Bu), R = ethyl (Et), R = methoxymethyl (MeOMe), R = methyl (Me), and R = phenyl (Ph)] were found in German rivers and streams. R-Ph3P(+) were detected only in those rivers and streams that received an appreciable portion of wastewater from the chemical industry. Up to 2.5 μg/L Et-Ph3P(+) was quantified in a small stream from the Hessian Ried, and in the Rhine, up to 0.56 μg/L Me-Ph3P(+) was detected. R-Ph3P(+) were also identified in suspended particulate matter and sediments in the Rhine catchment, with MeOMe-Ph3P(+) concentrations of up to 0.75 mg/kg and up to 0.21 mg/kg, respectively. Because of the lack of ecotoxicological studies, the environmental risks caused by R-Ph3P(+) can be assessed for neither pelagic nor benthic organisms. PMID:26555603

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The theoretical analysis undertaken here addresses the following issues. First we examine whether firms with high intrinsic quality products would choose to produce more or less environmentally friendly products than their competitors. Second, we investigate how the environmen...

  2. Pollution and skin: from epidemiological and mechanistic studies to clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Krutmann, Jean; Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Pan, Xiaochuan; Crawford, Martha; Sore, Gabrielle; Seite, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the health effects associated with air pollution have been intensively studied. Most studies focus on air pollution effects on the lung and the cardiovascular system. More recently, however, epidemiological and mechanistic studies suggest that air pollution is also affecting skin integrity. This state-of-the-art review focuses on this latter aspect; it was developed with the collaboration of European and Chinese board of experts with specific interests in environmental health, clinical and basic research in dermatology and cosmetic dermatology. A literature review limited to pollution and health effects and (sensitive) skin was performed using PubMed. Review and original articles were chosen. We summarize the existing scientific evidence that air pollution exerts detrimental effects on human skin, discuss potential clinical implications and suggest specific and unspecific cosmetic protective measures. PMID:25278222

  3. Increase in Metabolic Syndrome-Related Hospitalizations in Relation to Environmental Sources of Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Alexander V.; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from cell studies indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POP) can induce insulin resistance, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We hypothesized that residential proximity to environmental sources of POP would be associated with the MetS in the population. The present study examined the association between residency in a zip code containing or abutting environmental sources of POP and MetS-related hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as hospitalization rate ratios. Adjusted RR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. A higher proportion of African Americans resided in POP zip codes compared to Caucasians (25.9% and 24.3%, respectively, p < 0.01). Residence in POP zip codes was associated with a statistically significant 39.2% increase in MetS-related hospitalization rates, adjusted for race, gender, and age (adjusted RR = 1.392, 95% CI: 1.032–1.879, p = 0.030). Increase in age was independently associated with higher MetS-related hospitalization rates (p for trend < 0.001). Our findings contribute to the body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of POP constituting an environmental risk factor for the MetS. Further studies investigating exposure to POP and insulin resistance are warranted. PMID:21556177

  4. Persistent environmental pollutants and couple fecundity: an overview.

    PubMed

    Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2014-01-01

    Speculation has arisen that human fecundity may be declining, possibly a function of exposure to persistent environmental chemicals that resist degradation resulting in various pathways for human exposure. In contrast to considerable animal evidence suggesting adverse effects of such chemicals on reproduction, limited human research has been undertaken. To date, available data stem largely from ten unique study cohorts that have quantified individual chemical exposures in relation to time-to-pregnancy (TTP), which is a measure of couple fecundity. Diminished fecundability odds ratios indicative of longer TTP were observed in all but two studies, although not all findings achieved statistical significance. Persistent chemicals associated with reduced couple fecundity as measured by a longer TTP included βHCH, cadmium, lead, mercury, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, TCCD dioxin, and select polybrominated diethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and perfluorochemicals. Important methodologic limitations need to be considered in weighing the evidence: i) reliance on pregnant women, which may exclude women with the highest exposures if related to the inability to conceive; ii) retrospectively reported TTP, which may be associated with bidirectional reporting errors; and iii) limited attention to male partners or couples' exposures. While current evidence is not inconsistent with animal evidence, concerted efforts to address lingering data gaps should include novel strategies for recruiting couples, the longitudinal measurement of TTP, and the continued enrollment of couples across successive pregnancies. This latter strategy will provide a more complete understanding of the toxicokinetics of chemicals during sensitive windows and their implications for fecundity and its related impairments. PMID:24310101

  5. Air pollution, a rising environmental risk factor for cognition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: The clinical impact on children and beyond.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Leray, E; Heydarpour, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Reis, J

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution (indoors and outdoors) is a major issue in public health as epidemiological studies have highlighted its numerous detrimental health consequences (notably, respiratory and cardiovascular pathological conditions). Over the past 15 years, air pollution has also been considered a potent environmental risk factor for neurological diseases and neuropathology. This review examines the impact of air pollution on children's brain development and the clinical, cognitive, brain structural and metabolic consequences. Long-term potential consequences for adults' brains and the effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) are also discussed. One challenge is to assess the effects of lifetime exposures to outdoor and indoor environmental pollutants, including occupational exposures: how much, for how long and what type. Diffuse neuroinflammation, damage to the neurovascular unit, and the production of autoantibodies to neural and tight-junction proteins are worrisome findings in children chronically exposed to concentrations above the current standards for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and may constitute significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease later in life. Finally, data supporting the role of air pollution as a risk factor for MS are reviewed, focusing on the effects of PM10 and nitrogen oxides. PMID:26718591

  6. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-01-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested. PMID:2695325

  7. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Egboka, B.C.E.; Orajaka, I.P.; Ejiofor, A.O. ); Nwankwor, G.I. )

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested.

  8. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  9. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Rees, Steven D; McGrath, Aaron P; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T; Vermeer, Lydia M; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-04-01

    The world's oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)-100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  10. AENV: Studying Environmental Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Larry W.

    1975-01-01

    The Division of Advanced Environmental Research and Technology (AENV) examines those environmental problems outside the responsibilities of other federal agencies. Present areas of concern include: organic threats to the environment, energy, land-use decisions, weather modification, earthquakes, and the development of a data base for understanding…

  11. Music and Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…

  12. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r < 0.41). One-week Leq correlated well with NO, NO2, and EC levels (r = 0.61 to 0.68) and less so with PM2.5 levels (r = 0.45). We observed associations between 1-week noise levels and traffic intensity within 100 m of the monitoring sites (r = 0

  13. A method for the long-term exposure of rabbits to environmental pollutant gases.

    PubMed

    Douglas, G J; Price, J F; Page, C P

    1994-08-01

    The aims of the present study were twofold. Firstly, we wanted to develop a system for the exposure of rabbits to pollutant gases that would monitor gas concentrations accurately, allow flexibility, be simple to operate, and could be constructed at relatively modest cost. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether the procedures necessary for the daily exposure of young rabbits had any detrimental effect on their development. Using the environmental exposure system that we developed, littermate New Zealand White rabbits, neonatally immunized to either Alternaria tenuis or house dust mite antigen were exposed 2 h daily, from within 24 h of birth until 3 months of age, to either 4 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or 5 ppm sulphur dioxide (SO2) or ambient air. The environmental exposure system consists of four sections; a stainless steel exposure chamber; an airflow monitoring and control system and gas delivery system; a gas detector and monitoring system; and an exhaust fan. Equilibration and wash-out times of gas were short and the gas mixing within the chamber atmosphere was uniform. Levels of gases were reliably maintained throughout the period of exposure within predetermined limits. The weights of the immunized, gas-exposed animals did not differ significantly from those of the immunized, air-exposed animals at any time throughout the 3 month period of exposure. At 3 months of age, the basal values for lung resistance and dynamic compliance did not differ between gas- and air-exposed rabbits. These values did not differ significantly from those obtained from naive animals of the same age. Our results suggest that we have developed a sensitive, reliable and simple environmental exposure and monitoring system. It is anticipated that the methodology described will allow the careful investigation of the effects of long-term exposure to pollutant gases from birth on the development of airways hyperresponsiveness. PMID:7957839

  14. REMOTE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED AIR POLLUTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercial Fourier transform infrared interferometer system has been installed in a van and used to make longpath absorption and single-ended emission measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations at a variety of pollutant sources. The interferometer system is described and ...

  15. Health assessment of environmental pollutants; Proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O. )

    1987-01-01

    The health assessments of environmental air contaminants are at present frequently based upon probability of cancer, if this has been identified as a potential result of prolonged exposure to the particular inhalation hazard. However, for many airborne hazards chronic inhalation exposure may result in morbidity or mortality risks due to chronic degenerative diseases such as emphysema, fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that may be nearly as great or greater than those of more widely recognized neoplastic or proliferative disease. The relative hazards of environmentally released radioactive and chemical air contaminants, i.e., radon daughters and diesel engine exhaust, are discussed as examples.

  16. Environmental pollution and pregnancy: risks and uncertainties for the fetus and infant.

    PubMed

    Longo, L D

    1980-05-15

    Numerous environmental contaminants can affect the developing embryo, fetus, or infant. This essay explores such questions as these: What is the importance in mutagenesis and teratogenesis of macroenvironmental pollutants such as the heavy metals, dioxin derivatives, polychlorinated diphenyl compounds, and pesticides? What is the significance of microenvironmental pollutants (or social environmental factors) such as tobacco smoke, alcohol, and pharmacologic agents over which exposed individuals have considerable control? What are some of the ethical and legal implications of these toxins of which clinicians should be aware? PMID:6246801

  17. Leaf epidermal and gross morphological adaptations in salix nigra marsh (salicaceae) in relation to environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K. )

    1993-07-01

    Eleven populations of Salix nigra Marsh. (black willow) in the mid-southern part of the United States were analyzed to determine the relationship between environmental contamination and variation in leaf epidermal and leaf morphological patterns. Plant populations of polluted habitats exhibited a decrease in leaf length and leaf width. Furthermore, stomatal frequency values, size of the largest stoma, and the epidermal wall undulations were reduced in these plant populations. Subsidiary cell complex remained unaffected by environmental pollution. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (environmental health and safety). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Effects of pollution on public health and safety; Toxicology; Industrial health; Physiology; Psychology; Clinical medicine; Radiobiology; Animals used as research experimental models.

  19. Relationship between environmental pollution in Manzala Lake and health profile of fishermen.

    PubMed

    Osfor, M M; el-Dessouky, S A; el-Sayed, A; Higazy, R A

    1998-02-01

    Manzala Lake exposed to many pollutants including untreated sewage, agricultural and industrial wastes which increase the concentration of heavy metals, and compromise the health state of the fishermen. This study investigated 100 fishermen and 100 males of other occupations as controls. Both groups work in and live on and around the lake. Clinical examination revealed no significant changes between the fishermen and control group as regards the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and dermatological systems. However, the urinary, musculoskeletal and respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in fishermen than in control males. There was a significant decrease in neutrophils (48.8%) and a significant increase in lymphocytes and eosinophils (35.4% and 9%), respectively. Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by an increase in serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. There were no significant differences in serum creatinine and urea between fishermen and control. Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in water and sediment were 0.26, 0.014, 0.002 mg/l, and 33.5, 1.37, 0.28 micrograms/kg, respectively. Levels of the three heavy metals in the fish samples and serum of fishermen and control males in average were 1.06, 0.18, 0.00025 ppm, 523, 33.5, 13.7 micrograms/l and 374, 12.8 11.2 micrograms/l, respectively. This study aimed to establish the relation between the environmental pollution and the health status of the population inhabiting the contaminated areas. PMID:9584278

  20. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO. PMID:27184129

  1. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS. XIII. ENDRIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-endo,endo-5,8-dimethanonapthalene) is presented. More than 600 references are cited. Endrin is used chiefly as an insect...

  2. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: IX. FLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of fluoride. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to fluoride and specific fluorine-containing compounds: p...

  3. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS II. BENZIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of benzidine. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to benzidine and specific benzidine compounds: physical and...

  4. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: III. CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of chromium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to chromium and specific chromium compounds: physical and ch...

  5. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: IV. CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of cadmium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to cadmium and specific cadmium compounds: physical and chemi...

  6. THE MODELING OF THE FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current models that predict the fate of organic compounds released to the environment are based on the assumption that these compounds exist exclusively as neutral species. This assumption is untrue under many environmental conditions, as some molecules can exist as cations, anio...

  7. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: VI. BERYLLIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of beryllium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to beryllium and specific beryllium compounds: physical and...

  8. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  9. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: V. CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of cyanide. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to cyanide and specific cyanide compounds: physical and chemical pr...

  10. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: VII. LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of lead. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to lead and specific lead compounds: physical and chemical pro...

  11. Environmental Pollution, Teacher's Manual (Experiences/Experiments/Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Elbert C.

    Described in this teacher's guide are numerous experiments teachers may use to guide students in learning about community environmental problems. Experiments are relatively simple and useful in the junior high school grades. Activities allow the student to become acquainted with the methods for the detection and removal of undesirable materials…

  12. In utero exposure to low doses of environmental pollutants disrupts fetal ovarian development in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Paul A.; Dorà, Natalie J.; McFerran, Helen; Amezaga, Maria R.; Miller, David W.; Lea, Richard G.; Cash, Phillip; McNeilly, Alan S.; Evans, Neil P.; Cotinot, Corinne; Sharpe, Richard M.; Rhind, Stewart M.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the impact of environmental chemicals on reproductive health demonstrate consequences of exposure but establishing causative links requires animal models using ‘real life’ in utero exposures. We aimed to determine whether prolonged, low-dose, exposure of pregnant sheep to a mixture of environmental chemicals affects fetal ovarian development. Exposure of treated ewes (n = 7) to pollutants was maximized by surface application of processed sewage sludge to pasture. Control ewes (n = 10) were reared on pasture treated with inorganic fertilizer. Ovaries and blood were collected from fetuses (n = 15 control and n = 8 treated) on Day 110 of gestation for investigation of fetal endocrinology, ovarian follicle/oocyte numbers and ovarian proteome. Treated fetuses were 14% lighter than controls but fetal ovary weights were unchanged. Prolactin (48% lower) was the only measured hormone significantly affected by treatment. Treatment reduced numbers of growth differentiation factor (GDF9) and induced myeloid leukaemia cell differentiation protein (MCL1) positive oocytes by 25–26% and increased pro-apoptotic BAX by 65% and 42% of protein spots in the treated ovarian proteome were differently expressed compared with controls. Nineteen spots were identified and included proteins involved in gene expression/transcription, protein synthesis, phosphorylation and receptor activity. Fetal exposure to environmental chemicals, via the mother, significantly perturbs fetal ovarian development. If such effects are replicated in humans, premature menopause could be an outcome. PMID:18436539

  13. Joint actions of environmental nonionizing electromagnetic fields and chemical pollution in cancer promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Adey, W R

    1990-01-01

    Studies of environmental electromagnetic (EM) field interactions in tissues have contributed to a new understanding of both normal growth and the biology of cancer in cell growth. From cancer research comes a floodtide of new knowledge about the disruption of communication by cancer-promoting chemicals with an onset of unregulated growth. Bioelectromagnetic research reveals clear evidence of joint actions at cell membranes of chemical cancer promoters and environmental electromagnetic fields. The union of these two disciplines has resulted in the first major new approach to tumor formation in 75 years, directing attention to dysfunctions in inward and outward streams of signals at cell membranes, rather than to damage DNA in cell nuclei, and to synergic actions of chemical pollutants and environmental electromagnetic fields. We are witnesses and, in great measure, participants in one of the great revolutions in the history of biology. In little more than a century, we have moved from organs, to tissues, to cells, and finally to the molecules that are the elegant fabric of living tissues. Today, we stand at a new frontier. It may be more difficult to comprehend, but it is far more significant; for it is at the atomic level, rather than the molecular, that physical, rather than chemical, processes appear to shape the flow of signals that are at the essence of living matter. To pursue these problems in the environment and in the laboratory, our needs for further research with appropriate budgets are great.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2205491

  14. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children’s Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A.; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O.; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R.; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D.; Stein, Renato T.; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children’s health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease. PMID:26930243

  15. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children's Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Stein, Renato T; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children's health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease. PMID:26930243

  16. Pathogenic Yet Environmentally Friendly? Black Fungal Candidates for Bioremediation of Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Barbara; Poyntner, Caroline; Rudavsky, Tamara; Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc X.; Hoog, Sybren De; Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A collection of 163 strains of black yeast-like fungi from the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Center (Utrecht, The Netherlands), has been screened for the ability to grow on hexadecane, toluene and polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) as the sole carbon and energy source. These compounds were chosen as representatives of relevant environmental pollutants. A microtiter plate-based culture assay was set up in order to screen the fungal strains for growth on the selected xenobiotics versus glucose, as a positive control. Growth was observed in 25 strains on at least two of the tested substrates. Confirmation of substrate assimilation was performed by cultivation on closed vials and analysis of the headspace composition with regard to the added volatile substrates and the generated carbon dioxide. Exophiala mesophila (CBS 120910) and Cladophialophora immunda (CBS 110551), both of the order Chaetothyriales and isolated from a patient with chronic sinusitis and a polluted soil sample, respectively, showed the ability to grow on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source. Toluene assimilation has previously been described for C. immunda but this is the first account for E. mesophila. Also, this is the first time that the capacity to grow on alkylbenzenes has been demonstrated for a clinical isolate. Assimilation of toluene could not be demonstrated for the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudoallescheria boydii (CBS 115.59, Microascales), but the results from microtiter plate assays suggest that strains of this species are promising candidates for further studies. The outstanding abilities of black yeast-like fungi to thrive in extreme environments makes them ideal agents for the bioremediation of polluted soils, and for the treatment of contaminated gas streams in biofilters. However, interrelations between hydrocarbonoclastic and potentially pathogenic strains need to be elucidated in order to avoid the possibility of biohazards occurring. PMID:27019541

  17. The economics of environmental degradation from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises in less developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Grivoyannis, E.C.

    1997-06-01

    The economic productivity of ecological systems constitutes imperfectly known resources for many developing countries and, as a result, national incentives for their preservation are hampered. Scarcity of capital and foreign exchange, on the other hand, creates for these countries an economic pressure to reduce environmental quality standards in return for foreign exchange from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises. For a bargaining outcome to be considered successful, the host country`s marginal cost of environmental protection should be equal to the social scarcity cost of foreign exchange for capital accumulation. However, imperfections in the international capital markets and in he information processing of private and government institutions as well as government failure may upgrade the value of foreign exchange relative to environmental protection. As a result, many developing countries may prefer to have more direct investment gains derived from an inflow of foreign exchange by allowing pollution-intensive multinationals an excessive amount of pollution, than the strategically optimal one, if these enterprises are prepared to shift operations to their country. Strategic bargaining by pollution-intensive multinationals can turn the economic pressures of developing countries into an exploitable dependence. This paper investigates the socio-economic outcome from strategic bargaining opportunities between developing countries and pollution-intensive multinationals in an effort to provide a better understanding of what is negotiable in the presence of exploitable dependencies.

  18. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program.

  19. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

  20. Levels of metals in hair of young children as an indicator of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Wibowo, A.A.; Herber, R.F.; Das, H.A.; Roeleveld, N.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1986-08-01

    In 1982 the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) were determined in hair of 231 four- to five-year-old children. The objective was to explore the feasibility of using metal-in-hair levels in groups of children as an indicator of environmental pollution. The study was carried out in four areas, which were assumed to differ in ambient pollution by metals. A questionnaire on personal data, socioeconomic status, intake of beverages, and life-style was completed by the parents. The metal-in-hair levels covered a large range. The variables pertaining to location together with sex, presence of a garden, and drinking of coffee and/or tea explained 32% of the variance of Pb, 24% of the variance of Cd, and 21% of the variance of V. The total variance explained by all measured questionnaire items was at best 38%. The location was the most important factor. Cu and Se levels did not differ between the locations.

  1. Gene transcription reflects poor health status of resident European eel chronically exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Maes, G E; Raeymaekers, J A M; Hellemans, B; Geeraerts, C; Parmentier, K; De Temmerman, L; Volckaert, F A M; Belpaire, C

    2013-01-15

    Understanding the effects of chronic exposure to pollutants on the genome and transcriptome of diadromous fish populations is crucial for their resilience under combined anthropogenic and environmental selective pressures. The catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) has suffered a dramatic decline in recruitment for three decades, necessitating a thorough assessment of the transcriptional effects of environmental pollutants on resident and migrating eels in natural systems. We investigated the relationship between muscular bioaccumulation levels of metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, As and Se), PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (DDTs), the health status (condition factor and lipid reserves) and the associated transcriptional response in liver and gill tissues for genes involved in metal detoxification (metallothionein, MT) and oxidative metabolism (cytochrome P4501A, CYP1A) of xenobiotic compounds. In total 84 resident eels originating from three Belgian river basins (Scheldt, Meuse and Yzer) were analyzed along with five unpolluted aquaculture samples as control group. There was a large spatial variation in individual contaminant intensity and profile, while tissue pollution levels were strongly and negatively associated with condition indices, suggesting an important impact of pollution on the health of sub-adult resident eels. Gene transcription patterns revealed a complex response mechanism to a cocktail of pollutants, with a high variation at low pollution levels, but strongly down-regulated hepatic and gill gene transcription in highly polluted eels. Resident eels clearly experience a high pollution burden and seem to show a dysfunctional gene transcription regulation of detoxification genes at higher pollutant levels, correlated with low energy reserves and condition. To fully understand the evolutionary implications of pollutants on eel reproductive fitness, analyses of mature migrating eels and the characterization of their transcriptome

  2. KINETIC STUDIES OF SIMULATED POLLUTED ATMOSPHERES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of several important atmospheric contaminants - SO2, formaldehyde, nitrous acid, and the nitrosamines - were assessed to help quantify some key aspects of the chemistry of polluted atmospheres. The reactions and lifetimes of excited sulfur dio...

  3. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. PMID:24171160

  4. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental “Obesogen” Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called “obesogenic environment”. Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity. PMID:27483295

  5. Studies of Light Pollution in Connecticut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Dennis W.

    1998-05-01

    Connecticut has some of the brightest night skies in the Northeast. Paradoxically, because of its topography it also has some of the darkest skies. An initial survey of the levels of light pollution in the state was conducted in 1992-93 using portable, null-type photometers with LEDs as comparison light sources. Zenith sky brightnesses were observed for eighteen Connecticut cities and towns, chosen for their relative light-isolation from other urban centers and having populations between 2,500 and 142,000. The sky brightness ranged from 1800 to 12,000 S10 units and was correlated approximately to the square root of the population, similar to results of a 1974 RASC study in Ontario. Because of the limited accuracy and nonlinearity of visual photometers and the small sample size of the 1992-93 work, a new sky brightness study was begun in the autumn of 1997. The work in progress uses a portable telescope and a photodiode photometer with Johnson B and V filters. The methodology of this research and some early results will be presented.

  6. Pollutant fates in fluvial systems: on need of individual approach to each case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Novakova, Tereza

    2015-04-01

    To outline the pollutant fates in fluvial systems it is necessary to combine two main kinds of knowledge: sedimentation and erosion patterns of each individual river with spatio-temporal resolution higher than in most fluvial geomorphology/sedimentology studies and timing and way how the pollutants have entered the fluvial system. Most of these aspects are commonly neglected in environmental geochemistry, a domain to which pollution studies apparently belong. In fact, only when these two main components are established (at least in a qualitative manner), we can start reading (interpretation) of the fluvial sedimentary archives, e.g., decipher the way how the primary pollution signal has been distorted during passing through the fluvial system. We conducted empirical studies on Czech rivers impacted by pollution (by risk elements). We learnt how individual (site-specific) are the main processes responsible for the primary pollution input, spread through each fluvial system and inevitable secondary pollution ("lagged pollution improvement signal"). We will discuss main features of the story on pollutant fates in three different fluvial systems, which have not been impacted by "hard" river engineering and still undergo natural fluvial processes: 1. the Ohre (the Eger) impacted by production of Hg and its compounds, historical mining of Pb and more recent U ore processing, 2. the Ploucnice impacted by U mining, and 3. the Litavka, impacted by Pb-Zn(-Sb) mining and smelting. The Ohre is specific by most pollution having been temporarily deposited in an active channel, only minor reworking of older fluvial deposits diluting pollution during downstream transport, and pollution archives existing practically only in the form of lateral accretion deposits. The deposits of archive value are rare and can be revealed by detailed study of historical maps and well-planned field analysis, best using portable analytical instruments (XRF). The Ploucnice is specific by only transient

  7. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  8. Environmental pollution in the Gulf of Guinea--a regional approach.

    PubMed

    Scheren, P A; Ibe, A C; Janssen, F J; Lemmens, A M

    2002-07-01

    Environmental pollution in the Gulf of Guinea (GOG) coastal zone has caused eutrophication and oxygen depletion in the lagoon systems, particularly around the urban centres, resulting in decreased fish (reproduction) levels and waterborne diseases. A pollution sources assessment was undertaken by six countries in the region as a first step in defining a region-wide Environmental Management Plan. Results show that households produce 90% of solid waste. Industry, however, is responsible for substantial amounts of hazardous waste, specifically the Nigerian petroleum industry. The latter is also responsible for the spilling of large amounts of oil. BOD load from industrial effluents is slightly larger than domestic loads in the industrialised coastal zone. Wastewater treatment systems are either absent or inadequate. Apart from large-scale gas flaring in Nigeria, air pollution, in terms of COx, HC, NOx and SO2 emissions, is contributed mainly by traffic. Particulates, originate mainly from industries and domestic biomass burning. PMID:12222886

  9. Potential of MALDI imaging for the toxicological evaluation of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lagarrigue, Mélanie; Caprioli, Richard M; Pineau, Charles

    2016-07-20

    Risk assessment related to the exposure of humans to chemicals released into the environment is a major concern of our modern societies. In this context, toxicology plays a crucial role to characterize the effects of this exposure on health and identify the targets of these molecules. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an enabling technology for biodistribution studies of chemicals. Although the majority of published studies are presented in a pharmacological context, the concepts discussed in this review can be applied to the toxicological evaluation of chemicals released into the environment. The major asset of IMS is the simultaneous localization and identification of a parent molecule and its metabolites without labeling and without any prior knowledge. Quantification methods developed in IMS are presented with application to an environmental pollutant. IMS is effective in the localization of chemicals and endogenous species. This opens unique perspectives for the discovery of molecular alterations in metabolites and protein biomarkers that could help for a better understanding of toxicity mechanisms. Distribution studies of agrochemicals in plants by IMS can contribute to a better understanding of their mode of action and to a more effective use of these chemicals, avoiding the current concern of environmental damage. PMID:27178109

  10. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers. 291.4 Section 291.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL...

  11. Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

  12. SYSTEMS FOR RAPID RANKING OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: SELECTION OF SUBJECTS FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reports the results of the development and testing of a system for rapidly ranking environmental pollutants. One potential use for the system is in choosing the most important candidates for Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports (STAR). Of several possible app...

  13. Laws of the United States Relating to Water Pollution Control and Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Public Works.

    This compilation of Federal legislation contains copies of twelve Public Laws, four Executive Orders, and five International Conventions relevant to water pollution control. It also contains two Public Laws and two Executive Orders pertaining to environmental quality. There is a brief introduction summarizing the provisions of each Act. (AL)

  14. Phytoremediation: An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and Remediation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erakhrumen, Andrew Agbontalor

    2007-01-01

    The problem of environmental pollution has assumed an unprecedented proportion in many parts of the world especially in Nigeria and its Niger-Delta region in particular. This region is bedeviled with this problem perhaps owing to interplay of demographic and socio-economic forces coupled with the various activities that revolve round the…

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current ver...

  16. University Reorganization Through Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, John C.

    1972-01-01

    A sound program in Environmental Studies may show the way to attack other multidisciplinary problems. Some of these are population problems, urban renewal, black studies, resource utilization, and in-depth regional studies. (Author)

  17. Socioeconomic development and environmental pollution in Hong Kong--risks and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wai, W T

    1991-07-01

    In the process of industrialization, Hong Kong has created an ever deteriorating environment. The increase in GDP is paralleled by a corresponding surge in the quantity of pollutants generated. Government initiatives to assess the gravity of the problem and to protect the environment began in the 1970s. The fear that too stringent control of the environment may stifle the industrial and business sectors has resulted in ineffective policies and inadequate environmental protection. Presently, Hong Kong is faced with poor air quality in most urban areas, streams polluted by livestock waste, beaches with excessive bacterial and toxic chemical concentrations, land pollution resulting from lack of space for solid waste disposal, and a high noise level from road traffic, construction and, in particular, aircraft traffic because of the location of the airport in the midst of a residential and industrial district. In a recent White Paper, Government outlined the new strategies to combat environmental pollution, which include a restructuring of the policy branch on environmental issues under the scope of planning and land use, upgrading of the sewage system, relocation of the airport, and the reduction of the sulphur content of industrial fuel. In the years ahead, Hong Kong is faced with new challenges. Environmentally, the commissioning of the nuclear plant at Daya Bay poses a risk of ionizing radiation. The construction of the new airport, together with extensive reclamation of the harbour and expansion of seaport facilities, will create changes in the tidal flow and the ecological system. The negative effects on the environment must be considered together with the potentially beneficial effects, economical and environmental. To achieve maximum impact in environmental protection, community participation is essential. To this end, education on the conservation of the environment should be expanded and specially targeted at schoolchildren, in whom environmental education has

  18. Bio-diversity: an effective safety net against environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2003-01-01

    Biodiversity is the feedstock for the biotechnology industry. Hence, the conservation, enhancement and sustainable and equitable use of biodiversity should be accorded high priority in all national environment protection programmes. Lichens serve as useful indicators of environmental health. Similarly, several blue green algae help to sequester salt from water. There is need for the more widespread use of such biomonitoring and bioremediation agents. Bioprospecting research designed to identify novel metabolites must be rooted in the principle of equity in sharing benefits with the holders of traditional knowledge. There is need for greater vigil against alien invasive species, since with growing world trade in food grains and other agricultural commodities, there is an increasing possibility of introducing new pests, weeds and harmful micro-organisms. Finally, biological scientists should place emphasis on their ethical responsibility for the consequences of their research, since otherwise bioterrorism could become a major threat to human security. PMID:12963289

  19. Water Disinfection Byproducts Induce Antibiotic Resistance-Role of Environmental Pollutants in Resistance Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zeng, Siyu; He, Miao; Gu, April Z

    2016-03-15

    The spread of antibiotic resistance represents a global threat to public health, and has been traditionally attributed to extensive antibiotic uses in clinical and agricultural applications. As a result, researchers have mostly focused on clinically relevant high-level resistance enriched by antibiotics above the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Here, we report that two common water disinfection byproducts (chlorite and iodoacetic acid) had antibiotic-like effects that led to the evolution of resistant E. coli strains under both high (near MICs) and low (sub-MIC) exposure concentrations. The subinhibitory concentrations of DBPs selected strains with resistance higher than those evolved under above-MIC exposure concentrations. In addition, whole-genome analysis revealed distinct mutations in small sets of genes known to be involved in multiple drug and drug-specific resistance, as well as in genes not yet identified to play role in antibiotic resistance. The number and identities of genetic mutations were distinct for either the high versus low sub-MIC concentrations exposure scenarios. This study provides evidence and mechanistic insight into the sub-MIC selection of antibiotic resistance by antibiotic-like environmental pollutants such as disinfection byproducts in water, which may be important contributors to the spread of global antibiotic resistance. The results from this study open an intriguing and profound question on the roles of large amount and various environmental contaminants play in selecting and spreading the antibiotics resistance in the environment. PMID:26928861

  20. The dynamics of environmental inspections and enforcement: Pollution prevention and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzer, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This fieldwork study examined the role of inspectors in the enforcement of the hazardous waste laws under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Regulatory agencies seek compliance through either a strict deterrence or a cooperative enforcement strategy. The studies assume that compliance is the objective and that policy-makers and the public are interested both in enforcement processes and their success in inducing compliance. The study documents the social milieu of inspectors who determine whether businesses comply with hazardous waste regulations. It also considers whether compliance with regulatory requirements, alone, should be the metric of the program's success, or whether broader objectives should be the measure of success. Data were collected through participant-observation of inspectors in New York State's Department of Environmental Conservation and during two years working for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's, Office of Pollution Prevention. The study has several central findings: One is that the RCRA statue and the federal and state agencies that implement it limit inspectors' discretion and centralize enforcement discretion to an extraordinary degree. Second, while inspectors generally follow the formal controls, they also solve a broader array of problems. They supplement their police role with an advisory role. Third, inspectors tailor their strategies depending on their personal experiences. Fourth, inspectors and the remainder of the RCRA enforcement program must more proactively promote solutions beyond compliance. These findings lead to several conclusions: (1) enforcement systems must incorporate the social aspects of enforcement into policy decisions, and (2) enforcement systems and researchers must be concerned with not only enforcement processes, but also the program's ultimate environmental protection goals.

  1. Toxicological implications of microcystins for zebrafish embryos in the presence of other environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Pavagadhi, Shruti; Gong, Zhiyuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-07-01

    Microcystins (MCs) interact with environmental contaminants as well as various other congeners of the MC family in the natural environment and with antioxidants in the exposed organisms. These interactions are likely to modify the toxicological behavior of MCs at the cellular level. The present study was conducted to determine the toxicological response of extracellular MCs in aquatic systems under environmentally relevant conditions. Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) and microcystin-arginine-arginine (MCRR) were introduced at different concentrations in a single-component (MCLR or MCRR) or dual-component (MCLR and MCRR) system to zebrafish embryos in the presence of inorganic elements (Hg, As, Pb, and Cd) and nutrient species (NO3 (-) , PO4 (3-) , and Cl(-1) ). Hatchability, heart rate, and mortality of zerbrafish embryos were monitored together with changes in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to evaluate their response on exposure to MCLR and MCRR. There was a significant reduction in all these parameters at higher doses of MCLR and MCRR (>100 ng/mL), implying bioaccumulation of these MCs in embryos and adverse effects on early development stages of the fish. It was further observed that PO4 (3-) and Cl(-) enhanced the toxic effects of MCLR and MCRR while NO3 (-) attenuated their toxic effects. In contrast, all 4 toxic elements together increased the toxicity of MCLR and MCRR to embryos compared with their single-component counterparts. Thus, the toxic effects of MCs depend not only on their relative environmental concentrations, but also on those of other environmental pollutants and the levels of antioxidants in exposed organisms. PMID:23440872

  2. [Research, education and environmental health related to pollution in the Gulf].

    PubMed

    Paoletti, A; Parrella, A; Gargiulo, E; Aliberti, F

    1989-01-01

    At Italian-Russian International Conference on "Rôle of the University on ecological education and training", was illustrate six topics of 30 years of our scientific and didactic activity on Environmental Hygiene, here below summarized: I. At first time, sludges of biological treatment plants and domestic sewage were frequently utilized under bacteriological control as economical and ecological fertilizers of land and waters. At present such a custom is very rare owing the chemical pollution of sewage continuously increasing; but in some countries it is still in use, and is our opinion and experience that organic waste material must be reused as fertilizer of land, more and more devoid of humus and subject to erosion of winds and waters. Some treatment plants are shown, and related plankton pyramid's. II. Pilot sewage treatment plants are frequently used in our experiments and training, for study and control of the biological degradation of organic matter, for evaluate the disappearance rate of bacteria and viruses, for investigate the foric action and behaviour of chemical and radioactive pollutants, for quantify their accumulation in the sludges of sewage treatment plants, and so forth. Different pilot plants are used, located both in our laboratories both in industries; in nuclear power plant are tested at the same time 3 models of 3 different plants (biodiscs, activated sludges, biofiltering channels), working with prevalent algal growth. III. Many species of microorganisms (metazoa, protozoa, algae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and new species like Bdellovibrio) are present in aerobic sewage treatment plants (activated sludge, bacterial bed, biodiscs, lagooning, etc.); in anaerobic treatment (digesters) prevail only methane-producing bacteria. Some of these organisms are very abundant and very active as consumers of organic matter; others are characteristic indicators of well balanced purification or of bad purification owing acute variation of organic load or

  3. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  4. Raman scattering studies of pollutant systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwiesow, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Results and techniques for laboratory measurements of Raman scattering cross sections and depolarization ratios of atmospheric gases as a function of the incident photon energy are discussed. Referred to N2, the cross section of H2O changes by a factor of 2 as the incident photon energy is changed by 5%. Less striking results are obtained for SO2, NO and other atmospheric gases. Tentative results are given for spectral features of scattering from polluted air-water interfaces. Raman lidar is assessed as a potentially useful aid in remote sensing of atmospheric and water-borne pollution distributions at least in near-source concentrations.

  5. A STUDY OF WINTER AIR POLLUTANTS AT FAIRBANKS, ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An air pollution monitoring program was initiated by the Arctic Environmental Research Station (AERS). Ambient monitoring was done throughout the winters of 76-77 and 77-78 at the Fairbanks Post Office and on the AERS roof. Indoor-outdoor monitoring was done at the new State Buil...

  6. [Environmental pollution, climate variability and climate change: a review of health impacts on the Peruvian population].

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of the pollution of water, air and the effect of climate change on the health of the Peruvian population. A major air pollutant is particulate matter less than 2.5 μ (PM 2.5). In Lima, 2,300 premature deaths annually are attributable to this pollutant. Another problem is household air pollution by using stoves burning biomass fuels, where excessive indoor exposure to PM 2.5 inside the household is responsible for approximately 3,000 annual premature deaths among adults, with another unknown number of deaths among children due to respiratory infections. Water pollution is caused by sewage discharges into rivers, minerals (arsenic) from various sources, and failure of water treatment plants. In Peru, climate change may impact the frequency and severity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which has been associated with an increase in cases of diseases such as cholera, malaria and dengue. Climate change increases the temperature and can extend the areas affected by vector-borne diseases, have impact on the availability of water and contamination of the air. In conclusion, Peru is going through a transition of environmental risk factors, where traditional and modern risks coexist and infectious and chronic problems remain, some of which are associated with problems of pollution of water and air. PMID:25418656

  7. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 2. Outdoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, David; Sanborn, Margaret D; Weir, Erica

    2002-04-30

    Air pollution contributes to preventable illness and death. Subgroups of patients who appear to be more sensitive to the effects of air pollution include young children, the elderly and people with existing chronic cardiac and respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. It is unclear whether air pollution contributes to the development of asthma, but it does trigger asthma episodes. Physicians are in a position to identify patients at particular risk of health effects from air pollution exposure and to suggest timely and appropriate actions that these patients can take to protect themselves. A simple tool that uses the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) can help physicians take patients' environmental exposure histories to assess those who may be at risk. As public health advocates, physicians contribute to the primary prevention of illness and death related to air pollution in the population. In this article we review the origins of air pollutants, the pathophysiology of health effects, the burden of illness and the clinical implications of smog exposure using the illustrative case of an adolescent patient with asthma. PMID:12000251

  8. Bringing the Polluters Back In: Environmental Inequality and the Organization of Chemical Production

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Don; Trautner, Mary Nell; Downey, Liam; Thiebaud, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Environmental justice scholars have suggested that because chemical plants and other hazardous facilities emit more pollutants where they face the least resistance, disadvantaged communities face a special health risk. In trying to determine whether race or income has the bigger impact on a neighborhood’s exposure to pollution, however, scholars tend to overlook the facilities themselves and the effect of their characteristics on emissions. In particular, how do the characteristics of facilities and their surrounding communities jointly shape pollution outcomes? We propose a new line of environmental justice research that focuses on facilities and how their features combine with communities’ features to create dangerous emissions. Using novel fuzzy-set analysis techniques and the EPA’s newly developed Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators, we test the influence of facility and community factors on chemical plants’ health-threatening emissions. Contrary to the idea that community characteristics have singular, linear effects, findings show that facility and community factors combine in a variety of ways to produce risky emissions. We speculate that as chemical firms experiment with different ways of producing goods and externalizing pollution costs, new “recipes of risk” are likely to emerge. The question, then, will no longer be whether race or income matters most, but in which of these recipes do they matter and how. PMID:21921966

  9. Systemic effects of urban form on air pollution and environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The form and design of cities and towns have a direct impact on the quality of the natural environment, particularly air and water quality. This paper illustrates some of the dynamic relationships between the form of urban environments and air and water pollution. Recent research suggests how urban form affects environmental quality in at least three ways: (a) how suburban development and its dependency on the private motor vehicle increases air pollution, (b) how exterior building materials help to generate urban heat islands and ozone precursors, and (c) how conventional stormwater drainage systems transport polluted urban runoff into waterways. Today`s aging urban infrastructure provides an important and timely opportunity to re-examine the design of cities and towns with a goal of enhancing overall environmental quality. Many miles of roads, freeways, bridges, and stormwater culverts and pipes are in poor condition and need to be repaired or replaced, while many cities are now failing to meet air and water quality standards designed to protect human and environmental health. This paper also explores seven urban planning and design concepts that could reduce the magnitude of air and water pollution in urban environments and help to improve the health of both cities and their residents.

  10. Awareness of bad news, environmental attitudes, and subjective estimates of coastal pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Eiser, J.R.; Reicher, S.D.; Podpadec, T.J. )

    1994-12-01

    Questionnaires distributed to 154 holiday-makers on beaches in Southwest England assessed awareness of local hazards or incidents associated with either the electricity supply industry or the water and sewage industry and examined the relationship between awareness and evaluations of the industry, current and future levels of pollution on the beach in question, and general levels of concern about environmental pollution. With respect to electricity, those respondents who were more aware of reports claiming a higher incidence of childhood leukemia in the vicinity of a nearby nuclear plant evaluated the electricity industry as less competent or trustworthy, showed higher levels of environmental concern, and were more pessimistic in their estimates of present and future levels of specific pollutants on their beach. With respect to the water industry, similar effects were associated with greater awareness of an accident at a water treatment plant and agricultural pollution of a nearby estuary. These findings are interpreted as suggesting a cyclical relationship between risk awareness and concern. On the one hand, reports about environmental hazards may lead to generalized concern across specific contexts; on the other hand, greater levels of concern may sensitize individuals to such reports. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  11. The potential influence of environmental pollution on amphibian development and decline

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Globally, amphibians are reportedly declining. Environmental pollution has been hypothesized to be associated with declines. Because of their aquatic development and permeable eggs, skin and gills, amphibians, like fishes, may be particularly susceptible to poor water quality or waterborne pollutants. This dissertation addresses effects of global pollutants such as pesticides, acid rain and associated metal toxicity, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the development, behavior, and physiology of amphibian early life stages. This report contains only chapter six and conclusions. Chapter 6 reports on a field experiment in which green frogs from two clutches were exposed from egg to 107 days of age to water and sediments in enclosures along a PCB and metal contamination gradient in the Fox River and wetlands near Green Bay, Wisconsin. Green frogs showed lower hatching success and survival at sites with higher contaminant levels compared to cleaner wetland sites along Green Bay. Hatching success in the green frog was most significantly negatively correlated with sediment PCB levels. It can be concluded that environmental pollution and toxicants in aquatic environments can cause problems for amphibian early development. Sometimes the effects are subtle, and sometimes they are dramatic. In general, amphibian early life stages seem particularly sensitive to environmentally-realistic levels of low pH and metals, but appear more tolerant of TCDD and PCBs.

  12. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City. PMID:23798101

  13. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as environmental risk factors in remote high-altitude ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kallenborn, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and their transformation products, are the most investigated organic environmental contaminants within the past five decades. Organochlorines have been found in virtually all environmental compartments on the globe. Severe environmental implications have been shown to be associated with the presence of the POP group of contaminants in the environment. However, in the late 1990s, Canadian scientists first pinpointed the implication of POPs for high-altitude environments in a comprehensive way (Blais et al., 1998, Nature 395, 585-588). Under certain meteorological and geographic conditions, high-altitude environments can serve as "cold condensers" for atmospheric POP loadings. Subsequent investigations in high-altitude environments in Asia, Europe, and North and South America have confirmed suspicions that high-altitude mountainous regions have the potential to serve as focus regions for POPs and even for nonpersistent, medium-lived contaminants, such as "currently used pesticides", due to cold condensation and deposition in high altitudes. Although the presence and the altitude-dependent increase of POP levels in mountainous regions are confirmed by many international studies, the ecotoxicological consequences still remain largely unknown. At present, only a few studies have been published describing the biological effects in high-altitude environments due to increased POP exposure. Therefore, in this early stage of the international research effort on the ecotoxicological risk evaluation of persistent contaminants in high-altitude, pristine ecosystems, the present review intends to summarize the current state of research on POPs in high-altitude environments and draw preliminary conclusions on possible consequences of the presence of POPs in mountainous ecosystems based on currently available information from alpine and related Arctic environments. PMID:16399161

  14. CRITERIA POLLUTANT AND ACID AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION STUDY - CATANO, PUERTO RICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization study was to characterize criteria pollutant and acid aerosol concentrations in the Ward of Catano and adjacent residential areas in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. on-Governmental organizations (NG...

  15. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  16. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  17. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. PMID:27011112

  18. A pollutant load hierarchical allocation method integrated in an environmental capacity management system for Zhushan Bay, Taihu Lake.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Yang, Cong; Melching, Charles; Yuan, Yongping

    2015-11-15

    An environmental capacity management (ECM) system was developed to help practically implement a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for a key bay in a highly eutrophic lake in China. The ECM system consists of a simulation platform for pollutant load calculation and a pollutant load hierarchical allocation (PLHA) system. The simulation platform was developed by linking the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). In the PLHA, pollutant loads were allocated top-down in several levels based on characteristics of the pollutant sources. Different allocation methods could be used for the different levels with the advantages of each method combined over the entire allocation. Zhushan Bay of Taihu Lake, one of the most eutrophic lakes in China, was selected as a case study. The allowable loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, and chemical oxygen demand were found to be 2122.2, 94.9, 1230.4, and 5260.0 t·yr(-1), respectively. The PLHA for the case study consists of 5 levels. At level 0, loads are allocated to those from the lakeshore direct drainage, atmospheric deposition, internal release, and tributary inflows. At level 1 the loads allocated to tributary inflows are allocated to the 3 tributaries. At level 2, the loads allocated to one inflow tributary are allocated to upstream areas and local sources along the tributary. At level 3, the loads allocated to local sources are allocated to the point and non-point sources from different towns. At level 4, the loads allocated to non-point sources in each town are allocated to different villages. Compared with traditional forms of pollutant load allocation methods, PLHA can combine the advantages of different methods which put different priority weights on equity and efficiency, and the PLHA is easy to understand for stakeholders and more flexible to adjust when applied in practical cases. PMID:26172589

  19. AN OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. PART I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the development of an objective analysis program for the mesoscale gridding of wind and temperature for the Regional Air Pollution Study being conducted in St. Louis by the Environmental Protection Agency. The program is designed to produce a 5-km spaced hor...

  20. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  1. DOE/EA-1493: Environmental Assessment for Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project (August 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-10

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1493, titled ''Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project'', to analyze the potential environmental consequences of providing cost-shared funding support for the design, construction, and demonstration of an integrated multipollutant control system at AES's Greenidge Station in Dresden, New York. The system, expected to control emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HF, HCl, and Hg, would be installed on the existing, coal-fired, 107-MW Unit 4 at Greenidge. The results of the analyses provided in the EA are summarized in this Finding of No Significant Impact. The proposed action is for DOE to provide about $14.5 million for this project, while CONSOL Energy Inc. and its project partners would be responsible for the remaining $21 million. The proposed project will result in technical, environmental, and financial data from the design, operation and construction of the multi-pollutant control system. This 4.5-year, commercial-scale demonstration project would allow utilities, particularly those with units less than 300-MW in capacity, to make decisions regarding the integrated multi-pollutant control system as a viable commercial option. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has concluded that the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project would result in minimal and insignificant consequences to the human environment. Thus, DOE considers that the proposed action, providing cost-shared funding for the project, is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code 4321, et seq. Therefore, in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1021.322, DOE has concluded that preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  2. POLLUTION CONTROL PRACTICES--FUEL CONVERSION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper examines water-related effects that could be expected from siting specific conversion plants at given locations in the major coal and oil shale bearing regions of the U.S. A total of 90 plant/site combinations were studied: 48 in the Central and Eastern U.S., and 42 in ...

  3. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  4. Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica P; Rauh, Virginia; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Kinney, Patrick; Camann, David; Barr, Dana; Bernert, Tom; Garfinkel, Robin; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Diaz, Diurka; Dietrich, Jessica; Whyatt, Robin M

    2003-02-01

    Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. In a sample of 263 nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the effects on birth outcomes of prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs monitored during pregnancy by personal air sampling, along with ETS estimated by plasma cotinine, and an organophosphate pesticide (OP) estimated by plasma chlorpyrifos (CPF). Plasma CPF was used as a covariate because it was the most often detected in plasma and was highly correlated with other pesticides frequently detected in plasma. Among African Americans, high prenatal exposure to PAHs was associated with lower birth weight (p = 0.003) and smaller head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. CPF was associated with decreased birth weight and birth length overall (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively) and with lower birth weight among African Americans (p = 0.04) and reduced birth length in Dominicans (p < 0.001), and was therefore included as a covariate in the model with PAH. After controlling for CPF, relationships between PAHs and birth outcomes were essentially unchanged. In this analysis, PAHs and CPF appear to be significant independent determinants of birth outcomes. Further analyses of pesticides will be carried out. Possible explanations of the failure to find a significant effect of PAHs in the Hispanic subsample are discussed. This study provides evidence that environmental pollutants at levels currently encountered in New York City adversely affect fetal development. PMID:12573906

  5. Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Chan, Miguel; Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment as a putative risk factor has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:25914621

  6. Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

    PubMed

    Chin-Chan, Miguel; Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment as a putative risk factor has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:25914621

  7. Environmental Air Pollutants as Risk Factors for Asthma Among Children Seen in Pediatric Clinics in UKMMC, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Idris, Idayu Badilla; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Zhie, Khor Hui; Khairuman, Khairul Aliff; Yahya, Siti Kasuma; Abd Zaim, Farah Azureen; Nam, Chok Wai; Abdul Rasid, Hazwan Zuhairi; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August 2015. A total of 223 children who were diagnosed with asthma (105 cases) and who did not have asthma (118 controls) were included in this study. Their parents or caregivers were interviewed using questionnaires modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. There was a higher risk of asthma in those who had carpet at home (OR = 2.15 CI [1.25-3.68]), those who lived within 200 m of heavy traffic (OR = 1.72 CI [1.01-2.93]), and those who were exposed to lorry fumes (OR = 2.61. CI [1.38-4.93]). Environmental air pollutants increased the risk of asthma among children in Malaysia. Exposure to congested roads, lorry fumes, and indoor carpet were associated with asthma among children in this study. Parents or caretakers of children with asthma should be given adequate education on the prevention of asthmatic attack among these children. PMID:27325078

  8. Link between environmental air pollution and allergic asthma: East meets West

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2015-01-01

    With the levels of outdoor air pollution from industrial and motor vehicle emissions rising rapidly in the fastly-industrializing countries of South East Asia, the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has also been increasing to match those in the West. Epidemiological and experimental exposure studies indicate a harmful impact of outdoor air pollution from vehicles and factories both on the development of allergic diseases and asthma and the increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbations. The level of outdoor pollution in Asia is much higher and more diverse than those encountered in Western countries. This may increase the impact of outdoor pollution on health, particularly lung health in Asia. This review discusses the constituents of air pollution in Asia with a special focus on studies in mainland China and Taiwan where the levels of pollution have reached high levels and where such high levels particularly in winter can cause a thick haze that reduces visibility. The onus remains on regulatory and public health authorities to curb the sources of pollution so that the health effects on the population particularly those with lung and cardiovascular diseases and with increased susceptibility can be mitigated. PMID:25694814

  9. Environmental pollution and chronic arsenicosis in south Calcutta.

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, D. N.; Das Gupta, J.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Chatterjee, A.; Das, D.; Chakraborti, D.

    1992-01-01

    Careless handling of industrial wastes often creates problems for human health and the environment. Chronic arsenic toxicity, resulting from household use of arsenic-contaminated water occurred in 53 out of 79 members (67%) of 17 families residing in South Calcutta close to a factory that manufactured Paris-green (copper acetoarsenite). Clinical investigation of 20 of these affected persons showed typical skin pigmentation as well as palmar and plantar keratosis in all of them, while gastrointestinal symptoms, anaemia and signs of liver disease and peripheral neuropathy were seen in many. The water used by the affected families for drinking and cooking had been taken from shallow tubewells and had arsenic levels from 5.0 to 58 mg/l (WHO permissible limit, 0.05 mg/l). Other residents in the same area whose drinking-water came from deep tubewells or from tap water supplied by the Calcutta Municipal Corporation (arsenic levels, less than 0.05 mg/l) were not affected. The study confirms that arsenic in the shallow tubewells was due to the waste discharged by the factory producing Paris-green. PMID:1394782

  10. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Wang, B.

    The objective of this study was to characterize the emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental test chamber. The target pollutants included particulate matters (PM 10, PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), methane (CH 4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds. The average PM 10 concentrations for all tested mosquito coils exceeded Excellent and Good Classes objectives specified by Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [ HKEPD, 2003. Guidance Notes for the Management of Indoor Air Quality in Offices and Public Places. Indoor Air Quality Management Group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region]. The emission factors (mg g -1 mosquito coil) of mosquito coils combustion were: PM 2.5, 20.3-47.8; PM 10, 15.9-50.8; CO, 74.6-89.1; NO, 0.1-0.5; NO 2, n.d.-0.1; NO x, 0.1-0.5; CH 4, n.d.-4.7; NMHC, 0.1-5.7. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyls species in the coil smoke. The average concentrations of formaldehyde and benzene of all tested mosquito coils exceeded Good Class of IAQO. Nitrogen oxides were the most abundant gas pollutants relating to candle burning among all target air pollutants. The candle made of gel (CAN 4) would emit more air pollutants than the paraffin candles (CAN 1, 2 and 3) and beeswax candle (CAN 5). Among five candles tested, CAN 5, the one made of beeswax, generated relatively smaller amount of air pollutants. It was noted that the concentrations of most VOCs from candles combustion were below the detection limit.

  11. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. PMID:26998602

  12. Assessment of the risk of failure of high voltage substations due to environmental conditions and pollution on insulators.

    PubMed

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-07-01

    Pollution on electrical insulators is one of the greatest causes of failure of substations subjected to high levels of salinity and environmental pollution. Considering leakage current as the main indicator of pollution on insulators, this paper focuses on establishing the effect of the environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators and determining the significant change in the magnitude of the pollution on the insulators during dry and humid periods. Hierarchical segmentation analysis was used to establish the effect of environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to determine the significant changes in the magnitude of the pollution due to climate periods. An important result was the discovery that leakage current was more common on insulators during dry periods than humid ones. There was also a higher risk of failure due to pollution during dry periods. During the humid period, various temperatures and wind directions produced a small change in the risk of failure. As a technical result, operators of electrical substations can now identify the cause of an increase in risk of failure due to pollution in the area. The research provides a contribution towards the behaviour of the leakage current under conditions similar to those of the Colombian Caribbean coast and how they affect the risk of failure of the substation due to pollution. PMID:25634366

  13. Light pollution modelling the UK Highways Agency new environmental policy, inc. astronomical impact of blue-rich LED luminaires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddiley, Christopher James

    2015-08-01

    The Highways Agency are replacing their policy of full cut off class G6 road lighting specification on motorways (originally based on the author’s work), and are adopting a categorised environmental impact based point system that can accommodate technical advances, such as LED lighting. The Skyglow component of this will be based on the modelling of skyglow versus cut-off angle, developed for determining the relative light pollution environmental impact of different streetlight designs, by the author. Further modelling has been done concerning the effect of LED lighting, which potentially, has highly directional properties. But increasingly used blue rich colour temperatures may increase skyglow by 5 fold, compared to traditional lighting. This is due to enhanced reflection of vegetation and greatly increased atmospheric molecular Rayleigh scattering; a potential astronomical environmental disaster.Prior to this, the author carried out a dark sky survey of the Malvern Hills area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB), relating it to the same light pollution model. The results confirm the general predictions of the model and also clearly illustrate the relative significance of different designs of light sources at different distances, to the dark sky environment.The paper also briefly describes the results from the same model adapted to study the night-time environmental impact of a proposed very large sea based wind farm project in the English Channel, as a part of the planning process.

  14. Inefficiency of sanitation measures aboard commercial aircraft: environmental pollution and disease.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, R

    1977-07-01

    Recent investigations at Tokyo International Airport have proven that environmental pollution resulting from the inefficient disposal of human excretion aboard aircraft is an important problem from the standpoint of quarantine. It is, therefore, recommended that the worldwide aviation industry take immediate measures to improve conditions and eliminate this problem, which has thus far been ignored by aircraft designers, airport administration, and CAB personnel. PMID:329830

  15. Environmental Studies, Conference Report, Secondary Schools Science Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    In addition to complete texts or summaries of a number of papers considering the scope and relevance of "environmental studies" to the secondary and elementary school programs in Victoria (Australia), many teaching techniques are described. Techniques for measuring carrying capacity of roadways, examining published air pollution data, estimation…

  16. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue. PMID:23632992

  17. Urban air pollution and climate change as environmental risk factors of respiratory allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; D'Amato, M; Liccardi, G

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma appears to be increasing worldwide, and people living in urban areas more frequently experience these conditions than those living in rural areas. One of the several causes of the rise in morbidity associated with allergic respiratory diseases is the increased presence of outdoor air pollutants resulting from more intense energy consumption and exhaust emissions from cars and other vehicles. Urban air pollution is now a serious public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm epidemiologic evidence that air pollution adversely affects lung function in asthmatics. Damage to airway mucous membranes and impaired mucociliary clearance caused by air pollution may facilitate access of inhaled allergens to the cells of the immune system, thus promoting sensitization of the airway. Consequently, a more severe immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated response to aeroallergens and airway inflammation could account for increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in polluted urban areas. The most abundant components of urban air pollution in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are airborne particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. In addition, the earth's temperature is increasing, mainly as a result of anthropogenic factors (e.g., fossil fuel combustion and greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply, transport, industry, and agriculture), and climate change alters the concentration and distribution of air pollutants and interferes with the seasonal presence of allergenic pollens in the atmosphere by prolonging these periods. PMID:20461963

  18. Criteria pollutant and acid aerosol characterization study, Catano, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Edgerton, E.S.; Harlos, D.P.; Sune, J.M.; Akland, G.G.; Vallero, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    The primary objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization Study (CPAACS) was to measure criteria pollutant concentrations and acid aerosol concentrations in and around the Ward of Catano, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 1994. Continuous air sampling for criteria pollutants was performed at three fixed stations and one moobile station that was deployed to four locations. Air samples for acid aerosol analyses and particulate matter measurements were collected at three sites. Semicontinuous sulfate analysis was performed at the primary site. Continuous measurements of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity were also made at each site. The study was conducted from June 1 through September 30, 1994.

  19. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. II. Experimental exposure to selected pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Mokady, Ofer; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Abelson, Avigdor

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to establish biomonitoring programmes for routine and emergency monitoring of littoral marine habitats, organismal responses are examined in two ways: firstly, in controlled, laboratory studies, where the response may be accurately characterized; secondly, in field-collected specimens, with the hope of obtaining evidence regarding disturbances such as the ones caused by anthropogenic pollution. In many cases, there is a gap between the two types of studies, and different species and experimental and/or analytical procedures are used. In a series of recent studies, we have examined responses of field-collected molluscs, and interpreted our findings with respect to pollution. Here, we report a complementary study, in which molluscs collected from reference and polluted sites were exposed to cadmium or DDT under controlled laboratory conditions. Using fluorescent probes and microfluorometry, we examined the effect of these pollutants on paracellular permeability, lysosomal stability and metabolic status of mitochondria. Our findings indicate that molluscs from polluted sites are less affected, showing significantly smaller alterations in all examined parameters. These findings are in line with previous results showing higher levels of activity of cellular defence mechanisms in molluscs collected from polluted sites. Taken together, the results may be used to establish a reliable biomonitoring system. The sensitivity of the suggested methodology is also expected to qualify such a system for early warning.

  20. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  1. PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

  2. A gene to organism approach--assessing the impact of environmental pollution in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) females and larvae.

    PubMed

    Asker, Noomi; Carney Almroth, Bethanie; Albertsson, Eva; Coltellaro, Mariateresa; Bignell, John Paul; Hanson, Niklas; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Fagerholm, Björn; Parkkonen, Jari; Wijkmark, Emma; Frenzilli, Giada; Förlin, Lars; Sturve, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    A broad biomarker approach was applied to study the effects of marine pollution along the Swedish west coast using the teleost eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) as the sentinel species. Measurements were performed on different biological levels, from the molecular to the organismal, including measurements of messenger RNA (mRNA), proteins, cellular and tissue changes, and reproductive success. Results revealed that eelpout captured in Stenungsund had significantly higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, high levels of both cytochrome P4501A and diablo homolog mRNA, and high prevalence of dead larvae and nuclear damage in erythrocytes. Eelpout collected in Göteborg harbor displayed extensive macrovesicular steatosis, whereby the majority of hepatocytes were affected throughout the liver, which could indicate an effect on lipid metabolism. Results also indicate that eelpouts collected at polluted sites might have an affected immune system, with lower mRNA expression of genes involved in the innate immune system and a higher number of lymphocytes. Biomarker assessment also was performed on livers dissected from unborn eelpout larvae collected from the ovary of the females. No significant differences were noted, which might indicate that the larvae to some extent are protected from effects of environmental pollutants. In conclusion, usage of the selected set of biological markers, covering responses from gene to organism, has demonstrated site-specific biomarker patterns that provided a broad and comprehensive picture of the impact of environmental stressors. PMID:25663503

  3. Supernumerary chromosomes on Southern European populations of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: Consequence of environmental pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Alexandra; Chaves, Raquel; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitília; Ruano, Francisco; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-08-01

    Cerastoderma edule (Cardiidae) has a diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38, its karyotype consisting of 12 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric and 3 telocentric chromosome pairs. Hyperdiploid cells had previously been observed in two populations of the Northern Galician coasts (northwest of Spain). The supernumerary chromosomes being easily distinguished by their reduced differentiated size and by their intra- and inter-individual variability. After the recent observation of 35% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the Southern Galician coasts (Vigo) and 15% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the south of Portugal (Ria Formosa, Algarve), we attempted, in this paper, an elucidation of the nature of these supernumerary chromosomes, by differential banding technique with restriction enzymes on these hyperdiploid cells. Analysis of the restriction enzyme banding of the 2 n > 38 karyotypes led us to propose the occurrence of a chromosomal fission event involving the largest submetacentric chromosome pair. This study represents the first description of the occurrence of a possible chromosomal fission in marine bivalves. Different levels of environmental pollution are suggested as possible explanation for the differences observed on the proportion of hyperdiploid cells between the Southern Portugal population and the three Galician ones.

  4. Biodegradation of environmental pollutants by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Tien, M.; Wright, D.S.; Aust, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes a unique hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidase capable of degrading lignin, a highly complex, chemically resistant, non-repeating heteropolymer. Due to its ability to generate carbon-centered radicals, this enzyme is able to non-specifically catalyze numerous cleavage reactions producing smaller lignin-derived compounds which may then be metabolized by more conventional enzyme systems. The authors have proposed that the lignin-degrading system of this fungus may also have the ability to degrade environmentally persistent organopollutants. In the study P. chrysosporium is shown to able to degrade carbon-14 labeled 1,1'-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the gamma isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) as well as the non-halo-genated pollutant benzo(a)pyrene to (14)C-carbon dioxide.

  5. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Jena, K B; Verlecar, X N; Chainy, G B N

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress indices were measured in gills and digestive glands of Perna viridis collected from three coastal locations in Goa i.e., Bambolim, Marmugao Harbour and Malim. In addition to lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase and two non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) were investigated in order to understand their variation with respect to pollution status of the sampling locations. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of both the tissues at Mormugao Harbour and Malim, suggesting that the animals at these two locations are at higher level of oxidative stress as compared to those at Bambolim. Conversely, low levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, observed at Mormugao Harbour and Malim indicate that the animals may use these compounds to counteract stress in the tissues. This study shows that changes in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione in tissues of P. viridis can be used as molecular biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs. PMID:18849055

  6. Designing of Multiphase Fly Ash/MWCNT/PU Composite Sheet Against Electromagnetic Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujral, Parth; Varshney, Swati; Dhawan, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Fly ash and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced multiphase polyurethane (PU) composite sheets have been fabricated by using a solution casting technique. Utilization of fly ash was the prime objective in order to reduce environmental pollution and to enhance the shielding properties of PU polymer. Our study proves that fly ash particles with MWCNTs in a PU matrix leads to novel hybrid high performance electromagnetic shielding interference material. Scanning electron microscopy confirms the existence of fly ash particles along with MWCNTs in a PU matrix. This multiphase composite shows total shielding effectiveness of 35.8 dB (>99.99% attenuation) in the Ku-band (12.4-18 GHz) frequency range. This is attributed to high dielectric losses of reinforcement present in the polymers matrix. The Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm has been applied to calculate the electromagnetic attributes and dielectric parameters of the PU samples by using scattering parameters (S 11, S 22, S 12, S 21). The synthesized multiphase composites were further characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis.

  7. The role of land use and environmental factors on microbial pollution of mountainous limestone aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, V.; Celico, F.; Petrella, E.; Marzullo, G.; Naclerio, G.

    2008-07-01

    Limestone aquifers in Southern Italy are often affected by bacterial contamination produced by pasture and agriculture. The main goals of this study were (1) to analyze the role of land use and environmental factors on microbial contamination and, (2) to identify, at field scale, the most suitable indicator of fecal pollution, by comparing fecal coliforms and fecal enterococci. Analyzing surface and spring water, it was noted that both fecal indicators showed a significant decrease during the period characterized by freezing and/or freeze-thaw intervals. The data analysis shows that fecal coliforms are characterized by a significant decrease in population (3 orders of magnitude, at least) during the freezing period, while fecal enterococci are temporarily inhibited. A taxonomic classification of fecal enterococci detected in spring water samples was performed by the API 20 Strep system and by sequencing of the ribosomal 16S DNA genes. The results showed that freezing conditions did not cause any significant change on the set of enterococcal species.

  8. Macrophage phagocytosis: effects of environmental pollutants, alcohol, cigarette smoke, and other external factors

    PubMed Central

    Karavitis, John; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of a pathogen to evade host immunity successfully, in contrast to the host's capacity to defend itself against a foreign invader, is a complex struggle, in which eradication of infection is dictated by a robust immunologic response. Often, there are external factors that can alter the outcome by tipping the scale to benefit pathogen establishment rather than resolution by the host's defense system. These external sources, such a cigarettes, alcohol, or environmental pollutants, can negatively influence the effectiveness of the immune system's response to a pathogen. The observed suppression of immune function can be attributed to dysregulated cytokine and chemokine production, the loss of migratory potential, or the inability to phagocytose pathogens by immune cells. This review will focus on the mechanisms involved during the toxin-induced suppression of phagocytosis. The accumulated data support the importance of studying the mechanisms of phagocytosis following exposure to these factors, in that this effect alone cannot only leave the host susceptible to infection but also promote alterations in many other macrophage functions necessary for pathogen clearance and restoration of homeostasis. PMID:21878544

  9. Technological applications of chlorophyll a fluorescence for the assessment of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Buonasera, K; Lambreva, M; Rea, G; Touloupakis, E; Giardi, M T

    2011-09-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence has been extensively studied over the last few years. As demonstrated, this phenomenon is closely related to the state of photosystem II, which plays a leading role in the photosynthetic process, and therefore it has become a powerful tool to investigate this complex and any damage occurring in it as a result of physical or chemical stresses. This means that by using photosynthetic organisms as biological probes, one can consider chlorophyll a fluorescence as one of the techniques of choice to reveal the presence of some hazardous toxicants widely spread in the environment. Herbicides, pesticides, and heavy metals, whose concentration in water and food products is generally subject to extremely severe restrictions, are a concrete example of compounds detectable by chlorophyll a fluorescence. These dangerous substances react with the photosystem II, modifying the fluorescence emitted and giving responses which vary in a concentration-dependent manner. The possibility of performing easy, fast, and direct measurements of the fluorescence, even under light conditions, has opened new frontiers for the analysis in situ of pollutants. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the different techniques based on chlorophyll a fluorescence spectrometry, focusing in particular on those which represented the starting point for applications addressed to the assessment of toxic compounds in environmental samples. PMID:21701849

  10. Designing of Multiphase Fly Ash/MWCNT/PU Composite Sheet Against Electromagnetic Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujral, Parth; Varshney, Swati; Dhawan, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced multiphase polyurethane (PU) composite sheets have been fabricated by using a solution casting technique. Utilization of fly ash was the prime objective in order to reduce environmental pollution and to enhance the shielding properties of PU polymer. Our study proves that fly ash particles with MWCNTs in a PU matrix leads to novel hybrid high performance electromagnetic shielding interference material. Scanning electron microscopy confirms the existence of fly ash particles along with MWCNTs in a PU matrix. This multiphase composite shows total shielding effectiveness of 35.8 dB (>99.99% attenuation) in the Ku-band (12.4-18 GHz) frequency range. This is attributed to high dielectric losses of reinforcement present in the polymers matrix. The Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm has been applied to calculate the electromagnetic attributes and dielectric parameters of the PU samples by using scattering parameters ( S 11, S 22, S 12, S 21). The synthesized multiphase composites were further characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis.

  11. Chromatographic method for quick estimation of DNA interaction potency of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-Lai; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Liao, Xiang-Jun; Zhu, Ji-Ping

    2009-10-01

    The DNA interaction potency of a chemical has been defined in the present study as the degree of a chemical's ability to interact with DNA. An estimation method of such a potency has been established based on the peak reduction of an oligonucleotide probe resulting from its interaction with chemicals based on high-performance liquid chromatography. A DNA interaction potency equivalency (PEQ) also has been proposed to evaluate the relative interaction potency of test chemicals against benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE). Five known direct DNA interaction chemicals were employed to demonstrate the method. Two known inactive chemicals were used as negative controls. Both the potency and PEQ(50) values (PEQ of testing chemical at 50% of the probe peak reduction) of these five chemicals were determined as BPDE > phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) > tetrachlorohydroquinone (Cl4HQ) > methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) > styrene-7,8-oxide (SO). Among the reactive chemicals, MMS was found to break the oligonucleotide into smaller fragments, whereas BPDE, PGE, and SO form covalent adducts with the oligonucleotide. In the latter case, the formation of multi-chemical-oligonucleotide adducts also was observed by mass spectrometry. The method was employed to estimate the DNA interaction potency equivalency of diesel vehicle exhaust gas to demonstrate the applicability of this approach in evaluating the interaction potency of environmental pollutants in both gas and liquid phases. PMID:19432508

  12. The impact of environmental and agricultural pollutants on the prevalence of allergic diseases in people from Qassim, KSA

    PubMed Central

    Elshabrawy, Walaa Othman; Ismail, Hisham Abdel-Sadek; Hassanein, Khaled Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background There are multiple environmental factors that influence a sensitized (IgE antibody positive) patient’s predisposition to manifest allergic symptoms following allergen exposure. The majority of allergens are known to induce morbidity with chronic symptoms such as rhinitis, pruritis, dermatitis and urticaria. Aim To study the impact of environmental and agricultural pollutants with different pollens on the immunological, hematological and biochemical markers and to determine the prevalence of sensitization to allergens among exposed individuals as well as to identify the eliciting allergens. Subjects and Methods Ninety six highly exposed individuals to environmental and agricultural pollution in addition to 20 as controls were selected. A solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the EUROLINE test kit were used for the quantitative determination of total IgE concentration and semi-quantitative in vitro assay of human IgE antibodies to some of the inhalant, ingestant and contactant allergens in serum samples, respectively. Percentage and absolute eosinophil counts and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results Thirteen (13.5%) out of the 96 studied highly exposed subjects were manifesting allergic symptoms. Higher significant total serum IgE levels and absolute eosinophil counts in groups 1 and 3 of the highly exposed individuals compared to the control group were found (p1=0.00, p3=0.001 and p1=0.016, p3=0.028, respectively). Higher sensitization with inhalant Timothy grass, Aspergillus fumigatus, Der. Farinae and Olive; ingestant Egg yolk, Mango, Strawberry and Codfish and with contactant Latex/plastic and Crude oil was found in the studied groups compared with the controls. Conclusion The present data suggest that the highly exposed subjects to pollution are at high risk of developing an allergy. For the screening of those with suspected allergen sensitization, the determination of specific IgE antibodies is a suitable marker of type I

  13. Assessing uncertain human exposure to ambient air pollution using environmental models in the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerharz, L. E.; Pebesma, E.; Denby, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ambient air quality can have significant impact on human health by causing respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. Thereby, the pollutant concentration a person is exposed to can differ considerably between individuals depending on their daily routine and movement patterns. Using a straight forward approach this exposure can be estimated by integration of individual space-time paths and spatio-temporally resolved ambient air quality data. To allow a realistic exposure assessment, it is furthermore important to consider uncertainties due to input and model errors. In this work, we present a generic, web-based approach for estimating individual exposure by integration of uncertain position and air quality information implemented as a web service. Following the Model Web initiative envisioning an infrastructure for deploying, executing and chaining environmental models as services, existing models and data sources for e.g. air quality, can be used to assess exposure. Therefore, the service needs to deal with different formats, resolutions and uncertainty representations provided by model or data services. Potential mismatch can be accounted for by transformation of uncertainties and (dis-)aggregation of data under consideration of changes in the uncertainties using components developed in the UncertWeb project. In UncertWeb, the Model Web vision is extended to an Uncertainty-enabled Model Web, where services can process and communicate uncertainties in the data and models. The propagation of uncertainty to the exposure results is quantified using Monte Carlo simulation by combining different realisations of positions and ambient concentrations. Two case studies were used to evaluate the developed exposure assessment service. In a first study, GPS tracks with a positional uncertainty of a few meters, collected in the urban area of Münster, Germany were used to assess exposure to PM10 (particulate matter smaller 10 µm). Air quality data was provided by an

  14. Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

    2013-09-01

    Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits. PMID:23423551

  15. Role of environmental pollutants in liver physiology: special references to peoples living in the oil drilling sites of Assam.

    PubMed

    Dey, Tapan; Gogoi, Kabita; Unni, Balagopalan; Bharadwaz, Moonmee; Kalita, Munmi; Ozah, Dibyajyoti; Kalita, Manoj; Kalita, Jatin; Baruah, Pranab Kumar; Bora, Thaneswar

    2015-01-01

    The populations residing near polluted sites are more prone to various types of diseases. The important causes of air pollution are the suspended particulate matter, respirable suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. As limited information is available enumerating the effect of these pollutants on liver physiology of the population living near the polluted sites; in the present study, we tried to investigate their effect on liver of the population residing near the oil drilling sites since birth. In this study, a randomly selected 105 subjects (46 subjects from oil drilling site and 61 subjects from control site) aged above 30 years were taken under consideration. The particulate matter as well as the gaseous pollutants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, were analyzed through a respirable dust sampler. The level of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase enzymes in serum were measured by spectrophotometer. The generalized regression model studies suggests a higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter, suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide lowers the alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.0001) by 3.5 times (95% CI 3.1-3.9), 1.5 times (95% CI 1.4-1.6) and 12 times (95% CI 10.74-13.804), respectively in the exposed group. The higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in air was associated with increase in alanine transaminase level (p<0.0001) by 0.8 times (95% CI 0.589-1.049) and by 2.8 times (95% CI 2.067-3.681) respectively in the exposed group. The increase in nitrogen dioxide level was also associated with increase in aspartate transaminase level (p<0.0001) by 2.5 times (95% CI 1.862-3.313) in the exposed group as compared to control group. Thus, the study reveals that long-term exposure to the environmental pollutants may lead to liver abnormality or injury of populations living in polluted sites. PMID:25874634

  16. Role of Environmental Pollutants in Liver Physiology: Special References to Peoples Living in the Oil Drilling Sites of Assam

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Tapan; Gogoi, Kabita; Unni, Balagopalan; Bharadwaz, Moonmee; Kalita, Munmi; Ozah, Dibyajyoti; Kalita, Manoj; Kalita, Jatin; Baruah, Pranab Kumar; Bora, Thaneswar

    2015-01-01

    The populations residing near polluted sites are more prone to various types of diseases. The important causes of air pollution are the suspended particulate matter, respirable suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. As limited information is available enumerating the effect of these pollutants on liver physiology of the population living near the polluted sites; in the present study, we tried to investigate their effect on liver of the population residing near the oil drilling sites since birth. In this study, a randomly selected 105 subjects (46 subjects from oil drilling site and 61 subjects from control site) aged above 30 years were taken under consideration. The particulate matter as well as the gaseous pollutants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, were analyzed through a respirable dust sampler. The level of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase enzymes in serum were measured by spectrophotometer. The generalized regression model studies suggests a higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter, suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide lowers the alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.0001) by 3.5 times (95% CI 3.1-3.9), 1.5 times (95% CI 1.4 - 1.6) and 12 times (95% CI 10.74 -13.804), respectively in the exposed group. The higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in air was associated with increase in alanine transaminase level (p<0.0001) by 0.8 times (95% CI 0.589-1.049) and by 2.8 times (95% CI 2.067-3.681) respectively in the exposed group. The increase in nitrogen dioxide level was also associated with increase in aspartate transaminase level (p<0.0001) by 2.5 times (95% CI 1.862 – 3.313) in the exposed group as compared to control group. Thus, the study reveals that long-term exposure to the environmental pollutants may lead to liver abnormality or injury of populations living in polluted sites. PMID:25874634

  17. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    PubMed Central

    Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER) is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs) associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model). Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km) could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27). Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution

  18. DEVELOPMENTS IN NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGICAL DATA COLLECTION PROGRAMS AS RELATED TO EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the next decade, the National Weather Service (NWS) will be upgrading its meteorological instrumentation and data dissemination procedures. Because these changes will affect the operation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) air pollution models, the project...

  19. Can Pollution Problems Be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H. )

    2000-12-01

    It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.

  20. A vision of the environmental and occupational noise pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Foo Keng

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise remains a complex and fragmented interplay between industrialization, population growth, technological developments, and the living environment. Next to the circulatory diseases and cancer, noise pollution has been cited as the third epidemic cause of psychological and physiological disorders internationally. A reliable and firm relationship between the cumulative health implications with the traffic annoyance and occupational noise has been established. This agenda has called for an integrated, coordinated, and participatory approach to the reliable protection of noise interference. Despite several fragmented policies, legislation and global efforts have been addressed; the noise pollution complaints have been traditionally neglected in developing countries, especially in Malaysia. This paper was undertaken to postulate an initial platform to address the dynamic pressures, gigantic challenges, and tremendous impacts of noise pollution scenario in Malaysia. The emphasis is speculated on the traffic interference and assessment of industrial and occupational noise. The fundamental importance of noise monitoring and modeling is proposed. Additionally, the confronting conservation program and control measure for noise pollution control are laconically elucidated. PMID:25387540

  1. TRP channels and traffic-related environmental pollution-induced pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Armen N.; Fanick, E. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollutant exposures are major risk factors for adverse health outcomes, with increased morbidity and mortality in humans. Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the major harmful components of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure to DE affects several physiological systems, including the airways, and pulmonary diseases are increased in highly populated urban areas. Hence, there are urgent needs to (1) create newer and lesser polluting fuels, (2) improve exhaust aftertreatments and reduce emissions, and (3) understand mechanisms of actions for toxic effects of both conventional and cleaner diesel fuels on the lungs. These steps could aid the development of diagnostics and interventions to prevent the negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on the pulmonary system. Exhaust from conventional, and to a lesser extent, clean fuels, contains particulate matter (PM) and more than 400 additional chemical constituents. The major toxic constituents are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PM and PAHs could potentially act via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In this review, we will first discuss the associations between DE from conventional as well as clean fuel technologies and acute and chronic airway inflammation. We will then review possible activation and/or potentiation of TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels by PM and PAHs. Finally, we will discuss and summarize recent findings on the mechanisms whereby TRPs could control the link between DE and airway inflammation, which is a primary determinant leading to pulmonary disease. PMID:26837756

  2. TRP channels and traffic-related environmental pollution-induced pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Akopian, Armen N; Fanick, E Robert; Brooks, Edward G

    2016-05-01

    Environmental pollutant exposures are major risk factors for adverse health outcomes, with increased morbidity and mortality in humans. Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the major harmful components of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure to DE affects several physiological systems, including the airways, and pulmonary diseases are increased in highly populated urban areas. Hence, there are urgent needs to (1) create newer and lesser polluting fuels, (2) improve exhaust aftertreatments and reduce emissions, and (3) understand mechanisms of actions for toxic effects of both conventional and cleaner diesel fuels on the lungs. These steps could aid the development of diagnostics and interventions to prevent the negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on the pulmonary system. Exhaust from conventional, and to a lesser extent, clean fuels, contains particulate matter (PM) and more than 400 additional chemical constituents. The major toxic constituents are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PM and PAHs could potentially act via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In this review, we will first discuss the associations between DE from conventional as well as clean fuel technologies and acute and chronic airway inflammation. We will then review possible activation and/or potentiation of TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels by PM and PAHs. Finally, we will discuss and summarize recent findings on the mechanisms whereby TRPs could control the link between DE and airway inflammation, which is a primary determinant leading to pulmonary disease. PMID:26837756

  3. Delayed geochemical hazard: a tool for risk assessment of heavy metal polluted sites and case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mingxia; Feng, Liu; He, Juanni; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Minying; Wang, Jing

    2015-04-28

    A concept of delayed geochemical hazard (DGH) was proposed instead of chemical time bomb to represent an ecological and environmental hazard caused by sudden reactivation and release of long-term accumulated pollutants in soil/sediment system due to the change of physicochemical conditions or the decrease of environmental capacity. A DGH model was also established to provide a quantitative tool to assess and predict potential environmental risk caused by heavy metals and especially its dynamic evolutions. A case study of DGH was carried out for a mercury-polluted area in southern China. Results of soil column experiment showed that DGH was directly resulted from the transformation and release of pollutant from the releasable species to the active ones through a mechanism of chain reaction. The most possible chain reaction was summarized as HgE+C+F+O+R→HgE+C+F+O→HgE+C+F→HgE+C→HgE. Although 8.3% of the studied area with the total releasable content of mercury (TRCPHg) exceeded the DGH critical point value of 16.667mg/kg, with the possibility of DGH burst, the area was classified as low-risk of DGH. This confirmed that DGH model could contribute to the risk assessment and early warning of soil/sediment pollution. PMID:25661167

  4. A hands-on approach to teaching environmental awareness and pollutant remediation to undergraduate chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman Ashraf, S.; Rauf, M. A.; Abdullah, Fatema H.

    2012-07-01

    Background : One of the unfortunate side effects of the industrial revolution has been the constant assault of the environment with various forms of pollution. Lately, this issue has taken a more critical dimension as prospects of global climate change and irreversible ecosystem damage are becoming a reality. Purpose : College graduates (especially chemists), should therefore not only be aware of these issues but also be taught how chemistry can help reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, the role and importance of chemistry in sustainable development and solving environmental problems needs to be highlighted. Programme/intervention description : To this effect, we have designed a simple undergraduate experiment that is based on the green chemistry approach of using photolytic oxidation to degrade a model organic pollutant. This approach used UV light and hydrogen peroxide to produce reactive hydroxyl radicals, which subsequently break down and degrade Acridine Orange (model pollutant). The dye degradation was monitored spectrophotometrically and the apparent rate of decolouration was found to be first order. Possible radical initiated mechanisms that may be involved in this remediation experiment have been used to explain the observed dye decolouration. Sample : To test the usefulness of this newly developed experiment, we incorporated it as a module into a second year 'Professional skills' chemistry course with an enrollment of six female students. Anonymous survey of the students after the completion of the module was very positive and indicated that objectives of the experiment were satisfactorily achieved. Results : We believe this experiment not only raises students' awareness about green chemistry and environmental issues, but also teaches them valuable experimental skills such as experimental design, data manipulation and basic kinetics. Survey of students who were taught this unit in a second year course was very positive and supported the usefulness

  5. Sonochemistry in environmental remediation. 2. Heterogeneous sonophotocatalytic oxidation processes for the treatment of pollutants in water.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, Yusuf G

    2005-11-15

    Recent advances in advanced oxidation technologies for applications in environmental remediation involve the use of acoustic cavitation. Cavitation is the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of gas- or vapor-filled microbubbles formed from acoustical wave-induced compression/ rarefaction in a body of liquid. Cavitation is effective in treating most liquid-phase pollutants but it is highly energy intensive and not economical or practically feasible when used alone. One of the most interesting topics in the recent advances in environmental sonochemistry is the intensification of the ultrasonic degradation process by coupling ultrasound with other types of energy, chemical oxidants, or photocataysts. In Part II of this series, a critical review of the applications of ultrasound in environmental remediation focusing on the simultaneous or hybrid use of ultrasonic irradiation and photocatalysis in aqueous solutions, namely, sonophotocatalytic oxidation processes, is presented. PMID:16323748

  6. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Major river systems in Europe are potential sinks for environmental pollutions and therefore reflect the consequences of European industrialization and urbanization. Surface water pollution is a major concern for the health of the population and its related ecosystems as well as for the water quality. Within the variety of different typical pollutants in a river watershed, the metallic fraction embraces many toxic/dangerous contaminants. Each of these elements comprises different sources and follows specific processes throughout its pathways from its origin to and within the river system. But the detection, estimation and follow up of the different contaminants is highly complex. Physico-chemical techniques such as environmental and rock magnetics are powerful complementary tools to traditional methods because they comprise the possibility to trace the entire metal fraction and do offer the possibility to perform spatio-temporal analyze campaigns directly in the field and on a relative high number of samples from both the river and the adjacent areas (suspended particular matter, soils, dust, sediments, etc). In this study, we took advantages of the recent results on the Seine river (France) that have shown the high potential of environmental magnetic methods to estimate the metal fraction in suspended particular matter samples, and to allow the discrimination of its natural detrital, biogenic or anthropogenic origin (see parallel EGU abstract of Kayvantash et al. in this session). We focused on a suburban agricultural area west of Paris (Pierrelaye-Bessancourt) adjacent to the Seine river, which suffers from a high accumulation of heavy metal pollutants caused by long-term historical irrigation with urban waste waters. For the time being, these heavy metals seem to be geochemically fixed in the surface layer mainly by the soil organic matter. Future land use planning, however, arises questions on the fate of these pollutants and their potential remobilization by

  7. E-Alerts: Energy (environmental studies). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discussed air, noise, water, and solid waste pollution and pollution control from energy resource development, fuel production, energy production, and energy use; and environmental impacts of energy production and use.

  8. [The erosion of asbestos cement roofs: an important source of environmental pollution].

    PubMed

    Chiappino, G; Venerandi, I

    1991-01-01

    A microscopic investigation on samples of asbestos cement roofs weathered from 2 months to 15 years or more was carried out. Surface alterations begin as early as 2 months, are well visible after a few years and become very severe after 5-10 years. The deterioration of the cement structure, due mainly to the chemical attack of the acid rains produces a release of fibres that is more evident with increasing duration of the exposure. The surface of the "old" roofs must be considered as important source of environmental pollution, that increases the total carcinogenic potential of the polluted atmosphere in a non-negligible way, considering also the enormous extension of the surfaces. Instead of replacing the roofs, adequate primers and sealants can be applied after careful preparatory cleaning: gross contamination of water and/or surrounding areas must be avoided by appropriate work procedures. The deteriorated materials containing amphiboles must be considered with priority. PMID:1770878

  9. A two-step electrodialysis method for DNA purification from polluted metallic environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mejía, José Luis; Martínez-Anaya, Claudia; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis; Dantán-González, Edgar

    2008-08-01

    Extracting DNA from samples of polluted environments using standard methods often results in low yields of poor-quality material unsuited to subsequent manipulation and analysis by molecular biological techniques. Here, we report a novel two-step electrodialysis-based method for the extraction of DNA from environmental samples. This technique permits the rapid and efficient isolation of high-quality DNA based on its acidic nature, and without the requirement for phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol cleanup and ethanol precipitation steps. Subsequent PCR, endonuclease restriction, and cloning reactions were successfully performed utilizing DNA obtained by electrodialysis, whereas some or all of these techniques failed using DNA extracted with two alternative methods. We also show that his technique is applicable to purify DNA from a range of polluted and nonpolluted samples. PMID:18601228

  10. EPA/OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT'S NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY/HUMAN STUDIES DIVISION INTERNET SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Studies Division conducts clinical and epidemiological research to improve the understanding of human health risks associated with environmental pollution. HSD is part of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory within the Office of Research and...

  11. Application of molecular markers to detect DNA damage caused by environmental pollutants in lichen species.

    PubMed

    Cansaran-Duman, D; Altunkaynak, E; Aslan, A; Büyük, I; Aras, S

    2015-01-01

    Pseudevernia furfuracea L. (Zopf), Peltigera praetextata (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Zopf, Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea longissima Ach. lichen species were used as bioindicators to assess the genotoxicity of air pollutants. In the present study, we examined significant environmetal pollutants and investigate how changes may lead to damage in DNA structure using RAPD markers. In the study area (Erzurum, Turkey), poor-quality lignite, which generates a large amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle matter, is used for domestic heating, and vehicles also contribute to air pollution. Control lichen samples were collected far from large urban and industrial settlements and transplanted to four polluted sites for 4, 8, or 12 months. The total soluble protein content of the examined four lichen species did not significantly change with exposure time (P < 0.05). The four lichen samples exposed to the pollutants for 8 months had the highest ratio of DNA changes. The ratio of band differences in P. praetextata was higher than that in the other three lichen species, possibly because it has broad leaves that accumulated more pollutants. The average incidences of polymorphism were 64.14, 54.58, 65.76, and 43.06% for P. furfuracea, P. praetextata, L. pulmonaria, and U. longissima, respectively. The genomic template stability (GTS) significantly decreased following exposure to pollutants. GTS ratios revealed that the highest value (98.36%) belonged to U. longissima samples from Site 1 (10 m) after 4 months of exposure, and the lowest values belonged to P. praetextata (73.58%) from Site 3 (100 m) after 8 months of exposure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of P. praetextata as an indicator of genotoxicity. PMID:25966238

  12. Air pollution, cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities: a pilot study with children and dogs.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C; Engle, Randall W

    2008-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n: 55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Seven healthy young dogs with similar exposure to Mexico City air pollution had brain MRI, measurement of mRNA abundance of two inflammatory genes cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin 1 beta in target brain areas, and histopathological evaluation of brain tissue. Children with no known risk factors for neurological or cognitive disorders residing in a polluted urban environment exhibited significant deficits in a combination of fluid and crystallized cognition tasks. Fifty-six percent of Mexico City children tested showed prefrontal white matter hyperintense lesions and similar lesions were observed in dogs (57%). Exposed dogs had frontal lesions with vascular subcortical pathology associated with neuroinflammation, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces, gliosis, and ultrafine particulate matter deposition. Based on the MRI findings, the prefrontal cortex was a target anatomical region in Mexico City children and its damage could have contributed to their cognitive dysfunction. The present work presents a groundbreaking, interdisciplinary methodology for addressing relationships between environmental pollution, structural brain alterations by MRI, and cognitive deficits/delays in healthy children. PMID:18550243

  13. German Environmental Survey 1998 (GerES III): environmental pollutants in blood of the German population.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kerstin; Kaus, Susanne; Krause, Christian; Lepom, Peter; Schulz, Christine; Seiwert, Margarete; Seifert, Bernd

    2002-05-01

    The German Environmental Survey was conducted for the third time in 1998 (GerES III). The probability sample of about 4800 subjects was selected to be representative for the German population with regard to region (East-/West-Germany), community size, age (18 to 69 years) and gender. Blood samples were taken from each study participant and questionnaires were used to get exposure-related information. Cadmium, lead, mercury, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p, p'-DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-180) were analysed in whole blood to document the extent, distribution, and determinants of exposure of the general population to these substances. The geometric means of Cd, Pb, and Hg in blood amounted to 0.44, 31, and 0.58 microgram/l, respectively. Smokers showed a Cadmium level of 1.1 micrograms/l and non-smokers a level of 0.28 microgram/l. The geometric mean of lead was higher in the blood of males than of females (36 micrograms/l vs. 26 micrograms/l). The concentration of mercury in blood depends on fish consumption and the number of teeth with amalgam fillings. The mean concentrations of HCB and p, p'-DDE in blood were 0.44 microgram/l and 1.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In East-Germany (the former GDR) the DDE concentration in blood was more than twice as high as in West-Germany. Geometric means for PCB were 0.42, 0.68 and 0.44 microgram/l for PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180, respectively. A marked increase of HCB, DDE and PCB levels with age could be observed. alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH could be detected in 1.7% and 5.2% of the samples only. beta-HCH was quantified in 34% of the samples with a 95th percentile of 0.5 microgram/l. PMID:12068749

  14. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed (‘lagged’) associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  15. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-08-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed ('lagged') associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  16. Transcriptional responses, metabolic activity and mouthpart deformities in natural populations of Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Planelló, Rosario; Servia, María J; Gómez-Sande, Pablo; Herrero, Óscar; Cobo, Fernando; Morcillo, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Biomarkers are an important tool in laboratory assays that link exposure or effect of specific toxicants to key molecular and cellular events, but they have not been widely used in invertebrate populations exposed to complex mixtures of environmental contaminants in their natural habitats. The present study focused on a battery of biomarkers and their comparative analysis in natural populations of the benthic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera), sampled in three differentially polluted rivers (the Con, Sar, and Louro in Galicia, Spain). In our study, some parameters were identified, such as hsp70 gene activity, GST enzymatic activity, total glycogen content and mouthpart deformities, which showed significant differences among populations from the three rivers that differed in the levels and types of sedimentary contaminants analyzed (metals, organic-chlorine pesticides, alkylphenols, pharmaceutical, and personal care products). In contrast to these sensitive biomarkers, other parameters showed no significant differences (hsc70 gene, EcR gene, P450 gene, RNA:DNA ratio, total protein content), and were stable even when comparing field and nonexposed laboratory populations. The hsp70 gene seems to be particularly sensitive to conditions of pollutant exposure, while its constitutive counterpart hsc70 showed invariable expression, suggesting that the hsc70/hsp70 ratio may be a potential indicator of polluted environments. Although further studies are required to understand the correlation between molecular responses and the ecological effects of pollutants on natural populations, the results provide new data about the biological responses to multiple-stressor environments. This field study adds new molecular endpoints, including gene expression, as suitable tools that, complementing other ecotoxicological parameters, may help to improve the methodologies of freshwater monitoring under the increasing burden of xenobiotics. PMID:23893657

  17. [Study on strategies of pollution prevention in coastal city of Zhejiang Province based on scenario analysis].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin-Ping; Chen, Lü-Jun; Du, Peng-Fei; Qian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Scenario analysis was used to study the environmental burden in a coastal city of Zhejiang province under different patterns of economic development. The aim of this research is to propose advices on decision making by illustrating how to make emissions reduced by transforming the pattern of economic development in a developed coastal area, which had acquired the level of 70 000 yuan GDP per cap. At first, 18 heavy pollution industries were screened out, by referencing total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Then, a model of scenario analysis and the back-up calculation program were designed to study the sustainable development of the heavy pollution industries. With 2008 and 2015 as the reference year and the target year respectively, emissions of four pollutants mentioned above in the 18 heavy pollution industries in the city were analyzed under six scenarios. The total emissions of 4 pollutants should be reduced to an expectant degree, which is set as the constraint prerequisite of the scenario analysis. At last, some suggestions for decision-making are put forward, which include maintaining a moderate increase rate of GDP around 7%, strengthening the adjustment of economic structure, controlling the increasing rate of industrial added value of the industries with heavy pollution, optimizing the structure of industries with heavy pollution, decreasing the intensity of waste emission by implementing cleaner production to reduce emission produce at the source, and strengthening regulations on the operation of waste treatment plants to further promote the efficiency of waste treatment. Only by implementing such measures mentioned above, can the total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide of the 18 industries with heavy pollution in the city be reduced by a 10%, 10%, 5%, and 15% respectively based on the reference year. PMID:23487960

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants: Diversity and environmental aspects of hydrocarbon biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, R.M.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    The manufacture, transportation, and distribution of petroleum and chemical products during the last century has resulted in hydrocarbon-contamination becoming a major environmental problem. Most of the environmental inputs of petroleum are accommodated largely due to the capacities of microorganisms to biodegrade hydrocarbons. Bioremediation has gained significant political support among competing technologies for in situ cleanup of pollutants. In addition to its potential for local cleanup of contaminated water and soil, bioremediation may have a future role in solving problems on a global scale, including removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. This article examines in detail the following topics: bacterial and fungal metabolism of hydrocarbons; bioremediation of marine oil spills; site remediation; performance and regulatory oversight. In summary diverse microorganisms using diverse metabolic pathways have the capacities for degrading a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon structures in petroleum. Some pathways lead to detoxification and destruction of the pollutants whereas others activate potentially harmful compounds. In most cases of detoxification, environmental modification is used to stimulate the biodegradative activities of indigenous organisms. Biodegradation is emerging as an important cost-effective treatment for marine oil spills and contaminated sites. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollution during implementation of pro-environmental policy in Silesia region (Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Slawomir; Opała, Magdalena; Pawełczyk, Sławomira; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of research conducted within the project entitled "Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollutants during the implementation of pro-environmental policies in the area of Silesia" (acronym BIOPOL) is the reconstruction of climate changes and anthropogenic effects and monitoring of the influence of human activities related to industrial development and the introduction of pro-environmental policy. The analysis will concern the climatic and anthropogenic signals recorded in annual tree rings width of Scots pine and in the isotopic composition of wood and its compenents (such as alpha-cellulose and glucose). Only a few studies made a complex multiproxies analysis of the influence of industrial air pollutants on changes in the tree rings width and their isotopic composition in any selected region. In addition, research is usually for a period of industrial development, is a lack of analysis for the period of implementation of EU law and standards on air quality to Polish law. The research area are the forests close to 3 different industrial plants (chemical- nitrogen plants, steel mills, power plants), in Silesia, where operating companies have strategic importance for the region and country. By analyzing the structure of land in Silesia noted a significant advantage of forest land and agricultural land. A large percentage of forest land providing protection for residents in case of failure in any of the plants. A cloud of noxious fumes is possible in large part retained in the trees. Waste generated by the chemical industry, metallurgy and energy represent the largest proportion of waste generated in the region. Already in the beginning of 21stcentury, the Waste Management Plans for various cities in Silesia are set out various strategic objectives to 2015, including in the economic sector: the implementation of non-waste technology and less and the best available techniques (BAT), the introduction of the principles of "cleaner production". The BIOPOL

  20. Bulletin Boards for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford; Seim, Stuart S.

    The bulletin board and activity ideas presented in this handbook offer some attractive ways of exploring and studying various environmental issues. They stress the concept that man is but one element in the whole chain of being. Each chapter, devoted to one element apiece, begins with an overview of the natural resource situation and/or problem…

  1. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment benchmarking: Recommendations for Hanford`s environmental restoration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Most people agree that Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) are a critical first step in any pollution prevention activity. P2OAs are used to identify waste streams, examine the processes which generate waste, and discover ways to reduce this waste. Formerly called Process Waste Assessments (PWAs), P2OAs were originally developed by the Environmental Protection Agency for use by companies to examine their individual manufacturing processes, seeking process improvements which would reduce hazardous and material waste while saving money. The current status of the Hanford site makes traditional P2OAs/PWAs difficult. Hanford covers 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land with almost 200 hundred on and off-site waste generators and thousands of waste streams. Additionally, Hanford`s current mission of environmental restoration (ER) causes operations to be discontinuous and project oriented, unlike a production facility. Clearly, Hanford`s P2OA process must be able to handle and prioritize the number and uniqueness of D&D/ER waste streams in a manageable fashion. In order to determine an appropriate P2OA process, the Pollution Prevention group at Westinghouse Hanford Company benchmarked P2OA programs at other Department of Energy sites, reviewed guidelines from the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as examined a few facilities at Hanford already performing P2OAs. This process revealed that, although there has been significant discussion of the problem, very few organizations are actually conducting P2OAs on D&D/ER work. This paper presents the comparisons of the different programs that were found, details on the situation at Hanford, and makes recommendations for an efficient P2OA process for Hanford`s ER mission. These recommendations include: complete a P2OA process on the planned activity itself, keep the assessments simple, seek to overcome recycling barriers, and find a consistent way to show progress.

  2. A review of environmental and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wei, Yan-Li; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-10-01

    Rapid economic growth in South China (including Guangdong Province, Hong Kong, and Macau), particularly within the Pearl River Delta region, has resulted in severe pollution of the natural eco-environment in the last three decades. Large amounts of monitoring data on organic pollution in the Pearl River Delta have been accumulated, which allows us to conduct a fairly comprehensive assessment of the state of the Pearl River Delta and elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution on a regional scale. Of various causes for environmental deterioration, negative impact from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a global concern. This review examines the current levels and distribution patterns of several POPs, namely DDT (and its metabolites DDD and DDE), hexachlorocyclohexanes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in various environmental compartments of South China. The general information on environmental occurrence, regional behaviors, ecological effects, and human exposure of these POPs in this region are reviewed. PMID:23245873

  3. In vitro germination characteristics of maize pollen to detect biological activity of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pfahler, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro pollen germination in maize was evaluated as a method of assessing the mutagenic and physiological effects of environmental pollutants on higher organisms. The extent of mutations was effectively determined by testing sporophytes homozygous for the mutated allele. Physiological effects were effectively determined when chemical agents were added directly into the in vitro medium. Exposure of pollen grains during in vitro germination to ultraviolet radiation in the range 280-320 nm produced little or no change in the germination or rupture percentage but a sharp decrease in pollen tube growth after 1 hr.

  4. An interim report on remote sensing of environmental pollutants with a Fourier interference spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    A small Fourier interference spectrometer for sensing environmental pollutants from spacecraft has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The instrument is intended for obtaining high spectral resolution infrared absorption spectra in the 1.2 to 5.5 micron region at speeds sufficiently high for medium altitude orbital satellite surveys. The paper reviews basic details of the instrument servo and infrared detection systems, previously described, as well as recent developments. In particular, the data-handling system, data reduction techniques and optical tolerance problems are discussed. Preliminary results are included.

  5. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant--Part I: assessment of radioactive pollution.

    PubMed

    Righi, Serena; Lucialli, Patrizia; Bruzzi, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this investigation is to assess the radioactive pollution caused by a production plant of complex fertilizers (that is to say containing nitrogen, phosphorus and, in some cases, potassium). Firstly, the authors determine the concentrations of natural radioactivity present in raw materials, end products and wastes of the industrial plant. Then, they carry out an assessment of radioactive releases into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as of their significance from the environmental point of view. The second part of the investigation will be aimed at assessing the annual effective doses to plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site. PMID:15878416

  6. Omics and Environmental Science Genomic Approaches With Natural Fish Populations From Polluted Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bozinovic, Goran; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptomics and population genomics are two complementary genomic approaches that can be used to gain insight into pollutant effects in natural populations. Transcriptomics identify altered gene expression pathways while population genomics approaches more directly target the causative genomic polymorphisms. Neither approach is restricted to a pre-determined set of genes or loci. Instead, both approaches allow a broad overview of genomic processes. Transcriptomics and population genomic approaches have been used to explore genomic responses in populations of fish from polluted environments and have identified sets of candidate genes and loci that appear biologically important in response to pollution. Often differences in gene expression or loci between polluted and reference populations are not conserved among polluted populations suggesting a biological complexity that we do not yet fully understand. As genomic approaches become less expensive with the advent of new sequencing and genotyping technologies, they will be more widely used in complimentary studies. However, while these genomic approaches are immensely powerful for identifying candidate gene and loci, the challenge of determining biological mechanisms that link genotypes and phenotypes remains. PMID:21072843

  7. The application of the comet assay to assess the genotoxicity of environmental pollutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Imanikia, Soudabeh; Galea, Francesca; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Arlt, Volker M

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to establish a protocol for cell dissociation from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to assess the genotoxicity of the environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using the alkaline version of the single cell electrophoresis assay (comet assay). BaP genotoxicity was assessed in C. elegans (wild-type [WT]; N2, Bristol) after 48h exposure (0-40μM). Induction of comets by BaP was concentration-dependent up to 20μM; comet% tail DNA was ∼30% at 20μM BaP and ∼10% in controls. Similarly, BaP-induced DNA damage was evaluated in C. elegans mutant strains deficient in DNA repair. In xpa-1 and apn-1 mutants BaP-induced comet formation was diminished to WT background levels suggesting that the damage formed by BaP that is detected in the comet assay is not recognised in cells deficient in nucleotide and base excision repair, respectively. In summary, our study provides a protocol to evaluate DNA damage of environmental pollutants in whole nematodes using the comet assay. PMID:27389785

  8. Environmental risk of heavy metal pollution and contamination sources using multivariate analysis in the soils of Varanasi environs, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shubhra; Raju, N Janardhana; Nazneen, Sadaf

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed soil pollution in the Varanasi environs of Uttar Pradesh in India. Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soils is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to human. To identify the concentration and sources of heavy metals and assess the soil environmental quality, 23 samples were collected from different locations covering dumping, road and agricultural area. The average concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits according to soil quality guidelines except Cu (copper) and Pb (lead) in dumping and road soils. Soil heavy metal contamination was assessed on the basis of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index (IPI). The IPI of the metals ranged from 0.59 to 9.94, with the highest IPI observed in the dumping and road soils. A very significant correlation was found between Pb and Cu. The result of principal component analysis suggested that PC1 was mainly affected by the use of agrochemicals, PC2 was affected by vehicular emission and PC3 was affected by dumping waste. Meanwhile, PC4 was mainly controlled by parent material along with anthropogenic activities. Appropriate measures should be taken to minimize the heavy metal levels in soils and thus protect human health. PMID:25963764

  9. Air pollution studies using PIXE and ICP methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Bancuta, Anca; Popescu, I. V.; Virgolici, M.; Cimpoca, V.; Gugiu, M.; Vlaicu, Gh

    2006-05-01

    In the present work the moss biomonitoring technique and the combination of two analytical techniques - Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) [3] and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) [4] - were applied for assessing environmental situation from the point of view of air polluting along the transect from north to south of the Dambovita County. PIXE analysis at the Tandem Accelerator FN-8 of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics - Horia Hulubei of Magurele, Bucharest, allowed determination of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd and Pb in samples. ICP analyses were made using a Baird ICP2070 - Sequential Plasma Spectrometer in Targoviste and we determined in samples the concentration of Li, B, Na, and Mg together with Cd and Pb. The obtained results will permit to determine the regional extent of heavy metals and toxic elements atmospheric pollution and to identify specially affected areas and local sources of

  10. Microscopy and Microanalysis of Blood in a Snake Head Fish, Channa gachua Exposed to Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pala, Eva M; Dey, Sudip

    2016-02-01

    Conventional and highly sophisticated analytical methods (Cyria et al., 1989; Massar et al., 2012a) were used to analyze micro-structural and micro-analytical aspects of the blood of snake head fish, Channa gachua, exposed to municipal wastes and city garbage. Red (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and hemhemoglobin content were found to be higher in pollution affected fish as compared with control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of abnormal erythrocytes such as crenated cells, echinocytes, lobopodial projections, membrane internalization, spherocytes, ruptured cells, contracted cells, depression, and uneven elongation of erythrocyte membranes in fish inhabiting the polluted sites. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of silicon and lead in the RBCs of pollution affected fish. Significance of the study includes the highly sophisticated analytical approach, which revealed the aforementioned micro-structural abnormalities. PMID:26914995

  11. Air Pollution Studies in Opole Region, Poland, using the Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, S.; Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2007-11-01

    Biomonitoring of heavy metal atmospheric deposition with terrestrial moss is a well established technique for environmental studies. Moss samples of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi have been collected around the city of Opole. A total of 34 elements including heavy metals and rare earths have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. We observe pronounced contamination of the sampled area with pollutants such as As, Sb, V, Ni, Mo, etc. at levels similar to those in the neighboring industrial regions. These results evidences long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants along with the influence of local pollution sources.

  12. Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

  13. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS){reg_sign}: Source-term release formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses.

  14. Making the environmental justice grade: the relative burden of air pollution exposure in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E; Keating, Martha H; Paul, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    This paper assesses whether the Clean Air Act and its Amendments have been equally successful in ensuring the right to healthful air quality in both advantaged and disadvantaged communities in the United States. Using a method to rank air quality established by the American Lung Association in its 2009 State of the Air report along with EPA air quality data, we assess the environmental justice dimensions of air pollution exposure and access to air quality information in the United States. We focus on the race, age, and poverty demographics of communities with differing levels of ozone and particulate matter exposure, as well as communities with and without air quality information. Focusing on PM2.5 and ozone, we find that within areas covered by the monitoring networks, non-Hispanic blacks are consistently overrepresented in communities with the poorest air quality. The results for older and younger age as well as poverty vary by the pollution metric under consideration. Rural areas are typically outside the bounds of air quality monitoring networks leaving large segments of the population without information about their ambient air quality. These results suggest that substantial areas of the United States lack monitoring data, and among areas where monitoring data are available, low income and minority communities tend to experience higher ambient pollution levels. PMID:21776200

  15. Synthesis and identification of major metabolites of environmental pollutant dibenzo(c,mno)chrysene

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.K.; Amin, S.

    2005-09-01

    Dibenzo(c,mno)chrysene commonly known as naphtho(1,2-alpha}pyrene (N(1,2-alpha)P) is an environmental pollutant, recently identified in coal tar extract, in air-borne particulate matter, in marine sediment, and in cigarette-smoke condensate. We recently reported an efficient synthesis of N(1,2-alpha)P and examined its in vitro metabolism by male Sprague Dawley rat liver S9 fraction, which resulted in a number of dihydrodiol and phenolic metabolites. The synthesis of 10-hydroxy-N(1,2-alpha)P and fjord region N(1,2-alpha)P trans-9,10-dihydrodiol, which were identified among the various metabolites, was assigned earlier by comparing with the synthetic standards. The other major metabolites were separated by HPLC and, based on the {sup -1}H NMR analysis, were tentatively suggested to be the two K-region dibydrodiols, that is, N(1,2-alpha)P trans-4,5dihydrodiol and N(1,2-alpha)P trans-7,8-dihydrodiol, and the hydroxy derivatives of N(1,2-alpha)P. To unequivocally assign the structure to each of the peaks and to have them in larger amounts for toxicological studies, we have now synthesized the two K-region dihydrodiols and the 1-/3-hydroxy-N(1,2-alpha)P, short-listed based on the proton NMR of the collected peaks. As expected, all the synthesized dihydrodiol and phenolic derivatives of N(1,2-a)P identified with those obtained from in vitro metabolism enabling the assignment of all the major metabolites.

  16. CURRENT RESEARCH OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ON AUTOMOTIVE CRITERIA POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HERL conducts a variety of investigations of the health effects of air pollutants to serve as criteria for the reevaluation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Human clinical studies include research on the effects of: (1) ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on exerc...

  17. TOXICOGENOMICS AS A TOOL TO ASSESS EXPOSURE OF FISH TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular biological techniques such as gene arrays and quantitative real-time PCR are becoming important tools to study alterations in normal gene expression in fish and other wildlife exposed to such pollutants as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). An important function fo...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF POLLUTED WATERS USING SOURCE TRACKING MOLECULAR TOOLS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Different approaches have been used to identify fecal pollution sources in water samples. Early on, the fecal coliforms - fecal streptococci ratio was proposed as a method that could discriminate between human and animal contamination. Several studies showed that the latter appro...

  19. Environmental Factors Correlated with Size of Bacterial Populations in a Polluted Stream

    PubMed Central

    Brasfeild, Helen

    1972-01-01

    Samples of water were taken from a polluted zone of the Gallinas River and analyzed as to numbers of total bacteria, coliforms, and fecal streptococci. Environmental factors measured were temperature, pH and concentrations of detergent, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate. Thirty-two observations were made from 12 March through 22 July 1971. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses of the data were carried out by computer to determine which of the environmental factors were significantly correlated with numbers of bacteria present. A multiple linear regression equation was constructed for each bacteriological parameter as a function of significant variables only. Log total bacteria was correlated positively with bicarbonate, phosphate, and detergent concentrations. Log coliforms was correlated positively with phosphate and sulfate concentrations and negatively with chloride concentration. Log fecal streptococci was correlated positively with bicarbonate and chloride concentrations. PMID:4627965

  20. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Toolkit for Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Patricia; Ray, Meredith; Fisher, Jeffrey; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2011-01-01

    Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can be used to determine the internal dose and strengthen exposure assessment. Many PBPK models are available, but they are not easily accessible for field use. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has conducted translational research to develop a human PBPK model toolkit by recoding published PBPK models. This toolkit, when fully developed, will provide a platform that consists of a series of priority PBPK models of environmental pollutants. Presented here is work on recoded PBPK models for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals. Good agreement was generally obtained between the original and the recoded models. This toolkit will be available for ATSDR scientists and public health assessors to perform simulations of exposures from contaminated environmental media at sites of concern and to help interpret biomonitoring data. It can be used as screening tools that can provide useful information for the protection of the public. PMID:22174611

  1. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors for label-free sensing of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Pankaj; Saucedo, Nuvia M; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Carbon allotropes such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, have been incorporated in electrochemical biosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of various analytes. The superior physical and electrical properties like high carrier mobility, ambipolar electric field effect, high surface area, flexibility and their compatibility with microfabrication techniques makes these carbon nanomaterials easy to integrate in field-effect transistor (FET)/chemiresistor type configuration which is suitable for portable and point-of-use/field-deployable sensors. This review covers the synthesis of carbon nanostructures (graphene and CNTs) and their integration into devices using various fabrication methods. Finally, we discuss the recent reports showing different sensing platforms that incorporate biomolecules like enzymes, antibodies and aptamers as recognition elements for fabrication of simple, low cost, compact biosensors that can be used for on-site, rapid environmental monitoring of environmental pollutants like pathogens, heavy metals, pesticides and explosives. PMID:25956023

  2. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Arthur B., Ed.

    The first section of this document contains definitional papers prepared by three sections of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE). They are: (1) "The Challenges of K-12 Environmental Education" (Harold Hungerford and Trudi Volk); (2) "'Environmental Studies': Towards a Definition" (Royal Harde); and (3) "Nonformal…

  3. Studies in Environment--Volume III: Pollution and the Municipality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Pamela C.; And Others

    Recent studies have focused attention on the fact that residents of inner-city neighborhoods are subject to greater amounts of pollutants than are other neighborhoods of large cities. In this study, the premise is set forth and investigated at the metropolitan scale, seeking to discover differences of impact between the center city and its…

  4. Amorphous Solid Water (ASW): Macroscale Environmentally-Neutral Application for Remediation of Hazardous Pollutants using Condensed-Phase Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Strulle, Ronald; Rheinhart, Maximilian

    2012-03-01

    We report macroscale environmentally-neutral use of cryogenic fluids to induce phase transitions from crystalline water-ices to amorphous solid water (ASW). New IP and uses in remediation of oil-spills and hazardous immiscibles from aquatic environments. We display high-resolution images of the transitions from hexagonal to cubic crystalline water-ice, then to hydrophobic ASW. Accretion and encapsulation of viscous pollutants within crystalline water-ice, and sequestration of condensed volatiles (PAH, methane) and low viscosity fluids within the interstitial cavities of ASW are shown and differentiated for: crude oils, diesel (heating) and blended oils, petroleum byproducts, vegetable and mineral oils, lipids, and light immiscible fluids. The effects of PdV work and thermal energy transfers during phase changes are shown, along with the sequestration efficiencies for hexagonal and cubic ice lattices vs. non-crystalline ASW, for a range of pollutant substances. The viability of ASW as a medium for study of quantum criticality phases is also proposed. The process is environmentally-neutral in that only substantially condensed-phase air liquefaction products, e.g. nitrogen in >90% liquid phase are employed as an active agent. The applications are also presented in terms of the scale-up of experiments performed at the nanoscale.

  5. The Novel Relationship between Urban Air Pollution and Epilepsy: A Time Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Fan, Yan-Ni; Kan, Hai-Dong; Chen, Ren-Jie; Liu, Jiang-Hong; Li, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Yao; Ji, Ai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose The data concerning the association between environmental pollution and epilepsy attacks are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the association between acute air pollution exposure and epilepsy attack. Methods A hospital record-based study was carried out in Xi’an, a heavily-polluted metropolis in China. Daily baseline data were obtained. Time-series Poisson regression models were applied to analyze the association between air pollution and epilepsy. Results A 10 μg/m3 increase of NO2, SO2, and O3 concentrations corresponded to 3.17% (95%Cl: 1.41%, 4.93%), 3.55% (95%Cl: 1.93%, 5.18%), and -0.84% (95%Cl: -1.58%, 0.09%) increase in outpatient-visits for epilepsy on the concurrent days, which were significantly influenced by sex and age. The effects of NO2 and SO2 would be stronger when adjusted for PM2.5. As for O3, a -1.14% (95%Cl: -1.90%, -0.39%) decrease was evidenced when adjusted for NO2. The lag models showed that the most significant effects were evidenced on concurrent days. Conclusions We discovered previously undocumented relationships between short-term air pollution exposure and epilepsy: while NO2 and SO2 were positively associated with outpatient-visits of epilepsy, O3 might be associated with reduced risk. PMID:27571507

  6. In vitro germination characteristics of maize pollen to detect biological activity of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, P L

    1981-01-01

    In vitro pollen germination was examined as a method to determine the mutagenic and physiological effects of environmental pollutants on higher organisms. Results were presented indicating that mutations could be distinguished by their in vitro germination characteristics if sporophytes homozygous for the mutated allele were tested. The addition of agents directly into the in vitro medium was shown to be an effective method to assess their physiological effects. The exposure of pollen grains during the in vitro germination process to ultraviolet radiation in the B range (280-320 nm) was found to produce little or no change in the germination or ruptured percentage but a sharp decrease in pollen tube growth after 1 hr. In vitro pollen germination appears to be a valuable method to examine the mutation types and physiological effects produced by a broad range of environmental pollutants. In fact, since in vitro germination is related to reproduction and gene transmission, the biological activity of these agents on in vitro germination should be tested routinely to determine their possible effects on food production and gene frequency changes in future generations. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. PMID:7460877

  7. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  8. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  9. Assessing the Health Impacts of Air Pollution Regulations Using BenMAP, the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, B.; McCubbin, D.; Hallberg, A.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation has developed BenMAP, the environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program, a new software tool for estimating the health and environmental impacts of environmental regulations. BenMAP is the US EPA's premier tool for estimating benefits associated with air pollution reduction strategies, and has recently been used in evaluating US EPA's Proposed Non-Road Diesel Vehicle Standards and the proposed Clear Skies Act legislation. BenMAP is a geographic information system (GIS) that uses modeled and monitored air quality data combined with population forecasts to develop estimates of changes in community level exposure to ambient environmental pollution (currently ambient air pollution, e.g. ozone and PM). These estimated changes in exposure to ambient pollution are used as inputs to concentration-response functions derived from the epidemiological literature, along with data on baseline incidence of health effects, i.e. county level age and cause specific mortality rates. The resulting point estimates of changes in incidence of health effects, along with their associated uncertainty distributions (currently based on reported standard errors in the literature), are then multiplied by economic unit values (represented by distributions), i.e. the cost of a hospital admission, to derive dollar estimates of health benefits. BenMAP is unique in that it uses highly detailed census and health data matched with spatially detailed environmental quality data to estimate health benefits. The program can also provide estimates of the uncertainty associated with the estimated benefits. Other features of the program include the ability to pool results from multiple studies of the same endpoint, using fixed or random effects weights, or user supplied weights. BenMAP also incorporates functions to manipulate and combine information on environmental quality from many different sources. For the current version focusing on air pollution, these

  10. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements

  11. Testicular microlithiasis and neoplastic lesions in wild eland (Tragelaphus oryx): possible effects of exposure to environmental pollutants?

    PubMed

    Bornman, M S; Barnhoorn, I E J; de Jager, C; Veeramachaneni, D N R

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare wildlife in the proximity and away from the sources of known industrial pollution. Macroscopic, focal, gritty areas that appeared white were observed in the testes of all 24 South African eland (Tragelaphus oryx) culled in the Rietvlei Nature Reserve (RNR; n=17) between 2001 and 2003 and Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve (SNR; n=7) in 2004. Histopathological evaluation of testes showed multiple intratubular dystrophic calcifications, focal areas of sperm stasis and interstitial chronic cell infiltrates with fibrosis. Spermatogenesis was generally impaired; a few atypical germ cells were also encountered. Sertoli cell vacuolization and sloughing of the seminiferous epithelium were evident. Adenomatous changes of the rete testis, reflective of possible chronic estrogenic exposure, were found. In testes collected from three reference eland in 2007 from the Molopo Nature Reserve (MNR) in the Kalahari/Kgalagadi Desert, except for one focal area of sperm stasis and another with microcalcification, the seminiferous epithelium as well as collecting/rete tubules were normal. Analyses of fat tissue for environmental pollutants showed that 11 out of 17 RNR eland contained a detectable estrogenic chemical p-nonylphenol (mean+/-SD: 184.8+/-24.6 microg/kg fat); no organochlorine chemicals or polychlorinated biphenyls were detected. Of the 7 SNR eland, 5 had detectable octylphenol residues (50.2+/-30.9 microg/kg fat), 3 had detectable p-nonylphenol (137.8+/-77.9 microg/kg fat), 3 had o-p'-DDT (114.9+/-31.1 microg/kg fat), 3 had p-p'-DDT (127.3+/-49.9 microg/kg(79.5+/-30.4 microg/kg fat) and 5 contained o-p'-DDE (27.7+/-9.9 microg/kg fat). One eland from the MNR contained one 70.6 microg o-p'-DDT/kg fat and another p-p'-DDE 61.3 microg/kg fat. Therefore, in eland with testicular abnormalities, significant amounts of various estrogenic chemicals were bioaccumulated in fat samples. It therefore seems likely that the lesions found in RNR and SNR

  12. ``Who polluted the Potomac?'' The translation and implementation of a US environmental story in Brazilian and Turkish classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Colak, Huseyin; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2009-03-01

    In this study we examine how elementary teachers in Brazil and Turkey approached the translation and subsequent classroom implementation of an instructional activity that promotes environmental awareness through a combination of student role playing and teacher oral delivery of an environmental story about river pollution. A discourse analysis showed that translation into Portuguese was literal, an approach that fostered a classroom implementation that emphasized detached transmission of knowledge (the teacher frequently interrupted her delivery to provide textual, contextual and recontextualizing information to students). In contrast, translation into Turkish was free, that is, with many modifications that led to a decontextualized and detached text. Implementation of this text was focused on the creation of student involvement, being dominated by oral strategies such as religious analogies (heaven and hell), and parallel repetitions of statements of shared guilt. Based on these findings, it was concluded that neither translation promoted an equivalent form of environmental instruction (i.e., involved transmission of environmental knowledge). Furthermore, an argument is made that effective translation requires that original and translated curricula foster analogous levels of involvement (or detachment) as well as equivalent forms of classroom relationships and social roles (pragmatic equivalence).

  13. Research plan for integrated ecosystem and pollutant monitoring at remote wilderness study sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, D.A.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1988-03-01

    This research plan outlines an approach to the measurement of pollutants and ecosystem parameters at remote, high-elevation, wilderness study sites. A multimedia, systems approach to environmental monitoring is emphasized. The primary purpose of the research is to apply and field test a technical report entitled ''Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of wilderness ecosystems.'' This document intended to provide Federal Land Managers with information to establish environmental monitoring programs in wilderness areas. To date, this monitoring document has yet to be evaluated under rigorous field conditions at a remote, high-elevation Rocky Mountain site. For the purpose of field testing approaches to monitoring of pollutants and ecosystems in remote, wilderness areas, evaluation criteria were developed. These include useability, cost-effectiveness, data variability, alternative approaches, ecosystems conceptual approach, and quality assurance. Both the Forest Service and INEL environmental monitoring techniques will be evaluated with these criteria. Another objective of this research plan is to obtain an integrated data base on pollutants and ecosystem structure and function at a remote study site. The methods tested in this project will be used to acquire these data from a systems approach. This includes multimedia monitoring of air and water quality, soils, and forest, stream, and lake ecosystems. 71 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  14. Studies defining interactions between hypertension and air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, R T; Costa, D L; Haber, S; Iwai, J

    1980-01-01

    An animal model of hypertension was developed by breeding two lines of rats. The model was used to investigate interactions between commonly encountered air pollutants and the development of hypertension. This paper summarizes studies of the interaction of sulfur dioxide and ozone with the models. (ACR)

  15. Effluent guidelines, leather tanning, and pollution prevention: A retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to learn: in what ways and for what reasons a specific industry in the past already was implementing pollution in order to comply with existing effuent guidelines and to what degree the effluent guidelines development document for that industry had already previously projected that outcome.

  16. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children: a cross-sectional study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinaci, S.; Arossa, W.; Bugiani, M.; Natale, P.; Bucca, C.; de Candussio, G.

    1985-09-01

    To investigate the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children, a subject of some controversy, a comparative study was undertaken of 2,385 school children who lived in central urban, peripheral urban, and suburban areas. Daily monitoring of sulfur dioxide and total suspended particle concentrations in all areas showed that pollutant concentrations in central and peripheral urban areas were above commonly accepted safety levels for respiratory health, while concentrations in the suburban area were within acceptable limits. A questionnaire administered to each mother assessed environmental exposure to pollutants in the household, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms as well as lung diseases as diagnosed by a physician, and general information. Children were interviewed about smoking habits and any acute respiratory symptoms. Children also performed standard lung function tests. Results showed that children from both urban areas had lessened pulmonary function and a higher prevalence of bronchial secretion with common colds than did those from the suburban area. These differences persisted after corrections for exposure to indoor pollutants, active or passive smoking, socioeconomic status, and sex. Parental cigarette smoking was related to a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and an increased incidence of acute respiratory illnesses and chronic cough in children. Although boys had higher lung volumes and lower air flow, regression analysis showed no significant influence of the interactions sex-geographic area and sex-smoking on lung function. It was concluded that air pollution has a significant effect on the respiratory health of children.

  17. The Contribution of Environmental Studies Curricula to Environmental Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Jean

    Current studies indicate that college environmental-science curriculums are often inadequate and not meaningful to college students. Yet climate change, depletion of natural resources, and loss of habitat due to human activities are among critical environmental issues. It is important that college students are prepared to address these issues after graduation. This case study attempted to discover the ways that college students perceived how participation in environmental science courses contributed to their environmental decision making and ecological intelligence. The population consisted of 15 sophomore, junior, and senior students randomly selected from a list of science students provided by the registrar. The conceptual framework that guided this study includes 5 components of ecological intelligence: biodiversity, ecological literacy, decision making skills, understanding sustainability, and systems thinking. The data collected over a period of 3 months from focus groups, individual interviews, and student discussions were transcribed and coded using typological analysis to identify students' perspectives on environmental science courses. Findings showed that college science curriculums need to incorporate students' prior environmental experiences into science courses. They should also focus on providing hands on experiences that promote application of knowledge to address environmental problems. This study may promote the implementation of integrated college science curriculums that encourage environmental, interdisciplinary, and personalized learning experiences. Implications for positive social change include college environmental studies and curricula that motivate students and engage their interest in participating in environmental activities.

  18. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  19. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  20. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution. PMID:25649389